Abstract in English:Abstract Objective Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species are increasingly being isolated and have become a key factor affecting public health by causing pulmonary diseases. Most NTM species do not respond to conventional tuberculosis (TB) drugs. This study aimed to identify NTM isolated from suspected pulmonary TB patients from the Zhejiang province and analyze their distribution in the region. Methods A total of 1,113 NTM isolates from patients suspected to be suffering from acid-fast bacilli-positive tuberculosis were identified at the species level, using the CapitalBio Mycobacterium identification array and polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of 16S-23S gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 16S rRNA, and hsp65. Results Of the 23,138 isolates, we identified 1,102 NTM (4.8%), mainly including Mycobacterium intracellulare (54.81%, 604/1,102), M. chelonae-M. abscessus (16.52%, 182/1,102), M. avium (13.16%, 145/1,102), M. kansasii (8.17%, 90/1,102), and M. gordonae (3.27%, 36/1,102). Conclusion The distribution of NTM species observed in patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis provides guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of NTM pulmonary diseases.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Background Several therapies have been used or proposed for the treatment of COVID-19, although their effectiveness and safety have not been properly evaluated. The purpose of this document is to provide recommendations to support decisions about the drug treatment of outpatients with COVID-19 in Brazil. Methods A panel consisting of experts from different clinical fields, representatives of the Brazilian Ministry of Health, and methodologists (37 members in total) was responsible for preparing these guidelines. A rapid guideline development method was used, based on the adoption and/or adaptation of recommendations from existing international guidelines combined with additional structured searches for primary studies and new recommendations whenever necessary (GRADE-ADOLOPMENT). The rating of quality of evidence and the drafting of recommendations followed the GRADE method. Results Ten technologies were evaluated, and 10 recommendations were prepared. Recommendations were made against the use of anticoagulants, azithromycin, budesonide, colchicine, corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine alone or combined with azithromycin, ivermectin, nitazoxanide, and convalescent plasma. It was not possible to make a recommendation regarding the use of monoclonal antibodies in outpatients, as their benefit is uncertain and their cost is high, with limitations of availability and implementation. Conclusion To date, few therapies have demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of outpatients with COVID-19. Recommendations are restricted to what should not be used, in order to provide the best treatment according to the principles of evidence-based medicine and to promote resource savings by aboiding ineffective treatments.
Abstract in English:Abstract Listeria monocytogenes is responsible for causing listeriosis, a type of food poisoning with high mortality. This bacterium is mainly transmitted to humans through the consumption of contaminated foods. Detection of L. monocytogenes through molecular methods is crucial for food safety and clinical diagnosis. Present techniques are characterized by low discrimination power and high cost, as well as being time-consuming and taking several days to give the final result. In our study, MLVA-HRM (Multiple-Locus Variable-number tandem repeats Analysis ‒ High-Resolution Melting) was investigated as an alternative method for a fast and precise method for the genotyping of L. monocytogenes isolates. Forty-eight isolates of L. monocytogenes obtained from the microbial bank of Department of Microbiology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, were typed by MLVA-HRM analysis using five Variable Numbers of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) loci. A total of 43 different types were obtained. This research demonstrated the usefulness of the MLVA-HRMA method and its ability to discriminate L. monocytogenes isolates. Since this method is easier and more efficient than existing methods, it can be widely used in food processing plants and diagnostic laboratories as a fast and accurate method.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background The performance characteristics of the Panbio™ COVID-19 Ag test was evaluated at an emergency room setting against RT-PCR, considered the gold-standard for the detection of SARS-CoV-2, in São Paulo, Brazil. The study aimed to determine the sensitivity, specificity, Positive Percent Agreement (PPA), and Negative Percent Agreement (NPA) as compared to RT-PCR. Methods Specimens from 127 suspected patients were tested by both the Panbio™ COVID-19 Ag test and by RT-PCR. Results In relation to RT-PCR using Ct values ≤ 40 as the upper limit for positivity, the Panbio™ COVID-19 Ag test showed an overall sensitivity of 84.3% (95% CI 75‒93.8%) and 98.2% (95% CI 96‒98.8%) overall specificity. For Ct values ≤ 25 (n= 37), the Panbio™ COVID-19 Ag test showed 97% sensitivity. Discussion The concordance between the Panbio™ COVID-19 Ag test and RT-PCR was 97% at Ct values below 25 but decreased at higher Ct values. For disease control, it is very important to identify infected individuals who present COVID-19 symptoms and also those who are suspected of infection due to contact with infected individuals. Conclusion The Panbio™ COVID-19 Ag test is suitable for use as a diagnostic test for rapid screening of patients presenting COVID-19 symptoms, or those suspected of being infected, prior to being admitted to hospital.
