Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Volume: 43, Issue: 7, Published: 2010
  • Autonomic control of cardiorespiratory interactions in fish, amphibians and reptiles Review

    Taylor, E.W.; Leite, C.A.C.; Skovgaard, N.

    Abstract in English:

    Control of the heart rate and cardiorespiratory interactions (CRI) is predominantly parasympathetic in all jawed vertebrates, with the sympathetic nervous system having some influence in tetrapods. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been described as a solely mammalian phenomenon but respiration-related beat-to-beat control of the heart has been described in fish and reptiles. Though they are both important, the relative roles of feed-forward central control and peripheral reflexes in generating CRI vary between groups of fishes and probably between other vertebrates. CRI may relate to two locations for the vagal preganglionic neurons (VPN) and in particular cardiac VPN in the brainstem. This has been described in representatives from all vertebrate groups, though the proportion in each location is variable. Air-breathing fishes, amphibians and reptiles breathe discontinuously and the onset of a bout of breathing is characteristically accompanied by an immediate increase in heart rate plus, in the latter two groups, a left-right shunting of blood through the pulmonary circuit. Both the increase in heart rate and opening of a sphincter on the pulmonary artery are due to withdrawal of vagal tone. An increase in heart rate following a meal in snakes is related to withdrawal of vagal tone plus a non-adrenergic-non-cholinergic effect that may be due to humoral factors released by the gut. Histamine is one candidate for this role.
  • Helicobacter pylori adhesion to gastric epithelial cells is mediated by glycan receptors Review

    Magalhães, A.; Reis, C.A.

    Abstract in English:

    Helicobacter pylori adhesion to gastric epithelial cells constitutes a key step in the establishment of a successful infection of the gastric mucosa. The high representation of outer membrane proteins in the bacterial genome suggests the relevance of those proteins in the establishment of profitable interactions with the host gastric cells. Gastric epithelial cells are protected by a mucous layer gel, mainly consisting of the MUC5AC and MUC6 mucins. In addition to this protective role, mucins harbor glycan-rich domains that constitute preferential binding sites of many pathogens. In this article we review the main players in the process of H. pylori adhesion to gastric epithelial cells, which contribute decisively to the high prevalence and chronicity of H. pylori infection. The BabA adhesin recognizes both H-type 1 and Lewis b blood-group antigens expressed on normal gastric mucosa of secretor individuals, contributing to the initial steps of infection. Upon colonization, persistent infection induces an inflammatory response with concomitant expression of sialylated antigens. The SabA adhesin mediates H. pylori binding to inflamed gastric mucosa by recognizing sialyl-Lewis a and sialyl-Lewis x antigens. The expression of the BabA and SabA adhesins is tightly regulated, permitting the bacteria to rapidly adapt to the changes of glycosylation of the host gastric mucosa that occur during infection, as well as to escape from the inflammatory response. The growing knowledge of the interactions between the bacterial adhesins and the host receptors will contribute to the design of alternative strategies for eradication of the infection.
  • The role of micro-ribonucleic acids in normal hematopoiesis and leukemic T-lymphogenesis Review

    Slavov, S.N.; Gimenes Teixeira, H.L.; Rego, E.M.

    Abstract in English:

    Micro-ribonucleic acids (microRNAs) are small molecules containing 20-23 nucleotides. Despite their small size, it is likely that almost every cellular process is regulated by them. Moreover, aberrant microRNA expression has been involved in the development of various diseases, including cancer. Although many data are available about the role of microRNAs in various lymphoproliferative disorders, their impact on the development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia of T-cell progenitors is largely unknown. In this review, we present recent information about how specific microRNAs are expressed and regulated during malignant T-lymphopoiesis and about their role during normal hematopoiesis.
  • Quantitative evaluation of experimental choroidal neovascularization by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy: fluorescein angiogram parallels heparan sulfate proteoglycan expression Biochemistry And Molecular Biology

    Regatieri, C.V.; Dreyfuss, J.L.; Melo, G.B.; Lavinsky, D.; Hossaka, S.K.; Rodrigues, E.B.; Farah, M.E.; Maia, M.; Nader, H.B.

