Accessibility / Report Error
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, Volume: 41, Issue: 3, Published: 2010
  • Microbial production of biovanillin Review

    Converti, A.; Aliakbarian, B.; Domínguez, J.M.; Vázquez, G. Bustos; Perego, P.

    Abstract in English:

    This review aims at providing an overview on the microbial production of vanillin, a new alternative method for the production of this important flavor of the food industry, which has the potential to become economically competitive in the next future. After a brief description of the applications of vanillin in different industrial sectors and of its physicochemical properties, we described the traditional ways of providing vanillin, specifically extraction and chemical synthesis (mainly oxidation) and compared them with the new biotechnological options, i.e., biotransformations of caffeic acid, veratraldehyde and mainly ferulic acid. In the second part of the review, emphasis has been addressed to the factors most influencing the bioproduction of vanillin, specifically the age of inoculum, pH, temperature, type of co-substrate, as well as the inhibitory effects exerted either by excess substrate or product. The final part of the work summarized the downstream processes and the related unit operations involved in the recovery of vanillin from the bioconversion medium.
  • Potential application of new diagnostic methods for controlling bovine Tuberculosis in Brazil Review

    Medeiros, Luciana dos Santos; Marassi, Carla Dray; Figueiredo, Eduardo Eustáquio S.; Lilenbaum, Walter

    Abstract in English:

    Bovine tuberculosis, a chronic infection in cattle caused by Mycobacterium bovis, remains an economic and public health problem for several countries. Due to its economic impact on international trade, contagious nature, and implications for human health, global programs to eradicate the disease were implemented worldwide. Those programs are based on slaughtering PPD-reactive animals. Despite the National Programs in Brazil, complete eradication has not been achieved, and the disease remains, albeit at a lower prevalence. The central purpose of this review is to address diagnostic tests for tuberculosis. Considering the course of the infection in cattle, at least two tests, ideally complementary to one another, may be necessary for an adequate diagnosis: the first based on the cellular response, and the second capable of identifying anergic animals by detection of specific anti-M.bovis antibodies.
  • Bacteriocins: exploring alternatives to antibiotics in mastitis treatment Review

    Pieterse, Reneé; Todorov, Svetoslav D.

    Abstract in English:

    Mastitis is considered to be the most costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Management strategies involve the extensive use of antibiotics to treat and prevent this disease. Prophylactic dosages of antibiotics used in mastitis control programmes could select for strains with resistance to antibiotics. In addition, a strong drive towards reducing antibiotic residues in animal food products has lead to research in finding alternative antimicrobial agents. In this review we have focus on the pathogenesis of the mastitis in dairy cows, existing antibiotic treatments and possible alternative for application of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of this disease.
  • Detection of human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus in coronary atherosclerotic tissue Medical Microbiology

    Imbronito, Ana Vitória; Marcelino, Silvia Linardi; Grande, Sabrina Rosa; Nunes, Fabio Daumas; Romito, Giuseppe Alexandre

    Abstract in English:

    Previous studies indicated that patients with atherosclerosis are predominantly infected by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), but rarely infected by type 1 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-1). In this study, atheromas of 30 patients who underwent aortocoronary bypass surgery with coronary endartherectomy were tested for the presence of these two viruses. HCMV occurred in 93.3% of the samples and EBV-1 was present in 50% of them. Concurrent presence of both pathogens was detected in 43.3% of the samples.
  • Antibacterial susceptibility patterns and cross-resistance of methicillin resistant and sensitive Staphyloccus aureus isolated from the hospitalized patients in Shiraz, Iran Medical Microbiology

    Japoni, Aziz; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar; Jmalidoust, Marzieh; Farshad, Shohreh; Alborzi, Abdolvahab; Rafaatpour, Noraladdin; Badiee, Parisa

    Abstract in English:

    Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRSA) pose a serious problem in many countries. This study aimed to determine the antibacterial susceptibility patterns of methicillin sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the hospitalized patients. Totally 356 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) including 200, 137 and 19 corresponding to MSSA, MRSA, and intermediate MRSA strains, respectively were isolated. Antibacterial susceptibility patterns of the isolates to 14 antibiotics were examined using Kirby-Bauer method. MICs of 15 antibiotics to 156 MRSA isolates were determined by E test method. Cross-resistances of MRSA isolates (137+19) to the other tested antibiotics were also determined. S.aureus with high frequencies were isolated from the blood, sputum and deep wound samples. All of 200 MSSA isolates were sensitive to oxacillin, vancomycin, tecoplanin, rifampin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, mupirocin and fusidic acid. A gradient of reduced susceptibility of MSSA to cephalexin, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin were evident. MRSA isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, tecoplanin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, mupirocin and fusidic acid, while reduced susceptibility of them to rifampin, co-trimoxazole, clindamycin, cephalexin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and gentamicin were observed. MRSA isolates exhibited a high range of cross-resistance to the eight tested antibiotics. Overall, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin showed low activity against MSSA and MRSA isolates which may indicate they are not suitable to be used in clinical practices. To preserve the effectiveness of antibiotics, rational prescription and concomitant application of preventive measures against the spread of MRSA are recommended.
  • Effect of galbanic acid, a sesquiterpene coumarin from Ferula szowitsiana, as an inhibitor of efflux mechanism in resistant clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus Medical Microbiology

    Bazzaz, Bibi Sedigheh Fazly; Memariani, Zahra; Khashiarmanesh, Zahra; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Naderinasab, Mahbobeh

    Abstract in English:

    Galbanic acid, a sesquiterpene coumarin from Ferula szowitsiana roots, was investigated for its potentiating effect on the antimicrobial activity of antibiotics as well as ethidium bromide, in 6 multidrug resistance (MDR) clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Galbanic acid had inhibitory effect on none of the isolated bacteria tested (up to 800 µg /ml). The MIC range of ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and ethidium bromide, against all tested S. aureus were 10-80, 10-80 and 4-16 µg/ml, respectively. These were reduced to ≤2.5-5, 2.5-5 and 0.5-2 µg/ml in the presence of galbanic acid (300 µg /ml) or verapamil (100 µg /ml). The rate of ethidium bromide (2 µg /ml) accumulation in clinical isolates was enhanced with galbanic acid (300 µg /ml). There is also a decrease in loss of ethidium bromide from bacteria in the presence of galbanic acid. Similar results were obtained when verapamil (100 µg /ml) was used as an efflux pump inhibitor. Galbanic acid, like verapamil, a typical inhibitor of efflux pump, reduced the MIC of ethidium bromide and tested antibiotics. Since efflux is the only known reported mechanism for ethidium bromide resistance, the reduction in ethidium bromide MIC and enhanced accumulation as well as decreased efflux of ethidium bromide in the presence of galbanic acid, can be attributed to this efflux inhibitory properties.
  • Antibacterial activity of extracts of Acacia aroma against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus Medical Microbiology

    Mattana, C.M.; Satorres, S.E.; Sosa, A.; Fusco, M.; Alcaráz, L.E.

    Abstract in English:

    Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of Acacia aroma was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Inhibition of bacterial growth was determined using agar diffusion and bioautographic methods. Among all assayed organic extracts only ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts presented highest activities against all tested Staphylococcus strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 2.5 to 10 mg/ml and from 2.5 to 5 mg/ml respectively. The aqueous extracts show little antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus strains. The bioautography assay demonstrated well-defined growth inhibition zones against S. aureus in correspondence with flavonoids and saponins. A. aroma would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for skin infections.
  • Prevalence of virulence genes among bulgarian nosocomial and cystic fibrosis isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Medical Microbiology

    Mitov, Ivan; Strateva, Tanya; Markova, Boyka

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of some virulence genes among 202 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients (n=42) and non-CF in-patients (n=160) and to analyze the values according to the patient groups, infection localization and antimicrobial resistance. The following frequencies in all studied strains were established: algD (encoding GDP-mannose 6-dehydrogenase AlgD) - 91.1%, pilB (type IV fimbrial biogenesis protein PilB) - 23.8%, nan1 (neuraminidase) - 21.3%, lasB (elastase LasB) - 100%, plcH (haemolytic phospholipase C precursor) - 91.6%, exoS (exoenzyme S) - 62.4%, and exoU (exoenzyme U) - 30.2%. The prevalence of nan1 was significantly higher (P<0.01) in CF isolates (38.1%) than that in non-CF isolates (16.9%). The nan1-positive CF strains were cultured from 16 patients with recurrent lung exacerbations. This study revealed a statistically significant difference (P<0.01) between the portion of multidrug-resistant (MDR) nosocomial P. aeruginosa strains containing a large number (≥5) of virulence genes (38.1%) and the respective part of non-MDR isolates (17.6%). Moreover, pilB, exoU and nan1 manifested a higher spread (P<0.001) among MDR than in non-MDR strains (respectively, 39.1% vs. 13.2%; 40.2% vs. 17.7% and 26.1% vs. 4.4%). In conclusion, the dissemination of nan1 in CF isolates was moderate and correlated with the lower proportion of patients with lung exacerbations. The molecular-genetic detection of this gene may be used as an indirect measure of CF pulmonary disease evolution. Simultaneous determination of virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance is the contemporary approach for examination of the microbiological aspects of infections caused by P. aeruginosa.
  • AmpC beta lactamases among Gram negative clinical isolates from a tertiary hospital, South India Medical Microbiology

    Mohamudha, Parveen R.; Harish, B.N.; Parija, S.C.

    Abstract in English:

    AmpC β-lactamases are cephalosporinases that hydrolyze cephamycins as well as other extended-spectrum cephalosporins and are poorly inhibited by clavulanic acid. Although reported with increasing frequency, the true rate of occurrence of AmpC β-lactamases in different organisms, including members of Enterobacteriaceae, remains unknown. The present study was designed to determine the occurrence of AmpC enzyme-harbouring Gram-negative clinical isolates in a tertiary care hospital in Pondicherry state, South India. A total of 235 Gram negative clinical isolates were tested for resistance to cefoxitin, third generation cephalosporin (3GC) antibiotics, ampicillin, amikacin, co-trimoxazole, gentamicin, meropenem and tetracycline by disc diffusion method. Isolates found resistant to 3GC and cefoxitin were tested for the production of AmpC β -lactamases by three dimensional extraction method and AmpC disc method. Isolates found to sensitive to 3GC were subjected to disc antagonism test for inducible AmpC production. One hundred and thirty four (57%) strains were resistant to 3GC, among which 63(47%) were positive for plasmid-mediated AmpC beta lactamases production. Among the 101 strains sensitive to 3GC, 23 (22.7%) revealed the presence of inducible AmpC beta lactamases by disc approximation test. A total of 80.9% (51/63) of screen positive isolates were detected by Amp C disc test and 93.6% (59/63) by three dimensional extraction method. Out of the 86 AmpC producers, 67 (77.9%) were cefoxitin resistant .Inducible AmpC was not found in Esch.coli and Klebsiella spp. The AmpC producers also concurrently showed multidrug resistance pattern. AmpC producers were found to be prevalent in our hospital and though three dimensional extraction test detects AmpC better, the disk test is easier to perform routinely and is user- friendly.
  • Distribution, detection of enterotoxigenic strains and antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns of Bacteroides fragilis group in diarrheic and non-diarrheic feces from Brazilian infants Medical Microbiology

    Ferreira, Débora Paula; Silva, Vânia Lúcia; Guimarães, Danielle Aparecida; Coelho, Cíntia Marques; Zauli, Danielle Alves Gomes; Farias, Luiz Macêdo; Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Roque; Diniz, Claudio Galuppo

