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Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Volume: 35, Issue: 8, Published: 2002
  • A tobacco cDNA reveals two different transcription patterns in vegetative and reproductive organs Biochemistry And Molecular Biology

    Silva, I. da; Angelo, P.C.S.; Molfetta, J.B.; Ferraz, M.T.; Silva, L.L.P. da; Goldman, G.H.; Goldman, M.H.S.

    Abstract in English:

    In order to identify genes expressed in the pistil that may have a role in the reproduction process, we have established an expressed sequence tags project to randomly sequence clones from a Nicotiana tabacum stigma/style cDNA library. A cDNA clone (MTL-8) showing high sequence similarity to genes encoding glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins was chosen for further characterization. Based on the extensive identity of MTL-8 to the RGP-1a sequence of N. sylvestris, a primer was defined to extend the 5' sequence of MTL-8 by RT-PCR from stigma/style RNAs. The amplification product was sequenced and it was confirmed that MTL-8 corresponds to an mRNA encoding a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein. Two transcripts of different sizes and expression patterns were identified when the MTL-8 cDNA insert was used as a probe in RNA blots. The largest is 1,100 nucleotides (nt) long and markedly predominant in ovaries. The smaller transcript, with 600 nt, is ubiquitous to the vegetative and reproductive organs analyzed (roots, stems, leaves, sepals, petals, stamens, stigmas/styles and ovaries). Plants submitted to stress (wounding, virus infection and ethylene treatment) presented an increased level of the 600-nt transcript in leaves, especially after tobacco necrosis virus infection. In contrast, the level of the 1,100-nt transcript seems to be unaffected by the stress conditions tested. Results of Southern blot experiments have suggested that MTL-8 is present in one or two copies in the tobacco genome. Our results suggest that the shorter transcript is related to stress while the larger one is a flower predominant and nonstress-inducible messenger.
  • Genetic characterization of dengue virus type 3 isolates in the State of Rio de Janeiro, 2001 Biochemistry And Molecular Biology

    Miagostovich, M.P.; Santos, F.B. dos; Simone, T.S. de; Costa, E.V.; Filippis, A.M.B.; Schatzmayr, H.G.; Nogueira, R.M.R.

    Abstract in English:

    The genetic characterization of dengue virus type 3 (DEN-3) strains isolated from autochthonous cases in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2001 is presented. Restriction site-specific (RSS)-PCR performed on 22 strains classified the Brazilian DEN-3 viruses as subtype C, a subtype that contains viruses from Sri Lanka, India, Africa and recent isolates from Central America. Nucleic acid sequencing (positions 278 to 2550) of one DEN-3 strain confirmed the origin of these strains, since genotype III - classified by sequencing - and RSS-PCR subtype C are correlated. This genetic subtype has been associated with hemorrhagic dengue epidemics and the information provided here could be useful to implement appropriate prevention and control measures.
  • Molecular identification of Sicilian (<FONT FACE=Symbol>dß)º-thalassemia associated with ß-thalassemia and hemoglobin S in Brazil</FONT> Clinical Investigation

    Andrade, T.G. de; Fattori, A.; Saad, S.T.O.; Sonati, M.F.; Costa, F.F.

    Abstract in English:

    We describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of two unrelated Brazilian families with an association of the Sicilian form of (dß)º-thalassemia with hemoglobin S and ß-thalassemia. Direct sequencing of the ß-globin gene showed only the hemoglobin S mutation in patient 1 and the ß-thalassemia IVS1-110 in patient 2. The other allele was deleted in both patients and PCR of DNA samples of the breakpoint region of both patients showed a band of approximately 1,150 bp, expected to be observed in the DNA of carriers of Sicilian (dß)º-thalassemia. The nucleotide sequence of this fragment confirmed the Sicilian deletion. There are few reports concerning the Hb S/(dß)º-thalassemia association and patient 2 is the first reported case of Sicilian type of (dß)º-thalassemia in association with ß-thalassemia documented at the molecular level.
  • Improved glycemic control by acarbose therapy in hypertensive diabetic patients: effects on blood pressure and hormonal parameters Clinical Investigation

    Rosenbaum, P.; Peres, R.B.; Zanella, M.T.; Ferreira, S.R.G.

