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Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Volume: 55, Publicado: 2022
  • Kidney health for all: bridging the gap in kidney health education and literacy Editorial

    Langham, R.G.; Kalantar-Zadeh, K.; Bonner, A.; Balducci, A.; Hsiao, L.L.; Kumaraswami, L.A.; Laffin, P.; Liakopoulos, V.; Saadi, G.; Tantisattamo, E.; Ulasi, I.; Lui, S.F.; ,

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The high burden of kidney disease, global disparities in kidney care, and the poor outcomes of kidney failure place a growing burden on affected individuals and their families, caregivers, and the community at large. Health literacy is the degree to which individuals and organizations have, or equitably enable individuals to have, the ability to find, understand, and use information and services to make informed health-related decisions and actions for themselves and others. Rather than viewing health literacy as a patient deficit, improving health literacy lies primarily with health care providers communicating and educating effectively in codesigned partnership with those with kidney disease. For kidney policy makers, health literacy is a prerequisite for organizations to transition to a culture that places the person at the center of health care. The growing capability of and access to technology provides new opportunities to enhance education and awareness of kidney disease for all stakeholders. Advances in telecommunication, including social media platforms, can be leveraged to enhance persons’ and providers’ education. The World Kidney Day declares 2022 as the year of “Kidney Health for All” to promote global teamwork in advancing strategies in bridging the gap in kidney health education and literacy. Kidney organizations should work toward shifting the patient-deficit health literacy narrative to that of being the responsibility of health care providers and health policy makers. By engaging in and supporting kidney health-centered policy making, community health planning, and health literacy approaches for all, the kidney communities strive to prevent kidney diseases and enable living well with kidney disease.
  • An overview on the current available treatment for COVID-19 and the impact of antibiotic administration during the pandemic Review

    Paula, H.S.C.; Santiago, S.B.; Araújo, L.A.; Pedroso, C.F.; Marinho, T.A.; Gonçalves, I.A.J.; Santos, T.A.P.; Pinheiro, R.S.; Oliveira, G.A.; Batista, K.A.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has caused several problems in healthcare systems around the world, as to date, there is no effective and specific treatment against all forms of COVID-19. Currently, drugs with therapeutic potential are being tested, including antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-malarial, immunotherapy, and antibiotics. Although antibiotics have no direct effect on viral infections, they are often used against secondary bacterial infections, or even as empiric treatment to reduce viral load, infection, and replication of coronaviruses. However, there are many concerns about this therapeutic approach as it may accelerate and/or increase the long-term rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). We focused this overview on exploring candidate drugs for COVID-19 therapy, including antibiotics, considering the lack of specific treatment and that it is unclear whether the widespread use of antibiotics in the treatment of COVID-19 has implications for the emergence and transmission of multidrug-resistant bacteria.
  • Treatment of bladder dysfunction with solifenacin: is there a risk of dementia or cognitive impairment? Review

    Dantas, L.P.; Forte, A.R.C.C.; Lima, B.C.; Sousa, C.N.S.; Vasconcelos, E.C.; Lessa, P.H.C.; Vieira, R.F.; Patrocínio, M.C.A.; Vasconcelos, S.M.M.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The use of bladder antimuscarinics is very common in the elderly. However, recent population-based studies that assessed the use of anticholinergics or bladder antimuscarinics showed an increased risk of dementia when these drugs were used for a prolonged period. Several of these population-based studies included patients who used solifenacin, which is a bladder antimuscarinic released in 2005 with the prospect of being a more selective antimuscarinic for M3 receptors (M3R), which could make it a safer drug when trying to avoid unwanted effects of older bladder antimuscarinics such as oxybutynin, especially with regard to changes in cognition. Since the various bladder antimuscarinics have distinct pharmacological characteristics, such as in the ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier, in selectivity for muscarinic receptors, and in brain efflux mechanisms, their effects on the central nervous system (CNS) may vary. Solifenacin was the drug selected in this review, which aims to describe the results of several articles published in recent years reporting the effects of solifenacin on cognition or the risk of dementia development. Although preclinical studies show that solifenacin can also act on brain M1 receptors (M1R), short-term clinical studies have shown it to be safe for cognition. However, there are no long-term randomized studies that prove the safety of this drug for the CNS. Thus, until the safety of solifenacin has been established by long-term studies, it seems advisable to avoid prolonged use of this drug in elderly patients.
  • Effect of COVID-19 on cardiorenal axis: known or unknown universe? Review

