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Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume: 22, Issue: 4, Published: 2018
  • Differences in the replicative capacities of clinical isolates of dengue virus in C6/36 cells and in urban populations of Aedes aegypti from Colombia, South America Original Articles

    Quintero-Gil, Diana Carolina; Uribe-Yepes, Alexander; Ospina, Marta; Díaz, Francisco Javier; Martinez-Gutierrez, Marlen

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Dengue, the most prevalent arboviral disease worldwide, is caused by any of the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes that co-circulate constantly in hyperendemic areas such as Medellin (Colombia), and these serotypes are transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. In this study, we evaluated the replicative capacity of strains isolated in Medellin between 2003 and 2007 in C6/36 cells and in colonies of Aedes aegypti collected during 2010-2011 from high or low-incidence areas within the same city. The phylogenetic analysis grouped isolates according to the predominant genotypes found in the Americas, and the in vitro characterization showed differences in the morphological changes induced by the isolates of each of the isolated serotypes compared to the reference serotypes. In vitro replicative capacity studies demonstrated that genomic copy number increased at four days post-infection and that cell viability decreased significantly compared to the control for all serotypes. The largest number of genomic copies in C6/36 was produced by DENV-2, followed by DENV-1 and DENV-4; DENV-3 produced the smallest number of genomic copies and had the smallest negative effect on cell viability. Finally, differences in the in vivo replication of intercolonial serotypes between the Rockefeller colony and the field colonies and among the intracolonial serotypes were found. The replication of DENV-2 at 7 and 14 days in both high- and low-incidence colonies was higher than that of the other serotypes, and replication of DENV-3 in the mosquito colonies was the most stable on the days evaluated. Our results support the notion that replication and, possibly, DENV transmission and severity depend on many factors, including serotype and vector characteristics.
  • Secular trends of candidemia at a Brazilian tertiary care teaching hospital Original Articles

    Braga, Paula Rocha; Cruz, Isabela L.; Ortiz, Isadora; Barreiros, Gloria; Nouér, Simone A.; Nucci, Marcio

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Background Candidemia is the most frequent invasive fungal disease in hospitalized patients, and is associated with high mortality rates. The main objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the epidemiology of candidemia at a tertiary care hospital in a 21-year period. Methods We evaluated all episodes of candidemia diagnosed between 1996 and 2016 at a University-affiliated tertiary care hospital in Brazil. We arbitrarily divided the study period in 3: 1996-2002 (period 1), 2003-2009 (period 2) and 2010-2016 (period 3). Incidence rates were calculated using hospital admissions as denominator. Results We observed 331 episodes of candidemia. The incidence was 1.30 episodes per 1000 admissions, with no significant change over time. Candida albicans (37.5%), C. tropicalis (28.1%), C. parapsilosis (18.4%) and C. glabrata (6.9%) were the most frequent species. The proportion of patients receiving treatment increased (65.5%, 79.4% and 74.7% in periods 1, 2 and 3, respectively, p= 0.04), and the median time from candidemia to treatment initiation decreased from 4 days in period 1 (range 0-32 days) to 2 days in period 2 (range 0-33 days) and 2 days in period 3 (range 0-14 days, p< 0.001). We observed a significant decrease in the use of deoxycholate amphotericin B (47.4%, 14.8% and 11.9%), and an increase in the use of echinocandins (0%, 2.8% and 49.1%; p< 0.001). The APACHE II score increased over time (median 16, 17.5, and 22, p< 0.001). The overall 30-day mortality was 58.9%, and did not change significantly over the study period. Conclusions There was an improvement in patient care, with an increase in the proportion of patients receiving treatment and a decrease in the time to treatment initiation, but no improvement in the outcome, possibly because the proportion of sicker patients increased over time.
  • Predominance of Leishmania major and rare occurrence of Leishmania tropica with haplotype variability at the center of Iran Original Articles

