Abstract in English:ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus infection infection and cervical lesions and its associated factors among HIV infected women attending an AIDS clinic in Amazonas state, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. Women attending an AIDS clinic in the city of Manaus between March and December 2011 for gynecological examination were invited to participate. Enrolled patients answered a standardized interview including demographical, behavioral, and clinical data. Additionally, patients underwent a gynecological evaluation with collection of cervical samples for cytological analysis and high-risk human papillomavirus infection hybrid capture. A blood sample was also obtained to determine CD4 and viral load levels. RESULTS: A total of 310 (82.9%) women participated in the study. High-risk human papillomavirus infection was detected in 191 (61.6%) cases; 24 (13.5%) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and 4 (2.2%) high-grade SIL. No invasive cervical cancer was diagnosed. Median age was 32 (interquartile range (IQR): 27-38) years and median of education was 8.5 (IQR 4-11) years of schooling and 56.1% had a monthly income up to US$180. In multivariate analysis, being less than 30 years old [OR = 1.7 (95% CI: 1.2-2.4,p = 0.005)], high-grade SIL [OR = 6.5 (95% CI: 1.6-23.0, p = 0.009)], and CD4 counts <200 cells/mm3 [OR = 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.0, p < 0.001)] were associated with high risk human papillomavirus infection infection. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study high-risk human papillomavirus infection was frequent and it was associated to high-SIL. These results show the importance of gynecologic examinations in routine care and follow-up required by those who present with cervical lesions.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The diagnosis of cryptococcosis is usually performed based on cultures of tissue or body fluids and isolation of the fungus, but this method may require several days. Direct microscopic examination, although rapid, is relatively insensitive. Biochemical and immunodiagnostic rapid tests are also used. However, all of these methods have limitations that may hinder final diagnosis. The increasing incidence of fungal infections has focused attention on tools for rapid and accurate diagnosis using molecular biological techniques. Currently, PCR-based methods, particularly nested, multiplex and real-time PCR, provide both high sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, we evaluated a nested PCR targeting the gene encoding the ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions of rDNA in samples from a cohort of patients diagnosed with cryptococcosis. The results showed that in our hands, this Cryptococcus nested PCR assay has 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity and was able to detect until 2 femtograms of Cryptococcus DNA.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Disposal of Umbilical Cord Blood Units due to microbial contamination is a major problem in Cord Blood Banks worldwide as it reduces the number of units available for transplantation. Additionally, economic losses are generated as result of resources and infrastructure used to obtain such units. Umbilical Cord Blood Units that showed initial microbial contamination were subject to strains isolation, identification, and characterization by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene and Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC-PCR). Moreover, tests of antimicrobial resistance/sensitivity and phenotypic activities that may play an important role in microbial infection were performed. Microbial contamination was detected in 120 Umbilical Cord Blood Units (2.31%) in the period from 2003 to 2013. The most frequently isolated strains were Enterococcus faecium, followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus haemoliticus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus durans, Lactobacillus helveticus, Enterococcus hiriae and Roseomonas genomospecies 5. The ERIC-PCR assays revealed a wide genetic diversity in some strains although belonging to the same genus and specie, indicating different sources of contamination. Broad-spectrum penicillins, third generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones showed lower inhibitory activity on the tested strains. All strains were proteolytic, 67.69% were amylase-positive, 27.6% hemolysis-positive, and 34.71% nuclease-positive. The most common sources of contamination were: vaginal flora, digestive tract, and skin flora, highlighting the need for staff training in good manufacturing practices in collection SCU since all contaminants identified are part of the microbial flora of the donors. Implications and consequences in the therapeutic use of Umbilical Cord Blood Units for transplantation contaminated by multiresistant bacteria in immunocompromised patients are discussed.