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Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Volume: 38, Issue: 3, Published: 2005
  • The surfer wears a suit: a report on the II Symposium on Creativity, Imagination and Interactivity in Science Education Concepts And Comments

    Linden, R.
  • The eukaryotic Pso2/Snm1/Artemis proteins and their function as genomic and cellular caretakers Review

    Bonatto, D.; Revers, L.F.; Brendel, M.; Henriques, J.A.P.

    Abstract in English:

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent a major threat to the genomic stability of eukaryotic cells. DNA repair mechanisms such as non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) are responsible for the maintenance of eukaryotic genomes. Dysfunction of one or more of the many protein complexes that function in NHEJ can lead to sensitivity to DNA damaging agents, apoptosis, genomic instability, and severe combined immunodeficiency. One protein, Pso2p, was shown to participate in the repair of DSBs induced by DNA inter-strand cross-linking (ICL) agents such as cisplatin, nitrogen mustard or photo-activated bi-functional psoralens. The molecular function of Pso2p in DNA repair is unknown, but yeast and mammalian cell line mutants for PSO2 show the same cellular responses as strains with defects in NHEJ, e.g., sensitivity to ICLs and apoptosis. The Pso2p human homologue Artemis participates in V(D)J recombination. Mutations in Artemis induce a variety of immunological deficiencies, a predisposition to lymphomas, and an increase in chromosomal aberrations. In order to better understand the role of Pso2p in the repair of DSBs generated as repair intermediates of ICLs, an in silico approach was used to characterize the catalytic domain of Pso2p, which led to identification of novel Pso2p homologues in other organisms. Moreover, we found the catalytic core of Pso2p fused to different domains. In plants, a specific ATP-dependent DNA ligase I contains the catalytic core of Pso2p, constituting a new DNA ligase family, which was named LIG6. The possible functions of Pso2p/Artemis/Lig6p in NHEJ and V(D)J recombination and in other cellular metabolic reactions are discussed.
  • NFAT transcription factors: from cell cycle to tumor development Review

    Viola, J.P.B.; Carvalho, L.D.S.; Fonseca, B.P.F.; Teixeira, L.K.

    Abstract in English:

    The nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors has been primarily identified in immune cells; however, these proteins have been recently found to be functionally active in several other non-immune cell types. NFAT proteins are activated upon different stimuli that lead to increased intracellular calcium levels. Regardless of their widely known cytokine gene expression properties, NFATs have been shown to regulate other genes related to cell cycle progression, cell differentiation and apoptosis, revealing a broader role for these proteins in normal cell physiology. Several reports have addressed the participation of NFATs in many aspects of malignant cell transformation and tumorigenic processes. In this review, we will discuss the involvement of the different NFAT family members in the regulation of cell cycling, differentiation and tumor formation, and also its implications on oncogenesis. Better understanding the mechanisms by which NFATs regulate cell cycle and tumor-related events should be relevant for the development of rational anti-cancer therapies.
  • Mitochondrial K+ transport and cardiac protection during ischemia/reperfusion Review

    Carreira, R.S.; Facundo, H.T.F.; Kowaltowski, A.J.

    Abstract in English:

    Mitochondrial ion transport, oxidative phosphorylation, redox balance, and physical integrity are key factors in tissue survival following potentially damaging conditions such as ischemia/reperfusion. Recent research has demonstrated that pharmacologically activated inner mitochondrial membrane ATP-sensitive K+ channels (mitoK ATP) are strongly cardioprotective under these conditions. Furthermore, mitoK ATP are physiologically activated during ischemic preconditioning, a procedure which protects against ischemic damage. In this review, we discuss mechanisms by which mitoK ATP may be activated during preconditioning and the mitochondrial and cellular consequences of this activation, focusing on end-effects which may promote ischemic protection. These effects include decreased loss of tissue ATP through reverse activity of ATP synthase due to increased mitochondrial matrix volumes and lower transport of adenine nucleotides into the matrix. MitoK ATP also decreases the release of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species by promoting mild uncoupling in concert with K+/H+ exchange. Finally, mitoK ATP activity may inhibit mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake during ischemia, which, together with decreased reactive oxygen release, can prevent mitochondrial permeability transition, loss of organelle function, and loss of physical integrity. We discuss how mitochondrial redox status, K+ transport, Ca2+ transport, and permeability transitions are interrelated during ischemia/reperfusion and are determinant factors regarding the extent of tissue damage.
  • Improvement of bovine ß-lactoglobulin production and secretion by Lactococcus lactis Biochemistry And Molecular Biology