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of the present study was to develop a quantitative method to evaluate laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a rat model using Heidelberg Retina Angiograph 2 (HRA2) imaging. The expression of two heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) related to inflammation and angiogenesis was also investigated. CNV lesions were induced with argon laser in 21 heterozygous Zucker rats and after three weeks a fluorescein angiogram and autofluorescence exams were performed using HRA2. The area and greatest linear dimension were measured by two observers not aware of the protocol. Bland-Altman plots showed agreement between the observers, suggesting that the technique was reproducible. After fluorescein angiogram, HSPG (perlecan and syndecan-4) were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. There was a significant increase in the expression of perlecan and syndecan-4 (P < 0.0001) in retinas bearing CNV lesions compared to control retinas. The expression of these two HSPG increased with increasing CNV area. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the rat retina damaged with laser shots presented increased expression of perlecan and syndecan-4. Moreover, we observed that the overexpression occurred in the outer layer of the retina, which is related to choroidal damage. It was possible to develop a standardized quantitative method to evaluate CNV in a rat model using HRA2. In addition, we presented data indicating that the expression of HSPG parallels the area of CNV lesion. The understanding of these events offers opportunities for studies of new therapeutic interventions targeting these HSPG.
  • Death switch for gene therapy: application to erythropoietin transgene expression Biochemistry And Molecular Biology

    Souza, D.S.; Spencer, D.M.; Salles, T.S.I.; Salomão, M.A.; Payen, E.; Beuzard, Y.; Carvalho, H.F.; Costa, F.F.; Saad, S.T.Olalla

    Abstract in English:

    The effectiveness of the caspase-9-based artificial "death switch" as a safety measure for gene therapy based on the erythropoietin (Epo) hormone was tested in vitro and in vivo using the chemical inducer of dimerization, AP20187. Plasmids encoding the dimeric murine Epo, the tetracycline-controlled transactivator and inducible caspase 9 (ptet-mEpoD, ptet-tTAk and pSH1/Sn-E-Fv’-Fvls-casp9-E, respectively) were used in this study. AP20187 induced apoptosis of iCasp9-modified C2C12 myoblasts. In vivo, two groups of male C57BI/6 mice, 8-12 weeks old, were injected intramuscularly with 5 µg/50 g ptet-mEpoD and 0.5 µg/50 g ptet-tTAk. There were 20 animals in group 1 and 36 animals in group 2. Animals from group 2 were also injected with the 6 µg/50 g iCasp9 plasmid. Seventy percent of the animals showed an increase in hematocrit of more than 65% for more than 15 weeks. AP20187 administration significantly reduced hematocrit and plasma Epo levels in 30% of the animals belonging to group 2. TUNEL-positive cells were detected in the muscle of at least 50% of the animals treated with AP20187. Doxycycline administration was efficient in controlling Epo secretion in both groups. We conclude that inducible caspase 9 did not interfere with gene transfer, gene expression or tetracycline control and may be used as a safety mechanism for gene therapy. However, more studies are necessary to improve the efficacy of this technique, for example, the use of lentivirus vector.
  • Leukotrienes are not essential for the efficacy of a heterologous vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection Immunology

    Franco, L.H.; Paula, M. Oliveira e; Wowk, P.F.; Fonseca, D.M. da; Sérgio, C.A.; Fedatto, P.F.; Gembre, A.F.; Ramos, S.G.; Silva, C.L.; Medeiros, A.I.; Faccioli, L.H.; Bonato, V.L.D.