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human retrovirus related to the chronic neuroinflammatory disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). CD4+ T cells activation appears to play a key role on HTLV-1 infection. Here we investigated the expression of genes associated to T cell activation CD3e molecule, epsilon (CD3?), lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK), vav 1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (VAV1), and zeta-chain (TCR) associated protein kinase 70 kDa (ZAP70) on T lymphocytes of HTLV-1-infected individuals and compared to healthy uninfected individuals (CT). We observed that CD3?, LCK, ZAP70, and VAV1 gene expression were increased in CD4+ T cells from HAM/TSP group compared to HTLV-1 asymptomatic patients (HAC). Moreover, ZAP70 and VAV1 were also upregulated in HAM/TSP compared to CT group. We detected a positive correlation among all these genes. We also observed that CD3?, LCK, and VAV1 genes had a positive correlation with the proviral load (PVL) and Tax expression. These results suggest that PVL and Tax protein could drive CD3?, LCK, and VAV1 gene expression in CD4+ T cells, and these genes function on a synchronized way on the CD4+ T cell activation. The elucidation of the mechanisms underlying T cell receptor signaling pathway is of considerable interest and might lead to new insights into the mechanism of HAM/TSP.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Appearance of isolated reports of resistance to anti-methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) drugs is worrisome underscoring the need to continuously monitor the susceptibility of clinical MRSA isolates to these drugs. Hence, the present study is conducted to determine the susceptibility of MRSA isolates to various classes of anti-MRSA drugs such as vancomycin (glycopeptide), daptomycin (lipopeptide), tigecycline (glycylcycline), and linezolid (oxazolidinone) to determine the MIC50 and MIC90 values, and to observe MIC creep over a three year period, if any, with respect to these drugs. METHODS: A total of 200 isolates of MRSA obtained from clinical specimens were included. MIC was determined by E-test for anti-MRSA antibiotics vancomycin, linezolid, daptomycin, and tigecycline. Non-parametric methods (Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square test) were used to assess MIC trends over time. In addition, MIC50 and MIC90 values were also calculated. RESULTS: No isolate was found resistant to vancomycin, daptomycin, or linezolid; five isolates were resistant to tigecycline. Seven VISA isolates were encountered with the MIC value for vancomycin of 4 µg/mL. MIC values for vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid showed a definite increase over a 3-year period which was statistically significant with p-values <0.0001, 0.0032, 0.0242, respectively. When the percentage of isolates with a median MIC value less than or equal to that of the index year was calculated, the change was most striking with vancomycin. The proportion of isolates with higher MIC values was greater in 2014 than 2012 and 2013. CONCLUSION: MIC creep was notably observed with vancomycin, and to some extent with tigecycline and linezolid. Selection pressure may result in creeping MICs, which may herald the emergence of resistant organisms.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assessing health-related quality of life is an important aspect of clinical practice. Thus, the present study attempts to assess the health-related quality of life of patients with chronic liver disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 133 chronic liver disease patients, using three instruments: a demographic questionnaire, the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease index. Variables were expressed as frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations. The statistical analysis included Pearson's correlation, Student's t-test, and analysis of variance (p < 0.05 was considered significant). RESULTS: The mean age of included subjects was 50.5 ± 13.3 years. The majority were male (66.2%), Caucasian (70.7%), and had a family income of US$329-US$658.2. Over half of the patients (56.4%) were infected by hepatitis C virus and 93.2% had low Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores. Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score was related to age (r = 0.185;p = 0.033). Higher mean Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire scores were obtained for emotional function (39.70/SD ± 12.98) and while lower scores were obtained for abdominal symptoms (16.00/SD ± 6.25). Fifty-two patients (39.1%) presented overall low (<5) Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire scores. Furthermore, Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire score was related to family income (r = 0.187, p = 0.031). CONCLUSION: Most individuals presented high mean Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire scores, indicating low health-related quality of life, especially individuals with low family income.