Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume: 15, Issue: 2, Published: 2011
  • Survey of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Iranian children with acute lower respiratory tract infections Original Article

    Hadi, Nahal; Kashef, Sara; Moazzen, Mohammad; Pour, Michel Shamoon; Rezaei, Nima

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an atypical pathogen, which is one of the major causes of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) worldwide. This study was performed to determine the role of M. pneumoniae in acute LRTIs in children, who were referred to main pediatric hospitals in Shiraz, Iran, with the diagnosis of LRTI. Polymerase chain reaction method on a throat-swab specimen was utilized to detect M. pneumoniae. RESULTS: One hundred patients with acute LRTIs were investigated in this study. There were 10 positive PCR for M. pneumoniae (10%), including 6 of 62 hospitalized patients and 4 of 38 outpatients. All patients with LRTIs due to M. pneumoniae had cough. Fever, flu like symptoms, dyspnea, pulmonary rales, wheezing, and conjunctivitis were other common signs and symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of cases with M. pneumoniae infection in our population is similar to the reported in other parts of Asia. Precise and early detection of pathogen and appropriate antibiotic therapy are the key points in management of patients with LRTIs.
  • Mask-wearing and respiratory infection in healthcare workers in Beijing, China Original Article

    Yang, Peng; Seale, Holly; MacIntyre, C Raina; Zhang, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xiaoli; Li, Xinyu; Pang, Xinghuo; Wang, Quanyi

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine rates of mask-wearing, of respiratory infection and the factors associated with mask-wearing and of respiratory infection in healthcare workers (HCWs) in Beijing during the winter of 2007/2008. METHODS: We conducted a survey of 400 HCWs working in eight hospitals in Beijing by face to face interview using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: We found that 280/400 (70.0%) of HCWs were compliant with mask-wearing while in contact with patients. Respiratory infection occurred in 238/400 (59.5%) subjects from November, 2007 through February, 2008. Respiratory infection was higher among females (odds ratio [OR], 2.00 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.16-3.49]) and staff working in larger hospitals (OR, 1.72 [95% CI, 1.092.72]), but was lower among subjects with seasonal influenza vaccination (OR, 0.46 [95% CI, 0.280.76]), wearing medical masks (reference: cotton-yarn; OR, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.39-0.91]) or with good mask-wearing adherence (OR, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.37-0.98]). The risk of respiratory infection of HCWs working in low risk areas was similar to that of HCWs in high risk area. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that female HCWs and staffs working in larger hospitals are the focus of prevention and control of respiratory infection in Beijing hospitals. Mask-wearing and seasonal influenza vaccination are protective for respiratory infection in HCWs; the protective efficacy of medical masks is better than that of cotton yarn ones; respiratory infection of HCWs working in low risk areas should also be given attention.
  • Surgical-site infection risk in oncologic digestive surgery Original Article

    Castro, Paulo de Tarso Oliveira e; Carvalho, André Lopes; Peres, Stela Verzinhasse; Foschini, Milene Mitsuyuki; Passos, Afonso Dinis Costa

    Abstract in English:

    Surgical-site infection (SSI) is the most prevalent type of hospital infection in surgical patients and is associated with an increase in hospital stay, costs and morbidity/lethality. The knowledge of the main risk factors for this type of infection is important for the establishment of prevention measures regarding modifiable risks factors. The objective of the preset study was to assess the occurrence of SSI and study the risk factors in oncologic surgeries of the digestive system at Hospital de Câncer in Barretos, São Paulo, Brazil. Individuals undergoing oncologic surgeries of the digestive system in the period of 08/01/2007 to 08/10/2008 were prospectively followed for 30 days after surgery. Possible risk factors related to the patient and to the surgical procedure were also studied. A total of 210 surgeries were analyzed, with a global SSI incidence of 23.8%. The following variables were independently associated with SSI: time and type of surgery, radiotherapy before surgery and surgeon's years of experience. The risk factors found in this study have been described by other authors and are not amenable to intervention for SSI prevention. Further studies are recommended with the objective of investigating interventions that could reduce the risk for SSI in this type of surgery.
  • Incidence of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission through breastfeeding during acute experimental Chagas disease Original Article

