Abstract in English:Acid-base homeostasis maintains systemic arterial pH within a narrow range. Whereas the normal range of pH for clinical laboratories is 7.35-7.45, in vivo pH is maintained within a much narrower range. In clinical and experimental settings, blood pH can vary in response to respiratory or renal impairment. This altered pH promotes changes in vascular smooth muscle tone with impact on circulation and blood pressure control. Changes in pH can be divided into those occurring in the extracellular space (pHo) and those occurring within the intracellular space (pHi), although, extracellular and intracellular compartments influence each other. Consistent with the multiple events involved in the changes in tone produced by altered pHo, including type of vascular bed, several factors and mechanisms, in addition to hydrogen ion concentration, have been suggested to be involved. The scientific literature has many reports concerning acid-base balance and endothelium function, but these concepts are not clear about acid-base disorders and their relations with the three known mechanisms of endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity: nitric oxide (NO/cGMP-dependent), prostacyclin (PGI2/cAMP-dependent) and hyperpolarization. During the last decades, many studies have been published and have given rise to confronting data on acid-base disorder and endothelial function. Therefore, the main proposal of this review is to provide a critical analysis of the state of art and incentivate researchers to develop more studies about these issues.
Abstract in English:The balance of body fluids is critical to health and the development of diseases. Although quite a few review papers have shown that several mechanisms, including hormonal and behavioral regulation, play an important role in body fluid homeostasis in adults, there is limited information on the development of regulatory mechanisms for fetal body fluid balance. Hormonal, renal, and behavioral control of body fluids function to some extent in utero. Hormonal mechanisms including the renin-angiotensin system, aldosterone, and vasopressin are involved in modifying fetal renal excretion, reabsorption of sodium and water, and regulation of vascular volume. In utero behavioral changes, such as fetal swallowing, have been suggested to be early functional development in response to dipsogens. Since diseases, such as hypertension, can be traced to fetal origin, it is important to understand the development of fetal regulatory mechanisms for body fluid homeostasis in this early stage of life. This review focuses on fetal hormonal, behavioral, and renal development related to regulation of body fluids in utero.
Abstract in English:A novel, rapid and cost-effective trifluoperazine dihydrochloride (TFPH) decolorization assay is described for the screening of antioxidant activity. A chromogenic reaction between TFPH and potassium persulfate at low pH produces an orange-red radical cation with maximum absorption at 502 nm in its first-order derivative spectrum. TFPH was dissolved in distilled water to give a 100 mM solution. The TFPH radical cation solution was made by reacting 0.5 mL of the solution with K2S2O8 (final concentration: 0.1 mM) and diluting to 100 mL with 4 M H2SO4 solution. A linear inhibition of color production was observed with linearly increasing amounts of antioxidants, with correlation coefficients (R²) ranging from 0.999 to 0.983. The antioxidant capacity of standard solutions of an antioxidant was evaluated by comparing with the inhibition curve using Trolox as the standard. Comparison of antioxidant capacity determined with this newly developed TFPH assay and with the well-known 2,2'-azinobis-[3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] (ABTS)-persulfate decolorization assay indicated the efficacy and sensitivity of the procedure. The proposed assay is less expensive (costs about US$4 per 100 assays) and requires only 20 min for preparation of radical cation solution in comparison with ABTS assay, in which almost 12-16 h are required for preparation of a stable ABTS radical cation solution. The present assay has the advantage over ABTS assay that it can be used to measure the antioxidant activity of the samples, which are naturally found at a pH as low as 1, because the radical cation itself has been stabilized at low pH.