    Armentano, G.M.; Carneiro-Ramos, M.S.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Recent findings have confirmed relationships between coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and multiple organ dysfunction. The prevalence of cardiac and renal involvement in COVID-19 has been increasingly reported and is a marker of severe disease that not only directly or indirectly affects the organs, but may also exacerbate the underlying comorbid illness. In addition, patients affected by the new coronavirus present a systemic inflammatory condition that results in damage to several tissues, especially the heart, kidneys, and vessels. It is well known that the heart and kidneys are closely related, so that any change in one of the organs can lead to damage to the other, establishing the so-called cardiorenal syndrome. Herein, we explore some case reports of patients with COVID-19 who had heart and kidney abnormalities, consequently resulting in worse prognosis of the disease. These results highlight the importance of understanding the cause and effect between the cardiac and renal systems and the course of early SARS-CoV-2 infection.
  • Reviewing physical exercise in non-obese diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats Review

    Galán, B.S.M.; Serdan, T.D.A.; Rodrigues, L.E.; Manoel, R.; Gorjão, R.; Masi, L.N.; Pithon-Curi, T.C.; Curi, R.; Hirabara, S.M.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    There is a high incidence of non-obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (non-obese-T2DM) cases, particularly in Asian countries, for which the pathogenesis remains mainly unclear. Interestingly, Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats spontaneously develop insulin resistance (IR) and non-obese-T2DM, making them a lean diabetes model. Physical exercise is a non-pharmacological therapeutic approach to reduce adipose tissue mass, improving peripheral IR, glycemic control, and quality of life in obese animals or humans with T2DM. In this narrative review, we selected and analyzed the published literature on the effects of physical exercise on the metabolic features associated with non-obese-T2DM. Only randomized controlled trials with regular physical exercise training, freely executed physical activity, or skeletal muscle stimulation protocols in GK rats published after 2008 were included. The results indicated that exercise reduces plasma insulin levels, increases skeletal muscle glycogen content, improves exercise tolerance, protects renal and myocardial function, and enhances blood oxygen flow in GK rats.
  • Symptoms of COVID-19 in children Review

    Melo, M.M.; Neta, M.M.R.; Neto, A.R.S.; Carvalho, A.R.B.; Magalhães, R.L.B.; Valle, A.R.M.C.; Ferreira, J.H.L.; Aliaga, K.M.J.; Moura, M.E.B.; Freitas, D.R.J.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The aim of this study was to review the symptomatic manifestations of COVID-19 in children in the scientific literature. An integrative review of studies published between December 2019 and September 5, 2021, from the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Web of Science, Scopus, Literatura Latino-Americana em Ciência de Saúde, and Base de Dados de Enfermagem databases, was carried out to answer the following research question: What symptomatic manifestations does COVID-19 cause in children?”. Twenty articles were included. The main symptoms described were fever, cough, diarrhea, vomiting, sore throat, dyspnea, headache, abdominal pain, malaise, and weakness or tiredness. The findings of this review can contribute to the diagnosis and clinical decision-making of the health team by providing information that facilitates the identification of COVID-19 in the target population, favoring early identification, better care, and consequently a better prognosis.
  • A short review on the features of the non-obese diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rat intestine Review

