The hyperinsulinemia produced by concanavalin A in rats is opioid-dependent and hormonally regulated

J. Francisco-DoPrado J.E. Zambelli M.H. Melo-Lima G. Ribeiro-DaSilva

Abstract

The present study examines the effect of concanavalin A (Con A) on the blood insulin and glucose levels of rats. Male and female rats treated with Con A (62.5-500 µg/kg) for three days showed a dose- and time-dependent hyperinsulinemia that lasted more than 48 h. Male rats were more sensitive to Con A. Thus, 6 h after treatment with Con A the circulating insulin levels in male rats had increased by 85% (control: 10.2 ± 0.9 mU/l and Con A-treated: 18.8 ± 1 mU/l) compared to only 38% (control: 7.5 ± 0.2 mU/l; Con A-treated: 10.3 ± 0.9 mU/l) in females. An identical response was seen after 12 h. Con A (250 µg/kg) produced time-dependent hypoglycemia in both sexes but more pronounced in males. There was no correlation between the hypoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia described above. The Con A-induced hyperinsulinemia in rats of both sexes was abolished in gonadectomized animals (intact males: +101 ± 17% vs orchiectomized males: -5 ± 3%; intact females: +86 ± 23% vs ovariectomized females: -18 ± 7.2%). Pretreating intact male and female rats with human chorionic gonadotropin also significantly inhibited the Con A-induced hyperinsulinemia. Estradiol (10 µg/kg, im) significantly blocked the Con A-induced increase in circulating insulin in male rats (101 ± 17% for controls vs 32 ± 5.3% for estradiol-treated animals, P<0.05) while testosterone (10 mg/kg, im) had no similar effect on intact female rats. Pretreating Con A-injected rats with opioid antagonists such as naloxone (1 mg/kg, sc) and naltrexone (5 mg/kg, sc) blocked the hyperinsulinemia produced by the lectin in males (control: +101 ± 17% vs naloxone-treated: +5 ± 14%, or naltrexone-treated: -23 ± 4.5%) and females (control: +86 ± 23% vs naloxone-treated: +21 ± 20%, or naltrexone-treated: -18 ± 11%). These results demonstrate that Con A increases the levels of circulating insulin in rats and that this response is opioid-dependent and hormonally regulated.

concanavalin A; hyperinsulinemia; blood glucose alterations; sex hormones; endogenous opioids; canatoxin


Braz J Med Biol Res, May 1998, Volume 31(5) 697-703

The hyperinsulinemia produced by concanavalin A in rats is opioid-dependent and hormonally regulated

J. Francisco-DoPrado, J.E. Zambelli, M.H. Melo-Lima and G. Ribeiro-DaSilva

Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brasil

Abstract

Introduction

Material and Methods

Results

Discussion

References

Acknowledgments

Correspondence and Footnotes

The present study examines the effect of concanavalin A (Con A) on the blood insulin and glucose levels of rats. Male and female rats treated with Con A (62.5-500 µg/kg) for three days showed a dose- and time-dependent hyperinsulinemia that lasted more than 48 h. Male rats were more sensitive to Con A. Thus, 6 h after treatment with Con A the circulating insulin levels in male rats had increased by 85% (control: 10.2 ± 0.9 mU/l and Con A-treated: 18.8 ± 1 mU/l) compared to only 38% (control: 7.5 ± 0.2 mU/l; Con A-treated: 10.3 ± 0.9 mU/l) in females. An identical response was seen after 12 h. Con A (250 µg/kg) produced time-dependent hypoglycemia in both sexes but more pronounced in males. There was no correlation between the hypoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia described above. The Con A-induced hyperinsulinemia in rats of both sexes was abolished in gonadectomized animals (intact males: +101 ± 17% vs orchiectomized males: -5 ± 3%; intact females: +86 ± 23% vs ovariectomized females: -18 ± 7.2%). Pretreating intact male and female rats with human chorionic gonadotropin also significantly inhibited the Con A-induced hyperinsulinemia. Estradiol (10 µg/kg, im) significantly blocked the Con A-induced increase in circulating insulin in male rats (101 ± 17% for controls vs 32 ± 5.3% for estradiol-treated animals, P<0.05) while testosterone (10 mg/kg, im) had no similar effect on intact female rats. Pretreating Con A-injected rats with opioid antagonists such as naloxone (1 mg/kg, sc) and naltrexone (5 mg/kg, sc) blocked the hyperinsulinemia produced by the lectin in males (control: +101 ± 17% vs naloxone-treated: +5 ± 14%, or naltrexone-treated: -23 ± 4.5%) and females (control: +86 ± 23% vs naloxone-treated: +21 ± 20%, or naltrexone-treated: -18 ± 11%). These results demonstrate that Con A increases the levels of circulating insulin in rats and that this response is opioid-dependent and hormonally regulated.