    Martins, Luciamare Perinetti Alves; Castanho, Roberto Esteves Pires; Nogueira, Adriano Barbosa; Silva, Otavio Turolo da; Gusmão, Alex Silva de

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: To verify the incidence of T. cruzi transmission through breastfeeding during acute experimental Chagas' disease. METHODS: Fifteen female Swiss mice were mated and, after pregnancy confirmation, placed in individual cages. A few hours after birth, the females were inoculated with 0.1 mL of blood containing approximately 3 x 10(5) trypomastigote forms of Y strain of T. cruzi and continued breastfeeding for 25 days. RESULTS: In 142 offspring examined no infection through breast-feeding was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The low number of trypomastigote forms ingested by the newborn mice combined with biological and biochemical characteristics of blood trypomastigotes may explain the lack of transmission in this experiment.
  • Validation and utilization of PCR for differential diagnosis and prevalence determination of Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar in Salvador City, Brazil Original Article

    Santos, Fred Luciano Neves; Gonçalves, Marilda de Souza; Soares, Neci Matos

    Abstract in English:

    Amoebiasis is an infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica and is a potential health risk in countries in which health barriers are inappropriate. Since the discovery of Entamoeba dispar, the prevalence of amoebiasis has been modified. OBJECTIVE: This study has standardized the PCR technique applied for the diagnosis of different species of the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex and has evaluated the prevalence of infection among patients attending private and public clinical laboratories in Salvador City, Bahia State, Brazil. RESULTS: Analysis of 52,704 stool samples by microscopic examination demonstrated that 1,788 (3.4%) were positive for the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex and infection occurred more often in samples originated from public clinical laboratories (5.0%) than those that came from private laboratories (3.2%). PCR performed in approximately 15% (262) E. histolytica/E. dispar complex positive samples, randomly chosen, amplified 227 samples (86.6%), all of them positive for E. dispar. The non-amplified 35 samples (13.4%) were also negative for E. histolytica-specific galactose adhesin. Moreover, to exclude a probable infection caused by E. hartmanni, morphometric analysis demonstrated that non-amplified samples had cyst sizes comparable to E. histolytica/E. dispar (>10 µm). CONCLUSION: The absence of amplification of these samples indicates the presence of PCR inhibitors in the stool samples or the presence of DNA from Entamoeba species other than E. dispar, E. histolytica or E. hartmanni.
  • Chlamydia trachomatis and human papillomavirus coinfection: association with p16INK4a and Ki67 expression in biopsies of patients with pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions Original Article

    Calil, Luciane Noal; Igansi, Cristine Nascente; Meurer, Luise; Edelweiss, Maria Isabel Albano; Bozzetti, Mary Clarisse

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to identify the frequency of coinfection by human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in cervical lesions and relate it with immunohistochemical expression of p16INK4a and Ki67, both oncogenicity markers. A cross-sectional study with 86 women from primary care units in southern Brazil was conducted. Cervical swabs were collected for HPV-DNA and CT-DNA detection, through the polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR). The immunohistochemical analysis was performed on biopsy cervical tissue material to identify the expression of p16INK4a and Ki67 cell cycle markers. About 83 % were positive for HPV-DNA and 19% had coinfection with CT-DNA. Among coinfected women, 56% expressed p16INK4a. There was a statistically significant association between the histological grade of the lesion and Ki67 expression. All high-grade lesions, 50% of low-grade lesions and 31% of negative biopsies expressed Ki67 (p = 0.004). A total of 37% of coinfected women expressed both markers. In conclusion, although more than half of the coinfected patients have expressed p16INK4a and more than one third have expressed both markers, these results suggest no association between those variables. However, other studies involving larger samples are necessary to corroborate such findings.
  • Enterotoxins, colonization factors, serotypes and antimicrobial resistance of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains isolated from hospitalized children with diarrhea in Bolivia Original Article

