Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Volume: 37, Issue: 2, Published: 2004
  • Glutathione peroxidase induction protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae sod1deltasod2delta double mutants against oxidative damage Biochemistry And Molecular Biology

    Manfredini, V.; Roehrs, R.; Peralba, M.C.R.; Henriques, J.A.P.; Saffi, J.; Ramos, A.L.L.P.; Benfato, M.S.

    Abstract in English:

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants deficient in superoxide dismutase genes (sod1delta, sod2delta and the double mutant) were subjected to H2O2 stress in the stationary phase. The highest sensitivity was observed in the sod2delta mutant, while the sod1deltasod2delta double mutant was not sensitive. Sod mutants had lower catalase activity (44%) than wild-type cells, independent of H2O2 stress. Untreated cells of sod1deltasod2delta double mutants showed increased glutathione peroxidase activity (126%), while sod1delta had lower activity (77%) than the wild type. Glutathione levels in sod1delta were increased (200-260%) after exposure to various H2O2 concentrations. In addition, the highest malondialdehyde levels could be observed without H2O2 treatment in sod1delta (167%) and sod2delta (225%) mutants. In contrast, the level of malondialdehyde in the sod1deltasod2delta double mutant was indistinguishable from that of the wild type. These results suggest that resistance to H2O2 by sod1deltasod2delta cells depends on the induction of glutathione peroxidase and is independent of catalase, and that glutathione is a primary antioxidant in the defense against H2O2 in stationary phase sod1delta mutants.
  • Heterofucans from Dictyota menstrualis have anticoagulant activity Biochemistry And Molecular Biology

    Albuquerque, I.R.L.; Queiroz, K.C.S.; Alves, L.G.; Santos, E.A.; Leite, E.L.; Rocha, H.A.O.

    Abstract in English:

    Fucan is a term used to denote a family of sulfated L-fucose-rich polysaccharides which are present in the extracellular matrix of brown seaweed and in the egg jelly coat of sea urchins. Plant fucans have several biological activities, including anticoagulant and antithrombotic, related to the structural and chemical composition of polysaccharides. We have extracted sulfated polysaccharides from the brown seaweed Dictyota menstrualis by proteolytic digestion, followed by separation into 5 fractions by sequential acetone precipitation. Gel electrophoresis using 0.05 M 1,3-diaminopropane-acetate buffer, pH 9.0, stained with 0.1% toluidine blue, showed the presence of sulfated polysaccharides in all fractions. The chemical analyses demonstrated that all fractions are composed mainly of fucose, xylose, galactose, uronic acid, and sulfate. The anticoagulant activity of these heterofucans was determined by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) using citrate normal human plasma. Only the fucans F1.0v and F1.5v showed anticoagulant activity. To prolong the coagulation time to double the baseline value in the APTT, the required concentration of fucan F1.0v (20 µg/ml) was only 4.88-fold higher than that of the low molecular weight heparin Clexane® (4.1 µg/ml), whereas 80 µg/ml fucan 1.5 was needed to obtain the same effect. For both fucans this effect was abolished by desulfation. These polymers are composed of fucose, xylose, uronic acid, galactose, and sulfate at molar ratios of 1.0:0.8:0.7:0.8:0.4 and 1.0:0.3:0.4:1.5:1.3, respectively. This is the fist report indicating the presence of a heterofucan with higher anticoagulant activity from brown seaweed.
  • Mathematical modeling of electro-rotation spectra of small particles in liquid solutions: Application to human erythrocyte aggregates Cell Biology

    Zehe, A.; Ramírez, A.; Starostenko, O.

    Abstract in English:

    Electro-rotation can be used to determine the dielectric properties of cells, as well as to observe dynamic changes in both dielectric and morphological properties. Suspended biological cells and particles respond to alternating-field polarization by moving, deforming or rotating. While in linearly polarized alternating fields the particles are oriented along their axis of highest polarizability, in circularly polarized fields the axis of lowest polarizability aligns perpendicular to the plane of field rotation. Ellipsoidal models for cells are frequently applied, which include, beside sphere-shaped cells, also the limiting cases of rods and disks. Human erythrocyte cells, due to their particular shape, hardly resemble an ellipsoid. The additional effect of rouleaux formation with different numbers of aggregations suggests a model of circular cylinders of variable length. In the present study, the induced dipole moment of short cylinders was calculated and applied to rouleaux of human erythrocytes, which move freely in a suspending conductive medium under the effect of a rotating external field. Electro-rotation torque spectra are calculated for such aggregations of different length. Both the maximum rotation speeds and the peak frequencies of the torque are found to depend clearly on the size of the rouleaux. While the rotation speed grows with rouleaux length, the field frequency nup is lowest for the largest cell aggregations where the torque shows a maximum.
  • Lipid peroxidation and total radical-trapping potential of the lungs of rats submitted to chronic and sub-chronic stress Experimental Biology