Abstract in English:Apolipoprotein CIII (apo-CIII) participates in the regulation of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism. Several polymorphic sites have been detected within and around the apo-CIII gene. Here, we examined the relationship between apo-CIII SstI polymorphism (CC, CG, GG genotypes) and plasma triglyceride (TG) levels in a group of 159 Japanese individuals living in Southern Brazil. The sample was divided into a group of Japanese descendants (N = 51) with high TG (HTG; >200 mg/dL) and a group of Japanese descendants (N = 108) with normal TG (NTG; <200 mg/dL). TG and total cholesterol levels were analyzed by an enzymatic method using the Labtest-Diagnostic kit and high- and low-density lipoproteins by a direct method using the Labtest-Diagnostic kit and DiaSys Diagnostic System International kit, respectively. A 428-bp sequence of apo-CIII gene was amplified using oligonucleotide primers 5' GGT GAC CGA TGG CTT CAG TTC CCT GA 3' and 5' CAG AAG GTG GAT AGA GCG CTG GCC T 3'. The PCR products were digested with a restriction endonuclease SstI. Rare G allele was highly prevalent in our study population (0.416) compared to Caucasians (0.00-0.11). G allele was almost two times more prevalent in the HTG group compared to the NTG group (P < 0.001). The genotype distribution was consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There was a significant association between rare G allele and HTG in Japanese individuals living in Southern Brazil as indicated by one-way ANOVA, P < 0.05.
Abstract in English:Association studies between ADIPOR1 genetic variants and predisposition to type 2 diabetes (DM2) have provided contradictory results. We determined if two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP c.-8503G>A and SNP c.10225C>G) in regulatory regions of ADIPOR1 in 567 Brazilian individuals of European (EA; N = 443) or African (AfA; N = 124) ancestry from rural (quilombo remnants; N = 439) and urban (N = 567) areas. We detected a significant effect of ethnicity on the distribution of the allelic frequencies of both SNPs in these populations (EA: -8503A = 0.27; AfA: -8503A = 0.16; P = 0.001 and EA: 10225G = 0.35; AfA: 10225G = 0.51; P < 0.001). Neither of the polymorphisms were associated with DM2 in the case-control study in EA (SNP c.-8503G>A: DM2 group -8503A = 0.26; control group -8503A = 0.30; P = 0.14/SNP 10225C>G: DM2 group 10225G = 0.37; control group 10225G = 0.32; P = 0.40) and AfA populations (SNP c.-8503G>A: DM2 group -8503A = 0.16; control group -8503A = 0.15; P = 0.34/SNP 10225C>G: DM2 group 10225G = 0.51; control group 10225G = 0.52; P = 0.50). Similarly, none of the polymorphisms were associated with metabolic/anthropometric risk factors for DM2 in any of the three populations, except for HDL cholesterol, which was significantly higher in AfA heterozygotes (GC = 53.75 ± 17.26 mg/dL) than in homozygotes. We conclude that ADIPOR1 polymorphisms are unlikely to be major risk factors for DM2 or for metabolic/anthropometric measurements that represent risk factors for DM2 in populations of European and African ancestries.
Abstract in English:The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay is one of the standard cytogenetic tools employed to assess chromosomal damage subsequent to exposure to genotoxic/cytotoxic agents, and is widely applicable to plant, animal and human cells. In the present study, the CBMN assay was used to assess the baseline damage in binuclear human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to 25 µg/L p,p'-DDT for 1, 2, 24, and 48 h by measuring the frequency of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds. These new scoring criteria facilitated the detection of different types of clastogenic and aneugenic effects induced by this type of pollutant. With these criteria, CBMN can also be used to measure nucleoplasmic bridges which are considered to be consequences of chromosome rearrangements and nuclear buds which are biomarkers of altered gene amplification and gene dosage. The total number of micronuclei observed in binuclear human peripheral blood lymphocytes of the exposed samples (ranging from 32 to 47) was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than that detected in the unexposed (0 time) control sample, where the total number of micronuclei was 7. The number of nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds obtained after 24 and 48 h was also significantly (P < 0.05) greater in the samples treated with p,p'-DDT than in the unexposed control samples. Thus, our results confirmed the usefulness of the new criteria applicable for the CBMN assay employed in measuring the DNA damage and its role of a sensitive cytogenetic biomarker.
