First isolation of the Stephanoascus ciferrii in feline otitis in Brazil

Angelita dos Reis Gomes Ângela Leitzke Cabana Luiza da Gama Osório Rosema Santin Isabel Duarte Schuch Emanoele Figueiredo Serra Patrícia Silva Nascente Mário Carlos Araújo Meireles About the authors

Abstract

Ear infections in cats are uncommon, especially involving yeasts. This report describes the first isolation of the Stephanoascus ciferrii, teleomorph of the Candida genus, in a case of feline otitis in Brazil. The identification and characterization of Stephanoascus ciferrii were confirmed by the Vitek2 System (BioMerieux ®).

mixed infection; identification; external otitis; cat; Stephanoascus ciferrii


SHORT COMMUNICATION

First isolation of the Stephanoascus ciferrii in feline otitis in Brazil

Angelita dos Reis GomesI; Ângela Leitzke CabanaI; Luiza da Gama OsórioII; Rosema SantinII; Isabel Duarte SchuchIII; Emanoele Figueiredo SerraI; Patrícia Silva NascenteIV; Mário Carlos Araújo MeirelesI

ILaboratório de Doenças Infecciosas, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil

IIInstituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

IIIDepartmento de Clínica Veterinária, Hospital Veterinário, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil

IVDepartmento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil

Correspondence

ABSTRACT

Ear infections in cats are uncommon, especially involving yeasts. This report describes the first isolation of the Stephanoascus ciferrii, teleomorph of the Candida genus, in a case of feline otitis in Brazil. The identification and characterization of Stephanoascus ciferrii were confirmed by the Vitek2 System (BioMerieux ®).

Key words: mixed infection, identification, external otitis, cat, Stephanoascus ciferrii.

An eight month old male mixed breed cat, weighing 3.3 kg was referred to the Veterinary Hospital - Federal University of Pelotas (HCV-UFPel), Brazil. The chief symptoms of the patient were pruritus and secretion in the left ear for three days. At the clinical examination, the animal was within the physiological parameters of the species. In the ear specific examination, scaly dermatitis was observed and an otoscopy of the left ear showed a dark secretion and erythema in the auricle, external meatus and the ear canal lining. There were no parasites in the ears examined. There were no alterations on the right ear. Secretion was collected from both ears using a sterile swab and sent for mycological and bacteriological analysis.

Mycological analysis was performed at the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases (Mycology Sector) of the School of Veterinary of the Federal University of Pelotas, Brazil. The sample was processed in duplicate on Petri dishes containing Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA, Neogen Acumedia®, Michigan, USA) and Sabouraud dextrose agar cloranfenicol and olive oil, incubated at 37 °C and observed daily, heavy growth of yeast colonies was observed after 24 h, there after fungal colonies were subcultured in Mycosel® agar and malt agar. The macromorphological and micromorphological characteristics of the fungal colonies were analyzed. Direct examination of the colony was carried out based on a smear of the cultures using the Gram staining technique, observed in 100x objective. To characterize the genus and species, and confirm the conventional mycological diagnosis, a test of characterization and identification was performed by automated Vitek2 system (BioMerieux ®) using pure colonies streaked in SDA medium, incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. Bacteriological examinations were performed at the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases (Bacteriology Sector) of the School of Veterinary of the Federal University of Pelotas, Brazil. The isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus sp. coagulase negative and Streptococcus sp; antibiogram showed resistance to cephalexin (30 g), sulfazotrim (30 g), tetracycline (30 g), and amoxicillin clavulanic acid (30 g) in all isolates. Macroscopically the isolated fungal colony had yeast form aspect, cream coloration and a rough aspect (Figure 1).


Microscopically extensive branches and blastoconidia ovals chain of different sizes, arranged along pseudohyphae and true hyphae were observed (Figure 2) according to the species description (Smith and Johannsen, 1976).


The confirmation of the conventional S. ciferrii was completed through the automated Vitek 2 system (BioMérieux®) comparing sample data with data from the isolated yeast strains standard ATCC (American Type Culture Collection).

In humans S. ciferrii (Smith et al., 1976), teleomorph of Candida ciferrii (Kreger-Van Rij, 1965), is considered an emerging species (De Gentile et al., 1991; García-Martos et al., 2004; Hazen, 1995) associated with ear diseases, non-insulin dependent diabetes, vascular disorders, valvular heart disease and most especially with cases of onychomycosis (De Gentile et al., 1991; Furman and Ahearn, 1983; Hazen, 1995). Occurences have been reported in cases of immunocompromised patients (García-Martos et al., 2004; Gunsilius et al., 2001) and candidemia (Agin et al., 1991).

In veterinary medicine the occurrence of fungal infections caused by S. ciferrii is rare, especially in small animals. Only one reported case of feline otomycosis (Kano et al., 2000). Likewise, its isolation is also rarely reported in other animal species, although it has been found in the neck of swine, bovine placenta (Furman and Ahearn, 1983) and mastitis (Krukowski et al., 2000). However, its role in the pathogenesis of the disease is still unclear. This report describes the first isolation of the S. ciferrii in mixed infection in feline otitis in Brazil.

Prior to laboratorial confirmation of the agents involved in the case of otitis, the treatment was based on the mechanical removal of earwax with the cleaning of the auricular pavilion and ear canal made twice a day with a solution based on acetylsalicylic acid, lactic acid, boric acid, aloe-vera and calendula. After 12 days, the owner reported just kept on cleaning the ear canal, at clinical examination regression of the clinical signs was observed, with apparent cure. However, there was no return of the animal in subsequent consultations.

The prognosis of otitis caused in humans and animals by S. ciferrii is good (Kano et al., 2000). Nevertheless, consideration should be given to the opportunistic character of this yeast (De Gentile et al., 1991), the immune status of the patient (García-Martos et al., 2004) and the resistance displayed to itraconazole, fluconazole, bifonazole and miconazole (De Gentile et al., 1991; Hazen, 1995; Kano et al., 2000). The zoonotic potential of this yeast is still unknown (Kano et al., 2000).

This case confirms the association of the S. ciferrii in the case of external otitis in felines, demonstrating that polymicrobial infections of ordinary diseases in the veterinary clinic may involve microbial agents not previously diagnosed and considered rare. We also evaluate that incidence of isolations and infections associated with uncommon yeast are likely to be significantly underestimated, due to the fact of being only estimated by case reports.

Acknowledgments

Thanks to Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) and Dr. Zoilo Pires de Camargo of the Departamento de Microbiologia Imunologia e Parasitologia of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP).

  • Correspondence:
    A.R. Gomes
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary
    Universidade Federal de Pelotas
    Pelotas, RS, Brazil
    E-mail:
  • Submitted: June 15, 2013

    Approved: March 14, 2014

    All the content of the journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons License CC BY-NC.

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    Correspondence: A.R. Gomes Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Universidade Federal de Pelotas Pelotas, RS, Brazil E-mail: angelitagomes@gmail.com

    Publication Dates

    • Publication in this collection
      04 Nov 2014
    • Date of issue
      Sept 2014

    History

    • Accepted
      14 Mar 2014
    • Received
      15 June 2013
    Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia USP - ICB III - Dep. de Microbiologia, Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2415, Cidade Universitária, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP - Brasil, Ramal USP 7979, Tel. / Fax: (55 11) 3813-9647 ou 3037-7095 - São Paulo - SP - Brazil
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