    Torres, R.L.; Torres, I.L.S.; Gamaro, G.D.; Fontella, F.U.; Silveira, P.P.; Moreira, J.S.R.; Lacerda, M.; Amoretti, J.R.; Rech, D.; Dalmaz, C.; Belló, A.A.

    Abstract in English:

    Exposure to stress induces a cluster of physiological and behavioral changes in an effort to maintain the homeostasis of the organism. Long-term exposure to stress, however, has detrimental effects on several cell functions such as the impairment of antioxidant defenses leading to oxidative damage. Oxidative stress is a central feature of many diseases. The lungs are particularly susceptible to lesions by free radicals and pulmonary antioxidant defenses are extensively distributed and include both enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems. The aim of the present study was to determine lipid peroxidation and total radical-trapping potential (TRAP) changes in lungs of rats submitted to different models of chronic stress. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 180-230 g were submitted to different stressors (variable stress, N = 7) or repeated restraint stress for 15 (N = 10) or 40 days (N = 6) and compared to control groups (N = 10 each). Lipid peroxidation levels were assessed by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and TRAP was measured by the decrease in luminescence using the 2-2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane)-luminol system. Chronic variable stress induced a 51% increase in oxidative stress in lungs (control group: 0.037 ± 0.002; variable stress: 0.056 ± 0.007, P < 0.01). No difference in TBARS was observed after chronic restraint stress, but a significant 57% increase in TRAP was presented by the group repeatedly restrained for 15 days (control group: 2.48 ± 0.42; stressed: 3.65 ± 0.16, P < 0.05). We conclude that different stressors induce different effects on the oxidative status of the organism.
  • Prolactin induces adrenal hypertrophy Experimental Biology

    Silva, E.J.; Felicio, L.F.; Nasello, A.G.; Zaidan-Dagli, M.; Anselmo-Franci, J.A.

    Abstract in English:

    Although adrenocorticotropic hormone is generally considered to play a major role in the regulation of adrenal glucocorticoid secretion, several reports have suggested that other pituitary hormones (e.g., prolactin) also play a significant role in the regulation of adrenal function. The aim of the present study was to measure the adrenocortical cell area and to determine the effects of the transition from the prepubertal to the postpubertal period on the hyperprolactinemic state induced by domperidone (4.0 mg kg-1 day-1, sc). In hyperprolactinemic adult and young rats, the adrenals were heavier, as determined at necropsy, than in the respective controls: adults (30 days: 0.16 ± 0.008 and 0.11 ± 0.007; 46 days: 0.17 ± 0.006 and 0.12 ± 0.008, and 61 days: 0.17 ± 0.008 and 0.10 ± 0.004 mg for treated and control animals, respectively; P < 0.05), and young rats (30 days: 0.19 ± 0.003 and 0.16 ± 0.007, and 60 days: 0.16 ± 0.006 and 0.13 ± 0.009 mg; P < 0.05). We selected randomly a circular area in which we counted the nuclei of adrenocortical cells. The area of zona fasciculata cells was increased in hyperprolactinemic adult and young rats compared to controls: adults: (61 days: 524.90 ± 47.85 and 244.84 ± 9.03 µm² for treated and control animals, respectively; P < 0.05), and young rats: (15 days: 462.30 ± 16.24 and 414.28 ± 18.19; 60 days: 640.51 ± 12.91 and 480.24 ± 22.79 µm²; P < 0.05). Based on these data we conclude that the increase in adrenal weight observed in the hyperprolactinemic animals may be due to prolactin-induced adrenocortical cell hypertrophy.
  • Immunological effects of donor lymphocyte infusion in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia relapsing after bone marrow transplantation Immunology

    Castro, F.A.; Palma, P.V.B.; Morais, F.R.; Voltarelli, J.C.

