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Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Volume: 44, Issue: 10, Published: 2011
  • Effect of high-fat diets on body composition, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and the role of exercise on these parameters Review

    Coelho, D.F.; Pereira-Lancha, L.O.; Chaves, D.S.; Diwan, D.; Ferraz, R.; Campos-Ferraz, P.L.; Poortmans, J.R.; Lancha Junior, A.H.

    Abstract in English:

    Dietary fat composition can interfere in the development of obesity due to the specific roles of some fatty acids that have different metabolic activities, which can alter both fat oxidation and deposition rates, resulting in changes in body weight and/or composition. High-fat diets in general are associated with hyperphagia, but the type of dietary fat seems to be more important since saturated fats are linked to a positive fat balance and omental adipose tissue accumulation when compared to other types of fat, while polyunsaturated fats, omega-3 and omega-6, seem to increase energy expenditure and decrease energy intake by specific mechanisms involving hormone-sensitive lipase, activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and others. Saturated fat intake can also impair insulin sensitivity compared to omega-3 fat, which has the opposite effect due to alterations in cell membranes. Obesity is also associated with impaired mitochondrial function. Fat excess favors the production of malonyl-CoA, which reduces GLUT4 efficiency. The tricarboxylic acid cycle and beta-oxidation are temporarily uncoupled, forming metabolite byproducts that augment reactive oxygen species production. Exercise can restore mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity, which may be crucial for a better prognosis in treating or preventing obesity.
  • Drugs and lifestyle for the treatment and prevention of coronary artery disease: comparative analysis of the scientific basis Review

    da Luz, P.L.; Nishiyama, M.; Chagas, A.C.P.

    Abstract in English:

    In this article, we compare two strategies for atherosclerosis treatment: drugs and healthy lifestyle. Statins are the principal drugs used for the treatment of atherosclerosis. Several secondary prevention studies have demonstrated that statins can significantly reduce cardiovascular events including coronary death, the need for surgical revascularization, stroke, total mortality, as well as fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction. These results were observed in both men and women, the elderly, smokers and non-smokers, diabetics and hypertensives. Primary prevention studies yielded similar results, although total mortality was not affected. Statins also induce atheroma regression and do not cause cancer. However, many unresolved issues remain, such as partial risk reduction, costs, several potential side effects, and long-term use by young patients. Statins act mainly as lipid-lowering drugs but pleiotropic actions are also present. Healthy lifestyle, on the other hand, is effective and inexpensive and has no harmful effects. Five items are associated with lower cardiac risk: non-smoking, BMI ≤25, regular exercise (30 min/day), healthy diet (fruits, vegetables, low-saturated fat, and 5-30 g alcohol/day). Nevertheless, there are difficulties in implementing these measures both at the individual and population levels. Changes in behavior require multidisciplinary care, including medical, nutritional, and psychological counseling. Participation of the entire society is required for such implementation, i.e., universities, schools, media, government, and medical societies. Although these efforts represent a major challenge, such a task must be faced in order to halt the atherosclerosis epidemic that threatens the world.
  • A link between sleep loss, glucose metabolism and adipokines Review

    Padilha, H.G.; Crispim, C.A.; Zimberg, I.Z.; De-Souza, D.A.; Waterhouse, J.; Tufik, S.; de-Mello, M.T

    Abstract in English:

    The present review evaluates the role of sleep and its alteration in triggering problems of glucose metabolism and the possible involvement of adipokines in this process. A reduction in the amount of time spent sleeping has become an endemic condition in modern society, and a search of the current literature has found important associations between sleep loss and alterations of nutritional and metabolic contexts. Studies suggest that sleep loss is associated with problems in glucose metabolism and a higher risk for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism involved may be associated with the decreased efficacy of regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis by negative feedback mechanisms in sleep-deprivation conditions. In addition, changes in the circadian pattern of growth hormone (GH) secretion might also contribute to the alterations in glucose regulation observed during sleep loss. On the other hand, sleep deprivation stress affects adipokines - increasing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and decreasing leptin and adiponectin -, thus establishing a possible association between sleep-debt, adipokines and glucose metabolism. Thus, a modified release of adipokines resulting from sleep deprivation could lead to a chronic sub-inflammatory state that could play a central role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further studies are necessary to investigate the role of sleep loss in adipokine release and its relationship with glucose metabolism.
  • Reference value of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity for the eastern Chinese population and potential influencing factors Cardiovascular, Respiratory And Sport Medicine