Abstract in English:Studies have shown a time-of-day of training effect on long-term explicit memory with a greater effect being shown in the afternoon than in the morning. However, these studies did not control the chronotype variable. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess if the time-of-day effect on explicit memory would continue if this variable were controlled, in addition to identifying the occurrence of a possible synchronic effect. A total of 68 undergraduates were classified as morning, intermediate, or afternoon types. The subjects listened to a list of 10 words during the training phase and immediately performed a recognition task, a procedure which they repeated twice. One week later, they underwent an unannounced recognition test. The target list and the distractor words were the same in all series. The subjects were allocated to two groups according to acquisition time: a morning group (N = 32), and an afternoon group (N = 36). One week later, some of the subjects in each of these groups were subjected to a test in the morning (N = 35) or in the afternoon (N = 33). The groups had similar chronotypes. Long-term explicit memory performance was not affected by test time-of-day or by chronotype. However, there was a training time-of-day effect [F (1,56) = 53.667; P = 0.009] with better performance for those who trained in the afternoon. Our data indicated that the advantage of training in the afternoon for long-term memory performance does not depend on chronotype and also that this performance is not affected by the synchronic effect.
Abstract in English:The objective of the present study was to determine the acute effect of hemodialysis on endothelial venous function and oxidative stress. We studied 9 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), 36.8 ± 3.0 years old, arterial pressure 133.8 ± 6.8/80.0 ± 5.0 mmHg, time on dialysis 55.0 ± 16.6 months, immediately before and after a hemodialysis session, and 10 healthy controls matched for age and gender. Endothelial function was assessed by the dorsal hand vein technique using graded local infusion of acetylcholine (endothelium-dependent venodilation, EDV) and sodium nitroprusside (endothelium-independent venodilation). Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring protein oxidative damage (carbonyls) and antioxidant defense (total radical trapping antioxidant potential - TRAP) in blood samples. All patients were receiving recombinant human erythropoietin for at least 3 months and were not taking nitrates or a-receptor antagonists. EDV was significantly lower in ESRD patients before hemodialysis (65.6 ± 10.5) vs controls (109.6 ± 10.8; P = 0.010) and after hemodialysis (106.6 ± 15.7; P = 0.045). Endothelium-independent venodilation was similar in all comparisons performed. The hemodialysis session significantly decreased TRAP (402.0 ± 53.5 vs 157.1 ± 28.3 U Trolox/µL plasma; P = 0.001). There was no difference in protein damage comparing ESRD patients before and after hemodialysis. The magnitude of change in the EDV was correlated negatively with the magnitude of change in TRAP (r = -0.70; P = 0.037). These results suggest that a hemodialysis session improves endothelial venous function, in association with an antioxidant effect.
Abstract in English:Hepatitis C, a worldwide viral infection, is an important health problem in Brazil. The virus causes chronic infection, provoking B lymphocyte dysfunction, as represented by cryoglobulinemia, non-organ-specific autoantibody production, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The aim of this research was to screen for the presence of antiphospholipid autoantibodies in 109 Brazilian hepatitis C virus carriers without clinical history of antiphospholipid syndrome. Forty healthy individuals were used as the control group. IgA, IgG, and IgM antibodies against cardiolipin and β2-glycoprotein I were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, using a cut-off point of either 20 UPL or 20 SBU. While 24 (22.0%) hepatitis C carriers had moderate titers of IgM anticardiolipin antibodies (median, 22.5 MPL; 95%CI: 21.5-25.4 MPL), only three carriers (<3%) had IgG anticardiolipin antibodies (median, 23 GPL; 95%CI: 20.5-25.5 GPL). Furthermore, IgA anticardiolipin antibodies were not detected in these individuals. Male gender and IgM anticardiolipin seropositivity were associated in the hepatitis C group (P = 0.0004). IgA anti-β2-glycoprotein-I antibodies were detected in 29 of 109 (27.0%) hepatitis C carriers (median, 41 SAU; 95%CI: 52.7-103.9 SAU). Twenty patients (18.0%) had IgM anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies (median, 27.6 SMU; 95%CI: 23.3-70.3 SMU), while two patients had IgG antibodies against this protein (titers, 33 and 78 SGU). Antiphospholipid antibodies were detected in only one healthy individual, who was seropositive for IgM anticardiolipin. We concluded that Brazilian individuals chronically infected with hepatitis C virus present a significant production of antiphospholipid antibodies, mainly IgA anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies, which are not associated with clinical manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome.
