• Simultaneous detection of the C282Y, H63D and S65C mutations in the hemochromatosis gene using quenched-FRET real-time PCR Analytical, Diagnostic an Therapeutic Techniques and Instruments

    Moysés, C.B.; Moreira, E.S.; Asprino, P.F.; Guimarães, G.S.; Alberto, F.L.

    Abstract in English:

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a common autosomal disorder of iron metabolism mainly affecting Caucasian populations. Three recurrent disease-associated mutations have been detected in the hemochromatosis gene (HFE): C282Y, H63D, and S65C. Although HH phenotype has been associated with all three mutations, C282Y is considered the most relevant mutation responsible for hemochromatosis. Clinical complications of HH include cirrhosis of the liver, congestive cardiac failure and cardiac arrhythmias, endocrine pancreatic disease, which can be prevented by early diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, a reliable genotyping method is required for presymptomatic diagnosis. We describe the simultaneous detection of the C282Y, H63D and S65C mutations in the hemochromatosis gene by real-time PCR followed by melting curve analysis using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes. The acceptor fluorophore may be replaced by a quencher, increasing multiplex possibilities. Real-time PCR results were compared to the results of sequencing and conventional PCR followed by restriction digestion and detection by agarose gel electrophoresis (PCR-RFLP). Genotypes from 80 individuals obtained both by the conventional PCR-RFLP method and quenched-FRET real-time PCR were in full agreement. Sequencing also confirmed the results obtained by the new method, which proved to be an accurate, rapid and cost-effective diagnostic assay. Our findings demonstrate the usefulness of real-time PCR for the simultaneous detection of mutations in the HFE gene, which allows a reduction of a significant amount of time in sample processing compared to the PCR-RFLP method, eliminates the use of toxic reagents, reduces the risk of contamination in the laboratory, and enables full process automation.
  • Griscelli syndrome-type 2 in twin siblings: case report and update on RAB27A human mutations and gene structure Blood, Immunology and Organ Transplantation

    Meschede, I.P.; Santos, T.O.; Izidoro-Toledo, T.C.; Gurgel-Gianetti, J.; Espreafico, E.M.

    Abstract in English:

    Griscelli syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutation in the MYO5A (GS1, Elejalde), RAB27A (GS2) or MLPH (GS3) genes. Typical features of all three subtypes of this disease include pigmentary dilution of the hair and skin and silvery-gray hair. Whereas the GS3 phenotype is restricted to the pigmentation dysfunction, GS1 patients also show primary neurological impairment and GS2 patients have severe immunological deficiencies that lead to recurrent infections and hemophagocytic syndrome. We report here the diagnosis of GS2 in 3-year-old twin siblings, with silvery-gray hair, immunodeficiency, hepatosplenomegaly and secondary severe neurological symptoms that culminated in multiple organ failure and death. Light microscopy examination of the hair showed large, irregular clumps of pigments characteristic of GS. A homozygous nonsense mutation, C-T transition (c.550C>T), in the coding region of the RAB27A gene, which leads to a premature stop codon and prediction of a truncated protein (R184X), was found. In patient mononuclear cells, RAB27A mRNA levels were the same as in cells from the parents, but no protein was detected. In addition to the case report, we also present an updated summary on the exon/intron organization of the human RAB27A gene, a literature review of GS2 cases, and a complete list of the human mutations currently reported in this gene. Finally, we propose a flow chart to guide the early diagnosis of the GS subtypes and Chédiak-Higashi syndrome.
  • Increased sympathetic activity in normotensive offspring of malignant hypertensive parents compared to offspring of normotensive parents Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Sport Medicine

    Lopes, H.F.; Consolim-Colombo, F.M.; Barreto-Filho, J.A.S.; Riccio, G.M.G.; Negrão, C.E.; Krieger, E.M.