    Zi-Sheng, Ai; Jue, Li; Zhong-Min, Liu; Hui-Min, Fan; Zhang, Dai-Fu; Yun, Zhu; Zhang, Li-Juan; Zhu, Wen-Qing; Bao, Yan

    Abstract in English:

    The present study was conducted to obtain reference values for brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and to evaluate influencing factors of baPWV according to gender. Using automatic devices, baPWV was measured simultaneously in 2095 subjects. A total of 647 healthy subjects, none of whom presented atherosclerotic risk factors, were analyzed in the present study. Two different statistical methods were used to obtain reference values for baPWV according to subject gender and age. The association between baPWV value and gender, as well as other features, were analyzed. For male subjects, multiple stepwise analysis showed that age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), and plasma levels of triglycerides (TG) were independent predictors of baPWV. For female subjects, age, SBP, HR, and plasma levels of uric acid (UA) were independent predictors of baPWV. In male subjects, the upper limits of baPWV values were 1497.43/1425.00, 1518.67/1513.25, 1715.97/1726.50, 1925.20/1971.90, and 2310.18/2115.00 cm/s, obtained using two different statistical methods for the age ranges of 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70 and older, respectively. For females, the upper limits of baPWV values were 1426.70/1411.13, 1559.15/1498.95, 1733.50/1739.00, 1958.63/1973.78, and 2720.80/2577.00 cm/s for the age ranges of 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70 and older, respectively. Aging is the most important influencing factor for baPWV value and its effect is more prominent in females. The reference values of baPWV according to age and gender may be useful for the clinical diagnosis and preventive therapy of cardiovascular diseases.
  • Education, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and IL-2 and IL-6 gene polymorphisms in the survival of head and neck cancer Oncology

    López, R.V.M.; Zago, M.A.; Eluf-Neto, J.; Curado, M.P.; Daudt, A.W.; da Silva-Junior, W.A.; Zanette, D.L.; Levi, J.E.; de Carvalho, M.B.; Kowalski, L.P.; Abrahão, M.; de Góis-Filho, J.F.; Boffetta, P.; Wünsch-Filho, V.

    Abstract in English:

    The association of education, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and interleukin-2 (IL-2 +114 and -384) and -6 (IL-6 -174) DNA polymorphisms with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) was investigated in a cohort study of 445 subjects. IL-2 and IL-6 genotypes were determined by real-time PCR. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of disease-specific survival according to anatomical sites of the head and neck. Mean age was 56 years and most patients were males (87.6%). Subjects with 5 or more years of schooling had better survival in larynx cancer. Smoking had no effect on HNSCC survival, but alcohol consumption had a statistically significant effect on larynx cancer. IL-2 gene +114 G/T (HR = 0.52; 95%CI = 0.15-1.81) and T/T (HR = 0.22; 95%CI = 0.02-3.19) genotypes were associated with better survival in hypopharynx cancer. IL-2 +114 G/T was a predictor of poor survival in oral cavity/oropharynx cancer and larynx cancer (HR = 1.32; 95%CI = 0.61-2.85). IL-2 -384 G/T was associated with better survival in oral cavity/oropharynx cancer (HR = 0.80; 95%CI = 0.45-1.42) and hypopharynx cancer (HR = 0.68; 95%CI = 0.21-2.20), but an inverse relationship was observed for larynx cancer. IL-6 -174 G/C was associated with better survival in hypopharynx cancer (HR = 0.68; 95%CI = 0.26-1.78) and larynx cancer (HR = 0.93; 95%CI = 0.42-2.07), and C/C reduced mortality in larynx cancer. In general, our results are similar to previous reports on the value of education, smoking, alcohol consumption, and IL-2 and IL-6 genetic polymorphisms for the prognosis of HNSCC, but the risks due to these variables are small and estimates imprecise.
  • New multilocus sequence typing of MRSA in São Paulo, Brazil Biochemistry And Molecular Biology

    Carmo, M.S.; Inoue, F.; Andrade, S.S.; Paschoal, L.; Silva, F.M.; Oliveira, V.G.S.; Pignatari, A.C.C.