Abstract in English:The objective of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of the shared epitope (SE), the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) protection model, and the occurrence of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies in RA patients from a genetically diverse population. One hundred and forty Brazilian RA patients and 161 matched controls were typed for HLA-DRB1 alleles using amplified DNA hybridized with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes or primers. Patients were stratified according to the presence or absence of SE (DRB1*0401, *0404, *0405, *0101, *1001, and *1402), of the DERAA alleles (DRB1*0103, *0402, *1102, *1103, *1301, *1302, and *1304), and X (all other alleles). Anti-CCP antibodies were measured by ELISA. The combined frequency of SE-positive alleles was significantly greater (76.4 vs 23.6%, P < 0.0001) than the controls. The SE/SE and SE/X genotypes were over-represented (P < 0.0001, OR = 6.02) and DERAA/X was under-represented in RA patients (P < 0.001, OR = 0.49), whereas the frequencies of the SE/DERAA, X/X and X/DERAA genotypes were not significantly different from controls. The frequency of anti-CCP antibodies was higher in SE-positive patients than in SE-negative patients (64.6 vs 44.7%, P = 0.03; OR = 2.25). Although the Brazilian population is highly miscegenated, the results of this study support the findings observed in most genetically homogeneous populations with RA; however, they are not mutually exclusive but rather complementary. The participation of DRB1-DERAA alleles in protection against RA was also observed (OR = 0.4; 95%CI = 0.23-0.68).
Abstract in English:The higher incidence of cardiovascular events in the morning is accompanied by an increased vascular tone. However, there are few published studies designed to evaluate the diurnal variation of vascular and endothelial parameters in healthy subjects. In the present investigation, we evaluated the diurnal variation in brachial artery diameter (BAD), flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and endothelium-independent dilation (NFMD) in a homogeneous sample of healthy non-smoker young men. Fifty subjects aged 20.8 ± 0.3 years (range: 18 to 25 years) were investigated by brachial artery ultrasound. Exclusion criteria were female gender and evidence of clinically significant health problems, including obesity. Volunteers were asked to rest and avoid fat meals as well as alcoholic beverages 48 h before and until completion of the evaluations. BAD, FMD and NFMD were measured at 7 am, 5 pm, and 10 pm and tested by repeated measures ANOVA. BAD was smaller at 7 am (mean ± SEM, 3.8 ± 0.1 mm) in comparison with 5 pm (3.9 ± 0.1) and 10 pm (4.0 ± 0.1 mm; P < 0.001). FMD values did not change significantly during the day, while NFMD increased more at 7 am (18.5 ± 1.1%), when compared to 15.5 ± 0.9% at 10 pm and 15.5 ± 0.9% at 5 pm (P = 0.04). The physiological state of vasoconstriction after awakening, with preserved capability to dilate in the morning, should be considered to be part of the healthy cardiovascular adaptation before considering later life risk factors and endothelial dysfunction.
Abstract in English:Mouse PNAS-4 (mPNAS-4) has 96% identity with human PNAS-4 (hPNAS-4) in primary sequence and has been reported to be involved in the apoptotic response to DNA damage. However, there have been no studies reported of the biological functions of mPNAS-4. In studies conducted by our group (unpublished data), it was interesting to note that overexpression of mPNAS-4 promoted apoptotic death in Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LL2) and colon carcinoma cells (CT26) of mice both in vitro and in vivo. In our studies, mPNAS-4 was cloned into the pGEX-6P-1 vector with GST tag at N-terminal in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). The soluble and insoluble expression of recombinant protein mPNAS-4 (rmPNAS-4) was temperature-dependent. The majority of rmPNAS-4 was insoluble at 37°C, while it was almost exclusively expressed in soluble form at 20°C. The soluble rmPNAS-4 was purified by one-step affinity purification, using a glutathione Sepharose 4B column. The rmPNAS-4 protein was further identified by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analysis. The search parameters of the parent and fragment mass error tolerance were set at 0.1 and 0.05 kDa, respectively, and the sequence coverage of search result was 28%. The purified rmPNAS-4 was further used as immunogen to raise polyclonal antibodies in New Zealand white rabbit, which were suitable to detect both the recombinant and the endogenous mPNAS-4 in mouse brain tissue and LL2 cells after immunoblotting and/or immunostaining. The purified rmPNAS-4 and our prepared anti-mPNAS-4 polyclonal antibodies may provide useful tools for future biological function studies for mPNAS.