    Nouaille, S.; Bermúdez-Humarán, L.G.; Adel-Patient, K.; Commissaire, J.; Gruss, A.; Wal, J.M.; Azevedo, V.; Langella, P.; Chatel, J.M.

    Abstract in English:

    The stabilizing effects of staphylococcal nuclease (Nuc) and of a synthetic propeptide (LEISSTCDA, hereafter called LEISS) on the production of a model food allergen, bovine ß-lactoglobulin (BLG), in Lactococcus lactis were investigated. The fusion of Nuc to BLG (Nuc-BLG) results in higher production and secretion of the hybrid protein. When LEISS was fused to BLG, the production of the resulting protein LEISS-BLG was only slightly improved compared to the one obtained with Nuc-BLG. However, the secretion of LEISS-BLG was dramatically enhanced (~10- and 4-fold higher than BLG and Nuc-BLG, respectively). Finally, the fusion of LEISS to Nuc-BLG resulting in the protein LEISS-Nuc-BLG led to the highest production of the hybrid protein, estimated at ~8 µg/ml (~2-fold higher than Nuc-BLG). In conclusion, the fusions described here led to the improvement of the production and secretion of BLG. These tools will be used to modulate the immune response against BLG via delivery of recombinant lactococci at the mucosal level, in a mouse model of cow's milk allergy.
  • Changes in NAD/ADP-ribose metabolism in rectal cancer Biochemistry And Molecular Biology

    Yalcintepe, L.; Turker-Sener, L.; Sener, A.; Yetkin, G.; Tiryaki, D.; Bermek, E.

    Abstract in English:

    The extent of ADP-ribosylation in rectal cancer was compared to that of the corresponding normal rectal tissue. Twenty rectal tissue fragments were collected during surgery from patients diagnosed as having rectal cancer on the basis of pathology results. The levels of ADP-ribosylation in rectum cancer tissue samples (95.9 ± 22.1 nmol/ml) was significantly higher than in normal tissues (11.4 ± 4 nmol/ml). The level of NAD+ glycohydrolase and ADP-ribosyl cyclase activities in rectal cancer and normal tissue samples were measured. Cancer tissues had significantly higher NAD+ glycohydrolase and ADP-ribosyl cyclase activities than the control tissues (43.3 ± 9.1 vs 29.2 ± 5.2 and 6.2 ± 1.6 vs 1.6 ± 0.4 nmol mg-1 min-1). Approximately 75% of the NAD+ concentration was consumed as substrate in rectal cancer, with changes in NAD+/ADP-ribose metabolism being observed. When [14C]-ADP-ribosylated tissue samples were subjected to SDS-PAGE, autoradiographic analysis revealed that several proteins were ADP-ribosylated in rectum tissue. Notably, the radiolabeling of a 113-kDa protein was remarkably greater than that in control tissues. Poly(ADP)-ribosylation of the 113-kDa protein in rectum cancer tissues might be enhanced with its proliferative activity, and poly(ADP)-ribosylation of the same protein in rectum cancer patients might be an indicator of tumor diagnosis.
  • Ectopic development of skeletal muscle induced by subcutaneous transplant of rat satellite cells Cell Biology

    Fukushima, M.G.; Furlan, I.; Chiavegatti, T.; Kiyomoto, B.H.; Godinho, R.O.