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT As part of the Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE) surveillance program in 2012 the in vitro activity of ceftaroline and relevant comparator antimicrobials was evaluated in six Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela) against pathogens isolated from patients with hospital associated skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). The study documented that ceftaroline was highly active (MIC90 0.25 mg/L/% susceptible 100%) against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MIC90 2 mg/L/% susceptible 83.3%) and ß-hemolytic streptococci (MIC90 0.008-0.015 mg/L/% susceptible 100%). The activity of ceftaroline against selected species of Enterobacteriaceae was dependent upon the presence or absence of extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs). Against ESBL screen-negativeEscherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, andKlebsiella oxytoca the MIC90 and percent susceptible for ceftaroline were (0.5 mg/L/94.1%), (0.5 mg/L/99.0%) and (0.5 mg/L/91.5%), respectively. Ceftaroline demonstrated potent activity against a recent collection of pathogens associated with SSTI in six Latin American countries in 2012.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Infections, mostly those associated with colonization of wound by different pathogenic microorganisms, are one of the most serious health complications during a medical treatment. Therefore, this study is focused on the isolation, characterization, and identification of microorganisms prevalent in superficial wounds of patients (n = 50) presenting with bacterial infection. METHODS: After successful cultivation, bacteria were processed and analyzed. Initially the identification of the strains was performed through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry based on comparison of protein profiles (2-30 kDa) with database. Subsequently, bacterial strains from infected wounds were identified by both matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene 108. RESULTS: The most prevalent species was Staphylococcus aureus (70%), and out of those 11% turned out to be methicillin-resistant (mecA positive). Identified strains were compared with patients' diagnoses using the method of artificial neuronal network to assess the association between severity of infection and wound microbiome species composition. Artificial neuronal network was subsequently used to predict patients' prognosis (n = 9) with 85% success. CONCLUSIONS: In all of 50 patients tested bacterial infections were identified. Based on the proposed artificial neuronal network we were able to predict the severity of the infection and length of the treatment.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A better understanding of the antimicrobial susceptibility, carriage of virulence determinants and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) may provide further insights related to clinical outcomes with these infections. From January 2012 to September 2013, a total of 128 non-duplicateS. aureus isolates were recovered from patients with SSTIs. All 128 S. aureus SSTI isolates carried at least five virulence genes tested. Virulence genes detected among at least 70% of all tested isolates included hld (100%), hla (95.3%),icaA (96.9%), clf (99.2%),sdrC (79.7%), sdrD (70.3%), andsdrE (72.7%). The prevalence of MRSA isolates with 10 virulence genes tested (54.4%, 31/56) was significantly higher than that among MSSA isolates (35.2%, 25/71) (p < 0.05). The positive rates of seb, sen, sem, sdrE and pvl among MRSA isolates were significantly higher than among MSSA isolates (p< 0.05). ST7 and ST630 accounting for 10.9% were found to be the predominant STs. The most prevalent spa type was t091 (8.6%). MRSA-ST59-SCCmec IV was the most common clone (12.3%) among MRSA isolates whereas among MSSA isolates the dominant clone was MSSA-ST7 (15.5%). Six main clonal complexes (CCs) were found, including CC5 (52.3%), CC7 (11.7%), CC59 (8.6%), CC88 (6.3%), CC398 (4.7%), and CC121 (3.1%). A higher carriage of seb and sec was found among CC59 isolates. In comparison to CC5 and CC7 isolates, those with the highest carriage rates (>80.0%) of sdrC and sdrD, CC59 isolates had lower prevalence of these two virulence genes. All CC59 isolates were susceptible to gentamicin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, while CC5 and CC7 isolates had resistance rates to these two antimicrobials of 25.4% and 20.9%, and 40.0% and 40.0%, respectively. The resistance rates for tetracycline, clindamycin, and erythromycin among CC5 isolates were lower than among CC7 and CC59 isolates. In conclusion, the molecular typing of S. aureusSSTI isolates in the present study showed considerable heterogeneity. ST7 and ST630 became prevailing clones. Different S. aureus clones causing SSTIs were associated with specific antimicrobial resistance and virulence gene profiles.