Abstract in English:Our aim was to determine the frequencies of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene alleles D and I and any associations to cardiovascular risk factors in a population sample from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Eighty-four adults were selected consecutively during a 6-month period from a cohort subgroup of a previous large cross-sectional survey in Rio de Janeiro. Anthropometric data and blood pressure measurements, echocardiogram, albuminuria, glycemia, lipid profile, and ACE genotype and serum enzyme activity were determined. The frequency of the ACE*D and I alleles in the population under study, determined by PCR, was 0.59 and 0.41, respectively, and the frequencies of the DD, DI, and II genotypes were 0.33, 0.51, and 0.16, respectively. No association between hypertension and genotype was detected using the Kruskal-Wallis method. Mean plasma ACE activity (U/mL) in the DD (N = 28), DI (N = 45) and II (N = 13) groups was 43 (in males) and 52 (in females), 37 and 39, and 22 and 27, respectively; mean microalbuminuria (mg/dL) was 1.41 and 1.6, 0.85 and 0.9, and 0.6 and 0.63, respectively; mean HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) was 40 and 43, 37 and 45, and 41 and 49, respectively, and mean glucose (mg/dL) was 93 and 108, 107 and 98, and 85 and 124, respectively. A high level of ACE activity and albuminuria, and a low level of HDL cholesterol and glucose, were found to be associated with the DD genotype. Finally, the II genotype was found to be associated with variables related to glucose intolerance.
Abstract in English:During pregnancy and protein restriction, changes in serum insulin and leptin levels, food intake and several metabolic parameters normally result in enhanced adiposity. We evaluated serum leptin and insulin levels and their correlations with some predictive obesity variables in Wistar rats (90 days), up to the 14th day of pregnancy: control non-pregnant (N = 5) and pregnant (N = 7) groups (control diet: 17% protein), and low-protein non-pregnant (N = 5) and pregnant (N = 6) groups (low-protein diet: 6%). Independent of the protein content of the diet, pregnancy increased total (F1,19 = 22.28, P < 0.001) and relative (F1,19 = 5.57, P < 0.03) food intake, the variation of weight (F1,19 = 49.79, P < 0.000) and final body weight (F1,19 = 19.52, P < 0.001), but glycemia (F1,19 = 9.02, P = 0.01) and the relative weight of gonadal adipose tissue (F1,19 = 17.11, P < 0.001) were decreased. Pregnancy (F1,19 = 18.13, P < 0.001) and low-protein diet (F1,19 = 20.35, P < 0.001) increased the absolute weight of brown adipose tissue. However, the relative weight of this tissue was increased only by protein restriction (F1,19 = 15.20, P < 0.001) and the relative lipid in carcass was decreased in low-protein groups (F1,19 = 4.34, P = 0.05). Serum insulin and leptin levels were similar among groups and did not correlate with food intake. However, there was a positive relationship between serum insulin levels and carcass fat depots in low-protein groups (r = 0.37, P < 0.05), while in pregnancy serum leptin correlated with weight of gonadal (r = 0.39, P < 0.02) and retroperitoneal (r = 0.41, P < 0.01) adipose tissues. Unexpectedly, protein restriction during 14 days of pregnancy did not alter the serum profile of adiposity signals and their effects on food intake and adiposity, probably due to the short term of exposure to low-protein diet.