    Abstract in English:

    Malignant hypertension seems to be the consequence of very high blood pressure. Furthermore, an increase in sympathetic and renin-angiotensin system activity is considered to be the main mechanisms producing malignant hypertension. In the present study, 10 offspring of malignant hypertensive (OMH) parents (age 28 ± 5 years, 7 males, 3 females, 2 white and 8 non-white) and 10 offspring of normotensive (ONT) parents (age 28 ± 6 years, 2 males, 8 females, 3 white and 7 non-white) were evaluated. The OMH group had significantly higher (P < 0.05) casual blood pressure (125 ± 10/81 ± 5 mmHg) compared with ONT (99 ± 13/67 ± 5 mmHg). The increase in blood pressure was greater in OMH (Δ SBP = 17 ± 2 vs Δ SBP = 9 ± 1 mmHg in ONT) during cold pressor testing, but they had a lower increase in heart rate (Δ HR = 13 ± 2 vs Δ HR = 20 ± 3 bpm in ONT) during isometric exercise (handgrip test). Sympathetic activity, measured by microneurography, was significantly higher (P < 0.05) before exercise in OMH (17 ± 6 vs 11 ± 4 burst/min in ONT) and exhibited a greater increase (Δ = 18 ± 10 vs Δ = 8 ± 3 burst/min in ONT) during isometric exercise. This study showed increased sympathetic activity in OMH before exercise and a greater response during isometric exercise, suggesting an autonomic abnormality before exercise and a greater sympathetic response to physical stress in OMH compared to ONT.
  • Comparison of the Polar S810i monitor and the ECG for the analysis of heart rate variability in the time and frequency domains Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Sport Medicine

    Vanderlei, L.C.M.; Silva, R.A.; Pastre, C.M.; Azevedo, F.M.; Godoy, M.F.

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of the present study was to compare heart rate variability (HRV) at rest and during exercise using a temporal series obtained with the Polar S810i monitor and a signal from a LYNX® signal conditioner (BIO EMG 1000 model) with a channel configured for the acquisition of ECG signals. Fifteen healthy subjects aged 20.9 ± 1.4 years were analyzed. The subjects remained at rest for 20 min and performed exercise for another 20 min with the workload selected to achieve 60% of submaximal heart rate. RR series were obtained for each individual with a Polar S810i instrument and with an ECG analyzed with a biological signal conditioner. The HRV indices (rMSSD, pNN50, LFnu, HFnu, and LF/HF) were calculated after signal processing and analysis. The unpaired Student t-test and intraclass correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. No statistically significant differences were observed when comparing the values analyzed by means of the two devices for HRV at rest and during exercise. The intraclass correlation coefficient demonstrated satisfactory correlation between the values obtained by the devices at rest (pNN50 = 0.994; rMSSD = 0.995; LFnu = 0.978; HFnu = 0.978; LF/HF = 0.982) and during exercise (pNN50 = 0.869; rMSSD = 0.929; LFnu = 0.973; HFnu = 0.973; LF/HF = 0.942). The calculation of HRV values by means of temporal series obtained from the Polar S810i instrument appears to be as reliable as those obtained by processing the ECG signal captured with a signal conditioner.
  • Relationship between disease severity and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Sport Medicine

    Sanchez, F.F.; Faganello, M.M.; Tanni, S.E.; Lucheta, P.A.; Padovani, C.R.; Godoy, I.

    Abstract in English:

    Few studies have evaluated the relationship between Airways Questionnaire 20 (AQ20), a measure of the quality of life, scores and physiological outcomes or with systemic markers of disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), body mass index, fat-free mass index, 6-min walk test (6MWT) results, dyspnea sensation and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) with the quality of life of COPD patients. Ninety-nine patients with COPD (mean age: 64.2 ± 9.2 years; mean FEV1: 60.4 ± 25.2% of predicted) were evaluated using spirometry, body composition measurement and the 6MWT. The baseline dyspnea index (BDI) and the Modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) scale were used to quantify dyspnea. Quality of life was assessed using the AQ20 and the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). The Charlson index was used to determine comorbidity. The body mass index/airflow obstruction/dyspnea/exercise capacity (BODE) index was also calculated. AQ20 and SGRQ scores correlated significantly with FEV1, SpO2, 6MWT, MMRC and BDI values as did with BODE index. In the multivariate analyses, MMRC or BDI were identified as predictors of AQ20 and SGRQ scores (P < 0.001 in all cases). Thus, the relationship between AQ20 and disease severity is similar to that described for SGRQ. Therefore, the AQ20, a simple and brief instrument, can be very useful to evaluate the general impact of disease when the time allotted for measurement of the quality of life is limited.
  • Swimming training down-regulates plasma leptin levels, but not adipose tissue ob mRNA expression Endocrine Diseases, Nutrition and Metabolism

    Benatti, F.B.; Polacow, V.O.; Ribeiro, S.M.L.; Gualano, B.; Coelho, D.F.; Rogeri, P.S.; Costa, A.S.; Lancha Junior, A.H.

