Abstract in English:A 42-year-old male complaining of thoracic spine pain was admitted to the hospital for evaluation. An X-ray and computer tomography of the thoracic spine showed spondylodiscitis of the L3 lumbar and L2-L3 intervertebral disk. The tuberculin skin test (PPD) was strongly positive. A radioscopy-guided fine needle aspirate of the affected area was cultured but did not reveal the cause of the disease. Two biopsy attempts failed to reveal the cause of the disease by culturing or by acid-fast-resistant staining (Ziehl Neelsen) of the specimens. A third biopsy also failed to detect the infectious agent by using microbiological procedures, but revealed the presence of a 245-bp amplicon characteristic of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex after PCR of the sample. The result demonstrates the efficacy of PCR for the identification of M. tuberculosis in situations in which conventional diagnosis by culturing techniques or direct microscopy is unable to detect the microorganism. Following this result the patient was treated with the antituberculous cocktail composed by rifampicin, pirazinamide and isoniazid during a six-month period. At the end of the treatment the dorsalgia symptoms had disappeared.
Abstract in English:In the present review, we describe a systematic study of the sulfated polysaccharides from marine invertebrates, which led to the discovery of a carbohydrate-based mechanism of sperm-egg recognition during sea urchin fertilization. We have described unique polymers present in these organisms, especially sulfated fucose-rich compounds found in the egg jelly coat of sea urchins. The polysaccharides have simple, linear structures consisting of repeating units of oligosaccharides. They differ among the various species of sea urchins in specific patterns of sulfation and/or position of the glycosidic linkage within their repeating units. These polysaccharides show species specificity in inducing the acrosome reaction in sea urchin sperm, providing a clear-cut example of a signal transduction event regulated by sulfated polysaccharides. This distinct carbohydrate-mediated mechanism of sperm-egg recognition coexists with the bindin-protein system. Possibly, the genes involved in the biosynthesis of these sulfated fucans did not evolve in concordance with evolutionary distance but underwent a dramatic change near the tip of the Strongylocentrotid tree. Overall, we established a direct causal link between the molecular structure of a sulfated polysaccharide and a cellular physiological event - the induction of the sperm acrosome reaction in sea urchins. Small structural changes modulate an entire system of sperm-egg recognition and species-specific fertilization in sea urchins. We demonstrated that sulfated polysaccharides - in addition to their known function in cell proliferation, development, coagulation, and viral infection - mediate fertilization, and respond to evolutionary mechanisms that lead to species diversity.
Abstract in English:Lithium has been used for the last five decades to treat bipolar disorder, but the molecular basis of its therapeutic effect is unknown. Phosphoglucomutase is a key enzyme in the metabolism of glycogen. In yeast, rabbit and human HEK293 cells, it is inhibited by lithium in the therapeutic concentration range. We measured the phosphoglucomutase activity in erythrocytes and the inhibitor constant for lithium in a population of healthy subjects and compared them to those of bipolar patients treated with lithium or carbamazepine. The specific activity of phosphoglucomutase measured in vitro in erythrocytes from control subjects presented a normal distribution, with the difference between the lowest and the highest activity being approximately 2-fold (0.53-1.10 nmol mg Hb-1 min-1). Comparison of phosphoglucomutase activity in untreated bipolar patients and control subjects showed no significant difference, whereas comparison between bipolar patients treated with carbamazepine or lithium revealed significantly lower mean values in patients treated with carbamazepine (747.3 ± 27.6 vs 879.5 ± 35.9 pmol mg Hb-1 min-1, respectively). When we studied the concentration of lithium needed to inhibit phosphoglucomutase activity by 50%, a bimodal distribution among the population tested was obtained. The concentration of LiCl needed to inhibit phosphoglucomutase activity by 50% was 0.35 to 1.8 mM in one group of subjects and in the other it was 3 to 4 mM. These results suggest that phosphoglucomutase activity may be significant in patients with bipolar disorder treated with lithium and carbamazepine.