    Abstract in English:

    Despite the importance of gastrointestinal diseases and their global distribution, affecting millions of individuals around the world, the role and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of anaerobic bacteria such as those in the Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG) are still unclear in young children. This study investigated the occurrence and distribution of species in the BFG and enterotoxigenic strains in the fecal microbiota of children and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Diarrheic (n=110) and non-diarrheic (n=65) fecal samples from children aged 0-5 years old were evaluated. BFG strains were isolated and identified by conventional biochemical, physiological and molecular approaches. Alternatively, bacteria and enterotoxigenic strains were detected directly from feces by molecular biology. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns were determined by the agar dilution method according to the guidelines for isolated bacteria. BFG was detected in 64.3% of the fecal samples (55% diarrheic and 80.4% non-diarrheic), and 4.6% were enterotoxigenic. Antimicrobial resistance was observed against ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem, ceftriaxone, clindamycin and chloramphenicol. The data show that these bacteria are prevalent in fecal microbiota at higher levels in healthy children. The molecular methodology was more effective in identifying the B. fragilis group when compared to the biochemical and physiological techniques. The observation of high resistance levels stimulates thoughts about the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs in early infancy. Further quantitative studies are needed to gain a better understanding of the role of these bacteria in acute diarrhea in children.
  • Rauvolfia grandiflora (Apocynaceae) extract interferes with staphylococcal density, enterotoxin production and antimicrobial activity Medical Microbiology

    Carlos, Lanamar de Almeida; Amaral, Kenas Aguiar da Silva; Vieira, Ivo José Curcino; Mathias, Leda; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Samarão, Solange Silva; Vieira-da-Motta, Olney

    Abstract in English:

    Staphylococci bacteria are involved in many human and animal infections and development of alternative antimicrobial drugs against pathogenic bacteria is of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. This study investigated the in vitro effect of Rauvolfia grandiflora methanol extract (root bark fraction) (RGE) on the density of ATCC strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and a clinical enterotoxin-producer, S. aureus bovine strain. The alkaloid, isoreserpiline, obtained from dichloromethane extract of R. grandiflora was ineffective against the strains tested. After incubation of staphylococci strains in the presence of 1.2 mg.mL-1 RGE, a significant inhibition of cell growth was observed using both spectrophotometry and ELISA assays. Twelve drugs were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects on culture RGE-treated cells using the disk diffusion method. Penicillin resistant strains became sensitive to the drug after RGE treatment. Furthermore, enterotoxin production by RGE-treated S. aureus was evaluated using a standardized ELISA method. Although staphylococcal LSA 88 bovine strain cells remained viable after exposure to the extract, enterotoxin production was precluded in 20% after RGE treatment. Significant interference in staphylococci cell density, drug sensitivity and enterotoxin secretion was observed after treatment. The study highlights the necessity to find new methods of disease prevention and new antibiotic therapies against staphylococcal infections.
  • Effects of Myrcia ovata Cambess. essential oil on planktonic growth of gastrointestinal microorganisms and biofilm formation of Enterococcus faecalis Medical Microbiology

    Cândido, Cinthya S.; Portella, Cadmo Silton A.; Laranjeira, Bruno J.; Silva, Sérgio S. da; Arriaga, Angela M.C.; Santiago, Gilvandete M. P.; Gomes, Geovany A.; Almeida, Paulo César; Carvalho, Cibele B. M.

    Abstract in English:

    The essential oil from the leaves of Myrcia ovata Cambess., commonly used in Brazil for the treatment of gastric illnesses, was screened for antimicrobial activity and action in the formation of microbial biofilms by Enterococcus faecalis. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using a clevenger-type system. Its chemical composition was analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Both MIC and MBC of the essential oil were determined by broth microdilution techniques and agar dilution method. The essential oil showed antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Candida parapsilosis. The results showed that the essential oil of M. ovata Cambess. was effective against the formation of biofilm by E. faecalis when compared with the control. Four volatile compounds, representing 92.1 % of the oil, were identified and geranial was the major component (50.4 %). At the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves of M. ovata.
  • Trichosporon species isolated from the perigenital region, urine and catheters of a Brazilian population Medical Microbiology

    Silvestre Junior, Agenor Messias; Miranda, Mauricio Alexandre Bandeira Rampazzo; Camargo, Zoilo Pires de

    Abstract in English:

    The present study aimed to 1) determine the colonization rates of medically important Trichosporon species on normal perigenital skin and 2) determine the isolation rates of Trichosporon spp. isolated from the urine and catheters of Brazilian patients hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The overall colonization rate of Trichosporon spp. was 11.15% (112 isolates). The most common species isolated from normal perigenital skin was T. cutaneum (29.46%), followed by T. asteroides (20.53%), T. ovoides (15.17%), T. inkin (10.71%), T. mucoides (8.92%), and T. asahii (6.25%). From urine and catheters, T. asahii was the species most commonly isolated (76.5%; n =23), followed by T. inkin (16.6%; n = 5) and T. asteroides (6.6%; n = 2). In addition, the highest isolation rate occurred in subjects in the 71- to 80-year-old age range (36.7%; n= 11), followed by 61 to 70 (26.7%; n = 8), 51 to 60 (13.3%; n = 4), 31 to 40 (13.33%; n = 4), and 41 to 50 (10%; n =3). We concluded that 6 medically important species of the genus Trichosporon colonize the perigenital region in a normal population. The identification of these species is possible by means of classical methods but often requires repeated analyses repetitions due to difficulties in the assimilation process. In contrast, only 3 species of Trichosporon were isolated from urine and catheters.
  • An investigation on in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial properties of the antidepressant: amitriptyline hydrochloride Medical Microbiology

    Mandal, Anurup; Sinha, Chandrima; Jena, Aditya Kumar; Ghosh, Soma; Samanta, Amalesh