    Abstract in English:

    An increased incidence of nosocomial and community-acquired infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been observed worldwide. The molecular characterization of MRSA has played an important role in demonstrating the existence of internationally disseminated clones. The use of molecular biology methods in the surveillance programs has enabled the tracking of MRSA spread within and among hospitals. These data are useful to alert nosocomial infection control programs about the potential introduction of these epidemic clones in their areas. Four MRSA blood culture isolates from patients hospitalized at two hospitals in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed; one of them was community acquired. The isolates were characterized as SCCmec, mecA and PVL by PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profile and molecular sequence typing (MLST) genotyping. The isolates presented type IV SCCmec, and none proved to be positive for PVL. The isolates showed a PFGE profile similar to the pediatric clone. MLST genotyping demonstrated that the isolates belonged to clonal complex 5 (CC5), showing a new yqiL allele gene, resulting in a new sequence typing (ST) (1176). Our results showed that strains of MRSA carrying a new ST are emerging in community and nosocomial infections, including bacteremia, in São Paulo, Brazil.
  • Typical and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli bacterial translocation associated with tissue hypoperfusion in rats Experimental Biology

    Liberatore, A.M.A.; Moreira, F.C.; Gomes, T.A.T.; Menchaca-Diaz, J.L.; Koh, I.H.J.

    Abstract in English:

    Although enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are well-recognized diarrheal agents, their ability to translocate and cause extraintestinal alterations is not known. We investigated whether a typical EPEC (tEPEC) and an atypical EPEC (aEPEC) strain translocate and cause microcirculation injury under conditions of intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Bacterial translocation (BT) was induced in female Wistar-EPM rats (200-250 g) by oroduodenal catheterization and inoculation of 10 mL 10(10) colony forming unit (CFU)/mL, with the bacteria being confined between the duodenum and ileum with ligatures. After 2 h, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), liver and spleen were cultured for translocated bacteria and BT-related microcirculation changes were monitored in mesenteric and abdominal organs by intravital microscopy and laser Doppler flow, respectively. tEPEC (N = 11) and aEPEC (N = 11) were recovered from MLN (100%), spleen (36.4 and 45.5%), and liver (45.5 and 72.7%) of the animals, respectively. Recovery of the positive control E. coli R-6 (N = 6) was 100% for all compartments. Bacteria were not recovered from extraintestinal sites of controls inoculated with non-pathogenic E. coli strains HB101 (N = 6) and HS (N = 10), or saline. Mesenteric microcirculation injuries were detected with both EPEC strains, but only aEPEC was similar to E. coli R-6 with regard to systemic tissue hypoperfusion. In conclusion, overgrowth of certain aEPEC strains may lead to BT and impairment of the microcirculation in systemic organs.
  • Moderate intensity physical training accelerates healing of full-thickness wounds in mice Experimental Biology

    Zogaib, F.G.; Monte-Alto-Costa, A.

    Abstract in English:

    Physical training influences the cells and mediators involved in skin wound healing. The objective of this study was to determine the changes induced by different intensities of physical training in mouse skin wound healing. Ninety male C57BL6 mice (8 weeks old, 20-25 g) were randomized into three physical training groups: moderate (70% VO2max), high (80% VO2max), and strenuous intensity (90% VO2max). Animals trained on a motorized treadmill for 8 weeks (Elesion: physical training until the day of excisional lesion, N = 10) or 10 weeks (Eeuthan: physical training for 2 additional weeks after excisional lesion until euthanasia, N = 10), five times/week, for 45 min. Control groups (CG) trained on the treadmill three times/week only for 5 min (N = 10). In the 8th week, mice were anesthetized, submitted to a dorsal full-thickness excisional wound of 1 cm², and sacrificed 14 days after wounding. Wound areas were measured 4, 7, and 14 days after wounding to evaluate contraction (d4, d7 and d14) and re-epithelialization (d14). Fragments of lesion and adjacent skin were processed and submitted to routine histological staining. Immunohistochemistry against alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was performed. Moderate-intensity training (M) until lesion (M/Elesion) led to better wound closure 7 days after wounding compared to controls and M/Eeuthan (P < 0.05), and both moderate-intensity groups showed better re-epithelialization rates than controls (M/Elesion = 85.9%, M/Eeuthan = 96.4% and M/CG = 79.9%; P < 0.05). Sections of M/Elesion and M/Eeuthan groups stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Picrosirius red and α-SMA showed the most mature granulation tissues among all trained groups and controls. Thus, moderate-intensity physical training improves skin wound healing.
  • The inflammatory stimulus of a natural latex biomembrane improves healing in mice Immunology

    Andrade, T.A.M.; Iyer, A.; Das, P.K.; Foss, N.T.; Garcia, S.B.; Coutinho-Netto, J.; Jordão-Jr., A.A.; Frade, M.A.C.

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of the present study was to compare healing obtained with biomembranes with the natural healing process (sham) using biochemical and immunohistological assays. C57BL/6 mice were divided into 4 groups of 15 mice each and received different subcutaneous implants: natural latex biomembrane (NLB), denatured latex (DL), expanded polytetrafluorethylene (ePTFE), or sham. On the 2nd, 7th, and 14th days post-treatment, 5 mice per group were sacrificed and biopsied for the following measurements: oxidative stress based on malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and hydrogen peroxide by the method of ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX), as well as glutathione and total proteins; histological evaluation to enumerate inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, blood vessels, and collagen, and immunohistochemical staining for inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-1β, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). On day 2 post-treatment, NLB stimulated a dense inflammatory infiltrate mainly consisting of polymorphonuclear cells, as indicated by increased MPO (P < 0.05), but oxidative stress due to MDA was not observed until the 7th day (P < 0.05). The number of blood vessels was greater in NLB (P < 0.05) and DL (P < 0.05) mice compared to sham animals on day 14. NLB induced fibroplasia by day 14 (P < 0.05) with low expression of TGF-β1 and collagenesis. Thus, NLB significantly induced the inflammatory phase of healing mediated by oxidative stress, which appeared to influence the subsequent phases such as angiogenesis (with low expression of VEGF) and fibroplasia (independent of TGF-β1) without influencing collagenesis.
  • Effects of chronic corticosterone and imipramine administration on panic and anxiety-related responses Neurosciences And Behavior

    Diniz, L.; dos Reis, B.B.; de Castro, G.M.; Medalha, C.C.; Viana, M.B.

    Abstract in English:

    It is known that chronic high levels of corticosterone (CORT) enhance aversive responses such as avoidance and contextual freezing. In contrast, chronic CORT does not alter defensive behavior induced by the exposure to a predator odor. Since different defense-related responses have been associated with specific anxiety disorders found in clinical settings, the observation that chronic CORT alters some defensive behaviors but not others might be relevant to the understanding of the neurobiology of anxiety. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic CORT administration (through surgical implantation of a 21-day release 200 mg pellet) on avoidance acquisition and escape expression by male Wistar rats (200 g in weight at the beginning of the experiments, N = 6-10/group) tested in the elevated T-maze (ETM). These defensive behaviors have been associated with generalized anxiety and panic disorder, respectively. Since the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine is successfully used to treat both conditions, the effects of combined treatment with chronic imipramine (15 mg, ip) and CORT were also investigated. Results showed that chronic CORT facilitated avoidance performance, an anxiogenic-like effect (P < 0.05), without changing escape responses. Imipramine significantly reversed the anxiogenic effect of CORT (P < 0.05), although the drug did not exhibit anxiolytic effects by itself. Confirming previous observations, imipramine inhibited escape responses, a panicolytic-like effect. Unlike chronic CORT, imipramine also decreased locomotor activity in an open field. These data suggest that chronic CORT specifically altered ETM avoidance, a fact that should be relevant to a better understanding of the physiopathology of generalized anxiety and panic disorder.
  • Reduced hippocampal GABAergic function in Wistar audiogenic rats Physiology And Biophysics

    Drumond, L.E.; Kushmerick, C.; Guidine, P.A.M.; Doretto, M.C.; Moraes, M.F.D.; Massensini, A.R.