Abstract in English:We have shown that myocardial dysfunction induced by food restriction is related to calcium handling. Although cardiac function is depressed in food-restricted animals, there is limited information about the molecular mechanisms that lead to this abnormality. The present study evaluated the effects of food restriction on calcium cycling, focusing on sarcoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2), phospholamban (PLB), and ryanodine channel (RYR2) mRNA expressions in rat myocardium. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats, 60 days old, were submitted to ad libitum feeding (control rats) or 50% diet restriction for 90 days. The levels of left ventricle SERCA2, PLB, and RYR2 were measured using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Body and ventricular weights were reduced in 50% food-restricted animals. RYR2 mRNA was significantly decreased in the left ventricle of the food-restricted group (control = 5.92 ± 0.48 vs food-restricted group = 4.84 ± 0.33, P < 0.01). The levels of SERCA2 and PLB mRNA were similar between groups (control = 8.38 ± 0.44 vs food-restricted group = 7.96 ± 0.45, and control = 1.52 ± 0.06 vs food-restricted group = 1.53 ± 0.10, respectively). Down-regulation of RYR2 mRNA expressions suggests that chronic food restriction promotes abnormalities in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release.
Abstract in English:No fully effective treatment has been developed since the discovery of Chagas' disease by Carlos Chagas in 1909. Since drug-resistant Trypanosoma cruzi strains are occurring and the current therapy is effectiveness in the acute phase but with various adverse side effects, more studies are needed to characterize the susceptibility of T. cruzi to new drugs. Many natural and/or synthetic substances showing trypanocidal activity have been used, even though they are not likely to be turned into clinically approved drugs. Originally, drug screening was performed using natural products, with only limited knowledge of the molecular mechanism involved in the development of diseases. Trans-splicing, which is unusual RNA processing reaction and occurs in nematodes and trypanosomes, implies the processing of polycistronic transcription units into individual mRNAs; a short transcript spliced leader (SL RNA) is trans-spliced to the acceptor pre-mRNA, giving origin to the mature mRNA. In the present study, permeable cells of T. cruzi epimastigote forms (Y, BOL and NCS strains) were treated to evaluate the interference of two drugs (hydroxymethylnitrofurazone - NFOH-121 and nitrofurazone) in the trans-splicing reaction using silver-stained PAGE analysis. Both drugs induced a significant reduction in RNA processing at concentrations from 5 to 12.5 µM. These data agreed with the biological findings, since the number of parasites decreased, especially with NFOH-121. This proposed methodology allows a rapid and cost-effective screening strategy for detecting drug interference in the trans-splicing mechanism of T. cruzi.
Abstract in English:The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on the intestinal mucosa barrier of septic rats and explore its possible mechanism. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups: control, Escherichia coli-induced sepsis (S) and treatment (T) groups. Groups S and T were subdivided into subgroups 1d and 3d, respectively. Expression of liver insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA, Bcl-2 and Bax protein levels and the intestinal Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and plasma GH and IGF-1 levels were determined. Histological examination of the intestine was performed and bacterial translocation was determined. rhGH significantly attenuated intestinal mucosal injuries and bacterial translocation in septic rats, markedly decreased Bax protein levels, inhibited the decrease of Bcl-2 protein expression and maintained the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the intestine. rhGH given after sepsis significantly improved levels of plasma GH (T1d: 1.28 ± 0.24; T3d: 2.14 ± 0.48 µg/L vs S1d: 0.74 ± 0.12; S3d: 0.60 ± 0.18 µg/L; P < 0.05) and IGF-1 (T1d: 168.94 ± 65.67; T3d: 201.56 ± 64.98 µg/L vs S1d: 116.72 ± 13.96; S3d: 107.50 ± 23.53 µg/L; P < 0.05) and expression of liver IGF-1 mRNA (T1d: 0.98 ± 0.20; T3d: 1.76 ± 0.17 vs S1d: 0.38 ± 0.09; S3d: 0.46 ± 0.10; P < 0.05). These findings indicate that treatment with rhGH had beneficial effects on the maintenance of the integrity of the intestinal mucosa barrier in septic rats.