    Abstract in English:

    The present study analyzes the ectopic development of the rat skeletal muscle originated from transplanted satellite cells. Satellite cells (10(6) cells) obtained from hindlimb muscles of newborn female 2BAW Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously into the dorsal area of adult male rats. After 3, 7, and 14 days, the transplanted tissues (N = 4-5) were processed for histochemical analysis of peripheral nerves, inactive X-chromosome and acetylcholinesterase. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) were also labeled with tetramethylrhodamine-labeled alpha-bungarotoxin. The development of ectopic muscles was successful in 86% of the implantation sites. By day 3, the transplanted cells were organized as multinucleated fibers containing multiple clusters of nAChRs (N = 2-4), resembling those from non-innervated cultured skeletal muscle fibers. After 7 days, the transplanted cells appeared as a highly vascularized tissue formed by bundles of fibers containing peripheral nuclei. The presence of X chromatin body indicated that subcutaneously developed fibers originated from female donor satellite cells. Differently from the extensor digitorum longus muscle of adult male rat (87.9 ± 1.0 µm; N = 213), the diameter of ectopic fibers (59.1 µm; N = 213) did not obey a Gaussian distribution and had a higher coefficient of variation. After 7 and 14 days, the organization of the nAChR clusters was similar to that of clusters from adult innervated extensor digitorum longus muscle. These findings indicate the histocompatibility of rats from 2BAW colony and that satellite cells transplanted into the subcutaneous space of adult animals are able to develop and fuse to form differentiated skeletal muscle fibers.
  • Modulation of the expression of the transcription factor Max in rat retinal ganglion cells by a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector Cell Biology

    Petrs-Silva, H.; Chiodo, V.; Chiarini, L.B.; Hauswirth, W.W.; Linden, R.

    Abstract in English:

    Exclusion of the transcription factor Max from the nucleus of retinal ganglion cells is an early, caspase-independent event of programmed cell death following damage to the optic axons. To test whether the loss of nuclear Max leads to a reduction in neuroprotection, we developed a procedure to overexpress Max protein in rat retinal tissue in vivo. A recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV) containing the max gene was constructed, and its efficiency was confirmed by transduction of HEK-293 cells. Retinal ganglion cells were accessed in vivo through intravitreal injections of the vector in rats. Overexpression of Max in ganglion cells was detected by immunohistochemistry at 2 weeks following rAAV injection. In retinal explants, the preparation of which causes damage to the optic axons, Max immunoreactivity was increased after 30 h in vitro, and correlated with the preservation of a healthy morphology in ganglion cells. The data show that the rAAV vector efficiently expresses Max in mammalian retinal ganglion cells, and support the hypothesis that the Max protein plays a protective role for retinal neurons.
  • Distribution of small proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in humerus-related articular cartilage of chickens Cell Biology

    Rodrigues, E.D.; Pimentel, E.R.; Mourão, P.A.S.; Gomes, L.

    Abstract in English:

    The expression of components present in the cartilaginous extracellular matrix is related to development, gender, and genotype, as well as to the biomechanical properties of each type of cartilage. In the present study, we analyzed small proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans present in different cartilages of the chicken wing after extraction with guanidine hydrochloride or papain. Quantitative analysis of glycosaminoglycans showed a larger amount in humeral cartilage (around 200 mg/g tissue) than in articular cartilage of the radius and ulna, with 138 and 80 mg/g tissue, respectively. Non-collagenous proteins isolated were predominantly from cartilage in the proximal regions of the humerus and radius. D4 fractions obtained by ultracentrifugation were separated by DEAE-Sephacel and Octyl-Sepharose chromatography and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Two bands of 57 and 70-90 kDa were observed for all samples treated with ß-mercaptoethanol. Immunoblotting of these proteins was positive for the small proteoglycans fibromodulin and decorin, respectively. Apparently, the 57-kDa protein is present in macromolecular complexes of 160 and 200 kDa. Chondroitin sulfate was detected in all regions. HPLC analysis of the products formed by chondroitinase AC and ABC digestion mainly revealed ß-D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl ß-D-galactosamine residues. The 4-sulfation/6-sulfation ratio was close to 3, except for the proximal cartilage of the radius (2.5). These results suggest functional differences between the scapula-humerus, humerus-ulna, and humerus-radius joints of the chicken wing. This study contributes to the understanding of the physiology of cartilage and joints of birds under different types of mechanical stress.
  • Atherosclerosis in aged mice over-expressing the reverse cholesterol transport genes Experimental Biology

    Berti, J.A.; de Faria, E.C.; Oliveira, H.C.F.