    Abstract in English:

    Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT) is the only curative therapy for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). This success is explained by the delivery of high doses of antineoplastic agents followed by the rescue of marrow function and the induction of graft-versus-leukemia reaction mediated by allogeneic lymphocytes against host tumor cells. This reaction can also be induced by donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) producing remission in most patients with CML who relapse after alloBMT. The immunological mechanisms involved in DLI therapy are poorly understood. We studied five CML patients in the chronic phase, who received DLI after relapsing from an HLA-identical BMT. Using flow cytometry we evaluated cellular activation and apoptosis, NK cytotoxicity, lymphocytes producing cytokines (IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-gamma), and unstimulated (in vivo) lymphocyte proliferation. In three CML patients who achieved hematological and/or cytogenetic remission after DLI we observed an increase of the percent of activation markers on T and NK cells (CD3/DR, CD3/CD25 and CD56/DR), of lymphocytes producing IL-2 and IFN-gamma, of NK activity, and of in vivo lymphocyte proliferation. These changes were not observed consistently in two of the five patients who did not achieve complete remission with DLI. The percent of apoptotic markers (Fas, FasL and Bcl-2) on lymphocytes and CD34-positive cells did not change after DLI throughout the different study periods. Taken together, these preliminary results suggest that the therapeutic effect of DLI in the chronic phase of CML is mediated by classic cytotoxic and proliferative events involving T and NK cells but not by the Fas pathway of apoptosis.
  • Cytotoxicity of chlorhexidine digluconate to murine macrophages and its effect on hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide induction Immunology

    Bonacorsi, C.; Raddi, M.S.G.; Carlos, I.Z.

    Abstract in English:

    Chlorhexidine, even at low concentrations, is toxic for a variety of eukaryotic cells; however, its effects on host immune cells are not well known. We evaluated in vitro chlorhexidine-induced cytotoxicity and its effects on reactive oxygen/nitrogen intermediate induction by murine peritoneal macrophages. Thioglycollate-induced cells were obtained from Swiss mice by peritoneal lavage with 5 ml of 10 mM phosphate-buffered saline, washed twice and resuspended (10(6) cells/ml) in appropriate medium for each test. Cell preparations contained more than 95% macrophages. The cytotoxicity was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay and the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) by the horseradish peroxidase-dependent oxidation of phenol red and Griess reaction, respectively. The midpoint cytotoxicity values for 1- and 24-h exposures were 61.12 ± 2.46 and 21.22 ± 2.44 µg/ml, respectively. Chlorhexidine did not induce synthesis or liberation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen intermediates. When macrophages were treated with various sub-toxic doses for 1 h (1, 5, 10, and 20 µg/ml) and 24 h (0.5, 1, and 5 µg/ml) and stimulated with 200 nM phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) solution, the H2O2 production was not altered; however, the NO production induced by 10 µg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) solution varied from 14.47 ± 1.46 to 22.35 ± 1.94 µmol/l and 13.50 ± 1.42 to 20.44 ± 1.40 µmol/l (N = 5). The results showed that chlorhexidine has no immunostimulating activity and sub-toxic concentrations did not affect the response of macrophages to the soluble stimulus PMA but can interfere with the receptor-dependent stimulus LPS.
  • Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to a Brazilian bovine herpesvirus type 5 Immunology

    Oldoni, I.; Weiblen, R.; Inkelmann, M.A.; Flores, E.F.

    Abstract in English:

    Antigens of a bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BHV-5), isolated from a cow with a neurological infection in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, were used to immunize BALB/c mice to produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Eleven hybridomas secreting mAbs directed at BHV-5 antigens were obtained after two fusions and screening of 356 hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine-resistant clones. The mAbs reacted at dilutions up to 1:500 (hybridoma culture supernatant) and up to >1:10,000 (ascitic fluid) in an indirect fluorescent antibody assay (IFA) and in immunoperoxidase staining of BHV-5-infected cells. Four mAbs (1D12, 2E2, 2G10 and 4E4) showed virus-neutralizing activity against the parental BHV-5 isolate. Five mAbs (1F3, 2A6, 2F9, 2G10 and HB24L) reacted in Western immunoblotting with a protein of approximately 90 kDa. Three other mAbs (2E2, 3D6 and 4E4) reacted in IFA with antigens of a BHV-1 mutant glycoprotein C- negative strain, demonstrating that they are directed at a viral antigen other than glycoprotein C. The eleven mAbs tested reacted with 20 BHV-5 field isolates and nine mAbs reacted with 10 BHV-1 isolates. Two mAbs (1F3 and 2F9) failed to react with BHV-1 field isolates, although they displayed a weak and nonreproducible reaction with the BHV-1 reference strain Los Angeles. These mAbs may be very useful in distinguishing between BHV-1 and BHV-5 infections since most of the traditional reagents and techniques are unable to do so. One mAb (2F9) was shown to bind to viral antigens by immunohistochemistry of histological sections of the brain of a BHV-5-infected calf. These results demonstrate that the mAbs produced here are suitable for use in a variety of immunological techniques and therefore may be useful for diagnostic and research purposes.
  • Comparison of different monoclonal antibodies against immunosuppressive proteins of Ascaris suum Immunology

    Oshiro, T.M.; Rafael, A.; Enobe, C.S.; Fernandes, I.; Macedo-Soares, M.F.

    Abstract in English:

    The extract of Ascaris suum suppresses the humoral and cellular immune responses to unrelated antigens in the mouse. In order to further characterize the suppressive components of A. suum, we produced specific monoclonal antibodies which can provide an important tool for the identification of these proteins. The A. suum immunosuppressive fractions isolated by gel filtration from an extract of adult worms were used to immunize BALB/c mice. Popliteal lymph node cells taken from the immunized animals were fused with SP2/O myeloma cells and the cloned hybrid cells obtained were screened to determine the specificity of secreted antibodies. Three monoclonal antibodies named MAIP-1, MAIP-2 and MAIP-3 were selected and were shown to react with different epitopes of high molecular weight proteins from the A. suum extract. All antibody molecules have kappa-type light chains but differ in heavy chain isotype. MAIP-1 is a mouse IgM, MAIP-2 is an IgA immunoglobulin and MAIP-3 is an IgG1 immunoglobulin and they recognize the antigen with affinity constants of 1.3 x 10(10) M-1, 7.1 x 10(9) M-1 and 3.8 x 10(7) M-1, respectively. The proteins recognized by these monoclonal antibodies (PAS-1, PAS-2 and PAS-3) were purified from the crude extract by affinity chromatography and injected with ovalbumin in BALB/c mice in order to determine their suppressive activity on heterologous antibody production. It was demonstrated that these three proteins are able to significantly suppress anti-ovalbumin antibody secretion, with PAS-1 being more efficient than the others.
  • Contrast sensitivity to angular frequency gratings is not higher than to Cartesian gratings Neurosciences And Behavior

    Zana, Y.; Cavalcanti, A.C.G.T.

    Abstract in English:

    When contrast sensitivity functions to Cartesian and angular gratings were compared in previous studies the peak sensitivity to angular stimuli was reported to be 0.21 log units higher. In experiments carried out to repeat this result, we used the same two-alternative forced-choice paradigm, but improved experimental control and precision by increasing contrast resolution from 8 to 12 bits, increasing the screen refresh rate from 30 Hz interlaced to 85 Hz non-interlaced, linearizing the voltage-luminance relation, modulating luminance in frequencies that minimize pixel aliasing, and improving control of the subject's exposure to the stimuli. The contrast sensitivity functions to Cartesian and angular gratings were similar in form and peak sensitivity (2.4 cycles per visual degree (c/deg) and 32 c/360º, respectively) to those reported in a previous study (3 c/deg and 32 c/360º, respectively), but peak sensitivity to angular stimuli was 0.13 log units lower than that to Cartesian stimuli. When the experiment was repeated, this time simulating the experimental control level used in the previous study, no difference between the peak sensitivity to Cartesian and angular stimuli was found. This result agrees with most current models that assume Cartesian filtering at the first visual processing stage. The discrepancy in the results is explained in part by differences in the degree of experimental control.
  • Measurement of Ki-67 antigen in 159 pituitary adenomas using the MIB-1 monoclonal antibody Neurosciences And Behavior

    Pizarro, C.B.; Oliveira, M.C.; Coutinho, L.B.; Ferreira, N.P.