    Abstract in English:

    The antidepressant drug amitriptyline hydrochloride was obtained in a dry powder form and was screened against 253 strains of bacteria which included 72 Gram positive and 181 Gram negative bacteria and against 5 fungal strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by inoculating a loopful of an overnight peptone water culture of the organism on nutrient agar plates containing increasing concentrations of amitriptyline hydrochloride (0, 10 µg/mL, 25 µg/mL, 50 µg/mL, 100 µg/mL, 200 µg/mL). Amitriptyline hydrochloride exhibited significant action against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria at 25-200 µg/mL. In the in vivo studies it was seen that amitriptyline hydrochloride at a concentration of 25 µg/g and 30 µg/g body weight of mouse offered significant protection to Swiss strain of white mice when challenged with 50 median lethal dose (MLD) of a virulent strain of Salmonella typhimurium NCTC 74. The in vivo data were highly significant (p<0.001) according to the chi-square test.
  • Bacteriocins produced by L. fermentum and L .acidophilus can inhibit cephalosporin resistant E .coli. Medical Microbiology

    Riaz, Saba; Nawaz, Syed Kashif; Hasnain, Shahida

    Abstract in English:

    Reemerging infections occur due to resistant bacteria. Such infections create restrictions for clinicians and microbiologists in drug selection. Such problems demand new strategies for solution. Use of bacteriocins for this purpose may be fruitful. In the present research work, the inhibitory effects of bactericins on cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli are used as model system for the control of antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria. Cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli strain was isolated from pus by using conventional methodology. For bacteriocin production, Lactobacilli strains were selected by using selective media. Out of seventy two strains isolated from yogurt, fecal materials of human, chick, parrot and cat, only two strains (strain 45 and strain 52) were found to produce bacteriocins having antimicrobial potential against cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli. Biochemical characterization showed that strain 45 belonged to group of Lactobacillus fermentum and strain 52 to Lactobacillus acidophilus. Both strains showed maximum growth at 25°C and 35°C respectively. Suitable pH was 5.5 and 6.0 for Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus acidophilus respectively. Bacteriocins produced by both strains were found stable at 50, 75 and 100°C for 60min. Function of bacteriocin was also not disturbed due to change in pH. These findings suggest that bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus acidophilus can be used for the infection control of cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli.
  • Multiple responses of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria to mixture of hydrocarbons Environmental Microbiology

    Lăzăroaie, Mihaela Marilena

    Abstract in English:

    Most of our knowledge about pollutants and the way they are biodegraded in the environment has previously been shaped by laboratory studies using hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial strains isolated from polluted sites. In present study Gram-positive (Mycobacterium sp. IBB Po1, Oerskovia sp. IBB Po2, Corynebacterium sp. IBB Po3) and Gram-negative (Chryseomonas sp. IBB Po7, Pseudomonas sp. IBB Po10, Burkholderia sp. IBB Po12) bacteria, isolated from oily sludge, were found to be able to tolerate pure and mixture of saturated hydrocarbons, as well as pure and mixture of monoaromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Isolated Gram-negative bacteria were more tolerant to mixture of saturated (n-hexane, n-hexadecane, cyclohexane), monoaromatic (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene) and polyaromatic (naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, fluorene) hydrocarbons than Gram-positive bacteria. There were observed cellular and molecular modifications induced by mixture of saturated, monoaromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These modifications differ from one strain to another and even for the same bacterial strain, according to the nature of hydrophobic substrate.
  • Selection of biosurfactan/bioemulsifier-producing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil Environmental Microbiology

    Viramontes-Ramos, Sabina; Portillo-Ruiz, Martha Cristina; Ballinas-Casarrubias, María de Lourdes; Torres-Muñoz, José Vinicio; Rivera-Chavira, Blanca Estela; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia

    Abstract in English:

    Petroleum-derived hydrocarbons are among the most persistent soil contaminants, and some hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms can produce biosurfactants to increase bioavailability and degradation. The aim of this work was to identify biosurfactant-producing bacterial strains isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated sites, and to evaluate their biosurfactant properties. The drop-collapse method and minimal agar added with a layer of combustoleo were used for screening, and positive strains were grown in liquid medium, and surface tension and emulsification index were determined in cell-free supernantant and cell suspension. A total of 324 bacterial strains were tested, and 17 were positive for the drop-collapse and hydrocarbon-layer agar methods. Most of the strains were Pseudomonas, except for three strains (Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Rhodococcus). Surface tension was similar in cell-free and cell suspension measurements, with values in the range of 58 to 26 (mN/m), and all formed stable emulsions with motor oil (76-93% E24). Considering the variety of molecular structures among microbial biosurfactants, they have different chemical properties that can be exploited commercially, for applications as diverse as bioremediation or degradable detergents.
  • Utilization of rocks and ectomycorrhizal fungi to promote growth of eucalypt Environmental Microbiology

    Alves, Luciano; Oliveira, Vetúria L.; Silva Filho, Germano N.