    Abstract in English:

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was carried out on 44 hypertensive type 2 diabetic subjects previously treated by diet associated or not with sulfonylurea to assess the effects of acarbose-induced glycemic control on blood pressure (BP) and hormonal parameters. Before randomization and after a 22-week treatment period (100 to 300 mg/day), the subjects were submitted to a standard meal test and to 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and had plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid profile, insulin, proinsulin and leptin levels determined. Weight loss was found only in the acarbose-treated group (75.1 ± 11.6 to 73.1 ± 11.6 kg, P<0.01). Glycosylated hemoglobin decreased only in the acarbose group (6.4 ± 1.7 to 5.6 ± 1.9%, P<0.05). Fasting proinsulin decreased only in the acarbose group (23.4 ± 19.3 to 14.3 ± 13.6 pmol/l, P<0.05), while leptin decreased in both (placebo group: 26.3 ± 6.1 to 23.3 ± 9.4 and acarbose group: 25.0 ± 5.5 to 22.7 ± 7.9 ng/ml, P<0.05). When the subset of acarbose-treated patients who improved glycemic control was considered, significant reductions in diurnal systolic, diastolic and mean BP (102.3 ± 6.0 to 99.0 ± 6.6 mmHg, P<0.05) were found. Acarbose monotherapy or combined with sulfonylurea was effective in improving glycemic control in hypertensive diabetic patients. Acarbose-induced improvement in metabolic control may reduce BP in these patients. Our data did not suggest a direct action of acarbose on insulin resistance or leptin levels.
  • Bone mineral density in young women of the city of São Paulo, Brazil: correlation with both collagen type I alpha 1 gene polymorphism and clinical aspects Clinical Investigation

    Barros, E.R.; Kasamatsu, T.S.; Ramalho, A.C.; Hauache, O.M.; Vieira, J.G.H.; Lazaretti-Castro, M.

    Abstract in English:

    Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease with great impact on morbidity and mortality mainly in postmenopausal women. Although it is recognized that factors related to life-style and habits may influence bone mass formation leading to greater or lower bone mass, more than 85% of the variation in bone mineral density (BMD) is genetically determined. The collagen type I alpha 1 (COLIA1) gene is a possible risk factor for osteoporosis. We studied a population of 220 young women from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, with respect to BMD and its correlation with both COLIA1 genotype and clinical aspects. The distribution of COLIA1 genotype SS, Ss and ss in the population studied was 73.6, 24.1 and 2.3%, respectively. No association between these genotypes and femoral or lumbar spine BMD was detected. There was a positive association between lumbar spine BMD and weight (P<0.0001), height (P<0.0156), and body mass index (BMI) (P<0.0156), and a negative association with age at menarche (P<0.0026). There was also a positive association between femoral BMD and weight (P<0.0001), height (P<0.0001), and BMI (P<0.0001), and a negative correlation with family history for osteoporosis (P<0.041). There was no association between the presence of allele s and reduced BMD. We conclude that a family history of osteoporosis and age at menarche are factors that may influence bone mass in our population.
  • Measurement of the ultrasonic properties of human coronary arteries in vitro with a 50-MHz acoustic microscope Clinical Investigation

    Machado, J.C.; Foster, F.S.; Gotlieb, A.I.

    Abstract in English:

    Ultrasonic attenuation coefficient, wave propagation speed and integrated backscatter coefficient (IBC) of human coronary arteries were measured in vitro over the -6 dB frequency bandwidth (36 to 67 MHz) of a focused ultrasound transducer (50 MHz, focal distance 5.7 mm, f/number 1.7). Corrections were made for diffraction effects. Normal and diseased coronary artery sub-samples (N = 38) were obtained from 10 individuals at autopsy. The measured mean ± SD of the wave speed (average over the entire vessel wall thickness) was 1581.04 ± 53.88 m/s. At 50 MHz, the average attenuation coefficient was 4.99 ± 1.33 dB/mm with a frequency dependence term of 1.55 ± 0.18 determined over the 36- to 67-MHz frequency range. The IBC values were: 17.42 ± 13.02 (sr.m)-1 for thickened intima, 11.35 ± 6.54 (sr.m)-1 for fibrotic intima, 39.93 ± 50.95 (sr.m)-1 for plaque, 4.26 ± 2.34 (sr.m)-1 for foam cells, 5.12 ± 5.85 (sr.m)-1 for media and 21.26 ± 31.77 (sr.m)-1 for adventitia layers. The IBC results indicate the possibility for ultrasound characterization of human coronary artery wall tissue layer, including the situations of diseased arteries with the presence of thickened intima, fibrotic intima and plaque. The mean IBC normalized with respect to the mean IBC of the media layer seems promising for use as a parameter to differentiate a plaque or a thickened intima from a fibrotic intima.
  • Arterial blood pressure of term newborns during the first week of life Clinical Investigation

    Nascimento, M.C.V.A.; Xavier, C.C.; Goulart, E.M.A.