Abstract in English:Abstract We report a rare case of Campylobacter fetus bacteremia in a 50-year-old woman following kidney transplantation. Bacteremia was complicated by multivisceral signs such as multiple splenic abscesses, bacterial hepatitis, erythema nodosum and reactive arthritis. Despite a prolonged diagnostic delay, the diagnosis was made on blood culture identification and the global outcome was favorable with adequate antibiotherapy. Reports in the literature describe a high rate of mortality for Campylobacter spp. septicemia, with most patients being immunocompromised. However, Campylobacter spp. has been rarely described in renal transplant patients. Moreover, a splenic septic localization due to Campylobacter spp. has been reported only once to our knowledge. Clinicians should be aware of the diagnostic difficulties related to the frequent negativity of stool samples in C. fetus septicemia, in order to implement a tailored medical strategy. Some data suggest that rapid introduction of adapted antibiotic therapy is associated with a reduction in mortality.
Abstract in English:Abstract The diagnosis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been a great challenge since the infection affects not only the respiratory system, but also different organs, given the intense inflammatory and autoimmune reaction triggered by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Herein we present a case of a 36-year-old male patient, with some comorbidities and previous use of carbamazepine, who developed a severe condition triggered by COVID-19, including extensive exfoliative erythroderma and severe impairment of liver function, which lasted approximately 80 days.
Abstract in English:Abstract A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Hematology and Hemotherapy Institute of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (Hemosul) to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) exposure among volunteer blood donors in Central Brazil. Two-hundred fifty samples from the biorepository were tested for anti-HEV IgG and IgM using the Wantai HEV ELISA test. The seroprevalence of HEV exposure was 6.4% (95% CI: 3.9–10.2). Being born in another state of Brazil, mainly in the Southeast and South regions, was associated with a higher risk of HEV exposure (p < 0.001).
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of great public health importance. In wild animals, Brucella abortus is one of the most diagnosed species, mainly in enzootic environments where domestic animals share the same environment. B. abortus is common in environments shared by cattle, wild, and domestic animals. This study aimed to detect the presence of B. abortus DNA in free-ranging and captivity felids at Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Method Polymerase chain reaction, based on the genetic element IS711, was performed in blood samples collected from 23 free-ranging and captive felids. The species represented include Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus wiedii, Panthera onca, Puma concolor, and Puma yagouaroundi. Results DNA amplification of B. abortus was observed in only one captive P. concolor (4.34%). Conclusion The detection of this pathogen in captive animals using molecular tools demonstrates the importance of monitoring, as it raises concerns about the possibility of transmission between humans and wild and domestic animals, especially in regions of vast biodiversity, such as in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Patients with severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are treated with corticosteroids. Aim We aimed to evaluate the role of corticosteroid treatment in candidemia development during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods This retrospective study was conducted in a Greek ICU, from 2010 to August 2021, encompassing a pre-pandemic and a pandemic period (pandemic period: April 2020 to August 2021). All adult patients with candidemia were included. Results During the study period, 3,572 patients were admitted to the ICU, 339 patients during the pandemic period, of whom 196 were SARS-CoV-2-positive. In total, 281 candidemia episodes were observed in 239 patients, 114 in the pandemic period. The majority of candidemias in both periods were catheter-related (161; 50.4%). The incidence of candidemia in the pre-pandemic period was 5.2 episodes per 100 admissions, while in the pandemic period was 33.6 (p < 0.001). In the pandemic period, the incidence among COVID-19 patients was 38.8 episodes per 100 admissions, while in patients without COVID-19 incidence was 26.6 (p= 0.019). Corticosteroid administration in both periods was not associated with increased candidemia incidence. Conclusions A significant increase of candidemia incidence was observed during the pandemic period in patients with and without COVID-19. This increase cannot be solely attributed to immunosuppression (corticosteroids, tocilizumab) of severe COVID-19 patients, but also to increased workload of medical and nursing staff.