    Abstract in English:

    We determined whether over-expression of one of the three genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport, apolipoprotein (apo) AI, lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), or of their combinations influenced the development of diet-induced atherosclerosis. Eight genotypic groups of mice were studied (AI, LCAT, CETP, LCAT/AI, CETP/AI, LCAT/CETP, LCAT/AI/CETP, and non-transgenic) after four months on an atherogenic diet. The extent of atherosclerosis was assessed by morphometric analysis of lipid-stained areas in the aortic roots. The relative influence (R²) of genotype, sex, total cholesterol, and its main sub-fraction levels on atherosclerotic lesion size was determined by multiple linear regression analysis. Whereas apo AI (R² = 0.22, P < 0.001) and CETP (R² = 0.13, P < 0.01) expression reduced lesion size, the LCAT (R² = 0.16, P < 0.005) and LCAT/AI (R² = 0.13, P < 0.003) genotypes had the opposite effect. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of developing atherosclerotic lesions greater than the 50th percentile was 4.3-fold lower for the apo AI transgenic mice than for non-transgenic mice, and was 3.0-fold lower for male than for female mice. These results show that apo AI overexpression decreased the risk of developing large atherosclerotic lesions but was not sufficient to reduce the atherogenic effect of LCAT when both transgenes were co-expressed. On the other hand, CETP expression was sufficient to eliminate the deleterious effect of LCAT and LCAT/AI overexpression. Therefore, increasing each step of the reverse cholesterol transport per se does not necessarily imply protection against atherosclerosis while CETP expression can change specific athero genic scenarios.
  • Validation of the Beck Depression Inventory for a Portuguese-speaking Chinese community in Brazil Neurosciences And Behavior

    Wang, Y.-P.; Andrade, L.H.; Gorenstein, C.

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the psychometric properties and cross-cultural validity of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) among ethnic Chinese living in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The study was conducted on 208 community individuals. Reliability and discriminant analysis were used to test the psychometric properties and validity of the BDI. Principal component analysis was performed to assess the BDI's factor structure for the total sample and by gender. The mean BDI score was lower (6.74, SD = 5.98) than observed in Western counterparts and showed no gender difference, good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.82), and high discrimination of depressive symptoms (75-100%). Factor analysis extracted two factors for the total sample and each gender: cognitive-affective dimension and somatic dimension. We conclude that depressive symptoms can be reliably assessed by the BDI in the Brazilian Chinese population, with a validity comparable to that for international studies. Indeed, cultural and measurement biases might have influenced the response of Chinese subjects.
  • The importance of accurate anatomic assessment for the volumetric analysis of the amygdala Neurosciences And Behavior

    Bonilha, L.; Kobayashi, E.; Cendes, F.; Li, L.M.

    Abstract in English:

    There is a wide range of values reported in volumetric studies of the amygdala. The use of single plane thick magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may prevent the correct visualization of anatomic landmarks and yield imprecise results. To assess whether there is a difference between volumetric analysis of the amygdala performed with single plane MRI 3-mm slices and with multiplanar analysis of MRI 1-mm slices, we studied healthy subjects and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. We performed manual delineation of the amygdala on T1-weighted inversion recovery, 3-mm coronal slices and manual delineation of the amygdala on three-dimensional volumetric T1-weighted images with 1-mm slice thickness. The data were compared using a dependent t-test. There was a significant difference between the volumes obtained by the coronal plane-based measurements and the volumes obtained by three-dimensional analysis (P < 0.001). An incorrect estimate of the amygdala volume may preclude a correct analysis of the biological effects of alterations in amygdala volume. Three-dimensional analysis is preferred because it is based on more extensive anatomical assessment and the results are similar to those obtained in post-mortem studies.
  • Radial frequency stimuli and sine-wave gratings seem to be processed by distinct contrast brain mechanisms Neurosciences And Behavior

    Simas, M.L.B.; Nogueira, R.M.T.B.L.; Santos, N.A.