    Zahirnia, Amir Hossein; Bordbar, Ali; Ebrahimi, Sahar; Spotin, Adel; Mohammadi, Somayeh; Ghafari, Seyedeh Maryam; Ahmadvand, Setareh; Jabbari, Negar; Esmaeili Rastaghi, Ahmad Reza; Parvizi, Parviz

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Background Leishmania major is a causative agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the center of Iran, Abarkouh district. Molecular characterization and precise incrimination of Leishmania species was carried out to perform controlling measurements and to design treatment programs for zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods All smears isolated from ulcers of suspected patients were examined under a light microscope and graded for amastigotes frequency. Extraction of DNA, PCR, RFLP and sequencing of ITS-rDNA genotype were done to increase the efficacy of Leishmania parasites identification at their species-specific level and to detect any Leishmania infections within. Results Humans were found to be infected with L. major with high infection frequency and also Leishmania tropica was identified with low occurrence for the first time as non-native species using molecular analyses. The rates of infections was considerable with microscopic observation (n= 65, 73%) out of 89 smears prepared from suspected patients. Molecular analyses showed that the density of L. major was significantly higher (n= 48, 53.93%) than L. tropica (n= 4, 4.49%) (Mann-Whitney U test: p< 0.05) and two samples (2.25%) remained ambiguous after several sequencing. L. major did not have diversity with two common haplotypes but L. tropica were found to exhibit high diversity with three novel haplotypes. Conclusion L. major was considered the causative agent of leishmaniasis in the region, but the identification of a non-native L. tropica revealed the importance of further isolation of Leishmania parasites following molecular analyses and confirmation, and also revealed the importance of further isolation of Leishmania parasites from patients of the field areas who do not have easily access to health care centers for specialized treatment strategies.
  • The impact of urinary incontinence on the quality of life and on the sexuality of patients with HAM/TSP Original Articles

    Gascón, Maria Rita Polo; Mellão, Mirella de Almeida; Mello, Sandra Helena; Negrão, Rosangela Maria; Casseb, Jorge; Oliveira, Augusto César Penalva de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study evaluated the impact of urinary incontinence (UI) on sexuality, body image, mood, and quality of life of patients with myyelopathy associated with HTLV-1/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The sample consisted of 31 HAM/TSP outpatients, of both sexes, followed-up at the Emílio Ribas Infectology Institute. The following instruments were used: sociodemographic questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD), Body Image Assessment Scale, Sexual Quotient Female (QS-F) and Male (QS-M) Versions, King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), and Revised OSAME Motor Disability Score. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used for group comparison. The presence of UI was reported by 13 (41.9%) patients. Based on the quality of life questionnaire, patients with UI had a significant impact in the following domains: incontinence impact, daily life activities limitation, physical and social limitations, social relations, emotions, sleep and disposition, and severity measurements. Most participants had no anxiety (21; 67.7%) or depression symptoms (18; 58.1%). Regarding the sexual coefficient, 13 (41.9%) participants had sexual dissatisfaction. Conclusion: UI is common in HTLV-1 patients and may cause serious impairment in quality of life, with social, psychological and hygienic consequences. Nonetheless, there are few studies on this subject and their impact on mood and sexuality.
  • HBV epidemiology and genetic diversity in an area of high prevalence of hepatitis B in southern Brazil Original Articles

    Paoli, Juliana de; Wortmann, André Castagna; Klein, Mirelli Gabardo; Pereira, Vagner Reinaldo Zingalli Bueno; Cirolini, Adriana Maria; Godoy, Bibiane Armiliato de; Fagundes, Nelson Jurandi Rosa; Wolf, Jonas Michel; Lunge, Vagner Ricardo; Simon, Daniel