    Abstract in English:

    Leukotrienes are reported to be potent proinflammatory mediators that play a role in the development of several inflammatory diseases such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease. Leukotrienes have also been associated with protection against infectious diseases. However, the role of leukotrienes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is not understood. To answer this question, we studied the role of leukotrienes in the protective immune response conferred by prime-boost heterologous immunization against tuberculosis. We immunized BALB/c mice (4-11/group) with subcutaneous BCG vaccine (1 x 10(5) M. bovis BCG) (prime) followed by intramuscular DNA-HSP65 vaccine (100 µg) (boost). During the 30 days following the challenge, the animals were treated by gavage daily with MK-886 (5 mg·kg-1·day-1) to inhibit leukotriene synthesis. We showed that MK-886-treated mice were more susceptible to M. tuberculosis infection by counting the number of M. tuberculosis colony-forming units in lungs. The histopathological analysis showed an impaired influx of leukocytes to the lungs of MK-886-treated mice after infection, confirming the involvement of leukotrienes in the protective immune response against experimental tuberculosis. However, prime-boost-immunized mice treated with MK-886 remained protected after challenge with M. tuberculosis, suggesting that leukotrienes are not required for the protective effect elicited by immunization. Protection against M. tuberculosis challenge achieved by prime-boost immunization in the absence of leukotrienes was accompanied by an increase in IL-17 production in the lungs of these animals, as measured by ELISA. Therefore, these data suggest that the production of IL-17 in MK-886-treated, immunized mice could contribute to the generation of a protective immune response after infection with M. tuberculosis.
  • Repeated exposure of adolescent rats to oral methylphenidate does not induce behavioral sensitization or cross-sensitization to nicotine Neurosciences And Behavior

    Justo, C.C.; Carneiro-de-Oliveira, P.E.; DeLucia, R.; Aizenstein, M.L.; Planeta, C.S.

    Abstract in English:

    Several lines of evidence indicate that the use of stimulant drugs, including methylphenidate (MPD), increases tobacco smoking. This has raised concerns that MPD use during adolescence could facilitate nicotine abuse. Preclinical studies have shown that repeated treatment with an addictive drug produces sensitization to that drug and usually cross-sensitization to other drugs. Behavioral sensitization has been implicated in the development of drug addiction. We examined whether repeated oral MPD administration during adolescence could induce behavioral sensitization to MPD and long-lasting cross-sensitization to nicotine. Adolescent male Wistar rats were treated orally with 10 mg/kg MPD or saline (SAL) from postnatal day (PND) 27 to 33. To evaluate behavioral sensitization to MPD in adolescent rats (PND 39), the SAL pretreated group was subdivided into two groups that received intragastric SAL (1.0 mL/kg) or MPD (10 mg/kg); MPD pretreated rats received MPD (10 mg/kg). Cross-sensitization was evaluated on PND 39 or PND 70 (adulthood). To this end, SAL- and MPD-pretreated groups received subcutaneous injections of SAL (1.0 mL/kg) or nicotine (0.4 mg/kg). All groups had 8 animals. Immediately after injections, locomotor activity was determined. The locomotor response to MPD challenge of MPD-pretreated rats was not significantly different from that of the SAL-pretreated group. Moreover, the locomotor response of MPD-pretreated rats to nicotine challenge was not significantly different from that of the SAL-pretreated group. This lack of sensitization and cross-sensitization suggests that MPD treatment during adolescence does not induce short- or long-term neuroadaptation in rats that could increase sensitivity to MPD or nicotine.
  • Motor behavioral abnormalities and histopathological findings of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells Neurosciences And Behavior

    Câmara, C.C.; Oriá, R.B.; Felismino, T.C.; Silva, A.P. da; Silva, M.A.M. da; Alcântara, J.V.A.; Costa, S.B.C.; Vicente, A.C.P.; Teixeira-Santos, T.J.; Castro-Costa, C.M. de