    Abstract in English:

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder associated with excitatory and inhibitory imbalance within the underlying neural network. This study evaluated inhibitory γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA)ergic modulation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of male Wistar rats and Wistar audiogenic rats (aged 90 ± 3 days), a strain of inbred animals susceptible to audiogenic seizures. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials and population spike complexes in response to Schaffer collateral fiber stimulation were recorded in hippocampal slices before and during application of picrotoxin (50 µM, 60 min), a GABA A antagonist, and the size of the population spike was quantified by measuring its amplitude and slope. In control audiogenic-resistant Wistar rats (N = 9), picrotoxin significantly increased both the amplitude of the population spike by 51 ± 19% and its maximum slope by 73 ± 21%. In contrast, in slices from Wistar audiogenic rats (N = 6), picrotoxin caused no statistically significant change in population spike amplitude (33 ± 46%) or slope (11 ± 29%). Data are reported as means ± SEM. This result indicates a functional reduction of GABAergic neurotransmission in hippocampal slices from Wistar audiogenic rats.
  • Hypothyroidism decreases proinsulin gene expression and the attachment of its mRNA and eEF1A protein to the actin cytoskeleton of INS-1E cells Physiology And Biophysics

    Goulart-Silva, F.; Serrano-Nascimento, C.; Nunes, M.T.

    Abstract in English:

    The actions of thyroid hormone (TH) on pancreatic beta cells have not been thoroughly explored, with current knowledge being limited to the modulation of insulin secretion in response to glucose, and beta cell viability by regulation of pro-mitotic and pro-apoptotic factors. Therefore, the effects of TH on proinsulin gene expression are not known. This led us to measure: a) proinsulin mRNA expression, b) proinsulin transcripts and eEF1A protein binding to the actin cytoskeleton, c) actin cytoskeleton arrangement, and d) proinsulin mRNA poly(A) tail length modulation in INS-1E cells cultured in different media containing: i) normal fetal bovine serum - FBS (control); ii) normal FBS plus 1 µM or 10 nM T3, for 12 h, and iii) FBS depleted of TH for 24 h (Tx). A decrease in proinsulin mRNA content and attachment to the cytoskeleton were observed in hypothyroid (Tx) beta cells. The amount of eEF1A protein anchored to the cytoskeleton was also reduced in hypothyroidism, and it is worth mentioning that eEF1A is essential to attach transcripts to the cytoskeleton, which might modulate their stability and rate of translation. Proinsulin poly(A) tail length and cytoskeleton arrangement remained unchanged in hypothyroidism. T3 treatment of control cells for 12 h did not induce any changes in the parameters studied. The data indicate that TH is important for proinsulin mRNA expression and translation, since its total amount and attachment to the cytoskeleton are decreased in hypothyroid beta cells, providing evidence that effects of TH on carbohydrate metabolism also include the control of proinsulin gene expression.
  • CorrectionBraz J Med Biol Res 2011; 44(8): 754-761Semi-automatic measurement of visual verticality perception in humans reveals a new category of visual field dependency Correction

    Kaleff, C.R.; Aschidamini, C.; Baron, J.; Di Leone, C.N.; Canavarro, S.; Vargas, C.D.
  • CorrectionBraz J Med Biol Res 2011; 44(8): 793-800Candidate gene linkage analysis indicates genetic heterogeneity in Marfan syndrome Correction

    Teixeira, L.V.S.; Lezirovitz, K.; Pereira, L.V.; Perez, A.B.A.
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