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate bone mass accrual and determine the influence of clinical, anthropometric, dietary and biochemical parameters on bone mass. METHODS: A cohort study including 35 prepubertal HIV-infected children, between 7 and 12 years, attended at a referral center. At time 1 (T1) and time 2 (T2), patients were assessed according to clinical, anthropometric, dietary, biochemical parameters and bone mineral density (BMD). At T2, patients were divided into prepubertal and pubertal. RESULTS: Despite the increase in bone mass absolute values, there was no improvement in lumbar spine BMD (LSBMD) Z-score (p = 0.512) and worsening in total body BMD (TBMD) Z-score (p = 0.040). Pubertal patients (n = 19) showed higher bone mineral content (BMC) (p = 0.001), TBMD (p = 0.006) and LSBMD (p = 0.002) compared to prepubertal patients. After multivariate linear regression analysis, the predictors of bone mass in T1 were age, BMI and HAZ-scores for BMC; BMI Z-score, adequate serum magnesium concentration and dietary calcium intake for TBMD; adequate serum concentration of magnesium, BMI and HAZ-scores for LSBMD. In T2, age, total body fat and lean body mass (kg) for BMC; BMI Z-score and puberty for TBMD; dietary fat intake, BMI Z-score for BMD and puberty for LSBMD. CONCLUSION: HIV-infected children have compromised bone mass and the presence of puberty seems to provide suitability of these parameters. Adequate intake of calcium and fat appears to be protective for proper bone mass accumulation factor, as well as monitoring nutritional status and serum magnesium concentration.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Itajaí is a port city in southern Brazil with one of the highest incidence and mortality rates from AIDS in the country. The prevalence and incidence of HIV infection were investigated in 1085 of 3196 new HIV-1 infection cases evaluated in the counseling and testing center of Itajaí from January 2002 to August 2008. Recent infections were assessed using the BED(tm), and polregion sequencing was performed in 76 samples. The prevalence ranged from 3.08% to 6.17% among women and from 10.26% to 17.36% among men. A total of 17% of infections were classified as recent, with annual incidence varying from 1.6% to 4.8 per 100 patient/year among women and from 2.05% to 8.5 per 100 patient/year among men. Pol sequences were obtained from 38 randomly recent infections selected individuals: 71% were infected by subtype C, 24% B, 2% D, and 2% F1. Among 38 subjects with established infection, 76% were subtype C, and 24% B. Transmitted drug resistance was detected in 18.4% of recent infection subjects (7.8% to nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, 5.2% to non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, and 5.2% protease inhibitors) and 5.2% of subjects with established infection had nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors resistance. The high prevalence and incidence of HIV infection in this region is unprecedented in studies involving cases evaluated in the counseling and testing centers in Brazil.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiologic agent of tuberculosis, one of the world's greatest cause of morbidity and mortality due to infectious disease. Many evolutionary mechanisms have contributed to its high level of adaptation as a host pathogen. Prior to become dormant, a group of about 50 genes related to metabolic changes are transcribed by the DosR regulon, one of the most complex and important systems of host-pathogen interaction. This genetic mechanism allows the mycobacteria to persist during long time periods, establishing the so-called latent infection. Even in the presence of a competent immune response, the host cannot eliminate the pathogen, only managing to keep it surrounded by an unfavorable microenvironment for its growth. However, conditions such as immunosuppression may reestablish optimal conditions for bacterial growth, culminating in the onset of active disease. The interactions between the pathogen and its host are still not completely elucidated. Nonetheless, many studies are being carried out in order to clarify this complex relationship, thus creating new possibilities for patient approach and laboratory screening.