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of the present study was to describe motor behavioral changes in association with histopathological and hematological findings in Wistar rats inoculated intravenously with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected MT2 cells. Twenty-five 4-month-old male rats were inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells and 13 control rats were inoculated with normal human lymphocytes. The behavior of the rats was observed before and 5, 10, 15, and 20 months after inoculation during a 30-min/rat testing time for 5 consecutive days. During each of 4 periods, a subset of rats was randomly chosen to be sacrificed in order to harvest the spinal cord for histopathological analysis and to obtain blood for serological and molecular studies. Behavioral analyses of the HTLV-1-inoculated rats showed a significant decrease of climbing, walking and freezing, and an increase of scratching, sniffing, biting, licking, and resting/sleeping. Two of the 25 HTLV-1-inoculated rats (8%) developed spastic paraparesis as a major behavioral change. The histopathological changes were few and mild, but in some cases there was diffuse lymphocyte infiltration. The minor and major behavioral changes occurred after 10-20 months of evolution. The long-term observation of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells showed major (spastic paraparesis) and minor motor abnormalities in association with the degree of HTLV-1-induced myelopathy.
  • Long-term social recognition memory in adult male rats: factor analysis of the social and non-social behaviors Neurosciences And Behavior

    Moura, P.J.; Meirelles, S.T.; Xavier, G.F.

    Abstract in English:

    A modified version of the intruder-resident paradigm was used to investigate if social recognition memory lasts at least 24 h. One hundred and forty-six adult male Wistar rats were used. Independent groups of rats were exposed to an intruder for 0.083, 0.5, 2, 24, or 168 h and tested 24 h after the first encounter with the familiar or a different conspecific. Factor analysis was employed to identify associations between behaviors and treatments. Resident rats exhibited a 24-h social recognition memory, as indicated by a 3- to 5-fold decrease in social behaviors in the second encounter with the same conspecific compared to those observed for a different conspecific, when the duration of the first encounter was 2 h or longer. It was possible to distinguish between two different categories of social behaviors and their expression depended on the duration of the first encounter. Sniffing the anogenital area (49.9% of the social behaviors), sniffing the body (17.9%), sniffing the head (3%), and following the conspecific (3.1%), exhibited mostly by resident rats, characterized social investigation and revealed long-term social recognition memory. However, dominance (23.8%) and mild aggression (2.3%), exhibited by both resident and intruders, characterized social agonistic behaviors and were not affected by memory. Differently, sniffing the environment (76.8% of the non-social behaviors) and rearing (14.3%), both exhibited mostly by adult intruder rats, characterized non-social behaviors. Together, these results show that social recognition memory in rats may last at least 24 h after a 2-h or longer exposure to the conspecific.
  • High prevalence of the GSTM3*A/B polymorphism in sub-Sarahan African populations Pharmacology

    Teixeira, D.; Vargens, D.; Príncipe, A.; Oliveira, E.; Amorim, A.; Prata, M.J.; Suarez-Kurtz, G.

    Abstract in English:

    A 3-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in intron 6 of GSTM3 (rs1799735, GSTM3*A/*B) affects the activity of the phase 2 xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme GSTM3 and has been associated with increased cancer risk. The GSTM3*B allele is rare or absent in Southeast Asians, occurs in 5-20% of Europeans but was detected in 80% of Bantu from South Africa. The wide genetic diversity among Africans led us to investigate whether the high frequency of GSTM3*B prevailed in other sub-Saharan African populations. In 168 healthy individuals from Angola, Mozambique and the São Tomé e Príncipe islands, the GSTM3*B allele was three times more frequent (0.74-0.78) than the GSTM3*A allele (0.22-0.26), with no significant differences in allele frequency across the three groups. We combined these data with previously published results to carry out a multidimensional scaling analysis, which provided a visualization of the worldwide population affinities based on the GSTM3 *A/*B polymorphism.
  • Effect of carotid and aortic baroreceptors on cardiopulmonary reflex: the role of autonomic function Cardiovascular, Respiratory And Sport Medicine

    Fernandes, T.L.; Piratello, A.C.; Farah, V.; Fiorino, P.; Moreira, E.D.; Irigoyen, M.C.; Krieger, E.M.