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of endurance training on leptin levels and adipose tissue gene expression and their association with insulin, body composition and energy intake. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: trained (N = 18) and sedentary controls (N = 20). The trained group underwent swimming training for 9 weeks. Leptin and insulin levels, adiposity and leptin gene expression in epididymal and inguinal adipose tissue were determined after training. There were no differences in energy intake between groups. Trained rats had a decreased final body weight (-10%), relative and total body fat (-36 and -55%, respectively) and insulin levels (-55%) compared with controls (P < 0.05). Although trained animals showed 56% lower leptin levels (2.58 ± 1.05 vs 5.89 ± 2.89 ng/mL in control; P < 0.05), no difference in leptin gene expression in either fat depot was demonstrable between groups. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that lower leptin levels in trained rats were due primarily to their lower body fat mass. After adjustment for total body fat, leptin levels were still 20% (P < 0.05) lower in exercised rats. In conclusion, nine weeks of swimming training did not affect leptin gene expression, but did lead to a decrease in leptin levels that was independent of changes in body fat.
  • Estrogen receptor 1 gene polymorphisms in premenopausal women: interaction between genotype and smoking on lipid levels Endocrine Diseases, Nutrition and Metabolism

    Almeida, S.; Hutz, M.H.

    Abstract in English:

    Estrogen has multiple effects on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. We investigated the association between the four common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) gene locus, -1989T>G, +261G>C, IVS1-397T>C and IVS1-351A>G, and lipid and lipoprotein levels in southern Brazilians. The sample consisted in 150 men and 187 premenopausal women. The women were considered premenopausal if they had regular menstrual bleeding within the previous 3 months and were 18-50 years of age. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy, secondary hyperlipidemia due to renal, hepatic or thyroid disease, and diabetes. Smoking status was self-reported; subjects were classified as never smoked and current smokers. DNA was amplified by PCR and was subsequently digested with the appropriate restriction enzymes. Statistical analysis was carried out for men and women separately. In the study population, major allele frequencies were _1989*T (0.83), +261*G (0.96), IVS1-397*T (0.58), and IVS1-351*A (0.65). Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that an interaction between +261G>C polymorphism and smoking was a significant factor affecting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (P = 0.028) in women. Nonsmoking women with genotype G/C of +261G>C polymorphism had mean HDL-C levels higher than those with G/G genotype (1.40 ± 0.33 vs 1.22 ± 0.26 mmol/L; P = 0.033). No significant associations with lipid and lipoprotein levels in women and men were detected for other polymorphisms. In conclusion, the +261G>C polymorphism might influence lipoprotein and lipid levels in premenopausal women, but these effects seem to be modulated by smoking, whereas in men ESR1 polymorphisms were not associated with high lipoprotein levels.
  • Serogroups and virulence genotypes of Escherichia coli isolated from patients with sepsis Infectious Agents and Diseases

    Ananias, M.; Yano, T.

    Abstract in English:

    Sixty strains of Escherichia coli, isolated by hemoculture, from septicemic Brazilian patients were evaluated to determine their serogroup and invasivity to Vero cells. All 60 patients died within 2 days of hospitalization. Furthermore, the molecular study of the following extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli-associated virulence factor (VF) genes was performed by PCR: i) adhesins: type 1 fimbria (fimH), S fimbria (sfaD/E), P fimbria (papC and papG alleles) and afimbrial adhesin (afaB/C); ii) capsule K1/K5 (kpsMTII); iii) siderophores: aerobactin (iucD), yersiniabactin (fyuA) and salmochelin (iroN); iv) toxins hemolysin (hlyA), necrotizing cytotoxic factor type 1 (cnf1) and secreted autotransporter toxin (sat); v) miscellaneous: brain microvascular endothelial cells invasion (ibeA), serum resistance (traT), colicin V (cvaC) and specific uropathogenic protein (usp). Our results showed that isolates are able to invade Vero cells (96.6%), differing from previous research on uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). The O serogroups associated with UPEC were prevalent in 60% of strains vs 11.7% of other serogroups. The PCR results showed a conserved virulence subgroup profile and a prevalence above 75% for fimH, fyuA, kpsMTII and iucD, and between 35-65% for papC, papG, sat, iroN, usp and traT. The evasion from the immunological system of the host and also iron uptake are essential for the survival of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli strains. Interestingly, among our isolates, a low prevalence of VF genes appeared. Therefore, the present study contributes to the identification of a bacterial profile for sepsis-associated E. coli.
  • Distribution of the human leukocyte antigen class II alleles in Brazilian patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection Infectious Agents and Diseases