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: The main objective was to evaluate HBV infection and occult HBV infection (OBI) cases in mentally ill patients based on serological and molecular profiles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Serum samples of 333 long-stay mentally ill patients were tested for the prevalence of HBV markers by serological (ELISA) and molecular (PCR) assays. The PCR products were sequenced to determine viral genotypes. RESULTS: It was observed a global prevalence of 12.9% (43/333) for HBV infection markers, considering HBsAg and/or anti-HBc positivity. Fourteen samples tested positive for anti-HBs alone. All samples positive (n= 57) for any HBV serological markers were tested for HBV-DNA and six were positive: HBsAg/anti-HBc (n = 1), anti-HBc/anti-HBs (n = 1), anti-HBs alone (n = 1), and anti-HBc alone (n = 3). The rate of OBI was 9.2% (5/54) from samples that were anti-HBc and/or anti-HBs positive. All sequenced samples were characterized as genotype A. CONCLUSION: The high rate of HBV infections found in this study suggests the possibility of HBV transmission due to risk factors displayed by some patients, and highlights the importance of vaccination of susceptible patients and the staff of that institution.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Rahnella aquatilis is an environmental Gram-negative bacillus that is rarely reported as human pathogen, being mainly associated with infections in immunocompromised patients. Herein we describe two cases ofR. aquatilis isolates recovered from endotracheal aspirate cultures of different patients in a tertiary hospital located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rDNA gene sequencing were performed to confirm bacterial identification after the isolates being erroneously identified as Pantoea spp. by automated system. Both isolates showed the same PFGE pattern and presented the ß-lactamase encoding geneblaRAHN-1, responsible for resistance to cephalothin. The isolates were susceptible to broad-spectrum cephalosporins, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and polymyxin B. This report shows the presence and transmission of uncommon bacteria in the nosocomial environment and alerts us about the need for new tools of correct microbiologic diagnosis.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Since the beginning of the HIV burden, Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL)/HIV co-infection has been diagnosed not only in areas where VL is endemic (Latin America, India, Asia, Southern Europe), but also in North America, were it is considered an opportunistic disease. Clinical presentation, diagnostic tests sensitivity and treatment response in this population differs from VL alone. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate factors related to an unfavorable outcome in patients with VL/HIV diagnosis in a reference center in northeast Brazil. METHODS: Co-infected patients, diagnosed from 2010 to 2012, were included. Data from medical records were collected until one year after VL treatment completion. RESULTS: Forty-two HIV-infected patients were included in the study. Anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia were present in 95%, 70.7%, and 63.4%, respectively. Mean T CD4+ (LTCD4) lymphocyte count was 183 cells/dL. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was being used by 54.7% of cases. A favorable outcome was seen in 71.4% of cases. Recurrence of VL occurred in nine patients and deaths were secondary to infectious complications (3/42 patients). Very low LTCD4 count (<100 cells/dL) was the only independent variable associated with an unfavorable outcome in multivariate analysis (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Low LTCD4 count at presentation was associated with unfavorable outcome in VL/HIV patients.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To understand the evolution of AIDS over time in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, using incidence, lethality, and mortality coefficients. METHODS: A descriptive epidemiological study based on time series analysis of secondary data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System reported between 1985 and 2012. RESULTS: The prevalence of AIDS was higher among men, with evidence of feminization during the first 14 years of the epidemic. There was no statistically significant sex difference in AIDS lethality. Women were 1.3 times more likely to survive than men. CONCLUSIONS: Gender differences must be considered when designing new HIV/AIDS prevention strategies.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Infections caused by emerging Cryptococcus non-neoformans species are being reported with increasingly frequency. Here, we present a case of fungaemia byCryptococcus laurentii in a woman receiving aggressive immunosuppressive therapy for cervical neoplasia. Three venous blood samples were aseptically collected on consecutive days and C. laurentiiwas isolated and identified through phenotypic and molecular methods. After central venous catheter removal and appropriate antifungal therapy, the patient showed significant improvement and blood culture became negative. Thus, patients following immunosuppressive therapies and using invasive medical devices are at risk of C. laurentii blood infections.