    Abstract in English:

    An assumption commonly made in the study of visual perception is that the lower the contrast threshold for a given stimulus, the more sensitive and selective will be the mechanism that processes it. On the basis of this consideration, we investigated contrast thresholds for two classes of stimuli: sine-wave gratings and radial frequency stimuli (i.e., j0 targets or stimuli modulated by spherical Bessel functions). Employing a suprathreshold summation method, we measured the selectivity of spatial and radial frequency filters using either sine-wave gratings or j0 target contrast profiles at either 1 or 4 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd), as the test frequencies. Thus, in a forced-choice trial, observers chose between a background spatial (or radial) frequency alone and the given background stimulus plus the test frequency (1 or 4 cpd sine-wave grating or radial frequency). Contrary to our expectations, the results showed elevated thresholds (i.e., inhibition) for sine-wave gratings and decreased thresholds (i.e., summation) for radial frequencies when background and test frequencies were identical. This was true for both 1- and 4-cpd test frequencies. This finding suggests that sine-wave gratings and radial frequency stimuli are processed by different quasi-linear systems, one working at low luminance and contrast level (sine-wave gratings) and the other at high luminance and contrast levels (radial frequency stimuli). We think that this interpretation is consistent with distinct foveal only and foveal-parafoveal mechanisms involving striate and/or other higher visual areas (i.e., V2 and V4).
  • Late-life depression, heart failure and frontal white matter hyperintensity: a structural magnetic resonance imaging study Neurosciences And Behavior

    Almeida, J.R.C.; Alves, T.C.T.F.; Wajngarten, M.; Rays, J.; Castro, C.C.; Cordeiro, Q.; Telles, R.M.S.; Fraguas, R.J.; Busatto, G.F.

    Abstract in English:

    The relevance of the relationship between cardiac disease and depressive symptoms is well established. White matter hyperintensity, a bright signal area in the brain on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans, has been separately associated with cardiovascular risk factors, cardiac disease and late-life depression. However, no study has directly investigated the association between heart failure, major depressive symptoms and the presence of hyperintensities. Using a visual assessment scale, we have investigated the frequency and severity of white matter hyperintensities identified by magnetic resonance imaging in eight patients with late-life depression and heart failure, ten patients with heart failure without depression, and fourteen healthy elderly volunteers. Since the frontal lobe has been the proposed site for the preferential location of white matter hyperintensities in patients with late-life depression, we focused our investigation specifically on this brain region. Although there were no significant group differences in white matter hyperintensities in the frontal region, a significant direct correlation emerged between the severity of frontal periventricular white matter hyperintensity and scores on the Hamilton scale for depression in the group with heart failure and depression (P = 0.016, controlled for the confounding influence of age). There were no significant findings in any other areas of the brain. This pattern of results adds support to a relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and depressive symptoms, and provides preliminary evidence that the presence of white matter hyperintensities specifically in frontal regions may contribute to the severity of depressive symptoms in cardiac disease.
  • Plasma hydroxy-metronidazole/ metronidazole ratio in hepatitis C virus-induced liver disease Pharmacology

    Marchioretto, M.A.M.; Ecclissato, C.; Silva, C.M.F. da; Cassiano, N.M.; Calafatti, S.A.; Mendonça, S.; Ribeiro, M.L.; Bernasconi, G.C.R.; Degger, M.F.; Piovesan, H.; Pedrazzoli Jr., J.