Abstract in English:The influence of apolipoprotein E alleles and genotypes on plasma lipid levels was determined in 185 individuals of mixed ethnicity living in Ouro Preto, Brazil. DNA was obtained from blood samples and the genotypes were determined by an RFLP-PCR procedure. The *3 allele was the most frequent (72%), followed by *4 (20%) and *2 (8%); *4 frequency was higher and *2 frequency was lower in the dyslipidemic group than in the normal control group. The *2 carriers presented lower LDL and total cholesterol levels compared to the *3 and *4 carriers. All six expected genotypes were observed in the individuals genotyped: E2/2 (2.1%), E4/4 (2.7%), E2/4 (3.7%), E2/3 (8.0%), E3/3 (53.3%), E3/4 (29.9%); no difference in genotype frequencies was found between the normal and dyslipidemic groups. Compared with *2, the presence of *3 increases more than two times the risk for dyslipidemia (OR = 2.31; P = 0.025; 95% CI = 1.06-5.06) and the presence of *4 increases it three times (OR = 3.31; P = 0.006; 95% CI = 1.36-8.04). The only significant effect of genotype was an increased risk for dyslipidemia in the *4 genotype carriers (E3/4 + E4/4) compared with the *2 genotype carriers (E2/2 + E2/3) with OR = 3.69 (95% CI = 1.25-10.88). The present study indicates that in the Ouro Preto admixed population the presence of APOE *2 can confer a protective effect, whereas the presence of APOE *4 implies an enhanced risk for dyslipidemia.
Abstract in English:Bone marrow is a heterogeneous cell population which includes hematopoietic and mesenchymal progenitor cells. Dysregulated hematopoiesis occurs in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), being caused at least in part by abnormalities in the hematopoietic progenitors. However, the role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in CML has not been well characterized. The objectives of the present study were to observe the biological characteristics of MSCs from CML patients and to determine if MSCs originate in part from donors in CML patients after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). We analyzed MSCs from 5 untreated patients and from 3 CML patients after sex-mismatched allogeneic BMT. Flow cytometry analysis revealed the typical MSC phenotype and in vitro assays showed ability to differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts. Moreover, although some RT-PCR data were contradictory, combined fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that MSCs from CML patients do not express the bcr-abl gene. Regarding MSCs of donor origin, although it is possible to detect Y target sequence by nested PCR, the low frequency (0.14 and 0.34%) of XY cells in 2 MSC CML patients by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis suggests the presence of contaminant hematopoietic cells and the absence of host-derived MSCs in CML patients. Therefore, we conclude that MSCs from CML patients express the typical MSC phenotype, can differentiate into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages and do not express the bcr-abl gene. MSCs cannot be found in recipients 12 to 20 months after BMT. The influence of MSCs on the dysregulation of hematopoiesis in CML patients deserves further investigation.
Abstract in English:A method for the screening of tetanus and diphtheria antibodies in serum using anatoxin (inactivated toxin) instead of toxin was developed as an alternative to the in vivo toxin neutralization assay based on the toxin-binding inhibition test (TOBI test). In this study, the serum titers (values between 1.0 and 19.5 IU) measured by a modified TOBI test (Modi-TOBI test) and toxin neutralization assays were correlated (P < 0.0001). Titers of tetanus or diphtheria antibodies were evaluated in serum samples from guinea pigs immunized with tetanus toxoid, diphtheria-tetanus or triple vaccine. For the Modi-TOBI test, after blocking the microtiter plates, standard tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin and different concentrations of guinea pig sera were incubated with the respective anatoxin. Twelve hours later, these samples were transferred to a plate previously coated with tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin to bind the remaining anatoxin. The anatoxin was then detected using a peroxidase-labeled tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin. Serum titers were calculated using a linear regression plot of the results for the corresponding standard antitoxin. For the toxin neutralization assay, L+/10/50 doses of either toxin combined with different concentrations of serum samples were inoculated into mice for anti-tetanus detection, or in guinea pigs for anti-diphtheria detection. Both assays were suitable for determining wide ranges of antitoxin levels. The linear regression plots showed high correlation coefficients for tetanus (r² = 0.95, P < 0.0001) and for diphtheria (r² = 0.93, P < 0.0001) between the in vitro and the in vivo assays. The standardized method is appropriate for evaluating titers of neutralizing antibodies, thus permitting the in vitro control of serum antitoxin levels.
