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Epidemiologically relevant antimicrobial resistance phenotypes in pathogens isolated from critically ill patients in a Brazilian Universitary Hospital

Fenótipos de resistência antimicrobiana epidemiologicamente importantes de patógenos isolados de pacientes críticos de um hospital universitário brasileiro

Rodolfo Henriques de Carvalho Paulo P. Gontijo Filho About the authors

Antimicrobial resistance is a threat to public health worldwide and is associated with higher mortality and morbidity. Despite the extensive knowledge about this problem, drug resistance has continued to emerge, especially in intensive care units (ICUs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of epidemiologically relevant resistance phenotypes in pathogens isolated from ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), bloodstream infections (BSI) and urinary tract infections (UTI) in patients admitted in the adult intensive care unit (AICU) of the Clinical Hospital of Federal University of Uberlândia, during an one year period. Additionally, at the period of the study, the antibiotic consumption in AICU was verified. Coagulase-negative staphylococci and S. aureus were the main agents of BSI (43.9%), with 60.0% of oxacilin-resistance for both microorganisms, Klebsiella-Enterobacter group predominated in UTI (23.4%), with resistance to third generation cephalosporins in 58.0% of the isolates; and, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in VAP (42.0%), with 72.0% of resistance to imipenem. Cephalosporins (49.6%), vancomycin (37.4%) and carbapenems (26.6%) were the most prescribed antibiotics in the unit. The comparison of the results with a publication of the NNIS program evidenced a worse situation in the studied hospital, mainly between Gram-negative, that had surpassed the percentile 90% elaborated by that system. Based on these results a reconsideration on the empirical use of antibiotics and on prevention and control of nosocomial infections practices is recommended.

Nosocomial infection; epidemiology; multiresistant microorganisms

Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia USP - ICB III - Dep. de Microbiologia, Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2415, Cidade Universitária, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP - Brasil, Ramal USP 7979, Tel. / Fax: (55 11) 3813-9647 ou 3037-7095 - São Paulo - SP - Brazil