Key words: concanavalin A, hyperinsulinemia, blood glucose alterations, sex hormones, endogenous opioids, canatoxin

Plant lectins are proteins capable of binding to carbohydrates on mammalian cells and membranes. Such binding can lead to a variety of effects including cell agglutination (1), modification of enzymes or receptors on the cell surface (2-5), stimulation of cell growth (6,7), and various hormone-like responses (8,9).

Concanavalin A (Con A) is a glucose/mannose-binding plant lectin isolated from jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) seeds that binds extensively to mammalian cell surfaces (10) and exhibits multiple in vitro insulin-like effects (11,12). Thus, Con A stimulates glucose oxidation and hexose transport (13), inhibits epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis in isolated adipocytes (14) and inhibits insulin binding to intact adipocytes and liver cell membranes (12,15).

Lectins and related toxic seed proteins may share common pharmacological and biochemical properties, as has been shown for seeds of the castor bean (Ricinus communis), the jequiriti bean (Abrus precatorius) (16) and kintoki beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) (17).

Although Con A and canatoxin (CNTX), a toxic protein isolated from Canavalia ensiformis seeds, are structurally distinct (for a review, see Ref. 18), both substances induce platelet aggregation (19,20), trigger histamine secretion from peritoneal mast cells (21-23), and induce paw edema (24,25) and neutrophil chemotaxis in the peritoneal cavity of rats (26-28).

The administration of CNTX to rats raises circulating insulin levels (29) and produces hormonally regulated blood glucose alterations (30). Several of the effects described for this toxin (31,32), including hyperinsulinemia (29), are modulated by the endogenous opioid system. A long-lasting hypoglycemia is the main effect produced by CNTX in rats (33,34). The increased insulin levels and consequent hypoglycemia seen in these animals suggested that the toxin may act upon pancreatic islet ß-cells. This hypothesis has been confirmed by the observation that isolated rat pancreatic islets secrete insulin when exposed to CNTX (35).

The present study examines the effect of Con A on the blood insulin and glucose levels of rats. The involvement of opioids and a possible sex-related, hormone-dependent susceptibility to the effects of the toxin were also investigated.

Male and female Wistar rats (200-250 g) were used. All experiments were done between 1:00 p.m. and 4:00 p.m. using rats that had been individually caged with free access to food and water for at least 24 h beforehand.

Con A (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO) was dissolved in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, and administered sc to the animals every 24 h for three days. In most experiments, the dose of Con A was 250 µg/kg. At the desired time, blood samples were obtained from one control and one test group by cardiac puncture under chloral hydrate (350 mg/kg, ip) anesthesia.

Insulin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using a commercial kit (Pharmacia Diagnostics). The assays were performed in duplicate using 100-µl serum aliquots. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were £5.8% and £6.5%, respectively. The results are reported as mU of insulin per liter of serum or as a percent of basal levels (taken as 100%). Blood glucose levels were determined using a glucose oxidase method (36) and the results are reported as mmol glucose per liter of blood.

Different groups of rats (six animals per group) were submitted to one of the following protocols: group 1 consisted of intact males and females injected with Con A or vehicle. Group 2 consisted of gonadectomized males and females injected with Con A or vehicle solution three weeks after surgery. Group 3 consisted of intact males and females pretreated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in accordance with the schedule used by Reich et al. (37). The animals were pretreated with hCG (40 IU/kg, im) over a three-day period. Treatment with Con A or vehicle was initiated 6 h after the first injection of hCG. Group 4 consisted of intact males and females pretreated every 72 h with three injections of 0.5 ml of depo-estradiol (10 µg/kg in corn oil, im) or depo-testosterone (10 mg/kg in corn oil, im), respectively. In both cases, the schedule described by Pomerantz et al. (38) was used. Treatment with Con A or vehicle solution was started on the eighth day of hormonal pretreatment. Group 5 consisted of intact males and females pretreated with naloxone (1 mg/kg, sc) or naltrexone (5 mg/kg, sc) 20 min before the administration of Con A or vehicle solution.