    Gimenes, G.M.; Santana, G.O.; Scervino, M.V.M.; Curi, R.; Pereira, J.N.B.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat is a non-obese experimental model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that allows researchers to monitor diabetes-induced changes without jeopardizing the effects of obesity. This rat strain exhibits notable gastrointestinal features associated with T2DM, such as marked alterations in intestinal morphology, reduced intestinal motility, slow transit, and modified microbiota compared to Wistar rats. The primary treatments for diabetic patients include administration of hypoglycemic agents and insulin, and lifestyle changes. Emerging procedures, including alternative therapies, metabolic surgeries, and modulation of the intestinal microbiota composition, have been shown to improve the diabetic state of GK rats. This review describes the morpho-physiological diabetic-associated features of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of GK rats. We also describe promising strategies, e.g., metabolic surgery and modulation of gut microbiota composition, used to target the GIT of this animal model to improve the diabetic state.
  • Renal amyloidosis: a new time for a complete diagnosis Review

    Feitosa, V.A.; Neves, P.D.M.M.; Jorge, L.B.; Noronha, I.L.; Onuchic, L.F.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Amyloidoses are a group of disorders in which soluble proteins aggregate and deposit extracellularly in tissues as insoluble fibrils, causing organ dysfunction. Clinical management depends on the subtype of the protein deposited and the affected organs. Systemic amyloidosis may stem from anomalous proteins, such as immunoglobulin light chains or serum amyloid proteins in chronic inflammation or may arise from hereditary disorders. Hereditary amyloidosis consists of a group of rare conditions that do not respond to chemotherapy, hence the identification of the amyloid subtype is essential for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. The kidney is the organ most frequently involved in systemic amyloidosis. Renal amyloidosis is characterized by acellular pathologic Congo red-positive deposition of amyloid fibrils in glomeruli, vessels, and/or interstitium. This disease manifests with heavy proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome, and progression to end-stage kidney failure. In some situations, it is not possible to identify the amyloid subtype using immunodetection methods, so the diagnosis remains indeterminate. In cases where hereditary amyloidosis is suspected or cannot be excluded, genetic testing should be considered. Of note, laser microdissection/mass spectrometry is currently the gold standard for accurate diagnosis of amyloidosis, especially in inconclusive cases. This article reviews the clinical manifestations and the current diagnostic landscape of renal amyloidosis.
  • Cognition enhancing effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in lab animal studies: a systematic review and meta-analysis Systematic Review

    Hussain, S.M.; Syeda, A.F.; Alshammari, M.; Alnasser, S.; Alenzi, N.D.; Alanazi, S.T.; Nandakumar, K.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment eventually progress to Alzheimer's disease (AD) causing a strong impact on public health. Rosmarinus officinalis has long been known as the herb of remembrance and can be a potential cognition enhancer for AD. The aim of this review was to summarize the qualitative and quantitative aspects of R. officinalis and its active constituents in enhancing cognition. A structured search was conducted on Google Scholar and PubMed to find relevant studies that assessed the effect of R. officinalis extract or any of its active constituents on cognitive performance in animals. The following information was extracted from each study: 1) article information; 2) characteristics of study animals; 3) type of intervention: type, dose, duration, and frequency of administration of R. officinalis; and 4) type of outcome measure. Data were analyzed using Review Manager and meta-analysis was performed by computing the standardized mean difference. Twenty-three studies were selected for qualitative analysis and fifteen for meta-analysis. From the fifteen included papers, 22 with 35 comparisons were meta-analyzed. Effect sizes for intact and cognitively impaired animals were 1.19 (0.74, 1.64) and 0.57 (0.19, 0.96), indicating a positive effect on both groups. The subgroup analyses showed substantial unexplained heterogeneity among studies. Overall, R. officinalis improved cognitive outcomes in normal and impaired animals, and results were robust across species, type of extract, treatment duration, and type of memory. However, studies had a considerable amount of heterogeneity, and subgroup analyses failed to find any heterogeneity moderator.
  • Why do men have worse COVID-19-related outcomes? A systematic review and meta-analysis with sex adjusted for age Systematic Review