    Abstract in English:

    The progressive behavior of the blood pressure of term newborns during the first week of life was assessed by the simultaneous use of oscillometric and Doppler methods. A total of 174 term neonates born at the Municipal Hospital Odilon Behrens in Belo Horizonte, from March 1996 to February 1997, were prospectively assessed. The oscillometric and Doppler ultrasonic methods were simultaneously used for four consecutive recordings obtained at 12 ± 6, 24 ± 6 and 72 ± 24 h and on the 7th ± 1 day of life. The combined use of the two methods simplified the procedure, with automatic cuff inflation and deflation, and speed was properly controlled with an automatic pressure monitor. The procedure was performed using a Y-connection to the mercury sphygmomanometer, with blood pressure being recorded with an automatic device and systolic blood pressure being measured simultaneously by Doppler ultrasound. The newborns were awake, not crying and in the supine position. A statistically significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed between the first and second, and the third and fourth measurements by Doppler and oscillometric methods. No significant correlation between birth weight, length, ponderal index and blood pressure was observed. The technique used represents a simpler and more accurate procedure for blood pressure measurement.
  • Presence of ductal carcinoma in situ confers an improved prognosis for patients with T1N0M0 invasive breast carcinoma Clinical Investigation

    Logullo, A.F.; Godoy, A.B.; Mourão-Neto, M.; Simpson, A.J.G.; Nishimoto, I.N.; Brentani, M.M.

    Abstract in English:

    We have retrospectively analyzed a series of 155 sequential cases of T1N0M0 ductal carcinomas of which 51 tumors had a ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) component for correlation between the presence of DCIS and clinicopathological variables, recurrence and patient survival. No correlations between the presence of DCIS and age, menopausal status, size, estrogen or progesterone receptors were found. High-grade infiltrative tumors tended not to present a DCIS component (P = 0.08). Patients with tumors associated with DCIS form a subgroup with few recurrences (P = 0.003) and good survival (P = 0.008). When tumors were classified by size, an association between large tumors (>1.0 cm) and increased recurrence and shortened overall survival was found. The presence of DCIS in this subgroup significantly reduced the relative risk of death.
  • ß-Spectrin São PauloII, a novel frameshift mutation of the ß-spectrin gene associated with hereditary spherocytosis and instability of the mutant mRNA Clinical Investigation

    Bassères, D.S.; Tavares, A.C.; Costa, F.F.; Saad, S.T.O.

    Abstract in English:

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is a common inherited anemia characterized by the presence of spherocytic red cells. Defects in several membrane protein genes have been involved in the pathogenesis of HS. ß-Spectrin-related HS seems to be common. We report here a new mutation in the ß-spectrin gene coding region in a patient with hereditary spherocytosis. The patient presented acanthocytosis and spectrin deficiency and, at the DNA level, a novel frameshift mutation leading to HS, i.e., a C deletion at codon 1392 (ß-spectrin São PauloII), exon 20. The mRNA encoding ß-spectrin São PauloII was very unstable and the mutant protein was not detected in the membrane or in other cellular compartments. It is interesting to note that frameshift mutations of the ß-spectrin gene at the 3' end allow the insertion of the mutant protein in the red cell membrane, leading to a defect in the auto-association of the spectrin dimers and consequent elliptocytosis. On the other hand, ß-spectrin São PauloII protein was absent in the red cell membrane, leading to spectrin deficiency, HS and the presence of acanthocytes.
  • Toxicity to sea urchin egg development of the quinone fraction obtained from Auxemma oncocalyx Experimental Biology

    Costa-Lotufo, L.V.; Ferreira, M.A.D.; Lemos, T.L.G.; Pessoa, O.D.L.; Viana, G.S.B.; Cunha, G.M.A.