Abstract in English:The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the oral ingestion of an extract of the herb Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) on the biodistribution of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in rats. The animals (male Wistar rats, 2 months old, 180-220 g), were treated (1 mL) with an U. tomentosa extract (32 mg/mL, N = 5) or 0.9% NaCl solution (control, N = 5) for 7 days. After this period, Na99mTcO4 (3.7 MBq, 0.3 mL) was injected through the ocular plexus and after 10 min the rats were killed, the organs isolated and counted in a well-gamma counter. A significant (P < 0.05) alteration in Na99mTcO4 uptake i) from 0.57 ± 0.008 to 0.39 ± 0.06 %ATI/organ (P < 0.05) and from 0.57 ± 0.17 to 0.39 ± 0.14 %ATI/g (P < 0.05) was observed in the heart, ii) from 0.07 ± 0.02 to 0.19 ± 0.07 %ATI/g in the pancreas, and iii) from 0.07 ± 0.01 to 0.18 ± 0.07 %ATI/g (P < 0.05) in muscle after treatment with this extract. Although these results were obtained with animals, caution is advisable in the interpretation of the nuclear medicine examination when the patient is using this herb. This finding is probably an example of drug interaction with a radiopharmaceutical, a fact that could lead to misdiagnosis of the examination in clinical practice with unexpected consequences for the patient.
Abstract in English:The long-term effects of low-level lead intoxication are not known. The sympathetic skin response (SSR) was evaluated in a group of 60 former workers of a primary lead smelter, located in Santo Amaro, BA, Brazil. The individuals participating in the study were submitted to a clinical-epidemiological evaluation including questions related to potential risk factors for intoxication, complaints related to peripheral nervous system (PNS) involvement, neurological clinical examination, and also to electromyography and nerve conduction studies and SSR evaluation. The sample consisted of 57 men and 3 women aged 34 to 69 years (mean ± SD: 46.8 ± 6.9). The neurophysiologic evaluation showed the presence of lumbosacral radiculopathy in one of the individuals (1.7%), axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy in 2 (3.3%), and carpal tunnel syndrome in 6 (10%). SSR was abnormal or absent in 12 cases, representing 20% of the sample. More than half of the subjects (53.3%) reported a history of acute abdominal pain requiring hospitalization during the period of work at the plant. A history of acute palsy of radial and peroneal nerves was reported by about 16.7 and 8.3% of the individuals, respectively. Mean SSR amplitude did not differ significantly between patients presenting or not the various characteristics in the current neurological situation, except for diaphoresis. The results suggest that chronic lead intoxication induces PNS damage, particularly affecting unmyelinated small fibers. Further systematic study is needed to more precisely define the role of lead in inducing PNS injury.
Abstract in English:There is a great concern in the literature for the development of neuroprotectant drugs to treat Parkinson's disease. Since anesthetic drugs have hyperpolarizing properties, they can possibly act as neuroprotectants. In the present study, we have investigated the neuroprotective effect of a mixture of ketamine (85 mg/kg) and xylazine (3 mg/kg) (K/X) on the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat models of Parkinson's disease. The bilateral infusion of MPTP (100 µg/side) or 6-OHDA (10 µg/side) into the substantia nigra pars compacta of adult male Wistar rats under thiopental anesthesia caused a modest (~67%) or severe (~91%) loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunostained cells, respectively. On the other hand, an apparent neuroprotective effect was observed when the rats were anesthetized with K/X, infused 5 min before surgery. This treatment caused loss of only 33% of the nigral tyrosine hydroxylase-immunostained cells due to the MPTP infusion and 51% due to the 6-OHDA infusion. This neuroprotective effect of K/X was also suggested by a less severe reduction of striatal dopamine levels in animals treated with these neurotoxins. In the working memory version of the Morris water maze task, both MPTP- and 6-OHDA-lesioned animals spent nearly 10 s longer to find the hidden platform in the groups where the neurotoxins were infused under thiopental anesthesia, compared to control animals. This amnestic effect was not observed in rats infused with the neurotoxins under K/X anesthesia. These results suggest that drugs with a pharmacological profile similar to that of K/X may be useful to delay the progression of Parkinson's disease.