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem in Brazil. HBV endemicity is usually moderate to low according to geographic regions, and high prevalence of this virus has been reported in people of some specific Brazilian counties, including those with a strong influence of Italian colonization in southern Brazil. Analysis of HBV diversity and identification of the main risk factors to HBV infection are necessary to understand hepatitis B epidemiology in these high prevalence regions in southern Brazil. Objective To investigate epidemiological characteristics and HBV genotypes and subgenotypes circulating in a specific city with high HBV prevalence. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 102 HBV chronically infected individuals, recruited in reference outpatient clinics for viral hepatitis in a city of high HBV prevalence (Bento Gonçalves) in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil between July and December 2010. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavior-related variables were collected in a structured questionnaire. HBV serological markers (HBsAg, anti-HBc), viral load, genotypes/subgenotypes and drug resistance were evaluated and comparatively analyzed among all patients. Results The HBV infected subjects had a mean age of 44.9 (±12.2) years, with 86 patients (84.3%) reporting to have a family history of HBV infection, 51 (50.0%) to share personal objects, and were predominantly of Italian descendants (61; 64.9%). There was a predominance of genotype D (49/54; 90.7%), but genotype A was also detected (5/54; 9.3%). Subgenotypes D1 (1; 4.7%), D2 (3; 14.3%), and D3 (17; 81.0%) were identified. LAM-resistant mutation (rtM204I) and ADV-resistant mutations (rtA181V) were detected in only one patient each. Conclusions These results demonstrate a pivotal role of intrafamilial transmission for HBV spreading in this population. Furthermore, there is a high prevalence of HBV genotype D in this region.
  • Predictors of mortality in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients from Brazilian reference centers, 2005 to 2012 Original Articles

    Gayoso, Regina; Dalcolmo, Margareth; Braga, José Ueleres; Barreira, Draurio

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objectives To determine the main predictors of death in multidrug-resistant (MDRTB) patients from Brazil. Design Retrospective cohort study, a survival analysis of patients treated between 2005 and 2012. Results Of 3802 individuals included in study, 64.7% were men, mean age was 39 (1-93) years, and 70.3% had bilateral pulmonary disease. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was 8.3%. There were 479 (12.6%) deaths. Median survival time was 1452 days (4 years). Factors associated with increased risk of death were age greater than or equal to 60 years (hazard rate [HR] = 1.6, confidence interval [CI] = 1.15-2.2), HIV co-infection (HR = 1.46; CI = 1.05-1.96), XDR resistance pattern (HR = 1.74, CI = 1.05-2.9), beginning of treatment after failure (HR = 1.72, CI = 1.27-2.32), drug abuse (HR = 1.64, CI = 1.22-2.2), resistance to ethambutol (HR = 1.30, CI = 1.06-1.6) or streptomycin (HR = 1.24, CI = 1.01-1.51). Mainly protective factors were presence of only pulmonary disease (HR = 0.57, CI = 0.35-0.92), moxifloxacin use (HR = 0.44, CI = 0.25-0.80), and levofloxacin use (HR = 0.75; CI = 0.60-0.94). Conclusion A more comprehensive approach is needed to manage MDRTB, addressing early diagnostic, improving adhesion, and comorbidities, mainly HIV infection and drug abuse. The latest generation quinolones have an important effect in improving survival in MDRTB.
  • Helicobacter pylori eradication: influence of interleukin-1beta -31 C/T polymorphism Original Articles

    Rech, Tássia Flores; Mazzoleni, Luiz Edmundo; Mazzoleni, Felipe; Francesconi, Carlos Fernando de Magalhães; Sander, Guilherme Becker; Michita, Rafael Tomoya; Nabinger, Débora Dreher; Milbradt, Tobias Cancian; Torresini, Ronaldo João Spinato; Simon, Daniel