    Abstract in English:

    Auxemma oncocalyx Taub. belongs to the Boraginaceae family and is native to the Brazilian northeast where it is known as "pau-branco". We investigated the ability of the water soluble fraction isolated from the heartwood of A. oncocalyx to inhibit sea urchin egg development. This fraction contains about 80% oncocalyxone A (quinone fraction), a compound known to possess strong cytotoxic and antitumor activities. In fact, the quinone fraction inhibited cleavage in a dose-dependent manner [IC50 of 18.4 (12.4-27.2) µg/ml, N = 6], and destroyed the embryos in the blastula stage [IC50 of 16.2 (13.7-19.2) µg/ml, N = 6]. We suggest that this activity is due to the presence of oncocalyxone A. In fact, these quinones present in A. oncocalyx extract have strong toxicity related to their antimitotic activity.
  • Developmental norms for the Gardner Steadiness Test and the Purdue Pegboard: a study with children of a metropolitan school in Brazil Neurosciences And Behavior

    Brito, G.N.O.; Santos-Morales, T.R.

    Abstract in English:

    Norms for the Gardner Steadiness Test and the Purdue Pegboard were developed for the neuropsychological assessment of children in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. A computer-generated unbiased sample of 346 children with a mean age of 9.4 years (SD = 2.76), who were attending a large normal public school in this urban area, was the subject of this study. Two boys were removed from the study, one for refusing to participate and the other due to severe strabismus. Therefore, the final sample contained 344 children (173 boys and 171 girls). Sex and age of the child and hand preferred for writing, but not ethnic membership or social class, had significant effects on performance in the Gardner Steadiness Test and the Purdue Pegboard. Girls outperformed boys. Older children performed better than younger children. However, the predictive relationship between age of the child and neuropsychological performance included linear and curvilinear components. Comparison of the present results to data gathered in the United States revealed that the performance of this group of Brazilian children is equivalent to that of US children after Bonferroni's correction of the alpha level of significance. It is concluded that sex and age of the child and hand preferred for writing should be taken into account when using the normative data for the two instruments evaluated in the present study. Furthermore, the relevance of neurobehavioral antidotes for the obliteration of some of the probable neuropsychological effects of cultural deprivation in Brazilian public school children is hypothesized.
  • Adrenoceptors of the medial septal area modulate water intake and renal excretory function induced by central administration of angiotensin II Neurosciences And Behavior

    Saad, W.A.; Guarda, I.F.M.S.; Camargo, L.A.A.; Santos, T.A.F.B.; Simões, S.; Saad, Willian A.

    Abstract in English:

    We investigated the role of a-adrenergic antagonists and clonidine injected into the medial septal area (MSA) on water intake and the decrease in Na+, K+ and urine elicited by ANGII injection into the third ventricle (3rdV). Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannulas implanted into the 3rdV and MSA were used. ANGII (12 nmol/µl) increased water intake (12.5 ± 1.7 ml/120 min). Clonidine (20 nmol/µl) injected into the MSA reduced the ANGII-induced water intake (2.9 ± 0.5 ml/120 min). Pretreatment with 80 nmol/µl yohimbine or prazosin into the MSA also reduced the ANGII-induced water intake (3.0 ± 0.4 and 3.1 ± 0.2 ml/120 min, respectively). Yohimbine + prazosin + clonidine injected into the MSA abolished the ANGII-induced water intake (0.2 ± 0.1 and 0.2 ± 0.1 ml/120 min, respectively). ANGII reduced Na+ (23 ± 7 µEq/120 min), K+ (27 ± 3 µEq/120 min) and urine volume (4.3 ± 0.9 ml/120 min). Clonidine increased the parameters above. Clonidine injected into the MSA abolished the inhibitory effect of ANGII on urinary sodium. Yohimbine injected into the MSA also abolished the inhibitory effects of ANGII. Yohimbine + clonidine attenuated the inhibitory effects of ANGII. Prazosin injected into the MSA did not cause changes in ANGII responses. Prazosin + clonidine attenuated the inhibitory effects of ANGII. The results showed that MSA injections of a1- and a2-antagonists decreased ANGII-induced water intake, and abolished the Na+, K+ and urine decrease induced by ANGII into the 3rdV. These findings suggest the involvement of septal a1- and a2-adrenergic receptors in water intake and electrolyte and urine excretion induced by central ANGII.
  • Smoking and psychiatric disorders: a comorbidity survey Neurosciences And Behavior

    Lopes, F.L.; Nascimento, I.; Zin, W.A.; Valença, A.M.; Mezzasalma, M.A.; Figueira, I.; Nardi, A.E.