Abstract in English:Didanosine (ddI) is a component of highly active antiretroviral therapy drug combinations, used especially in resource-limited settings and in zidovudine-resistant patients. The population pharmacokinetics of ddI was evaluated in 48 healthy volunteers enrolled in two bioequivalence studies. These data, along with a set of co-variates, were the subject of a nonlinear mixed-effect modeling analysis using the NONMEM program. A two-compartment model with first order absorption (ADVAN3 TRANS3) was fitted to the serum ddI concentration data. Final pharmacokinetic parameters, expressed as functions of the co-variates gender and creatinine clearance (CL CR), were: oral clearance (CL = 55.1 + 240 x CL CR + 16.6 L/h for males and CL = 55.1 + 240 x CL CR for females), central volume (V2 = 9.8 L), intercompartmental clearance (Q = 40.9 L/h), peripheral volume (V3 = 62.7 + 22.9 L for males and V3 = 62.7 L for females), absorption rate constant (Ka = 1.51/h), and dissolution time of the tablet (D = 0.43 h). The intraindividual (residual) variability expressed as coefficient of variation was 13.0%, whereas the interindividual variability of CL, Q, V3, Ka, and D was 20.1, 75.8, 20.6, 18.9, and 38.2%, respectively. The relatively high (>30%) interindividual variability for some of these parameters, observed under the controlled experimental settings of bioequivalence trials in healthy volunteers, may result from genetic variability of the processes involved in ddI absorption and disposition.
Abstract in English:Myrtaceae is a plant family widely used in folk medicine and Syzygium and Eugenia are among the most important genera. We investigated the anti-allergic properties of an aqueous leaf extract of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (SC). HPLC analysis revealed that hydrolyzable tannins and flavonoids are the major components of the extract. Oral administration of SC (25-100 mg/kg) in Swiss mice (20-25 g; N = 7/group) inhibited paw edema induced by compound 48/80 (50% inhibition, 100 mg/kg; P <= 0.05) and, to a lesser extent, the allergic paw edema (23% inhibition, 100 mg/kg; P <= 0.05). SC treatment also inhibited the edema induced by histamine (58% inhibition; P <= 0.05) and 5-HT (52% inhibition; P <= 0.05) but had no effect on platelet-aggregating factor-induced paw edema. SC prevented mast cell degranulation and the consequent histamine release in Wistar rat (180-200 g; N = 7/group) peritoneal mast cells (50% inhibition, 1 µg/mL; P <= 0.05) induced by compound 48/80. Pre-treatment of BALB/c mice (18-20 g; N = 7/group) with 100 mg/kg of the extract significantly inhibited eosinophil accumulation in allergic pleurisy (from 7.662 ± 1.524 to 1.89 ± 0.336 x 10(6)/cavity; P <= 0.001). This effect was related to the inhibition of IL-5 (from 70.9 ± 25.2 to 12.05 ± 7.165 pg/mL) and CCL11/eotaxin levels (from 60.4 ± 8.54 to 32.8 ± 8.4 ng/mL) in pleural lavage fluid, using ELISA. These findings demonstrate an anti-allergic effect of SC, and indicate that its anti-edematogenic effect is due to the inhibition of mast cell degranulation and of histamine and serotonin effects, whereas the inhibition of eosinophil accumulation in the allergic pleurisy model is probably due to an impairment of CCL11/eotaxin and IL-5 production.
Abstract in English:We investigated the effect of etoricoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, and indomethacin, a non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor, on experimental periodontitis, and compared their gastrointestinal side effects. A ligature was placed around the second upper left molars of female Wistar rats (160 to 200 g). Animals (6 per group) were treated daily with oral doses of 3 or 9 mg/kg etoricoxib, 5 mg/kg indomethacin, or 0.2 mL saline, starting 5 days after the induction of periodontitis, when bone resorption was detected, until the sacrifice on the 11th day. The weight and survival rate were monitored. Alveolar bone loss (ABL) was measured as the sum of distances between the cusp tips and the alveolar bone. The gastric mucosa was examined macroscopically and the periodontium and gastric and intestinal mucosa were examined by histopathology. The ongoing ABL was significantly inhibited (P < 0.05) by 3 and 9 mg/kg etoricoxib and by indomethacin: control = 4.08 ± 0.47 mm; etoricoxib (3 mg/kg) = 1.89 ± 0.26 mm; etoricoxib (9 mg/kg) = 1.02 ± 0.14 mm; indomethacin = 0.64 ± 0.15 mm. Histopathology of periodontium showed that etoricoxib and indomethacin reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, ABL, and cementum and collagen fiber destruction. Macroscopic and histopathological analysis of gastric and intestinal mucosa demonstrated that etoricoxib induces less damage than indomethacin. Animals that received indomethacin presented weight loss starting on the 7th day, and higher mortality rate (58.3%) compared to etoricoxib (0%). Treatment with etoricoxib, even starting when ABL is detected, reduces inflammation and cementum and bone resorption, with fewer gastrointestinal side effects.