    Rodas, Claudia; Mamani, Rosalía; Blanco, Jorge; Blanco, Jesus Eulogio; Wiklund, Gudrun; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Sjöling, Åsa; Iniguez, Volga

    Abstract in English:

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is recognized as the main cause of bacterial diarrhoea among children in Asia, Africa and Latin America but less investigated in Bolivia. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation between enterotoxins, CFs and serotypes as well as the antimicrobial resistance patterns in a set of ETEC isolates collected from hospitalized children with acute diarrhea. In the present study we characterized 43 ETEC strains isolated from 2002 to 2006 from hospitalized children (0-5 years) with acute diarrhea in Bolivia. The strains were analyzed for heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins and colonization factor (CF) profiles, as well as for serogroups and antimicrobial resistance using phenotypic (ELISA, dot blot, slide agglutination and disc diffusion) and genotypic (Multiplex PCR) methods. Among the ETEC isolates tested, 30 were positive for LT, 3 for STh and 10 for LT/STh. Sixty-five percent (28/43) of the strains expressed one or more CF. The most common CFs were CS17 (n = 8) and CFA/I (n = 8). The phenotypical and genotypical results for toxins and CFs were congruent except for CS21 that was amplified in 10 of the strains by multiplex PCR, but CS21 pili was only detected phenotypically in four of these strains. The ETEC strains had diverse O and H antigens and the most common types were O8:H9 LT CS17 (n = 6; 14%) and O78:HNM LT-ST CFA/I (n = 4; 9%). The analysis of antibiotic resistance showed that 67% (n = 29/43) of the strains were resistant to one or several of the antimicrobial agents tested. Presence of CFs was associated with antibiotic resistance. CONCLUSION: The most common toxin profile was LT 70%, LT/STh 23% and STh 7%. High antimicrobial resistance to ampicillin among serogroups O6, O8 and O78 were the most common.
  • Nosocomial and community infections due to class A extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBLA)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. in southern Brazil Original Article

    Wollheim, Claudia; Guerra, Ivani Maria F; Conte, Vania D; Hoffman, Sheila P; Schreiner, Fernando J; Delamare, Ana Paula L; Barth, Afonso L; Echeverrigaray, Sérgio; Costa, Sérgio Olavo P da

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of class A extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp., and to investigate clonality among ESBL-producing isolates of nosocomial and community infections. METHODS: The study involved 354 nosocomial infections samples and 992 community infections samples, obtained between 2003 and 2006 at Caxias do Sul, RS. The detection of ESBL was performed by the disk-diffusion test. Presence of blaCTX-M, blaSHV and blaTEM β-lactamase genes was evaluated by PCR, and genomic typing was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. RESULTS: Higher frequency of ESBL-producing isolates were detected among nosocomial samples of E. coli (6.7%) and Klebsiella (43.7%), than those obtained from community infections (0.4% and 2.6%). blaTEM and blaCTX were the most prevalent ESBL gene families in both E. coli and Klebsiella isolates. Different pulsotypes were obtained among ESBL-producing E. coli and 11 clones for Klebsiella spp., which occurred over the years and in different hospital wards. Among ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae, 74.3% transferred ESBL genes by conjugation and exhibited concomitant decreased aminoglycosides susceptibility. CONCLUSION: ESBL-producing E. coli, and especially K. pneumoniae are essentially a nosocomial problem, and their dissemination to the community is relatively limited. The great genetic variability observed among ESBL-producing bacteria indicates polyclonal spread and high transference of ESBL genes between bacteria in the hospital environment. This information is of paramount importance for nosocomial infection control.
  • Identification of putative new Escherichia coli flagellar antigens from human origin using serology, PCR-RFlP and DNA sequencing methods Original Article