    Corghi, D.B.; Gonçales, N.S.L.; Marques, S.B.D.; Gonçales Jr., F.L.

    Abstract in English:

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global medical problem. The current standard of treatment consists of the combination of peginterferon plus ribavirin. This regimen eradicates HCV in 55% of cases. The immune response to HCV is an important determinant of disease evolution and can be influenced by various host factors. HLA class II may play an important role in immune response against HCV. The objective of the present study was to determine the distribution of HLA class II (DRB1 and DQB1) alleles, their association with chronic HCV infection and their response to interferon therapy. One hundred and two unrelated white Brazilian patients with chronic HCV infection, 52 responders (45 males and 7 females) and 50 non-responders (43 males and 7 females) to antiviral treatment, were included in the study. Healthy Brazilian bone marrow donors of Caucasian origin from the same geographic area constituted the control group (HLA-DRB1, N = 99 and HLA-DQB1, N = 222 individuals). HLA class II genotyping was performed using a low-resolution DRB1, DQB1 sequence-specific primer amplification. There were higher frequencies of HLA-DRB1*13 (26.5 vs 14.1%) and HLA-DQB1*02 (52.9 vs 38.7%) in patients compared with controls; however, these were not significantly different after P correction (Pc = 0.39 and Pc = 0.082, respectively). There was no significant difference between the phenotypic frequencies of HLA-DRB1 (17.3 vs 14.0%) and HLA-DQB1 alleles in responder and non-responder HCV patients. The HLA-DRB1*07 allele was significantly more common in HCV patients (33.3 vs 12.1%) than in controls (Pc = 0.0039), suggesting that the HLA-DRB1*07 allele is associated with chronic HCV infection.
  • Clinical, epidemiological, and microbiological characteristics of bacteremia caused by high-level gentamicin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis Infectious Agents and Diseases

    Vigani, A.G.; Macedo de Oliveira, A.; Bratfich, O.J.; Stucchi, R.S.B.; Moretti, M.L.

    Abstract in English:

    Enterococcus spp bacteremia is associated with high mortality and the appearance of high-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR) created additional challenges for the treatment of these infections. We evaluated the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with bacteremias caused by HLGR and non_HLGR Enterococcus faecalis isolates at a teaching hospital in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Patients with bacteremia due to E. faecalis diagnosed between January 1999 and December 2003 were included in the study. We collected clinical, epidemiological, and microbiological data from medical records. Banked isolates were typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. We identified 145 cases of E. faecalis bacteremia: 66 (45.5%) were caused by HLGR isolates and 79 (54.5%) by non_HLGR. In the univariate analysis, patients with HLGR infection were older, had higher rates of bladder catheterization, and more often had treatment with cephalosporin, quinolone, and/or carbapenem compared with patients with non_HLGR infection (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that older age, hematological malignancy, and previous use of vancomycin were independently associated with HLGR (P < 0.05). Mortality rates were not significantly different among patients with HLGR (50%) and non_HLGR (43%) infections (P = 0.40). Of the 32 genotyped isolates, 16 were distributed into 6 main electrophoresis patterns and 16 others had distinct patterns. E. faecalis bacteremia is associated with high mortality and is frequently caused by HLGR isolates at this teaching hospital. The variability among genotyped isolates suggests that endogenous infections, rather than patient-to-patient transmission of E. faecalis, are more common at this institution.
  • Are the current chronic allograft nephropathy grading systems sufficient to predict renal allograft survival? Kidney and Extracellular Environment

    Moscoso-Solorzano, G.T.; Mastroianni-Kirsztajn, G.; Ozaki, K.S.; Araujo, S.; Franco, M.F.; Pacheco-Silva, A.; Camara, N.O.S.