    Abstract in English:

    Pituitary adenomas sometimes show rapid growth and recurrence, and about one third invade the structures surrounding the sella turcica. In an attempt to determine aggressive behavior at an early stage, we used the MIB-1 antibody to identify the Ki-67 antigen. The present study was designed to evaluate pituitary adenomatous tissue in terms of secretion and proliferation and to correlate the Ki-67 index with hormone phenotype and invasive behavior. Material from 159 patients submitted to one or more resections of pituitary adenomas was evaluated. Forty-two non-secretory adenomas and 43 adenomas immunoreactive for growth hormone, 19 for prolactin, 18 for growth hormone and prolactin, 16 for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and 21 cases of plurihormonal/gonadotropin adenomas were detected by immunohistochemistry. The MIB-1 antibody was positive in 139 samples and the Ki-67 index ranged from 0.16 to 15.48% (mean = 1.22 ± 2.09%), with no significant difference between genders, age groups, or secretory and non-secretory status. The Ki-67 index was higher in ACTH-secreting adenomas. Invasive pituitary adenomas had a significantly higher Ki-67 index (2.01 ± 3.15%) than macroadenomas with or without supra-sellar extension (1.12 ± 1.87%; P = 0.02). The index was not significantly different in the subgroup of adenomas with invasion of the cavernous sinus compared to groups with other types of invasion. We conclude that tumoral proliferative activity evaluated by the detection of the Ki-67 antigen is significantly higher in invasive than noninvasive adenomas, information which can be useful in therapeutic postoperative management since index cut-off values associated with aggressive behavior can be established.
  • The compulsive-like aspect of the head dipping emission in rats with chronic electrolytic lesion in the area of the median raphe nucleus Neurosciences And Behavior

    Hoshino, K.; Uga, D.A.; de Paula, H.M.G.

    Abstract in English:

    Head dipping (HD) is a behavioral pattern considered to have a risk assessment or an exploratory role and is used as a complementary parameter to evaluate anxiety in experimental animals. Since rats with electrolytic lesion in the area of the median raphe nucleus displayed high frequencies of HD in a previous study, the present investigation was undertaken to confirm this observation and to determine its anxiety-related origin. HD episodes were counted in adult male Wistar rats (270-350 g) with electrolytic lesion (N = 11) and sham-lesioned controls (N = 12). When HD was measured for 60 min on an elevated open platform, lesioned rats emitted 13 times more HD than controls (264.7 ± 93.3 vs 20.3 ± 7.6 episodes), with the difference being statistically significant (P < 0.05). HD counts during 10-min sessions held 7, 14, 21, 27, and 63 days after lesion showed significantly higher means (range: 28.14 ± 5.38 to 62.85 ± 9.48) compared to sham-lesioned controls (range: 7.37 ± 1.13 to 8.5 ± 1.45). Normal rats stepped down into their home cages when the vertical distance between them and the cage was short (16 cm), and the step-down latencies increased with increasing depths (36.7 ± 7.92 to 185.87 ± 35.44 s). Lesioned rats showed a similar behavior when facing the shortest depth, but had a significantly increased number (23.28 ± 2.35 episodes) and latency (300 ± 0.00 s) of HD compared to normal rats (9.25 ± 1.37 episodes and 185.87 ± 35.44 s) when facing the greatest depth (30 cm). This suggests that HD may be a depth-measuring behavior related to risk assessment.
  • Clinical features of panic patients sensitive to hyperventilation or breath-holding methods for inducing panic attacks Neurosciences And Behavior

    Nardi, A.E.; Valença, A.M.; Lopes, F.L.; Nascimento, I.; Mezzasalma, M.A.; Zin, W.A.