The results are reported as means ± SEM. Comparison of the means, reported as percent variation, was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Other means were compared by the Student unpaired t-test. In both cases, a P value £0.05 was considered to be significant.

Male and female rats treated chronically with Con A (62.5-500 µg/kg) developed hyperinsulinemia. Tables 1 and 2 show that the phenomenon was dose- and time-dependent, respectively, and that it lasted for more than 48 h.

Male rats were more sensitive to the hyperinsulinemic effect of Con A (Table 2). Thus, 6 h after the treatment with Con A (250 µg/kg), the circulating insulin levels in males had increased by 85% compared to only 38% in females. An identical situation was observed at 12 h (males, +124%; females, +66%).

The increase in circulating insulin levels produced by Con A in intact male and female rats was blocked when the animals were orchiectomized and ovariectomized, respectively. Similarly, pretreating intact male and female rats with hCG significantly inhibited the Con A-induced hyperinsulinemia (Figure 1).

Figure 2 shows that pretreating intact male rats with estradiol significantly inhibited the Con A-induced hyperinsulinemia while there was no significant change in intact female rats pretreated with testosterone.

Pretreating rats of both sexes with the opioid antagonists naloxone and naltrexone inhibited the hyperinsulinemic effect of Con A (Figure 3).

Figure 1
- Castration (A) and pretreatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (B) inhibit the hyperinsulinemia produced by Con A in intact male and female rats. Con A (250 µg/kg) was injected sc every 24 h over a three-day period. Blood samples for insulin determinations were obtained 24 h after the last administration of Con A or vehicle. Each bar represents the mean ± SEM for six rats per group. The values for the treated animals are reported as the percent variation relative to the vehicle-treated controls taken as 100% (males 8.3 mU/l and females 8.2 mU/l). Gonadectomized males and females were injected with Con A or vehicle three weeks after surgery. Intact males or females received hCG (40 IU/kg) im every 24 h over a three-day period. Treatment with Con A or vehicle was started 6 h after the first injection of hCG. *P£0.05 compared to intact (A) or non-pretreated (B) rats (Kruskal-Wallis test).

Figure 2
- Effect of pretreatment with estradiol and testosterone on the hyperinsulinemia produced by Con A in intact male and female rats. Male rats were pretreated with estradiol (OE2, 10 µg/kg) and female rats with testosterone (T, 10 mg/kg). In both cases, the hormone was injected im every 72 h. Treatment with Con A (250 µg/kg) or vehicle was started on the eighth day of hormonal pretreatment. The values are reported as the percent change relative to the vehicle-treated controls taken as 100% (males: 8.3 mU/l and females: 8.3 mU/l). *P£0.05 compared to non-pretreated rats (Kruskal-Wallis test).

Figure 3
- Naloxone and naltrexone inhibit the hyperinsulinemia induced by Con A in rats. Intact male and female rats were pretreated im with naloxone (NLX, 1 mg/kg) or naltrexone (NTX, 5 mg/kg) 20 min before the injection of Con A (250 µg/kg) or vehicle. The animals were bled for insulin determination 24 h after the last treatment with Con A or vehicle. The values are reported as the percent change relative to vehicle-treated controls taken as 100% (males, 8.3 mU/l and females 8.2 mU/l). *P£0.05 compared to non-pretreated rats (Kruskal-Wallis test).

Male and female rats chronically treated with Con A (250 µg/kg) showed a biphasic and time-dependent change in blood glucose levels (Table 3). The early phase lasted for approximately 6 h after the last Con A injection while the late phase continued for up to 24 h and ended by 48 h. In the early phase of the response male rats exhibited hypoglycemia while female rats were hyperglycemic. However, 12 h after the last treatment with Con A (late phase), a persistent hyperglycemia was detected in males, while in females there was a significant but transient decrease in the circulating glucose levels (18%). Thus, rats of both sexes exhibited hypoglycemia but the response was more marked in males.