    Fabião, J.; Sassi, B.; Pedrollo, E.F.; Gerchman, F.; Kramer, C.K.; Leitão, C.B.; Pinto, L.C.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    We aimed to study the mechanism behind worse coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) outcomes in men and whether the differences between sexes regarding mortality as well as disease severity are influenced by sex hormones. To do so, we used age as a covariate in the meta-regression and subgroup analyses. This was a systematic search and meta-analysis of observational cohorts reporting COVID-19 outcomes. The PubMed (Medline) and Cochrane Library databases were searched. The primary outcome was COVID-19-associated mortality and the secondary outcome was COVID-19 severity. The study was registered at PROSPERO: 42020182924. For mortality, men had a relative risk of 1.36 (95%CI: 1.17 to 1.59; I2 63%, P for heterogeneity <0.01) compared to women. Age was not a significant covariate in meta-analysis heterogeneity (P=0.393) or subgroup analysis. For disease severity, being male was associated with a relative risk of 1.29 (95%CI: 1.19 to 1.40; I2 48%, P for heterogeneity <0.01) compared to the relative risk of women. Again, age did not influence the outcomes of the meta-regression (P=0.914) or subgroup analysis. Men had a higher risk of COVID-19 mortality and severity regardless of age, decreasing the odds of hormonal influences in the described outcomes.
  • Genetic polymorphisms and protein levels in vocal fold leukoplakia: a systematic review Systematic Review

    Campello, C.P.; Lima-Silva, M.F.B.; Lima, E.L.S. de; Nunes, G.R.S.; Silva, H.A.M.; Dellalibera, E.; Britto, L.R.P.B. de; Lemos, C.A.A.; Muniz, M.T.C.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Vocal fold leukoplakia (VFL) has a risk of malignant transformation. Therefore, patients can have symptoms such as dysphonia, vocal strain, difficulty breathing, and dysphagia. Additionally, there is a genetic predisposition that can be associated with genetic polymorphisms. We aimed to evaluate the influence of genetic polymorphisms and protein levels in the etiology of VFL. Our study followed the PRISMA checklist and was registered on PROSPERO database. The questions were: “Are genetic polymorphisms involved in the etiology of VFL? Are protein levels altered in patients with VFL?”. Eligibility criteria were case control studies that compared the presence of polymorphisms or/and protein levels of subjects diagnosed with VFL and healthy controls. Of the 905 articles retrieved, five articles with a total of 1038 participants were included in this study. The C allele of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)-819 T/C IL-10, A allele of the SNP -592 A/C IL-10, CT genotype of the SNP rs11886868 C/T BCL11A, GG genotype of the SNP rs4671393 A/G BCL11A, LL genotype, and L allele of (GT)n repeat polymorphisms of the HO-1 were risk factors for VFL development. Nevertheless, there was a lack of association between VFL and the -1082 A/G IL-10, rs14024 CK-1, and -309 T/G Mdm2 SNPs. The concentrations of the MDM2, BCL11A, and HO-1 proteins were modified, while IL-10 levels were normally expressed in these subjects. In conclusion, most markers evaluated in this review could be potential indicators to develop effective therapies, avoiding a malignant transformation of the lesion.
  • Patient and Public Involvement and Engagement (PPIE): first steps in the process of the engagement in research projects in Brazil Concepts And Comments