    Abstract in English:

    A major problem in renal transplantation is identifying a grading system that can predict long-term graft survival. The present study determined the extent to which the two existing grading systems (Banff 97 and chronic allograft damage index, CADI) correlate with each other and with graft loss. A total of 161 transplant patient biopsies with chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) were studied. The samples were coded and evaluated blindly by two pathologists using the two grading systems. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the best predictor index for renal allograft loss. Patients with higher Banff 97 and CADI scores had higher rates of graft loss. Moreover, these measures also correlated with worse renal function and higher proteinuria levels at the time of CAN diagnosis. Logistic regression analyses showed that the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), hepatitis C virus (HCV), tubular atrophy, and the use of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) were associated with graft loss in the CADI, while the use of ACEI, HCV, moderate interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy and the use of MMF were associated in the Banff 97 index. Although Banff 97 and CADI analyze different parameters in different renal compartments, only some isolated parameters correlated with graft loss. This suggests that we need to review the CAN grading systems in order to devise a system that includes all parameters able to predict long-term graft survival, including chronic glomerulopathy, glomerular sclerosis, vascular changes, and severity of chronic interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy.
  • The oral motor capacity and feeding performance of preterm newborns at the time of transition to oral feeding Neonatal Medicine, Growth and Development

    Bauer, M.A.; Prade, L.S.; Keske-Soares, M.; Haëffner, L.S.B.; Weinmann, A.R.M.

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of the present study was to determine the oral motor capacity and the feeding performance of preterm newborn infants when they were permitted to start oral feeding. This was an observational and prospective study conducted on 43 preterm newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of UFSM, RS, Brazil. Exclusion criteria were the presence of head and neck malformations, genetic disease, neonatal asphyxia, intracranial hemorrhage, and kernicterus. When the infants were permitted to start oral feeding, non-nutritive sucking was evaluated by a speech therapist regarding force (strong vs weak), rhythm (rapid vs slow), presence of adaptive oral reflexes (searching, sucking and swallowing) and coordination between sucking, swallowing and respiration. Feeding performance was evaluated on the basis of competence (defined by rate of milk intake, mL/min) and overall transfer (percent ingested volume/total volume ordered). The speech therapist's evaluation showed that 33% of the newborns presented weak sucking, 23% slow rhythm, 30% absence of at least one adaptive oral reflex, and 14% with no coordination between sucking, swallowing and respiration. Mean feeding competence was greater in infants with strong sucking fast rhythm. The presence of sucking-swallowing-respiration coordination decreased the days for an overall transfer of 100%. Evaluation by a speech therapist proved to be a useful tool for the safe indication of the beginning of oral feeding for premature infants.
  • Relationship between the quality of life and the severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome XI Congresso Brasileiro do Sono, Fortaleza, CR, Brazil, November 11-14, 2007

    Lopes, C.; Esteves, A.M.; Bittencourt, L.R.A.; Tufik, S.; Mello, M.T.

    Abstract in English:

    The effects of sleep disorders on the quality of life (QOL) have been documented in the literature. Excessive sleepiness and altered circadian rhythms may negatively affect ability to learn, employment, and interpersonal relations, and directly degrade QOL. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome of varying severity on QOL. The study was conducted on 1892 patients aged 18 years or older referred by a physician to the Sleep Institute, São Paulo, with complaints related to apnea (snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, hyperarousal, and fatigue). They were submitted to overnight polysomnography for the diagnosis of sleep disorders from August 2005 through April 2006. The patients completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and QOL SF-36 sleep questionnaires. They were classified as non-physically active and physically active and not-sleepy and sleepy and the results of polysomnography were analyzed on the basis of the apnea hypopnea index (AHI). The apneic subjects showed a reduction in QOL which was proportional to severity. There was a significant decrease in all domains (physical functioning, role physical problems, bodily pain, general health perceptions, vitality, social functioning, emotional problems, general mental health) for apneics with AHI >30, who generally were sleepy and did not participate in physical activities (P < 0.05). The present study provides evidence that the impact of sleep disorders on QOL in apneics is not limited to excessive daytime sleepiness and that physical activity can contribute to reducing the symptoms. Thus, exercise should be considered as an adjunct interventional strategy in the management of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
  • Influence of chronotype and social zeitgebers on sleep/wake patterns XI Congresso Brasileiro do Sono, Fortaleza, CR, Brazil, November 11-14, 2007

    Korczak, A.L.; Martynhak, B.J.; Pedrazzoli, M.; Brito, A.F.; Louzada, F.M.