    Abstract in English:

    Our aim was to compare the clinical features of panic disorder (PD) patients sensitive to hyperventilation or breath-holding methods of inducing panic attacks. Eighty-five PD patients were submitted to both a hyperventilation challenge test and a breath-holding test. They were asked to hyperventilate (30 breaths/min) for 4 min and a week later to hold their breath for as long as possible, four times with a 2-min interval. Anxiety scales were applied before and after the tests. We selected the patients who responded with a panic attack to just one of the tests, i.e., those who had a panic attack after hyperventilating (HPA, N = 24, 16 females, 8 males, mean age ± SD = 38.5 ± 12.7 years) and those who had a panic attack after breath holding (BHPA, N = 20, 11 females, 9 males, mean age ± SD = 42.1 ± 10.6 years). Both groups had similar (chi² = 1.28, d.f. = 1, P = 0.672) respiratory symptoms (fear of dying, chest/pain disconfort, shortness of breath, paresthesias, and feelings of choking) during a panic attack. The criteria of Briggs et al. [British Journal of Psychiatry, 1993; 163: 201-209] for respiratory PD subtype were fulfilled by 18 (75.0%) HPA patients and by 14 (70.0%) BHPA patients. The HPA group had a later onset of the disease compared to BHPA patients (37.9 ± 11.0 vs 21.3 ± 12.9 years old, Mann-Whitney, P < 0.001), and had a higher family prevalence of PD (70.8 vs 25.0%, chi² = 19.65, d.f. = 1, P = 0.041). Our data suggest that these two groups - HPA and BHPA patients - may be specific subtypes of PD.
  • Ionic radiocontrast inhibits endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the canine renal artery in vitro: possible mechanism of renal failure following contrast medium infusion Pharmacology

    Discigil, B.; Evora, P.R.B.; Pearson, P.J.; Viaro, F.; Rodrigues, A.J.; Schaff, H.V.

    Abstract in English:

    To determine if radiocontrast impairs vascular relaxation of the renal artery, segments (4-5 mm in length) of canine renal artery were suspended in vitro in organ chambers to measure isometric force (95% O2/5% CO2, at 37ºC). Arterial segments with and without endothelium were placed at the optimal point of their length-tension relation and incubated with 10 µM indomethacin to prevent synthesis of endogenous prostanoids. The presence of nonionic radiocontrast (iohexol, Omnipaque 350, 1 ml in 25 ml control solution, 4% (v/v)) did not alter endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine in rings precontracted with both norepinephrine and prostaglandin F2alpha (N = 6). When the rings were precontracted with prostaglandin F2alpha, the presence of ionic contrast did not inhibit the relaxation of the arteries. However, in canine renal arteries contracted with norepinephrine, the presence of ionic radiocontrast (diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium, MD-76, 1 ml in 25 ml control solution, 4% (v/v)) inhibited relaxation in response to acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside (N = 6 in each group), and isoproterenol (N = 5; P < 0.05). Rings were relaxed less than 50% of norepinephrine contraction. Following removal of the contrast, vascular relaxation in response to the agonists returned to normal. These results indicate that ionic radiocontrast nonspecifically inhibits vasodilation (both cAMP-mediated and cGMP-mediated) of canine renal arteries contracted with norepinephrine. This reversible impairment of vasodilation could inhibit normal renal perfusion and act as a mechanism of renal failure following radiocontrast infusion. In the adopted experimental protocol the isoproterenol-induced relaxation of renal arteries precontracted with norepinephrine was more affected, suggesting a pivotal role of the cAMP system.
  • Protection of plasmid DNA by a Ginkgo biloba extract from the effects of stannous chloride and the action on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m Pharmacology

    Moreno, S.R.F.; Freitas, R.S.; Rocha, E.K.; Lima-Filho, G.L.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    Abstract in English:

    Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) is a phytotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of ischemic and neurological disorders. Because the action of this important extract is not fully known, assays using different biological systems need to be performed. Red blood cells (RBC) are labeled with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) and used in nuclear medicine. The labeling depends on a reducing agent, usually stannous chloride (SnCl2). We assessed the effect of different concentrations of EGb on the labeling of blood constituents with Tc-99m, as sodium pertechnetate (3.7 MBq), and on the mobility of a plasmid DNA treated with SnCl2 (1.2 µg/ml) at room temperature. Blood was incubated with EGb before the addition of SnCl2 and Tc-99m. Plasma (P) and RBC were separated and precipitated with trichloroacetic acid, and soluble (SF-P and SF-RBC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-RBC) fractions were isolated. The plasmid was incubated with Egb, SnCl2 or EGb plus SnCl2 and agarose gel electrophoresis was performed. The gel was stained with ethidium bromide and the DNA bands were visualized by fluorescence in an ultraviolet transilluminator system. EGb decreased the labeling of RBC, IF-P and IF-RBC. The supercoiled form of the plasmid was modified by treatment with SnCl2 and protected by 40 mg/ml EGb. The effect of EGb on the tested systems may be due to its chelating action with the stannous ions and/or pertechnetate or to the capability to generate reactive oxygen species that could oxidize the stannous ion.
  • Photophysical studies of zinc phthalocyanine and chloroaluminum phthalocyanine incorporated into liposomes in the presence of additives Physiology And Biophysics