Abstract in English:The antinociceptive effects of a lectin (LEC) isolated from the marine alga Amansia multifida were determined in Swiss mice. The LEC (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg) inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal writhings in a dose-dependent manner after intraperitoneal or oral administration. A partial but significant inhibition of writhings was observed after the combination of LEC (10 mg/kg) with avidin (1 mg/kg), a potent inhibitor of the hemmaglutinant activity of the lectin. However, total writhing inhibition was demonstrable in the group of mice treated with LEC plus mannose (1 mg/kg), as compared to LEC alone or to control groups. Furthermore, avidin and mainly mannose also play a role in antinociception, somehow facilitating the interaction of LEC with its active cell sites. In the formalin test, although both phases of the response were significantly inhibited, the effect of LEC was predominant during phase 2, causing inhibition of licking time that ranged from 48 to 88% after oral (5 and 10 mg/kg) and intraperitoneal (1 to 5 mg/kg) administration. As is the case with morphine, the effect of LEC (2 mg/kg) was reversed by naloxone (2 mg/kg), indicating the involvement of the opioid system. LEC was also effective in the hot-plate test, producing inhibitory responses to the thermal stimulus, and its effects were blocked by naloxone. In the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, although LEC did not alter the onset of sleep significantly, it increased the time of sleep within the same dose range compared to control. These results show that LEC presents antinociceptive effects of both central and peripheral origin, possibly involving the participation of the opioid system.
Abstract in English:The dependence of sweat composition and acidity on sweating rate (SR) suggests that the lower SR in children compared to adults may be accompanied by a higher level of sweat lactate (Lac-) and ammonia (NH3) and a lower sweat pH. Four groups (15 girls, 18 boys, 8 women, 8 men) cycled in the heat (42ºC, 20% relative humidity) at 50% VO2max for two 20-min bouts with a 10-min rest before bout 1 and between bouts. Sweat was collected into plastic bags attached to the subject's lower back. During bout 1, sweat from girls and boys had higher Lac- concentrations (23.6 ± 1.2 and 21.2 ± 1.7 mM; P < 0.05) than sweat from women and men (18.2 ± 1.9 and 14.8 ± 1.6 mM, respectively), but Lac- was weakly associated with SR (P > 0.05; r = -0.27). Sweat Lac- concentration dropped during exercise bout 2, reaching similar levels among all groups (overall mean = 13.7 ± 0.4 mM). Children had a higher sweat NH3 than adults during bout 1 (girls = 4.2 ± 0.4, boys = 4.6 ± 0.6, women = 2.7 ± 0.2, and men = 3.0 ± 0.2 mM; P < 0.05). This difference persisted through bout 2 only in females. On average, children's sweat pH was lower than that of adults (mean ± SEM, girls = 5.4 ± 0.2, boys = 5.0 ± 0.1, women = 6.2 ± 0.5, and men = 6.2 ± 0.4 for bout 1, and girls = 5.4 ± 0.2, boys = 6.5 ± 0.5, women = 5.2 ± 0.2, and men = 6.9 ± 0.4 for bout 2). This may have favored NH3 transport from plasma to sweat as accounted for by a significant correlation between sweat NH3 and H+ (r = 0.56). Blood pH increased from rest (mean ± SEM; 7.3 ± 0.02) to the end of exercise (7.4 ± 0.01) without differences among groups. These results, however, are representative of sweat induced by moderate exercise in the absence of acidosis.