    Tiba, Monique Ribeiro; Moura, Claúdia de; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Leite, Domingos da Silva

    Abstract in English:

    Escherichia coli has been isolated frequently, showing flagellar antigens that are not recognized by any of the 53 antisera, provided by the most important reference center of E. coli, The International Escherichia and Klebsiella Center (WHO) of the Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark. The objective of this study was to characterize flagellar antigens of E. coli that express non-typeable H antigens. The methods used were serology, PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing. This characterization was performed by gene amplification of the fliC (flagellin protein) by polymerase chain reaction in all 53 standards E.coli strains for the H antigens and 20 E. coli strains for which the H antigen was untypeable. The amplicons were digested by restriction enzymes, and different restriction enzyme profiles were observed. Anti-sera were produced in rabbits, for the non-typeable strains, and agglutination tests were carried out. In conclusion,the results showed that although non-typeable and typable H antigens strains had similar flagellar antigens, the two types of strains were distinct in terms of nucleotide sequence, and did not phenotypically react with the standard antiserum, as expected. Thirteen strains had been characterized as likely putative new H antigen using PCR-RFLP techniques, DNA sequencing and/or serology.
  • Dyslipidemia in AIDS patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy Brief Communication

    Nery, Max Weyler; Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi; Turchi, Marília Dalva

    Abstract in English:

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduces AIDS-related morbidity and mortality, however it has been associated with metabolic abnormalities. This study estimated the prevalence of lipid abnormalities and related factors among patients on HAART. A cross-sectional study was conducted on adult patients, in central Brazil. Patients were interviewed, and blood obtained for lipids measurement. Dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol (TC) > 240 mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) > 160 mg/dL, triglycerides (TG) > 200 and/or high-density lipoprotein (HDL) < 40 mg/dL. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed (SPSS 13.0). One hundred and thirteen patients were recruited. Mean age was 39.3 years; 68.1% were males; 50.4% were on nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) in combination with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), while 42.5% were on NRTI in combination with protease inhibitors (PIs). The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 66.7%. Low HDL was the most frequent abnormality (53.5%), followed by high TG (36.1%). Patients on a PI regimen had a 5.2-fold higher risk (95% CI: 1.8-14.8) of dyslipidemia, even after adjusting for sex, age, and duration of HIV infection/AIDS. The study discloses a high prevalence rate of dyslipidemia and points out a need for intervention programs to reduce future cardiovascular events in patients, on HAART.
  • IL-6 and IL-8 in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with aseptic meningitis and bacterial meningitis: their potential role as a marker for differential diagnosis Brief Communication

    Pinto Junior, Vitor Laerte Laerte; Rebelo, Maria Cristina; Gomes, Rachel Novaes; Assis, Edson Fernandes de; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C; Bóia, Marcio Neves

    Abstract in English:

    Cytokines are molecules that act as mediators of immune response; cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) IL-6 is found in all meningeal inflammatory diseases, but IL-8 is associated with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM). A case control study was done to ascertain the discriminatory power of these cytokines in differentiating ABM from aseptic meningitis (AM); IL-6 and IL-8 CSF concentrations were tested through ELISA in samples collected from patients who underwent investigation for meningitis. Sixty patients, 18 with AM, nine with bacteriologic confirmed ABM and 33 controls, assisted in 2005 (MA and controls) and 2007 (ABM) were included. Differently from controls, IL-6 concentrations were increased both in MA and ABM patients (p < 0.05). CSF IL-8 levels were higher in ABM than in AM and controls (p < 0.05). Discriminatory power in ABM as assessed by the area under receiver operator (ROC) curve was 0.951 for IL-8, using a cut-off of 1.685 ng/dL (100% of sensitivity and 94% of specificity). The CSF concentration of both IL-6 and IL-8 are increased in the presence of meningeal inflammation, IL-8 could be an important tool to differentiate ABM from AM.
  • Absence of occult hepatitis B among blood donors in southern Brazil Brief Communication