    Bensenor, I.M.; Goulart, A.C.; Thomas, G.N.; Lip, G.Y.H.; ,

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Patient and Public Involvement and Engagement (PPIE) – sometimes called Community Engagement and Involvement (CEI) – comes as a big challenge but one that can be very helpful for health care professionals and stakeholders in planning better health policies for attending to the main needs of the community. PPIE involves three pillars: public involvement, public engagement, and participation. Public involvement occurs when members of the general population are actively involved in developing the research question, designing, and conducting the research. Public engagement tells people about new studies, why they are important, the impact of results, the possible implication of the main findings for the community, and the possible impact of these new findings in society, as well as, in the dissemination of knowledge to the general population. Participation is being a volunteer in the study. Our experience with PPIE, to the best of our knowledge the first initiative in Brazil, is a partnership with the University of Birmingham, the University of Liverpool, and the NIHR Global Health Group on Atrial Fibrillation (AF) Management focusing on the AF care pathway exploring the important aspects of diagnosis and treatment in the primary care system from a low-middle income area in São Paulo. The involvement of patients/public in the research represents a new step in the process of inclusion of all segments of our society based on patient illness and the gaps in knowledge aiming to open new horizons for continuous improvement and better acceptance of research projects.
  • AMPA and angiotensin type 1 receptors are necessary for hemorrhage-induced vasopressin secretion Short Communication

    Dos-Santos, R.C.; Vilhena-Franco, T.; Reis, L.C.; Elias, L.L.K.; Antunes-Rodrigues, J.; Mecawi, A.S.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Hypovolemia induced by hemorrhage is a common clinical complication, which stimulates vasopressin (AVP) secretion by the neurohypophysis in order to retain body water and maintain blood pressure. To evaluate the role of brain L-glutamate and angiotensin II on AVP secretion induced by hypovolemia we induced hemorrhage (∼25% of blood volume) after intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of AP5, NBQX, or losartan, which are NMDA, AMPA, and AT1 receptor antagonists, respectively. Hemorrhage significantly increased plasma AVP levels in all groups. The icv injection of AP5 did not change AVP secretion in response to hemorrhage. Conversely, icv administration of both NBQX and losartan significantly decreased plasma AVP levels after hemorrhage. Therefore, the blockade of AMPA and AT1 receptors impaired AVP secretion in response to hemorrhage, suggesting that L-glutamate and angiotensin II acted in these receptors to increase AVP secretion in response to hemorrhage-induced hypovolemia.
  • Effects of Alzheimer’s disease of varying severity on cardiac and autonomic function Research Article

    Geng, Duyan; Wang, Yan; Gao, Zeyu; Wang, Jiaxing; Liu, Xuanyu; Pang, Geng

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases in the elderly. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of AD on cardiac function and autonomic nervous function, and the feasibility of electrocardiogram (ECG) in monitoring the development of AD. APP/PS1 double transgenic mice were used in the Morris water maze (MWM) experiment to evaluate the changes of cognitive ability of AD mice, then the non-invasive ECG acquisition system was used and the changes of ECG intervals and heart rate variability (HRV) were analyzed. AD mice already had cognitive dysfunction at the age of 5 months, reaching the level of mild dementia, and the degree of dementia increased with the course of disease. There were no significant changes in ECG intervals in the AD group at each month. The mean square of successive RR interval differences, percentage of intervals >6 ms different from preceding interval, and normalized high frequency power component in the AD group were decreased and low-to-high frequency power ratio and normalized low frequency power component were increased. Combined with the results of the MWM, it was shown that the regulation mechanism of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves in mice was already imbalanced in early stage AD, which was manifested as the increase of excessive activity of sympathetic nerves and the inhibition of parasympathetic activities. Therefore, ECG-based analysis of HRV may become a means of daily monitoring of AD and provide an auxiliary basis for clinical diagnosis.
  • Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate associated with low-intensity exercise training improves skeletal muscle regeneration through the IGF-Akt pathway Research Article