The present results demonstrate that Con A significantly increased the levels of circulating insulin in rats via a mechanism that was opioid-dependent and hormonally regulated. Changes in blood glucose levels were also detected in the lectin-treated rats.

Males were more sensitive than females to the hyperinsulinemic effect of Con A (Table 2). In addition, the increase in plasma insulin levels produced by Con A in rats of either sex completely disappeared in gonadectomized animals (Figure 1A), indicating that sex hormones play an important role in this phenomenon. The hyperinsulinemia produced by Con A was inhibited when rats of either sex were pretreated with hCG (Figure 1B). Since castration is known to elevate the circulating gonadotropin concentrations in male and female animals (39), the increase in insulin produced by Con A also appears to be modulated by these hormones.

Morphine and ß-endorphin are powerful stimuli for insulin secretion (40,41). Several investigators (42-44) have demonstrated that the effects of opioid-like peptides, in addition to being sex related, are also hormonally regulated. Our findings that the pretreatment of Con A-injected rats with opioid antagonists such as naloxone and naltrexone (45) completely blocked the hyperinsulinemia induced by this lectin (Figure 3) are consistent with the foregoing reports.

As described for CNTX (18,29,35), the Con A-induced hyperinsulinemia may also have resulted from a secretory action of this lectin on pancreatic ß-cells. However, this hypothesis was not supported by our data showing that male rats are more sensitive than females to Con A-induced hyperinsulinemia (Table 2) since it is well known that estrogens (46) and progesterone (47) intensify the secretory response of ß-cells. Estradiol significantly blocked Con A-induced increase in plasma insulin levels in male rats while no significant change was seen in intact females treated with testosterone. This is an unusual finding since testosterone generally reduces the secretory response of pancreatic ß-cells in response to glucose (48).

The regulatory mechanism that maintains the systemic glucose balance involves hormonal, neural, and autoregulatory factors. Hypoglycemia is only an indication that the rate of glucose efflux from the circulation exceeds that of glucose influx. The time course of the hyperinsulinemia (Table 2) and blood glucose alterations (Table 3) induced by Con A in rats of both sexes was not positively correlated with each other, indicating that these two responses were not necessarily related. However, it is interesting to note that the blood glucose alterations induced by the lectin in rats, like hyperinsulinemia, are sex-related, hormonally regulated and opioid-dependent (49), suggesting that a common pathophysiological mechanism is involved in these events.

The present data demonstrate that Con A significantly increased blood insulin levels in rats via an opioid-dependent, hormonally regulated pathway. Exactly how sex hormones and opioids are involved in this hyperinsulinemia is currently under investigation in our laboratory.

1. Rapin AMC & Burger MM (1974). Tumor cell surfaces: general alterations detected by agglutinins. Advances in Cancer Research, 20: 1-91.

2. Carroway CA & Carroway KL (1976). Concanavalin A: a perturbation of membrane enzymes of mammary gland. Journal of Supramolecular Structure, 4: 121-126.

3. Novogrodsky A (1972). Concanavalin A stimulation of rat lymphocyte ATPase. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 266: 343-349.

4. Riordan J & Slavick M (1974). Interactions of lectins with membrane glycoproteins - effects of Con A on 5' nucleotidase. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 373: 356-360.

5. Young ME, Moscarello MA & Riordan JR (1976). Concanavalin A binding to membranes of Golgi apparatus and resultant modifications of galactosyl transferase activity. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 251: 5860-5865.

6. Greaves M & Janossy G (1972). Elicitation of selective T and B lymphocyte responses by cell surface binding ligands. Transplantation Reviews, 11: 87-130.

7. Novogrodsky A & Katchaski E (1971). Lymphocyte transformation induced by concanavalin A and its reversal by alfa-methyl-D-glucoside. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 228: 579-583.

8. Cuatrecasas P & Tell GPE (1973). Insulin-like activity of Con A and wheat germ agglutinin - direct interaction with insulin receptors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 70: 485-489.

9. Solomon SS, King LE & Hashimoto K (1975). Studies of the biological activity of insulin, cyclic nucleotides and concanavalin A in the isolated fat cell. Hormone and Metabolism Research, 7: 297-304.

10. Sharon N & Lis H (1972). Lectins: cell-agglutinating and sugar-specific proteins. Science, 177: 949-959.

11. Maier V, Schneider C, Schatz H & Pfeiffer EE (1975). Interactions of concanavalin A with isolated pancreatic islets. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie, 356: 887-893.