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Aim To analyze the influence of the -31 C/T polymorphism of the interleukin-1β gene on Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy success in patients with functional dyspepsia. Methods Functional dyspepsia was diagnosed according to the Rome III criteria. All patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and gastric biopsies were obtained at screening and 12 months after randomization (last follow-up visit). Urease test and histological examination were performed to define the H. pylori status. Patients received twice-daily amoxicillin, clarithromycin and omeprazole for 10 days. Genotyping of the interleukin-1beta -31 C/T polymorphism (rs1143627) was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results One hundred forty-nine patients received treatment with triple therapy for H. pylori eradication. Only one patient was lost to follow-up, and adherence to study medication was 94.6%. A total of 148 patients (mean age 46.08 ± 12.24 years; 81.8% women) were evaluated for the influence of the interleukin-1beta -31 C/T polymorphism on the outcome of H. pylori eradication therapy. After treatment, bacteria were eradicated in 87% of patients (129/148). Genotype frequencies of the polymorphism were as follows: CC, 38/148 (25.7%); CT, 71/148 (47.9%); and TT, 39/148 (26.4%). Successful eradication rate was 78.9%, 94.4% and 82.1% for the CC, CT and TT genotypes, respectively. The CT genotype was significantly associated with successful H. pylori eradication (p= 0.039). Conclusion This study suggests that the CT genotype of the interleukin-1beta -31 C/T polymorphism plays a role in the successful eradication of H. pylori among patients with functional dyspepsia.
  • Effectiveness of chronic hepatitis C treatment with direct-acting antivirals in the Public Health System in Brazil Original Articles

    Holzmann, Iandra; Tovo, Cristiane V.; Minmé, Roseline; Leal, Mônica P.; Kliemann, Michele P.; Ubirajara, Camila; Aquino, Amanda A.; Araujo, Bruna; Almeida, Paulo R.L.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Introduction Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is one of the major causes of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver transplantation. Treatment using direct-acting antivirals has revolutionized the treatment of hepatitis C virus, increasing long-term prognosis after cure. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of direct-acting antivirals in a Public Health System in southern Brazil. Methods A retrospective study evaluated all patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection who underwent treatment at one center of the Public Health Department of the State of Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil, according to the Brazilian Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines. The effectiveness was assessed in terms sustained virological response 12 weeks after the end of treatment. Results A total of 1002 patients who were treated for chronic hepatitis C virus infection were evaluated. The mean age was 58.6 years, 557 patients (55.6%) were male and 550 (54.9%) were cirrhotic. Overall sustained virological response was observed in 936 (93.4%) patients. There was a difference in sustained virological response rate varied according to sex, 91.6% in men and 95.7% in women (p= 0.009), length of treatment in genotype 1, 92.7% with 12 weeks and 99.1 with 24 weeks (p= 0.040), and genotype, 94.7% in genotype 1, 91.7% in genotype 2, and 91.4% in genotype 3 (p= 0.047). Conclusion The treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection for genotypes 1, 2 or 3 with the therapeutic regimens established by the Brazilian guidelines showed high rates of SVR, even in cirrhotic patients.
  • Microbiology and clinical characteristics of viridans group streptococci in patients with cancer Original Articles

    Guerrero-Del-Cueto, Fuensanta; Ibanes-Gutiérrez, Cyntia; Velázquez-Acosta, Consuelo; Cornejo-Juárez, Patricia; Vilar-Compte, Diana

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study assessed the microbiology, clinical syndromes, and outcomes of oncologic patients with viridans group streptococci isolated from blood cultures between January 1st, 2013 and December 31st, 2016 in a referral hospital in Mexico using the Bruker MALDI Biotyper. Antimicrobial sensitivity was determined using BD Phoenix 100 according to CLSI M100 standards. Clinical information was obtained from medical records and descriptive analysis was performed.Forty-three patients were included, 22 females and 21 males, aged 42 ± 17 years. Twenty (46.5%) patients had hematological cancer and 23 (53.5%) a solid malignancy. The viridans group streptococci isolated were Streptococcus mitis, 20 (46.5%); Streptococcus anginosus, 14 (32.6%); Streptococcus sanguinis, 7 (16.3%); and Streptococcus salivarius, 2 (4.7%). The main risk factors were pyrimidine antagonist chemotherapy in 22 (51.2%) and neutropenia in 19 (44.2%) cases, respectively. Central line associated bloodstream infection was diagnosed in 18 (41.9%) cases. Septic shock occurred in 20.9% of patients, with an overall mortality of 18.6%. Only four S. mitis revealed penicillin-resistance.Our results are similar to those of other series, identifying these bacteria as emerging pathogens with significant morbidity and mortality in oncologic patients. The MALDI-TOF system increased the rate of viridans group streptococci isolation in this population.
  • Inadequate use of antibiotics and increase in neonatal sepsis caused by resistant bacteria related to health care assistance: a systematic review Review Articles