Abstract in English:Type 2 diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality and these patients, even without previous myocardial infarction, run the risk of fatal coronary heart disease similar to non-diabetic patients surviving myocardial infarction. There is evidence showing that particulate matter air pollution is associated with increases in cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of diabetes mellitus on the association of air pollution with cardiovascular emergency room visits in a tertiary referral hospital in the city of São Paulo. Using a time-series approach, and adopting generalized linear Poisson regression models, we assessed the effect of daily variations in PM10, CO, NO2, SO2, and O3 on the daily number of emergency room visits for cardiovascular diseases in diabetic and non-diabetic patients from 2001 to 2003. A semi-parametric smoother (natural spline) was adopted to control long-term trends, linear term seasonal usage and weather variables. In this period, 45,000 cardiovascular emergency room visits were registered. The observed increase in interquartile range within the 2-day moving average of 8.0 µg/m³ SO2 was associated with 7.0% (95%CI: 4.0-11.0) and 20.0% (95%CI: 5.0-44.0) increases in cardiovascular disease emergency room visits by non-diabetic and diabetic groups, respectively. These data indicate that air pollution causes an increase of cardiovascular emergency room visits, and that diabetic patients are extremely susceptible to the adverse effects of air pollution on their health conditions.
Abstract in English:The availability of HIV-1 genotype resistance testing (GRT) to clinicians has been insufficiently studied outside randomized clinical trials. The present study evaluated the outcome of salvage antiretroviral therapy (ART) recommended by an expert physician based on GRT in a non-clinical trial setting in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. A prospective, open, nonrandomized study evaluating easy access to GRT at six Brazilian AIDS Clinics was carried out. This cooperative study analyzed the efficacy of treatment recommended to patients whose salvage ART was guided by GRT with that of treatment with ART based only on previous ART history. A total of 112 patients with ART failure were included in the study, and 77 of them were submitted to GRT. The median CD4 cell count and viral load for these 77 patients at baseline were (mean ± SD) 252.1 ± 157.4 cells/µL and 4.60 ± 0.5 log10 HIV RNA copies/mL, respectively. The access time, i.e., the time elapsed between ordering the GRT and receiving the result was, on average, 71.9 ± 37.3 days. The study results demonstrated that access to GRT followed by expert recommendations did not improve the time to persistent treatment failure when compared to conventional salvage ART. Access to GRT in this Brazilian community health care setting did not improve the long-term virologic outcomes of HIV-infected patients experiencing treatment failure. This result is probably related to the long time required to implement ART guided by GRT.
Abstract in English:Gastric cancer is the forth most frequent malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide. DNA methylation is the most studied epigenetic alteration, occurring through a methyl radical addition to the cytosine base adjacent to guanine. Many tumor genes are inactivated by DNA methylation in gastric cancer. We evaluated the DNA methylation status of ANAPC1, CDKN2A and TP53 by methylation-specific PCR in 20 diffuse- and 26 intestinal-type gastric cancer samples and 20 normal gastric mucosa in individuals from Northern Brazil. All gastric cancer samples were advanced stage adenocarcinomas. Gastric samples were surgically obtained at the João de Barros Barreto University Hospital, State of Pará, and were stored at -80°C before DNA extraction. Patients had never been submitted to chemotherapy or radiotherapy, nor did they have any other diagnosed cancer. None of the gastric cancer samples presented methylated DNA sequences for ANAPC1 and TP53. CDKN2A methylation was not detected in any normal gastric mucosa; however, the CDKN2A promoter was methylated in 30.4% of gastric cancer samples, with 35% methylation in diffuse-type and 26.9% in intestinal-type cancers. CDKN2A methylation was associated with the carcinogenesis process for ~30% diffuse-type and intestinal-type compared to non-neoplastic samples. Thus, ANAPC1 and TP53 methylation was probably not implicated in gastric carcinogenesis in our samples. CDKN2A can be implicated in the carcinogenesis process of only a subset of gastric neoplasias.