    Abstract in English:

    It has been suggested that the measurement of metronidazole clearance is a sensitive method for evaluating liver function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of plasma hydroxy-metronidazole/metronidazole ratios as indicators of dynamic liver function to detect changes resulting from the various forms of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. A total of 139 individuals were studied: 14 healthy volunteers, 22 healthy, asymptomatic, consecutive anti-HCV-positive HCV-RNA negative subjects, 81 patients with chronic hepatitis C (49 with moderate/severe chronic hepatitis and 34 with mild hepatitis), and 20 patients with cirrhosis of the liver. HCV status was determined by the polymerase chain reaction. Plasma concentrations of metronidazole and its hydroxy-metabolite were measured by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection in a blood sample collected 10 min after the end of a metronidazole infusion. Anti-HCV-positive HCV-RNA-negative individuals demonstrated a significantly reduced capacity to metabolize intravenously infused metronidazole compared to healthy individuals (0.0478 ± 0.0044 vs 0.0742 ± 0.0232). Liver cirrhosis patients also had a reduced plasma hydroxy-metronidazole/metronidazole ratio when compared to the other groups of anti-HCV-positive individuals (0.0300 ± 0.0032 vs 0.0438 ± 0.0027 (moderate/severe chronic hepatitis) vs 0.0455 ± 0.0026 (mild chronic hepatitis) and vs 0.0478 ± 0.0044 (anti-HCV-positive, HCV-RNA-negative individuals)). These results suggest an impairment of the metronidazole metabolizing system induced by HCV infection that lasts after viral clearance. In those patients with chronic hepatitis C, this impairment is paralleled by progression of the disease to liver cirrhosis.
  • A novel hot-plate test sensitive to hyperalgesic stimuli and non-opioid analgesics Pharmacology

    Lavich, T.R.; Cordeiro, R.S.B.; Silva, P.M.R.; Martins, M.A.

    Abstract in English:

    It is widely accepted that the classical constant-temperature hot-plate test is insensitive to cyclooxygenase inhibitors. In the current study, we developed a variant of the hot-plate test procedure (modified hot-plate (MHP) test) to measure inflammatory nociception in freely moving rats and mice. Following left and right hind paw stimulation with a phlogogen and vehicle, respectively, the animals were placed individually on a hot-plate surface at 51ºC and the withdrawal latency for each paw was determined simultaneously in measurements performed at 15, 60, 180, and 360 min post-challenge. Plantar stimulation of rats (250 and 500 µg/paw) and mice (125-500 µg/paw) with carrageenan led to a rapid hyperalgesic response of the ipsilateral paw that reached a plateau from 15 to 360 min after challenge. Pretreatment with indomethacin (4 mg/kg, ip) inhibited the phenomenon at all the times analyzed. Similarly, plantar stimulation of rats and mice with prostaglandin E2 (0.5 and 1 µg/paw) also resulted in rapid hyperalgesia which was first detected 15 min post-challenge. Finally, we observed that the MHP test was more sensitive than the classical Hargreaves' test, being able to detect about 4- and 10-fold lower doses of prostaglandin E2 and carrageenan, respectively. In conclusion, the MHP test is a simple and sensitive method for detecting peripheral hyperalgesia and analgesia in rats and mice. This test represents a low-cost alternative for the study of inflammatory pain in freely moving animals.
  • Eucalyptol, an essential oil, reduces contractile activity in rat cardiac muscle Physiology And Biophysics

    Soares, M.C.M.S.; Damiani, C.E.N.; Moreira, C.M.; Stefanon, I.; Vassallo, D.V.

    Abstract in English:

    Eucalyptol is an essential oil that relaxes bronchial and vascular smooth muscle although its direct actions on isolated myocardium have not been reported. We investigated a putative negative inotropic effect of the oil on left ventricular papillary muscles from male Wistar rats weighing 250 to 300 g, as well as its effects on isometric force, rate of force development, time parameters, post-rest potentiation, positive inotropic interventions produced by Ca2+ and isoproterenol, and on tetanic tension. The effects of 0.3 mM eucalyptol on myosin ATPase activity were also investigated. Eucalyptol (0.003 to 0.3 mM) reduced isometric tension, the rate of force development and time parameters. The oil reduced the force developed by steady-state contractions (50% at 0.3 mM) but did not alter sarcoplasmic reticulum function or post-rest contractions and produced a progressive increase in relative potentiation. Increased extracellular Ca2+ concentration (0.62 to 5 mM) and isoproterenol (20 nM) administration counteracted the negative inotropic effects of the oil. The activity of the contractile machinery evaluated by tetanic force development was reduced by 30 to 50% but myosin ATPase activity was not affected by eucalyptol (0.3 mM), supporting the idea of a reduction of sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx. The present results suggest that eucalyptol depresses force development, probably acting as a calcium channel blocker.
  • Preclinical evaluation of the antidiabetic effect of Eugenia jambolana seed powder in streptozotocin-diabetic rats Physiology And Biophysics

    Sridhar, S.B.; Sheetal, U.D.; Pai, M.R.S.M.; Shastri, M.S.