    Abstract in English:

    The utilization of rocks as fertilizers is limited by their low solubility. However, solubilization may be achieved by some micro-organisms, such as ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMf). The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of seven isolates of ECMf to solubilize two rocks, alkaline breccia and granite, and to liberate potassium and phosphorus for Eucalyptus dunnii seedlings under greenhouse conditions. Fungal inoculants were produced in a peat-vermiculite-liquid medium mixture and added to the planting substrate at 10 %. Rocks were ground up and added at 0.500 mg and 16.0 mg per plant, as a source of phosphorus and potassium, respectively. Other nutrients were added and E. dunnii seeds were sown. Control plants, non-inoculated, were fertilized with the same amount of phosphorus and potassium using soluble forms. After 90 days, the plant height, shoot dry weight, root length, phosphorus and potassium contents, and mycorrhizal colonization were evaluated. Alkaline breccia was more efficient than granite as a source of phosphorus and potassium for the plants, and may be an alternative to conventional fertilizers. Isolates UFSC-Pt22 (Pisolithus sp.) and UFSC-Pt186 (Pisolithus microcarpus) were the most efficient in promoting plant growth, mainly when combined with alkaline breccia to replace potassium and phosphorus fertilizers, respectively.
  • Biosurfactant production by Rhodococcus erythropolis and its application to oil removal Environmental Microbiology

    Pacheco, Graziela Jardim; Ciapina, Elisa Mara Prioli; Gomes, Edelvio de Barros; Pereira Junior, Nei

    Abstract in English:

    The influence of different nutrients on biosurfactant production by Rhodococcus erythropolis was investigated. Increasing the concentration of phosphate buffer from 30 up through 150 mmol/L stimulated an increase in biosurfactant production, which reached a maximum concentration of 285 mg/L in shaken flasks. Statistical analysis showed that glycerol, NaNO3,MgSO4 and yeast extract had significant effects on production. The results were confirmed in a batchwise bioreactor, and semi-growth-associated production was detected. Reduction in the surface tension, which indicates the presence of biosurfactant, reached a value of 38 mN/m at the end of 35 hours. Use of the produced biosurfactant for washing crude oil-contaminated soil showed that 2 and 4 times the critical micellar concentration (CMC) were able to remove 97 and 99% of the oil, respectively, after 1 month of impregnation.
  • Aeromonas presence in drinking water from collective reservoirs and wells in peri-urban area in Brazil Environmental Microbiology

    Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe; Günther, Wanda Maria Risso; Martone-Rocha, Solange; Luca, Heloísa Duarte de; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves

    Abstract in English:

    Aeromonas genus is considered an emerging pathogen and its presence in drinking water supplies is a reason to public health concern. This study investigated the occurrence of Aeromonas in samples from collective reservoirs and wells used as drinking water sources in a peri-urban area. A total of 35 water samples were collected from collective reservoirs and 32 from wells bimonthly, from September 2007 to September 2008. Aeromonas spp determination was carried out using a Multiple-Tube Technique. Samples were inoculated into alkaline peptone water and the superficial film formed was transferred to blood agar plates amended with ampicillin. Typical Aeromonas colonies were submitted to a biochemical screening and then to biochemical tests for species differentiation. Aeromonas was detected in 13 (19%) of the 69 samples examined (6 from collective reservoirs and 7 from wells). Concentrations of Aeromonas in collective reservoirs ranged from <0.3 to 1.2 x10²MPN/100mL and, in wells, from <0.3 to 2.4 x10²MPN/100mL. The most frequent specie in the collective reservoir samples was Aeromonas spp (68%), followed by A. encheleia (14%) and A. allosaccharophila (8%) and A. hydrophila (8%). Aeromonas spp (87%) was the most frequent specie isolated from well samples, followed by A. allosacchariphila (8%), A. encheleia (2%) and A. jandaei (5%). These data show the presence and diversity of Aeromonas genus in the samples analyzed and highlight that its presence in drinking water poses a significant public health concern.
  • Study of the interactions between Penicillium oxalicum Currie & Thom and Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler Environmental Microbiology

    Sempere, F.; Santamarina, M.P

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of this research was the analysis of the possible antagonistic effect of Penicillium oxalicum over the pathogen rice fungus A. alternata under different conditions of temperature, water activity and culture media. The macroscopic study of the dual growth revealed that according to the Index of Dominance P. oxalicum was more competitive that A. alternata at 25ºC whereas at 15ºC was this species. Microscopic analysis showed that P. oxalicum was a mycoparasite of A. alternata at all conditions tested. The antagonist penetrated into A. alternata and disintegrated its conidiophores and conidia. The results suggests that P. oxalicum may be a possible biological control agent of the rice pathogens in a future.
  • Peptidolytic microbial community of methanogenic reactors from two modified UASBs of brewery industries Environmental Microbiology

    Díaz, C.; Baena, S.; Patel, B.K.C.; Fardeau, M.L.

    Abstract in English:

    We studied the peptide-degrading anaerobic communities of methanogenic reactors from two mesophilic full-scale modified upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors treating brewery wastewater in Colombia. Most probable number (MPN) counts varied between 7.1 x 10(8) and 6.6 x 10(9) bacteria/g volatile suspended solids VSS (Methanogenic Reactor 1) and 7.2 x 10(6) and 6.4 x 10(7) bacteria/g (VSS) (Methanogenic Reactor 2). Metabolites detected in the highest positive MPN dilutions in both reactors were mostly acetate, propionate, isovalerate and, in some cases, negligible concentrations of butyrate. Using the highest positive dilutions of MPN counts, 50 dominant strains were isolated from both reactors, and 12 strains were selected for sequencing their 16S rRNA gene based on their phenotypic characteristics. The small-subunit rRNA gene sequences indicated that these strains were affiliated to the families Propionibacteriaceae, Clostridiaceae and Syntrophomonadaceae in the low G + C gram-positive group and Desulfovibrio spp. in the class d-Proteobacteria. The main metabolites detected in the highest positive dilutions of MPN and the presence of Syntrophomonadaceae indicate the effect of the syntrophic associations on the bioconversion of these substrates in methanogenic reactors. Additionally, the potential utilization of external electron acceptors for the complete degradation of amino acids by Clostridium strains confirms the relevance of these acceptors in the transformation of peptides and amino acids in these systems.
  • Presence of blaTEM-116 gene in environmental isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas jandaei from Brazil Genetics And Molecular Microbiology

    Balsalobre, Livia Carminato; Dropa, Milena; de Oliveira, Danielle Escudeiro; Lincopan, Nilton; Mamizuka, Elsa Masae; Matté, Glavur Rogério; Matté, Maria Helena

    Abstract in English:

    It is known that Aeromonas spp. possess different chromosomal β-lactamase genes. Presence and phenotypic expression of blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M ESBL-encoding genes were investigated in environmental water isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas jandaei. Presence of blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes was not observed, and blaTEM gene was verified in 91% of the isolates. Sequencing of 10 fragments showed the occurrence of blaTEM-116.
  • Variability of the conserved V3 loop tip motif in HIV-1 subtype B isolates collected from Brazilian and French patients Genetics And Molecular Microbiology

    Tomasini-Grotto, Rejane-Maria; Montes, Brigitte; Triglia, Denise; Torres- Braconi, Carla; Aliano-Block, Juliana; Zanotto, Paolo M. de A.; Pardini, Maria- Inèsde M. C.; Segondy, Michel

    Abstract in English:

    The diversity of the V3 loop tip motif sequences of HIV-1 subtype B was analyzed in patients from Botucatu (Brazil) and Montpellier (France). Overall, 37 tetrameric tip motifs were identified, 28 and 17 of them being recognized in Brazilian and French patients, respectively. The GPGR (P) motif was predominant in French but not in Brazilian patients (53.5% vs 31.0%), whereas the GWGR (W) motif was frequent in Brazilian patients (23.0%) and absent in French patients. Three tip motif groups were considered: P, W, and non-P non-W groups. The distribution of HIV-1 isolates into the three groups was significantly different between isolates from Botucatu and from Montpellier (P < 0.001). A higher proportion of CXCR4-using HIV-1 (X4 variants) was observed in the non-P non-W group as compared with the P group (37.5% vs 19.1%), and no X4 variant was identified in the W group (P < 0.001). The higher proportion of X4 variants in the non-P non-W group was essentially observed among the patients from Montpellier, who have been infected with HIV-1 for a longer period of time than those from Botucatu. Among patients from Montpellier, CD4+ cell counts were lower in patients belonging to the non-P non-W group than in those belonging to the P group (24 cells/µL vs 197 cells/µL; P = 0.005). Taken together, the results suggest that variability of the V3 loop tip motif may be related to HIV-1 coreceptor usage and to disease progression. However, as analyzed by a bioinformatic method, the substitution of the V3 loop tip motif of the subtype B consensus sequence with the different tip motifs identified in the present study was not sufficient to induce a change in HIV-1 coreceptor usage.
  • Expression of fljB: z66 on a linear plasmid of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi is dependent on FliA and FlhDC and regulated by OmpR Genetics And Molecular Microbiology

    Xu, Shungao; Zou, Xin; Sheng, Xiumei; Zhang, Haifang; Mao, Lingxiang; Du, Hong; Xu, Huaxi; Huang, Xinxiang

    Abstract in English:

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi z66-positive strains have two different flagellin genes, fliC:d/j and fljB:z66, located on the chromosome and on a linear plasmid, respectively. To investigate the mechanism underlying the expressional regulation of fljB:z66, gene deletion mutants of the regulators FliA, FlhDC, and OmpR were constructed in this study. The expression levels of fliC and fljB:z66 were analyzed by qRT-PCR in the wild-type strain and mutants at high and low osmolarity. The results show that the expression levels of both fljB:z66 and fliC were greatly reduced in fliA and flhDC mutants under both high and low osmotic conditions. In the ompR mutant, the expression levels of fljB:z66, fliC, fliA, and flhD were increased at low osmotic conditions. SDS-PAGE and western blotting analysis of the secreted proteins revealed that the FljB:z66 was almost absent in the fliA and flhDC mutants at both high and low osmolarity. In the wild-type strain, the fljB:z66 was more highly expressed under high-osmolarity conditions than under low-osmolarity conditions. However, this difference in expression disappeared in the ompR mutant. Translational expression assay of FljB:z66 showed that the FljB:z66 expression was decreased in ompR mutant at both low and high osmolarity. These results suggest that the expression of fljB:z66 in S. enterica serovar Typhi is dependent on FliA and FlihDC, and OmpR can regulate the expression and secretion of FljB:z66 in different osmolarity.
  • AFLP analysis of Xanthomonas axonopodis and X. arboricola strains used in xanthan production studies reveal high levels of polymorphism Genetics And Molecular Microbiology

    Mayer, Laurí; Silva, Wladimir Padilha da; Moura, Andrea Bittencourt; Vendruscolo, Claire Tondo

    Abstract in English:

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used to analyze the genetic diversity of 14 strains of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni and seven strains of X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli, which are used in xanthan production studies. Relationships identified by the AFLP profiles were assessed for xanthan production capacity, geographical location and host plant. Strains were isolated from 10 different geographic regions in South and Southeast States in Brazil. Data were analyzed for genetic similarity using the Dice coefficient and subjected to UPGMA cluster analysis. A total of 128 AFLP fragments were generated from four primer combinations: EcoRI+C/MseI+0, EcoRI+A/MseI+0, EcoRI+G/MseI+T and EcoRI+G/MseI+A. Of these, 96.1% were polymorphic. X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli (S D = 0.27) was shown to be more polymorphic than X. arboricola pv. pruni (S D = 0.58). All 14 pathovar pruni strains were included in a single main group (S D = 0.58), while the pathovar phaseoli strains were divided into three separate groups, with one group containing five strains (S D = 0.38) and two isolated groups (S D = 0.31 and 0.27) composed of only one strain each. Species were distinguished by three and eight specific AFLP markers present in the pathovar phaseoli and the pathovar pruni, respectively. For the unique strain without xanthan production capacity (X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli str. 48), nine specific AFLP bands were found. There was no evidence that geographic area or host plant influenced genetic heterogeneity. Correlations between AFLP patterns and xanthan production capacity were found in some strains, but were not consistent enough to establish a relationship.
  • Human papillomavirus infection in women from Tlaxcala, Mexico Genetics And Molecular Microbiology