    Silva, Ana Carolina Bueno; Anchieta, Leni Marcia; Lopes, Marianna Fischer de Paula; Romanelli, Roberta Maia de Castro

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Background Technologies and life support management have enhanced the survival of preterm infants. The immune system of newborns is immature, which contributes to the occurrence of healthcare-associated infections. The overlap of several conditions with neonatal sepsis and the difficulty of diagnosis and laboratory confirmation during this period result in a tendency to over-treat neonatal sepsis. The use of antimicrobial agents is a risk factor for multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. This work aimed to perform a systematic review of the relationship between inadequate use of antimicrobial agents and increase in neonatal sepsis related to healthcare assistance, due to bacterial resistance. Methods Our population, exposition, comparison, outcome and study type was as follows: P: hospitalized neonates with sepsis diagnosis, E: inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents, C: adequate use of antimicrobial agents or no indication of infection, O: resistant bacterial infection, and S: original studies. We performed searches in the PubMed, Scopus, Virtual Health Library (Scielo, LILACS, and MEDLINE), and Embase without limits on time, language, and the references of the articles found. Fourteen studies were included and assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation, Newcastle, and the Strengthening the Reporting of Observacional Studies in Epidemiology methodologies. Results All studies found were observational and started with a low-quality evidence level in the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation. Conclusions Despite their low-quality evidence, the studies demonstrated the association between inadequate use of antimicrobial agents and increase of neonatal resistant bacterial healthcare-associated infections in neonatal units. However, there is significant difficulty in conducting high-quality studies in this population due to ethical issues tied to randomized trials. Therefore, new studies should be encouraged to recommend adequate treatment of newborns without increasing the risk of healthcare-associated infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria.
  • Ventilator-associated pneumonia agents in Brazilian Neonatal Intensive Care Units - a systematic review Review Articles

    Silva, André Ricardo Araujo da; Silva, Thais Carolina da; Bom, Gabriel José Teixeira; Vasconcelos, Raissa Maria Bastos; Simões Junior, Robinson

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Introduction Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most common healthcare-associated infections (HAI) in neonates admitted in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Methods We did a systematic review using PRISMA methodology to identify the main etiological agents in Brazilian NICUs. Eligible studies published without period restriction were identified in PUBMED, SCIELO, LILACS and DOAJ. Studies were included if they were conducted in neonates hospitalized at NICU. Studies done in outpatient care, neonates outside NICU, emergency department, primary care, long-term care facilities or a combination of these were excluded. Results We identified 6384 articles in the initial search and four papers met the inclusion criteria. In all studies included, rates of device-associated infections were described, including VAP rates. The VAP incidence density, in exclusively Brazilian NICU, ranged from 3.2 to 9.2 per 1000 ventilator-days. Pneumonia was described as the main HAI in NICU in one article, as the second type of HAI in two other articles and as the fourth type of HAI in the last one. The main pathogens causing all HAI types were described in three of four articles, but, none of the articles reported which pathogens were related or associated to VAP. Conclusion Etiological agents causing VAP in Brazilian NICUs are, until the present time, not known.
  • Clostridium difficile contamination in retail meat products in Brazil Brief Communications