    Wolff, Fernando Herz; Fuchs, Sandra Costa; Brandão, Ajacio BM

    Abstract in English:

    BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by the detection of HBV DNA in serum and/or in liver in the absence of detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The reported prevalence of occult hepatitis B varies markedly among populations and according to the sensitivity of the HBV DNA assay. The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence of occult hepatitis B among HCV-infected and non-infected blood donors in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, using a highly sensitive real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. METHODOLOGY: Between 1995 and 1997 a sample of 178 blood donors with two positive anti-HCV ELISA tests were consecutively selected as cases, and 356 anti-HCV negative donors were selected as controls. Blood donors were randomly selected from eight blood centers in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, representative of the whole blood donor population. Blood samples were kept at 70ºC and defrosted for the first time for the analysis of this report. Tests previously performed in the laboratory using the same real time PCR for HBV DNA had sensitivity for detecting as low as 9 copies/mL. Among 158 blood samples from HBsAg-negative blood donors, five were anti-HBc positive, 53 tested positive for anti-HCV and 105 had anti-HCV negative. The samples analysis was performed in duplicate and all blood samples tested negative for HBV DNA. CONCLUSION: The result reflects a very low prevalence of occult hepatitis B in our setting.
  • Difficulties with interferon treatment in former intravenous drug users Brief Communication

    Gazdag, Gábor; Horváth, Gergely; Szabó, Olga; Ungvari, Gabor S

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: Intravenous drug use accounts for most of the new hepatitis C infections worldwide. Although there is an urgent need for antiviral treatment of infected intravenous drug users (IDUs), several factors compromise their treatment including lack of treatment adherence and high dropout rate. The aim of this study was to compare antiviral treatment-related problems among former IDUs to HCV-infected patients without a history of IDU. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of HCV-infected IDUs who received combined antiviral therapy at the Hepatology Outpatient Clinic of Szent László Hospital between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2008. A control group of interferon treated patients with no history of IDU matched for age and sex was selected. RESULTS: Dropout rate was significantly higher in the IDU group (p = 0.016). Treatment response at the 12th week of treatment was significantly better in the IDU group (p = 0.004). Significantly more IDUs underwent antiviral treatment while in prison (p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: In this study higher dropout rate was found among IDUs. IDUs had a better response rate to antiviral therapy compared to controls. More attention should be paid to factors that worsen treatment adherence of IDUs - particularly lack of abstinence - in order to increase the effectiveness of antiviral therapy.
  • Cefepime versus extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae Brief Communication

    Nogueira, Keite da Silva; Daur, Alessandra Vale; Reason, Iara Taborda de Messias; Gales, Ana Cristina; Costa, Libera Maria Dalla

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility to cefepime of a large group of ESBL- producing enterobacteria recently isolated in a Brazilian teaching hospital . The study included 280 strains of ESBL-producing enterobacteria, isolated between 2005 and 2008. The presence of the genes blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaSHV was determined by PCR and confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. Susceptibility testing for cefepime was performed by disc-diffusion, agar dilution method and E-test®. Among the isolates, 34 (12.1%) presented a cefepime inhibition zone > 21 and MIC < 8 mg/L by agar dilution and E-strip methods. The use of cefepime for the treatment of infections caused by ESBL-producing bacteria has been controversial. Some studies of PD/PK show the probability of achieving the required PD parameters for cefepime, when the MICs were < 8 mg/L, whereas others have reported therapeutic failure with the same MIC. Additional data is essential to come to terms about the report and treatment with cefepime in ESBL-producing organisms especially when these microorganisms are isolated from sterile sites and from critically ill patients.
  • Clinical aspects of influenza A (H1N1) in HIV-infected individuals in São Paulo during the pandemic of 2009 Brief Communication