12. Cuatrecasas P (1973). Interaction of concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin with insulin receptor of fat cells and liver. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 248: 3528-3534.

13. Czech MP, Lawrence JC & Lynn WS (1974). Activation of hexose transport by concanavalin A in isolated brown fat cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 249: 7499-7505.

14. Czech MP, Lynn DG & Lynn WS (1973). Cytochalasin B-sensitive 2-deoxy-D-glucose transport in adipose cell ghosts. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 248: 3636-3641.

15. Livingston JN & Purvis BJ (1980). Effects of wheat germ agglutinin on insulin binding and insulin sensitivity of fat cells. American Journal of Physiology, 238: E267-E275.

16. Olsnes S, Saltvedt E & Phil A (1974). Isolation and comparison of galactose-binding lectins from Abrus precatorius and Ricinus communis. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 249: 803-810.

17. Hamaguchi Y, Yagi N, Nishino A, Mochizuki T, Mizukami T & Miyoshi M (1977). The isolation and characterization of a lethal protein from kintoki beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Journal of Nutrition Science and Vitaminology, 23: 525-534.

18. Carlini CR & Guimarães JA (1991). Plant and microbial toxic proteins as hemilectins: emphasis on canatoxin. Toxicon, 29: 791-806.

19. Bellville JS, William BF & Gary F (1979). A method for investigating the role of calcium in the shape change, aggregation and serotonin release of rat platelets. Journal of Physiology, 297: 289-296.

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44. Petraglia F, Penalva A, Loccatelli V, Cocchi D, Paneral AE, Genezzani AR & Muller EE (1982). Effect of gonadectomy and gonadal steroid replacement on pituitary and plasma ß-endorphin levels in the rat. Endocrinology, 111: 1224-1229.

45. Jaffe JH & Martin WR (1990). Opiod analgesics and antagonists. In: Goodman Gilman A, Rall TW, Nies AS & Taylor P (Editors), The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York, 481-521.

46. Costrini NV & Kalkhoff RK (1971). Relative effect of pregnancy, estradiol and progesterone on plasma insulin and pancreatic islets insulin secretion. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 50: 992-999.

47. Ashby JP, Ahirling D & Baird JD (1978). Effect of progesterone on insulin secretion in the rat. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 62: 992-999.

48. Renauld A & Sverdlik RC (1975). Blood sugar, serum insulin and free fatty acid levels in normal dogs. Sex differences. Acta Physiologica Latinoamericana, 25: 458-461.

49. Zambelli JE (1994). Envolvimento de opióides e de hormônios sexuais nas alterações glicêmicas induzidas por concanavalina A em ratos. Master's thesis, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brasil.

The statistical advice of Prof. Aquiles E. Pietrabuena and the editorial assistance of Dr. Stephen Hyslop are gratefully acknowledged. We also thank Dr. Ivani Aparecida Desouza for her help in organizing figures and tables.

Address for correspondence: G. Ribeiro-DaSilva, Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, UNICAMP, Caixa Postal 6111, 13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brasil. Fax: 55 (019) 289-2968. E-mail: ribersil@uol.com.br

Part of Master's theses presented by J.E. Zambelli and M.H. Melo-Lima to the Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Some of the results of this study were presented at the XVIII Congreso Latinoamericano de Ciencias Fisiológicas, Montevideo, Uruguay, April 12-16, 1994. Research supported by FAEP/UNICAMP (No. 1021/90). Publication supported by FAPESP. Received October 28, 1997. Accepted February 27, 1998.