    Pires, Renata N.; Caurio, Cassia F.B.; Saldanha, Gabriele Z.; Martins, Andreza F.; Pasqualotto, Alessandro C.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Introduction Clostridium difficile is an important cause of diarrhoea, particularly in patients receiving antibiotic therapy. Recent studies have shown that a substantial proportion of C. difficile infections are acquired in the community, as a zoonotic disease. Brazil is a large exporter of meat and so far no study has evaluated meat contamination with C. difficile spores. Methods Here we analysed 80 retail meat products purchased from local supermarkets in a Brazilian metropolis (Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil). Samples from these products were grown in anaerobic conditions, and tested with a real time polymerase chain reaction test. Results Contamination with C. difficile spores was not found in the study. Bacteria isolated from meat included Streptococcus gallolyticus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus gallinarum and Pediococcus acidilactici. Discussion Close vigilance is required in order to guarantee the quality of Brazilian retail meat in the long term.
  • Central venous catheter-related infections caused by Corynebacterium amycolatum and other multiresistant non-diphtherial corynebacteria in paediatric oncology patients Brief Communications

    Carvalho, Ricardo Vianna de; Lima, Fernanda Ferreira da Silva; Santos, Cíntia Silva dos; Souza, Mônica Cristina de; Silva, Rondinele Santos da; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luiza de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Bloodstream and venous catheter-related corynebacterial infections in paediatric patients with haematological cancer were investigated from January 2003 to December 2014 at the Brazilian National Cancer Institute in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We observed that during cancer treatment, invasive corynebacterial infections occurred independent of certain factors, such as age and gender, underlying diseases and neutropenia. These infections were ssscaused by Corynebacterium amycolatum and other non-diphtherial corynebacteria. All cases presented a variable profile of susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, except to vancomycin. Targeted antibiotic therapy may contribute to catheters maintenance and support quality of treatment. Non-diphtherial corynebacteria must be recognized as agents associated with venous access infections. Our data highlight the need for the accurate identification of corynebacteria species, as well as antimicrobial susceptibility testing.
  • Schistosomal liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma - case series of patients submitted to liver transplantation Brief Communications

    Filgueira, Norma Arteiro; Saraiva, Camilla Maria de Alencar; Jucá, Norma Thomé; Bezerra, Matheus Filgueira; Lacerda, Claudio Moura

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Schistosomiasis affects approximately 207 million people in 76 countries. The association between hepatocellular carcinoma and Schistosoma mansoni infection has been investigated. Studies using animal models suggest that the parasite may accelerate the oncogenic process when combined with other factors, such as hepatitis C virus infection or exposure to a carcinogen. Herein, we report a case series of six hepatocellular carcinoma patients from Northeast Brazil, with negative serology for both hepatitis B and C virus, submitted to liver transplantation, whose explant showed evidence of schistosomal liver fibrosis. Since all patients enrolled in this study were submitted to liver transplantation, we were able to access the whole explanted liver and perform histopathological analysis, which is often not possible in other situations. Although 50% of them showed signs of liver failure, no cirrhosis or any liver disease other than schistosomal fibrosis had been detected. These uncommon findings suggest that Schistosoma mansoni infection might predispose to hepatocellular carcinoma development, regardless of the absence of other risk factors.
  • Prevalence of hepatitis C among dock workers Letters To The Editor

    Focaccia, Roberto; Moraes, Adriana Silva de; Ribeiro, Maria Luiza Alessi; Carbonari, Karla Fabiana Begosso Sampaio da Fonseca; Quevedo, Bruna de Souza
  • Bloodstream infection by mcr-1-harboring Escherichia coli in a cancer patient in southern Brazil Letters To The Editor

    Lorenzoni, Vinícius Victor; Dalmolin, Tanise Vendruscolo; Franco, Laísa Nunes; Barth, Afonso Luis; Hörner, Rosmari
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