    Abstract in English:

    We determined the sympathetic and parasympathetic control of heart rate (HR) and the sensitivity of the cardiopulmonary receptors after selective carotid and aortic denervation. We also investigated the participation of the autonomic nervous system in the Bezold-Jarish reflex after selective removal of aortic and carotid baroreceptors. Male Wistar rats (220-270 g) were divided into three groups: control (CG, N = 8), aortic denervation (AG, N = 5) and carotid denervation (CAG, N = 9). AG animals presented increased arterial pressure (12%) and HR (11%) compared with CG, while CAG animals presented a reduction in arterial pressure (16%) and unchanged HR compared with CG. The sequential blockade of autonomic effects by atropine and propranolol indicated a reduction in vagal function in CAG (a 50 and 62% reduction in vagal effect and tonus, respectively) while AG showed an increase of more than 100% in sympathetic control of HR. The Bezold-Jarish reflex was evaluated using serotonin, which induced increased bradycardia and hypotension in AG and CAG, suggesting that the sensitivity of the cardiopulmonary reflex is augmented after selective denervation. Atropine administration abolished the bradycardic responses induced by serotonin in all groups; however, the hypotensive response was still increased in AG. Although the responses after atropine were lower than the responses before the drug, indicating a reduction in vagal outflow after selective denervation, our data suggest that both denervation procedures are associated with an increase in sympathetic modulation of the vessels, indicating that the sensitivity of the cardiopulmonary receptors was modulated by baroreceptor fibers.
  • Effect of metabolic syndrome and of its individual components on renal function of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus Endocrine Diseases, Nutrition And Metabolism

    Moehlecke, M.; Leitão, C.B.; Kramer, C.K.; Rodrigues, T.C.; Nickel, C.; Silveiro, S.P.; Gross, J.L.; Canani, L.H.

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components on the renal function of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). A cross-sectional study was performed in 842 type 2 DM patients. A clinical and laboratory evaluation, including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated by the modification of diet in renal disease formula, was performed. MetS was defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program - Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Mean patient age was 57.9 ± 10.1 years and 313 (37.2%) patients were males. MetS was detected in 662 (78.6%) patients. A progressive reduction in eGFR was observed as the number of individual MetS components increased (one: 98.2 ± 30.8; two: 92.9 ± 28.1; three: 84.0 ± 25.1; four: 83.8 ± 28.5, and five: 79.0 ± 23.0; P < 0.001). MetS increased the risk for low eGFR (<60 mL·min-1·1.73 (m²)-1) 2.82-fold (95%CI = 1.55-5.12, P < 0.001). Hypertension (OR = 2.2, 95%CI = 1.39-3.49, P = 0.001) and hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 1.62, 95%CI = 1.19-2.20, P = 0.002) were the individual components with the strongest associations with low eGFR. In conclusion, there is an association between MetS and the reduction of eGFR in patients with type 2 DM, with hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia being the most important contributors in this sample. Interventional studies should be conducted to determine if treatment of MetS can prevent renal failure in type 2 DM patients.
  • Human papillomavirus detection and p16 methylation pattern in a case of esophageal papilloma Infectious Agents And Diseases

    Afonso, L.A.; Moysés, N.; Cavalcanti, S.M.B.

    Abstract in English:

    Esophageal cancer is a prevalent cancer worldwide. Some studies have reported the possible etiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) in benign and malignant papillomas of the esophagus but the conclusions are controversial. In the present study, we investigated an esophageal papilloma from a 30-year-old male patient presenting aphasia. HPV DNA was detected by generic PCR using MY09/11 primers, and restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed the presence of HPV54, usually associated with benign genital lesions. Hypermethylation of the pINK4A gene was also investigated due to its relation to malignant transformation, but no modification was detected in the host gene. Except for an incipient reflux, no risk factors such as cigarette smoking, alcohol abuse or an infected sexual partner were recorded. Since esophageal lesions may have a malignant potential, HPV detection and typing are useful tools for patient follow-up.
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