    Nunes, S.M.T.; Sguilla, F.S.; Tedesco, A.C.

    Abstract in English:

    The photophysical properties of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPC) and chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (AlPHCl) incorporated into liposomes of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine in the presence and absence of additives such as cholesterol or cardiolipin were studied by time-resolved fluorescence, laser flash photolysis and steady-state techniques. The absorbance of the drugs changed linearly with drug concentration, at least up to 5.0 µM in homogeneous and heterogeneous media, indicating that aggregation did not occur in these media within this concentration range. The incorporation of the drugs into liposomes increases the dimerization constant by one order of magnitude (for ZnPC, 3.6 x 10(4) to 1.0 x 10(5) M-1 and for AlPHCl, 3.7 x 10(4) to 1.5 x 10(5) M-1), but this feature dose does not rule out the use of this carrier, since the incorporation of these hydrophobic drugs into liposomes permits their systemic administration. Probe location in biological membranes and predominant positions of the phthalocyanines in liposomes were inferred on the basis of their fluorescence and triplet state properties. Both phthalocyanines are preferentially distributed in the internal regions of the liposome bilayer. The additives affect the distribution of these drugs within the liposomes, a fact that controls their delivery when both are used in a biological medium, retarding their release. The addition of the additives to the liposomes increases the internalization of phthalocyanines. The interaction of the drugs with a plasma protein, bovine serum albumin, was examined quantitatively by the fluorescence technique. The results show that when the drugs were incorporated into small unilamellar liposomes, the association with albumin was enhanced when compared with organic media, a fact that should increase the selectivity of tumor targeting by these phthalocyanines (for ZnPC, 0.71 x 10(6) to 1.30 x 10(7) M-1 and for AlPHCl, 4.86 x 10(7) to 3.10 x 10(8) M-1).
  • Chronic experimental myocardial infarction produces antinatriuresis by a renal nerve-dependent mechanism Physiology And Biophysics

    Souza, D.R.B.; Mill, J.G.; Cabral, A.M.

    Abstract in English:

    The present study focused on the role of sympathetic renal nerve activity, in mediating congestive heart failure-induced sodium retention following experimental chronic myocardial infarction. Groups of male Wistar rats (240-260 g) were studied: sham-operated coronary ligation (CON3W, N = 11), coronary ligation and sham-operated renal denervation (INF3W, N = 19), 3 weeks of coronary ligation and sympathetic renal nerve denervation (INF3WDX, N = 6), sham-operated coronary ligation (N = 7), and 16 weeks of coronary ligation (INF16W, N = 7). An acute experimental protocol was used in which the volume overload (VO; 5% of body weight) was applied for 30 min after the equilibration period of continuous iv infusion of saline. Compared to control levels, VO produced an increase (P < 0.01, ANOVA) in urine flow rate (UFR; 570%) and urinary sodium excretion (USE; 1117%) in CON3W. VO induced a smaller increase (P < 0.01) in USE (684%) in INF3W. A similar response was also observed in INF16W. In INF3WDX, VO produced an immediate and large increase (P < 0.01) in UFR (547%) and USE (1211%). Similarly, in INF3W VO increased (P < 0.01) UFR (394%) and USE (894%). Compared with INF3W, VO induced a higher (P < 0.01) USE in INF3WDX, whose values were similar to those for CON3W. These results suggest that renal sympathetic activity may be involved in sodium retention induced by congestive heart failure. This premise is supported by the observation that in bilaterally renal denervated INF3WDX rats myocardial infarction was unable to reduce volume expansion-induced natriuresis. However, the mechanism involved in urinary volume regulation seems to be insensitive to the factors that alter natriuresis.
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