    Bianco, Rosana Del; Santos, Maria Silvia Biagioni; Ribeiro, Maria Clara Gianna Garcia; Viso, Ana Teresa Rodriguez; Carvalho, Valquíria

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical aspects of H1N1 among HIV coinfected patients seen at a reference center for AIDS treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. Design: Observational and prospective cohort study. METHODS: Descriptive study of clinical and laboratory investigation of HIV-infected patients with confirmed diagnosis of influenza A (H1N1) in 2009. We analyzed patients monitored in CRT/DST/AIDS, a specialized service for people living with HIV, located in São Paulo, Brazil. RESULTS: 108 individuals presented with symptoms of H1N1 infection at the CRT DST/AIDS in 2009. Eighteen patients (16.7%) had confirmation of the diagnosis of influenza A. Among the confirmed cases, ten (55.6%) were hospitalized and eight (44.4%) were outpatients. Dyspnea was present in nine patients (50%), hemoptysis in three (16%). Six patients (60%) required therapy with supplemental oxygen. All patients had good clinical outcomes and none died. CONCLUSIONS: In our hospital, the symptoms that led patients to seek medical care were similar to the common flu. Hospital admission and the early introduction of antibiotics associated with oseltamivir may have been the cause of the favorable outcome of our cases.
  • Genital schistosomiasis mansoni concomitant to genital tumor in areas of low endemicity: challenging diagnosis Case Report

    Cavalcanti, Marta G; Gonçalves, Margareth MI; Barreto, Magali M; Silva, Aline Helen da; Madi, Kalil; Peralta, José Mauro; Igreja, Ricardo P

    Abstract in English:

    Genital infection by Schistosoma mansoni is usually misdiagnosed in individuals who reside in, or travel to endemic areas. We describe two cases of genital tumor associated with S. mansoni infection manifested by methrorragy. Surgical specimens revealed leiomyomas in both cases associated with S. mansoni. In one of them, granulomas were found in the ovary and in the other they were found in the uterine tube. Although none presented intestinal/hepatic disease, fecal egg excretion was detected in one. Both had elevated pretreatment antibody reactivity to S. mansoni antigen, but follow-up showed different outcomes. Schistosomiasis should be considered as a diagnosis in individuals with methrorragy residing in or having traveled to endemic areas. Since diagnosis follows genital amputation, and cure control is troublesome, improvement of diagnostic tools and follow-up markers are important priorities to decrease schistosomiasis morbidity.
  • Fatal meningococcal meningitis in a HIV-infected patient caused by serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis belonging to the non-hypervirulent clonal complex ST-60 (cc60) Case Report

    Andrade, Claudia Ferreira de; Cunha, Denise Cotrim da; Cavalcanti, Veronica; Filippis, Ivano de

    Abstract in English:

    Meningococcal strains belonging to clonal complex cc60 are not associated with hypervirulent lineages and were never reported as causing disease in Latin American countries. This is the first report of a fatal meningitis case caused by a cc60 clonal complex meningococcus in Brazil. Despite the immune-compromised state of the patient, the fatal outcome here described shows the potential pathogenic behavior of strains belonging to this clonal complex and how compromised hosts can be susceptible to meningococcal infections even if the strain is not particularly invasive.
  • Cryosurgery as adjuvant therapy in cutaneous sporotrichosis Clinical Images

    Ferreira, Cassio Porto; Galhardo, Maria Clara Gutierrez; Valle, Antônio Carlos Francescone do
  • Changing trends of dengue disease: a brief report from a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi Letter To The Editor

    Matlani, Monika; Chakravarti, Anita
  • Chronic pelvic pain due to Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum in an Iranian patient: first report of isolation and molecular characterization from Asia Letter To The Editor

    Shojaei, Hasan; Hashemi, Abdolrazagh; Heidarieh, Parvin; Daei-Naser, Abass
  • Primary care physicians and infectious diseases' notification Letter To The Editor

    Duric, Predrag; Ilić, Svetlana
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