    Velázquez-Márquez, Noé; Jiménez-Aranda, Lucio Jaime; Sánchez-Alonso, Patricia; Santos-López, Gerardo; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica

    Abstract in English:

    Cervical cancer is an important health problem in women living in developing countries. Infection with some genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important risk factor associated with cervical cancer. Little information exists about HPV genotype distribution in rural and suburban regions of Mexico. Thus, we determined the prevalence of HPV genotypes in women from Tlaxcala, one of the poorest states in central Mexico, and we evaluated age infection prevalence and risk factors associated with cervical neoplasm. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 236 women seeking gynecological care at the Mexican Institute for Social Security in Tlaxcala, Mexico. Cervical scrapings were diagnosed as normal, low-grade, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL, HGSIL). Parallel samples were used to detect HPV genotypes by PCR assays using type-specific primers for HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, and 31. An epidemiological questionnaire was applied. Prevalence of HPV infection was 31.3%. From the infected samples, prevalence of HPV 16 was 45.9%; HPV 18, 31.1%; HPV 31, 16.2%; HPV 6, 10.8%; HPV 11, 6.7%. With regard to age, the highest HPV prevalence (43.5%) was found in the 18- to 24-year-old group and the lowest (19%) in the 45- to 54-year-old group. None of the risk factors showed association with cervical neoplasia grade. HPV 16 was the most common in cervical lesions. HPV was present in 22% of normal samples and, of these, 82.6% represented high-risk HPVs. Tlaxcala showed HPV prevalence comparable to that of the largest cities in Mexico, with higher prevalence for HPV 31.
  • Production of angkak through co-culture of Monascus purpureus and Monascus ruber Industrial Microbiology

    Panda, Bibhu Prasad; Javed, Saleem; Ali, Mohd

    Abstract in English:

    Angkak (red mold rice, red yeast rice, Chinese red rice) is a traditional Chinese medicine produced by solid-state fermentation of cooked non-glutinous rice with Monascus species. The secondary metabolite of Monascus species, monacolin K /lovastatin, has been proven to lower blood lipid levels. In this study, a co-culture of Monascus purpureus MTCC 369 and Monascus ruber MTCC 1880 was used for angkak production. Four medium parameters screened by Plackett-Burman design were optimized by response surface methodology for highest lovastatin production in angkak during solid-state fermentation by the co-culture. Maximum lovastatin production of 2.84 mg g-1 was predicted in solid medium containing 20 g rice and 40 ml liquid nutrients medium (malt extract 9.68 g l-1, dextrose 38.90 g l-1, MnSO4.H2O 1.96 g l-1, and MgSO4.7H2O 0.730 g l-1) by point prediction tool of Design Expert 7.1 software (Statease Inc. USA).
  • Assay of antioxidant potential of two Aspergillus isolates by different methods under various physio-chemical conditions Industrial Microbiology

    Arora, Daljit Singh; Chandra, Priyanka

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this work was to screen fungi isolated from soil of different areas of Punjab, India for antioxidant activity by dot blot assay and around 45% of fungal isolates demonstrated antioxidant potential. Two selected strains of Aspergillus spp (Aspergillus PR78 and Aspergillus PR66) showing quantitatively best antioxidant activity by DPPH assay were further tested for their reducing power, ferrous ion and nitric oxide ion scavenging activity, FRAP assay and total phenolic content. Different physio-chemical parameters were optimized for enhancement of the activity. This revealed stationary culture grown for 10 days at 25ºC at pH 7 to be the best for antioxidant activity. Sucrose in the medium as carbon source resulted in highest antioxidant activity. Sodium nitrate, yeast extract, and peptone were good sources of nitrogen but sodium nitrate was the best among these. The extraction of the broth culture filtrates with different solvents revealed ethyl acetate extract to possess the best antioxidant activity. The activity as expressed by ethyl acetate extract of Aspergillus PR78 was equally effective as that of commonly used antioxidant standard, ascorbic acid.
  • Hyperexpression of two Aspergillus niger xylanase genes in Escherichia coli and characterization of the gene products Industrial Microbiology

    Yi, Xiuli; Shi, Yan; Xu, Hui; Li, Wei; Xie, Jie; Yu, Rongqing; Zhu, Jun; Cao, Yi; Qiao, Dairong

    Abstract in English:

    The analysis of individual gene product should enable to clarify the role of a particular enzyme in a complex xylanase system of A. niger. The two genes encoding precursors of co-produced endo-1,4-β-D-xylanases, xynA1 and xynB, were isolated from Aspergillus niger SCTCC 400264 (SCTCC, China) by using RT-PCR technique and then successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The nucleotide sequences of the xynA1 and xynB genes revealed that they were only 52.5% homology to each other. Characterization of the recombinant enzymes revealed the different properties: the specific activity of recombinant XYNA1 was 16.58 U/mg compared to 1201.7 U/mg for recombinant XYNB; The optimum temperature and pH of the recombinant XYNA1 were 35 ºC and 3.0, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for the recombinant XYNB were 55 ºC and 5.0, respectively; The recombinant XYNB showed much more thermostability than recombinant XYNA1; The recombinant XYNB showed 94% of maximal activity after incubating in water for 60 min at 60 ºC compared to no activity for recombinant XYNA1. Various metal ions had different effects on activity between the two recombinant xylanases.
  • Phosphate solubilization potential and phosphatase activity of rhizospheric Trichoderma spp. Microbial Physiology

    Kapri, Anil; Tewari, Lakshmi

    Abstract in English:

    Trichoderma sp., a well known biological control agent against several phytopathogens, was tested for its phosphate (P) solubilizing potential. Fourteen strains of Trichoderma sp. were isolated from the forest tree rhizospheres of pinus, deodar, bamboo, guava and oak on Trichoderma selective medium. The isolates were tested for their in-vitro P-solubilizing potential using National Botanical Research Institute Phosphate (NBRIP) broth containing tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as the sole P source, and compared with a standard culture of T. harzianum. All the cultures were found to solubilize TCP but with varying potential. The isolate DRT-1 showed maximum amount of soluble phosphate (404.07 µg.ml-1), followed by the standard culture of T. harzianum (386.42 µg.ml-1) after 96 h of incubation at 30+1(0)C. Extra-cellular acid and alkaline phosphatases of the fungus were induced only in the presence of insoluble phosphorus source (TCP). High extra-cellular alkaline phosphatase activity was recorded for the isolate DRT-1 (14.50 U.ml-1) followed by the standard culture (13.41 U.ml-1) at 72h. The cultures showed much lesser acid phosphatase activities. Under glasshouse conditions, Trichoderma sp. inoculation increased chickpea (Cicer arietinum) growth parameters including shoot length, root length, fresh and dry weight of shoot as well as roots, in P-deficient soil containing only bound phosphate (TCP). Shoot weight was increased by 23% and 33% by inoculation with the isolate DRT-1 in the soil amended with 100 and 200 mg TCP kg-1 soil, respectively, after 60 d of sowing. The study explores high P-solubilizing potential of Trichoderma sp., which can be exploited for the solubilization of fixed phosphates present in the soil, thereby enhancing soil fertility and plant growth.
  • Isolation and purification of complex II from proteus mirabilis strain ATCC 29245 Microbial Physiology

    Shabbiri, Khadija; Ahmad, Waqar; Syed, Quratulain; Adnan, Ahmad

    Abstract in English:

    A respiratory complex was isolated from plasma membrane of pathogenic Proteus mirabilis strain ATCC 29245. It was identified as complex II consisting of succinate:quinone oxidoreductase (EC 1.3.5.1) containing single heme b. The complex II was purified by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The molecular weight of purified complex was 116.5 kDa and it was composed of three subunits with molecular weights of 19 kDa, 29 kDa and 68.5 kDa. The complex II contained 9.5 nmoles of cytochrome b per mg protein. Heme staining indicated that the 19 kDa subunit was cytochrome b. Its reduced form showed absorptions peaks at 557.0, 524.8 and 424.4 nm. The α-band was shifted from 557.0 nm to 556.8 nm in pyridine ferrohemochrome spectrum. The succinate: quinone oxidoreductase activity was found to be high in this microorganism.
  • Mechanism of bactericidal activity of Silver Nitrate - a concentration dependent bi-functional molecule Microbial Physiology

    Pandian, Sureshbabu Ram Kumar; Deepak, Venkataraman; Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Viswanathan, Pushpa; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    Abstract in English:

    Silver nitrate imparts different functions on bacteria depending upon its concentration. At lower concentration it induced synthesis of nanoparticles, whereas at higher concentrations it induced cell death. Bacillus licheniformis was used as model system. The MIC was 5 mM, and it induced catalase production, apoptotic body formation and DNA fragmentation.
  • Differentiation of Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) genotypes by a restriction enzyme assay Veterinary Microbiology

    Souza, Sibele Pinheiro de; Asano, Karen Miyuki; Sandri, Thaisa Lucas; Barros, Iracema Nunes de; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo

    Abstract in English:

    This article reports the use of the GsuI restriction enzyme to differentiate genotypes of Bovine Coronavirus (BCoV), based on an 18-nucleotide deletion of S1-coding region found in one of the two genotypes. It was concluded that this assay can be used as a rapid tool for BCoV genotypes differentiation.
  • Rickettsia felis infection in cat fleas Ctenocephalides felis felis Veterinary Microbiology

    Horta, Mauricio C.; Scott, Fabio B.; Correia, Thaís R.; Fernandes, Julio I.; Richtzenhain, Leonardo J.; Labruna, Marcelo B.

    Abstract in English:

    The present study evaluated the rickettsial infection in a laboratory colony of cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouche) in Brazil. All flea samples (30 eggs, 30 larvae, 30 cocoons, 30 males, and 30 females) tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were shown to contain rickettsial DNA. PCR products, corresponding to the rickettsial gltA, htrA, ompA and ompB gene partial sequences were sequenced and showed to correspond to Rickettsia felis, indicating that the flea colony was 100% infected by R. felis. The immunofluorescence assay (IFA) showed the presence of R. felis-reactive antibodies in blood sera of 7 (87.5%) out of 8 cats that were regularly used to feed the flea colony. From 15 humans that used to work with the flea colony in the laboratory, 6 (40.0%) reacted positively to R. felis by IFA. Reactive feline and human sera showed low endpoint titers against R. felis, varying from 64 to 256. With the exception of one human serum, all R. felis-reactive sera were also reactive to Rickettsia rickettsii and/or Rickettsia parkeri antigens at similar titers to R. felis. The single human serum that was reactive solely to R. felis had an endpoint titer of 256, indicating that this person was infected by R. felis.
  • Glucuronidase activity of Escherichia coli isolated from chicken carcasses Food Microbiology

    Perin, Luana Martins; Yamazi, Anderson Keizo; Moraes, Paula Mendonça; Cossi, Marcus Vinícius Coutinho; Pinto, Paulo Sérgio de Arruda; Nero, Luís Augusto

    Abstract in English:

    To identify Escherichia coli through the production of β-D-glucuronidase (GUD), 622 suspect cultures were isolated from chicken carcasses and plated in PetrifilmTM EC. Of these cultures, only 44 (7.1%) failed to produce GUD. This result indicates the usefulness of GUD production for estimating E. coli populations in chicken.
Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia USP - ICB III - Dep. de Microbiologia, Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2415, Cidade Universitária, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP - Brasil, Ramal USP 7979, Tel. / Fax: (55 11) 3813-9647 ou 3037-7095 - São Paulo - SP - Brazil
E-mail: bjm@sbmicrobiologia.org.br