    Abstract in English:

    Inter-individual differences in the phase of the endogenous circadian rhythms have been established. Individuals with early circadian phase are called morning types; those with late circadian phase are evening types. The Horne and Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) is the most frequently used to assess individual chronotype. The distribution of MEQ scores is likely to be biased by several fact, ors, such as gender, age, genetic background, latitude, and social habits. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of different social synchronizers on the sleep/wake cycle of persons with different chronotypes. Volunteers were selected from a total of 1232 UFPR undergraduate students who completed the MEQ. Thirty-two subjects completed the study, including 8 morning types, 8 evening types and 16 intermediate types. Sleep schedules were recorded by actigraphy for 1 week on two occasions: during the school term and during vacation. Sleep onset and offset times, sleep duration, and mid-sleep time for each chronotype group were compared by the Mann-Whitney U-test separately for school term and vacation. School term and vacation data were compared by the Wilcoxon matched-pair test. Morning types showed earlier sleep times and longer sleep duration compared with evening types (23:00 ± 44 and 508.9 ± 50.27 vs 01:08 ± 61.95 and 456.44 ± 59.08, for the weekdays during vacation). During vacation, the subjects showed later sleep times, except for the morning types, who did not exhibit differences for sleep onset times. The results support the idea that social schedules have an impact on the expression of circadian rhythmicity but this impact depends on the individual chronotype.
  • Gentle handling temporarily increases c-Fos in the substantia nigra pars compacta XI Congresso Brasileiro do Sono, Fortaleza, CR, Brazil, November 11-14, 2007

    Santos, C.A.; Andersen, M.L.; Lima, M.M.S.; Tufik, S.

    Abstract in English:

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission is involved in the regulation of sleep. In particular, the nigrostriatal pathway is an important center of sleep regulation. We hypothesized that dopaminergic neurons located in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) could be activated by gentle handling, a method to obtain sleep deprivation (SD). Adult male C57/BL6J mice (N = 5/group) were distributed into non-SD (NSD) or SD groups. SD animals were subjected to SD once for 1 or 3 h by gentle handling. Two experiments were performed. The first determined the activation of SNpc neurons after SD, and the second examined the same parameters after pharmacologically induced dopaminergic depletion using intraperitoneal reserpine (2 mg/kg). After 1 or 3 h, SD and NSD mice were subjected to motor evaluation using the open field test. Immediately after the behavioral test, the mice were perfused intracardially to fix the brain and for immunohistochemical analysis of c-Fos protein expression within the SNpc. The open field test indicated that SD for 1 or 3 h did not modify motor behavior. However, c-Fos protein expression was increased after 1 h of SD compared with the NSD and 3-h SD groups. These immunohistochemistry data indicate that these periods of SD are not able to produce dopaminergic supersensitivity. Nevertheless, the increased expression of c-Fos within the SNpc suggests that dopaminergic nigral activation was triggered by SD earlier than motor responsiveness. Dopamine-depleted mice (experiment 2) exhibited a similar increase of c-Fos expression compared to control animals indicating that dopamine neurons are still activated in the 1-h SD group despite the exhaustion of dopamine. This finding suggests that this range (2-5-fold) of neuronal activation may serve as a marker of SD.
  • Effect of melatonin administration on subjective sleep quality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease XI Congresso Brasileiro do Sono, Fortaleza, CR, Brazil, November 11-14, 2007

    Nunes, D.M.; Mota, R.M.S.; Machado, M.O.; Pereira, E.D.B.; de Bruin, V.M.S.; de Bruin, P.F.C.