    Abstract in English:

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown a positive correlation between smoking and psychiatric disorders. To investigate the prevalence of cigarette smoking, 277 psychiatric outpatients with anxiety or depressive disorders (DSM-IV) answered a self-evaluation questionnaire about smoking behavior and were compared with a group of 68 control subjects. The diagnoses (N = 262) were: 30.2% (N = 79) major depressive disorder, 23.3% (N = 61) panic disorder, 15.6% (N = 41) social anxiety disorder, 7.3% (N = 19) other anxiety disorders, and 23.7% (N = 62) comorbidity disorders. Among them, 26.3% (N = 69) were smokers, 23.7% (N = 62) were former smokers and 50.0% (N = 131) were nonsmokers. The prevalence of nicotine dependence among the smokers was 59.0% (DSM-IV). The frequency of cigarette smoking did not show any significant difference among the five classes of diagnosis. The social anxiety disorder patients were the heaviest smokers (75.0%), with more unsuccessful attempts to stop smoking (89.0%). The frequency of former smokers was significantly higher among older subjects and nonsmokers were significantly younger (c² = 9.13, d.f. = 2, P = 0.01). Our data present some clinical implications suggesting that in our psychiatric outpatient sample with anxiety disorder, major depression and comorbidity (anxiety disorder and major depression), the frequency of cigarette smoking did not differ from the frequency found in the control group or in general population studies. Some specific features of our population (outpatients, anxiety and depressive disorders) might be responsible for these results.
  • The attentional modulation of the flash-lag effect Neurosciences And Behavior

    Baldo, M.V.C.; Namba, J.

    Abstract in English:

    If a dot is flashed in perfect alignment with a pair of dots rotating around the visual fixation point, most observers perceive the rotating dots as being ahead of the flashing dot (flash-lag effect). This perceptual effect has been interpreted to result from the perceptual extrapolation of the moving dots, the differential visual latencies between flashing and moving stimuli, as well as the modulation of attentional mechanisms. Here we attempted to uncouple the attentional effects brought about by the spatial predictability of the flashing dot from the sensory effects dependent on its visual eccentricity. The stimulus was a pair of dots rotating clockwise around the fixation point. Another dot was flashed at either the upper right or the lower left of the visual field according to three separate blocked situations: fixed, alternate and random positions. Twenty-four participants had to judge, in all three situations, the location of the rotating dots in relation to the imaginary line connecting the flashing dot and the fixation point at the moment the dot was flashed. The flash-lag effect was observed in all three situations, and a clear influence of the spatial predictability of the flashing dot on the magnitude of the perceptual phenomenon was revealed, independently of sensory effects related to the eccentricity of the stimulus in the visual field. These findings are consistent with our proposal that, in addition to sensory factors, the attentional set modulates the magnitude of the differential latencies that give rise to the flash-lag phenomenon.
  • Differential expression of AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunits during development of the chick optic tectum Neurosciences And Behavior

    Batista, S.S.; Pires, R.S.; Britto, L.R.G.

    Abstract in English:

    Glutamate receptors have been often associated with developmental processes. We used immunohistochemical techniques to evaluate the expression of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor (GluR) subunits in the chick optic tectum (TeO). Chick embryos from the 5th through the 20th embryonic day (E5-E20) and one-day-old (P1) chicks were used. The three types of immunoreactivity evaluated (GluR1, GluR2/3, and GluR4) had different temporal and spatial expression patterns in the several layers of the TeO. The GluR1 subunit first appeared as moderate staining on E7 and then increased on E9. The mature GluR1 pattern included intense staining only in layer 5 of the TeO. The GluR2/3 subunits presented low expression on E5, which became intense on E7. The staining for GluR2/3 changed to very intense on E14 in tectal layer 13. Staining of layer 13 neurons is the most prominent feature of GluR immunoreactivity in the adult TeO. The GluR4 subunit generally presented the lowest expression starting on E7, which was similar to the adult pattern. Some instances of transient expression of GluR subunits were observed in specific cell populations from E9 through E20. These results demonstrate a differential expression of the GluR subunits in the embryonic TeO, adding information about their possible functions in the developmental processes of the visual system.
  • Modulation of the perception of temporal order by attentional and pre-attentional factors Neurosciences And Behavior

    Haddad Jr., H.; Carreiro, L.R.R.; Baldo, M.V.C.