    Abstract in English:

    The world is facing an explosive increase in the incidence of diabetes mellitus and cost-effective complementary therapies are needed. The effects of Eugenia jambolana, a household remedy for diabetes, were studied. Streptozotocin diabetic female albino Wistar rats weighing 150-200 g (N = 6) were fed E. jambolana seed powder (250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg) for 15 days. Diabetic rats fed 500 and 1000 mg/kg seed powder showed an increase in body weight on day 20 in relation to day 5 (6 ± 4.7, 9 ± 7.8 vs diabetic control -16 ± 7.1 g, P < 0.001), a decrease in fasting blood glucose (75 ± 11.9, 123 ± 14.4 vs diabetic control -34 ± 12.1 mg/dl, P < 0.001), a difference in post-treatment fasting and peak blood glucose (38 ± 11.9, 36 ± 14.2 vs diabetic control 78 ± 11.9 mg/dl, P < 0.001), and a difference in liver glycogen (50 ± 6.8, 52 ± 7.5 vs normal control 90 ± 6.6 µg/g of liver tissue, P < 0.001). Tri-terpenoids, tannins, gallic acid, and oxalic acid were the chemical constituents detected in E. jambolana seed. The best results were obtained with an oral dose of 500 mg/kg. Subacute toxicity studies with a single administration of 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg seed powder showed no mortality or abnormality. These data on the antidiabetic effect of E. jambolana seed are adequate for approval of phase 2 clinical trials to evaluate this seed powder as complementary therapy in type 2 and type 1 diabetes.
  • Effect of Sapindus trifoliatus on hyperalgesic in vivo migraine models Physiology And Biophysics

    Arulmozhi, D.K.; Veeranjaneyulu, A.; Bodhankar, S.L.; Arora, S.K.

    Abstract in English:

    Phytotherapies have offered alternative sources of therapy for migraine and gained much importance in prophylactic treatment. Sapindus trifoliatus is a medium-sized deciduous tree growing wild in south India that belongs to the family Sapindaceae. The pericarp is reported for various medicinal properties. A thick aqueous solution of the pericarp is used for the treatment of hemicrania, hysteria or epilepsy in folklore medicine. We have investigated the antihyperalgesic effects of the lyophilized aqueous extract of S. trifoliatus in animal models predictive of experimental migraine models using morphine withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia on the hot-plate test and on 0.3% acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions in adult male Swiss albino mice. The extract significantly (N = 10, P < 0.05) increased the licking latency in the hot-plate test when administered ip at 10 mg/kg (6.70 ± 0.39 s in saline control vs 18.76 ± 0.96 s in S. trifoliatus-treated animals) and significantly (N = 10, P < 0.001) reduced the abdominal constrictions when administered ip at 2 and 10 mg/kg (40.20 ± 1.36 in saline control vs 30.20 ± 1.33 and 23.00 ± 0.98 for 2 and 10 mg/kg, ip, respectively, in S. trifoliatus-treated animals). Furthermore, when administered ip at 20 and 100 mg/kg, the extract significantly (N = 10, P < 0.05) inhibited the apomorphine-induced climbing behavior in mice (climbing duration 15.75 ± 5.0 min for saline control vs 11.4 ± 1.28 and 3.9 ± 1.71 min for 20 and 100 mg/kg, respectively, in S. trifoliatus-treated animals). In receptor radioligand-binding studies, the extract exhibited affinity towards D2 receptors. The findings suggest that dopamine D2 antagonism could be the mechanism involved in the antihyperalgesic activity of the aqueous extract of S. trifoliatus.
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