    Abstract in English:

    Disturbed sleep is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Conventional hypnotics worsen nocturnal hypoxemia and, in severe cases, can lead to respiratory failure. Exogenous melatonin has somnogenic properties in normal subjects and can improve sleep in several clinical conditions. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out to determine the effects of melatonin on sleep in COPD. Thirty consecutive patients with moderate to very severe COPD were initially recruited for the study. None of the participants had a history of disease exacerbation 4 weeks prior to the study, obstructive sleep apnea, mental disorders, current use of oral steroids, methylxanthines or hypnotic-sedative medication, nocturnal oxygen therapy, and shift work. Patients received 3 mg melatonin (N = 12) or placebo (N = 13), orally in a single dose, 1 h before bedtime for 21 consecutive days. Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and daytime sleepiness was measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Pulmonary function and functional exercise level were assessed by spirometry and the 6-min walk test, respectively. Twenty-five patients completed the study protocol and were included in the final analysis. Melatonin treatment significantly improved global PSQI scores (P = 0.012), particularly sleep latency (P = 0.008) and sleep duration (P = 0.046). No differences in daytime sleepiness, lung function and functional exercise level were observed. We conclude that melatonin can improve sleep in COPD. Further long-term studies involving larger number of patients are needed before melatonin can be safely recommended for the management of sleep disturbances in these patients.
  • Restless leg syndrome, sleep quality and fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients XI Congresso Brasileiro do Sono, Fortaleza, CR, Brazil, November 11-14, 2007

    Moreira, N.C.V.; Damasceno, R.S.; Medeiros, C.A.M.; de Bruin, P.F.C.; Teixeira, C.A.C.; Horta, W.G.; de Bruin, V.M.S.

    Abstract in English:

    We have tested the hypothesis that restless leg syndrome (RLS) is related to quality of sleep, fatigue and clinical disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). The diagnosis of RLS used the four minimum criteria defined by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Fatigue was assessed by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS >27), quality of sleep by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI >6), excessive daytime sleepiness by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS >10) and clinical disability by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Forty-four patients (32 women) aged 14 to 64 years (43 ± 14) with disease from 0.4 to 23 years (6.7 ± 5.9) were evaluated. Thirty-five were classified as relapsing-remitting, 5 as primary progressive and 4 as secondary progressive. EDSS varied from 0 to 8.0 (3.6 ± 2.0). RLS was detected in 12 cases (27%). Patients with RLS presented greater disability (P = 0.01), poorer sleep (P = 0.02) and greater levels of fatigue (P = 0.03). Impaired sleep was present in 23 (52%) and excessive daytime sleepiness in 3 cases (6.8%). Fatigue was present in 32 subjects (73%) and was associated with clinical disability (P = 0.000) and sleep quality (P = 0.002). Age, gender, disease duration, MS pattern, excessive daytime sleepiness and the presence of upper motor neuron signs were not associated with the presence of RLS. Fatigue was best explained by clinical disability and poor sleep quality. Awareness of RLS among health care professionals may contribute to improvement in MS management.
  • Delta sleep instability in children with chronic arthritis XI Congresso Brasileiro do Sono, Fortaleza, CR, Brazil, November 11-14, 2007

    Lopes, M.C.; Guilleminault, C.; Rosa, A.; Passarelli, C.; Roizenblatt, S.; Tufik, S.

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the expression of a cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in slow wave sleep (SWS) in children with the well-defined chronic syndrome juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Twelve patients (9-17 years of age), 7 girls, with JIA were compared to matched controls by age, pubertal stage and gender. After one night of habituation in the sleep laboratory, sleep measurements were obtained by standard polysomnography with conventional sleep scoring and additional CAP analyses. The sleep parameters of the JIA and control groups were similar for sleep efficiency (91.1 ± 6.7 vs 95.8 ± 4.0), sleep stage in minutes: stage 1 (16.8 ± 8.5 vs 17.8 ± 4.0), stage 2 (251.9 ± 41 vs 262.8 ± 38.1), stage 3 (17.0 ± 6.0 vs 15.1 ± 5.7), stage 4 (61.0 ± 21.7 vs 77.1 ± 20.4), and rapid eye movement sleep (82.0 ± 27.6 vs 99.0 ± 23.9), respectively. JIA patients presented nocturnal disrupted sleep, with an increase in short awakenings, but CAP analyses showed that sleep disruption was present even during SWS, showing an increase in the overall CAP rate (P < 0.01). Overall CAP rate during non-rapid eye movement sleep was significantly higher in pediatric patients who were in chronic pain. This is the first study of CAP in pediatric patients with chronic arthritis showing that CAP analyses can be a powerful tool for the investigation of disturbance of SWS in children, based on sleep EEG visual analysis.
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