    Abstract in English:

    When two stimuli are presented simultaneously to an observer, the perceived temporal order does not always correspond to the actual one. In three experiments we examined how the location and spatial predictability of visual stimuli modulate the perception of temporal order. Thirty-two participants had to report the temporal order of appearance of two visual stimuli. In Experiment 1, both stimuli were presented at the same eccentricity and no perceptual asynchrony between them was found. In Experiment 2, one stimulus was presented close to the fixation point and the other, peripheral, stimulus was presented in separate blocks in two eccentricities (4.8º and 9.6º). We found that the peripheral stimulus was perceived to be delayed in relation to the central one, with no significant difference between the delays obtained in the two eccentricities. In Experiment 3, using three eccentricities (2.5º, 7.3º and 12.1º) for the presentation of the peripheral stimulus, we compared a condition in which its location was highly predictable with two other conditions in which its location was progressively less predictable. Here, the perception of the peripheral stimulus was also delayed in relation to the central one, with this delay depending on both the eccentricity and predictability of the stimulus. We argue that attentional deployment, manipulated by the spatial predictability of the stimulus, seems to play an important role in the temporal order perception of visual stimuli. Yet, under whichever condition of spatial predictability, basic sensory and attentional processes are unavoidably entangled and both factors must concur to the perception of temporal order.
  • Daily birth numbers in Passo Fundo, South Brazil, 1997-1999: trends and periodicities Physiology And Biophysics

    Mikulecky, M.; Lisboa, H.R.K.

    Abstract in English:

    Between October 6, 1997 and April 30, 1999, 5011 births (mean: 8.76 per day) were registered in the city of Passo Fundo, South Brazil. The sequence of 572 daily birth numbers was not random (iteration test). Neyman distribution (m = ¥) showed the best fit. Clusters of days with higher birth numbers alternated with days with low numbers of births. Periodogram analysis revealed a significant periodicity of 6.98 days. The cosinor regression, testing 10 a priori supposed period lengths, found significant seasonality peaking in August-September and significantly highest birth numbers on Thursdays. Among the lunar and solar rotation cycles, the tropic lunar cycle and its 4th harmonic were most pronounced, in agreement with results concerning natality in Germany obtained by Svante Arrhenius in the 19th century. These findings confirm Derer-Halberg's concept of multiseptans. In addition to cycling, a significantly increasing linear trend with a daily increase of 0.0045 births was encountered. This documents a growth of the population in agreement with national statistical data.
  • Heart rate recovery after exercise: relations to heart rate variability and complexity Physiology And Biophysics

    Javorka, M.; Zila, I.; Balhárek, T.; Javorka, K.

    Abstract in English:

    Physical exercise is associated with parasympathetic withdrawal and increased sympathetic activity resulting in heart rate increase. The rate of post-exercise cardiodeceleration is used as an index of cardiac vagal reactivation. Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) and complexity can provide useful information about autonomic control of the cardiovascular system. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the association between heart rate decrease after exercise and HRV parameters. Heart rate was monitored in 17 healthy male subjects (mean age: 20 years) during the pre-exercise phase (25 min supine, 5 min standing), during exercise (8 min of the step test with an ascending frequency corresponding to 70% of individual maximal power output) and during the recovery phase (30 min supine). HRV analysis in the time and frequency domains and evaluation of a newly developed complexity measure - sample entropy - were performed on selected segments of heart rate time series. During recovery, heart rate decreased gradually but did not attain pre-exercise values within 30 min after exercise. On the other hand, HRV gradually increased, but did not regain rest values during the study period. Heart rate complexity was slightly reduced after exercise and attained rest values after 30-min recovery. The rate of cardiodeceleration did not correlate with pre-exercise HRV parameters, but positively correlated with HRV measures and sample entropy obtained from the early phases of recovery. In conclusion, the cardiodeceleration rate is independent of HRV measures during the rest period but it is related to early post-exercise recovery HRV measures, confirming a parasympathetic contribution to this phase.
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