  • 1. Rapin AMC & Burger MM (1974). Tumor cell surfaces: general alterations detected by agglutinins. Advances in Cancer Research, 20: 1-91.
  • 2. Carroway CA & Carroway KL (1976). Concanavalin A: a perturbation of membrane enzymes of mammary gland. Journal of Supramolecular Structure, 4: 121-126.
  • 3. Novogrodsky A (1972). Concanavalin A stimulation of rat lymphocyte ATPase. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 266: 343-349.
  • 4. Riordan J & Slavick M (1974). Interactions of lectins with membrane glycoproteins - effects of Con A on 5' nucleotidase. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 373: 356-360.
  • 5. Young ME, Moscarello MA & Riordan JR (1976). Concanavalin A binding to membranes of Golgi apparatus and resultant modifications of galactosyl transferase activity. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 251: 5860-5865.
  • 6. Greaves M & Janossy G (1972). Elicitation of selective T and B lymphocyte responses by cell surface binding ligands. Transplantation Reviews, 11: 87-130.
  • 7. Novogrodsky A & Katchaski E (1971). Lymphocyte transformation induced by concanavalin A and its reversal by alfa-methyl-D-glucoside. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 228: 579-583.
  • 8. Cuatrecasas P & Tell GPE (1973). Insulin-like activity of Con A and wheat germ agglutinin - direct interaction with insulin receptors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 70: 485-489.
  • 9. Solomon SS, King LE & Hashimoto K (1975). Studies of the biological activity of insulin, cyclic nucleotides and concanavalin A in the isolated fat cell. Hormone and Metabolism Research, 7: 297-304.
  • 10. Sharon N & Lis H (1972). Lectins: cell-agglutinating and sugar-specific proteins. Science, 177: 949-959.
  • 11. Maier V, Schneider C, Schatz H & Pfeiffer EE (1975). Interactions of concanavalin A with isolated pancreatic islets. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie, 356: 887-893.
  • 12. Cuatrecasas P (1973). Interaction of concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin with insulin receptor of fat cells and liver. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 248: 3528-3534.
  • 13. Czech MP, Lawrence JC & Lynn WS (1974). Activation of hexose transport by concanavalin A in isolated brown fat cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 249: 7499-7505.
  • 14. Czech MP, Lynn DG & Lynn WS (1973). Cytochalasin B-sensitive 2-deoxy-D-glucose transport in adipose cell ghosts. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 248: 3636-3641.
  • 15. Livingston JN & Purvis BJ (1980). Effects of wheat germ agglutinin on insulin binding and insulin sensitivity of fat cells. American Journal of Physiology, 238: E267-E275.
  • 16. Olsnes S, Saltvedt E & Phil A (1974). Isolation and comparison of galactose-binding lectins from Abrus precatorius and Ricinus communis. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 249: 803-810.
  • 17. Hamaguchi Y, Yagi N, Nishino A, Mochizuki T, Mizukami T & Miyoshi M (1977). The isolation and characterization of a lethal protein from kintoki beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Journal of Nutrition Science and Vitaminology, 23: 525-534.
  • 18. Carlini CR & Guimarăes JA (1991). Plant and microbial toxic proteins as hemilectins: emphasis on canatoxin. Toxicon, 29: 791-806.
  • 19. Bellville JS, William BF & Gary F (1979). A method for investigating the role of calcium in the shape change, aggregation and serotonin release of rat platelets. Journal of Physiology, 297: 289-296.
  • 20. Carlini CR, Guimarăes JA & Ribeiro JMC (1985). Platelet release reaction and aggregation induced by canatoxin, a convulsant protein: evidence for the involvement of the lipoxygenase pathway. British Journal of Pharmacology, 84: 551-560.
  • 21. Grassi-Kassisse DM & Ribeiro-DaSilva G (1992). Canatoxin triggers histamine secretion from rat peritoneal mast cells. Agents and Actions, 37: 204-209.
  • 22. Shores AJ & Mongar JL (1980). Modulation of histamine secretion from Con A-activated rat mast cells by phosphatidylserine, calcium, cAMP, pH and metabolic inhibitors. Agents and Actions, 10: 131-137.
  • 23. Sullivan TJ, Greene WC & Parker CW (1975). Concanavalin A-induced histamine release from normal rat mast cells. Journal of Immunology, 115: 278-282.
  • 24. Bento CAM, Cavada BS, Oliveira JTA, Moreira RA & Barja-Fidalgo C (1993). Rat paw edema and leukocyte immigration induced by plant lectins. Agents and Actions, 38: 48-54.
  • 25. Benjamin CF, Carlini CR & Barja-Fidalgo C (1992). Pharmacological characterization of rat paw edema induced by canatoxin, the toxic protein from Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean) seeds. Toxicon, 30: 879-885.
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  • Correspondence and Footnotes

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    06 Oct 1998
  • Date of issue
    May 1998

History

  • Accepted
    27 Feb 1998
  • Received
    28 Oct 1997
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