    Yamada, A.K.; Ferretti, R.; Matsumura, C.Y.; Antunes, L.; Silva, C.A. da; Pertille, A.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation associated with exercise training at different intensities and frequencies on skeletal muscle regeneration of muscle-injured rats was investigated. Male Wistar rats were divided into sedentary and trained groups. The sedentary groups were subdivided into non-injured (SED-Ct), non-injured supplemented with HMB (SED-Ct-HMB), injured (SED), and injured with HMB (SED-HMB), and the trained groups were injured, supplemented with HMB, and then divided into training three times a week without load (HT3) or with load (HT3L) and training five times a week without load (HT5) and with load (HT5L). The rats received a daily dose of HMB associated with 60 min of swimming with or without 5% body mass load for 14 days. On the 15th day, cryoinjury was performed in the right tibialis anterior muscle (TA), and 48 h later, supplementation and training continued for 15 days. After the last session, the TA was dissected and a cross-sectional area (CSA) of muscle fibers was used to determine the percentage of CSA fibers and connective tissue (%CT), as well as the total and phosphorylated protein contents. SED-HMB showed increased CSA and decreased %CT and TGF-β when compared to SED. HT3 showed increased CSA and reduced %CT accompanied by increased IGF-1/Akt, myogenin, and MuRF1, and decreased TGF-β. The CSA of HT5L also increased, but at the cost of a higher %CT compared to the other groups. Our results demonstrated that HMB associated with training without load and with lower frequency per week may be a valuable strategy for skeletal muscle regeneration.
  • Association of quality of life and disease control with cigarette smoking in patients with severe asthma Research Article

    Santos, V.C.H. dos; Moreira, M.A.F.; Rosa, A.V. da; Sobragi, S.M.; Silva, C.A.J. da; Dalcin, P.T.R.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    More information is needed on asthma control and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in smokers with severe asthma. The main study objective was to characterize the association of HRQoL and disease control with cigarette smoking in individuals with severe asthma. A secondary objective was to analyze subject characteristics according to asthma onset: asthma that developed before smoking initiation versus asthma that developed after smoking initiation. This cross-sectional study included subjects with severe asthma aged 18-65 years. HRQoL was assessed using the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) and asthma control was assessed using the Asthma Control Test (ACT) and Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) criteria. Of the 87 patients studied, 58 (66.7%) were classified as asthmatics who had never smoked and 29 (33.3%) as asthmatics with smoking exposure. The proportion of subjects with uncontrolled asthma was higher in the asthma and smoking group (GINA criteria: P=0.032 and ACT criteria: P=0.003. There were no between-group differences in overall AQLQ score (P=0.475) or AQLQ domain scores (P>0.05). Fifty-eight subjects (66.7%) were nonsmokers, 20 (23%) had asthma onset before smoking, and 9 (10.3%) had asthma onset after smoking. Asthma onset before smoking was associated with uncontrolled asthma (P=0.013). In subjects with severe asthma, smoking was associated with a higher rate of uncontrolled disease but not with HRQoL scores.
  • Spatio-temporal analysis of tuberculosis and its correlation with the Living Conditions Index in an elderly population in Brazil Research Article

    Mesquita, C.R.; Santos, B.O.; Soares, N.L.S.; Enk, M.J.; Lima, K.V.B.; Souza e Guimarães, R.J.P.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The aim of this study was to analyze the spatio-temporal distribution of tuberculosis (TB) in the elderly population in the city of Belém, PA from 2011 to 2015 according to the Living Conditions Index (LCI). This was an epidemiological, descriptive, ecological, and retrospective study involving 1,134 cases. Data were collected through the Information System of Notifiable Diseases (SINAN). For data analysis, we used the incidence coefficient, global and local empirical Bayesian model, Kernel density, and Kernel ratio. The construction of the LCI was based on the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) method. The incidence of TB remained the same over the five years studied. No neighborhood was found to have a high incidence of TB and a high LCI, but most of the cases occurred in the south of the city where the neighborhoods with the most precarious conditions are located. Moreover, the lowest incidence was in neighborhoods that historically had better infrastructure. Spatial analysis tools facilitate studies on the dynamics of disease transmission such as TB. In this study, it was shown that TB is heterogeneously distributed throughout the municipality. Living conditions, especially in slums, influenced TB incidence.
  • Monitoring non-small cell lung cancer progression and treatment response through hyaluronic acid in sputum Research Article

    Chinoca, J.; Andrade, D.S.; Mendes, A.; Marchi, P. De; Prieto, T.G.; Baldavira, C.M.; Farhat, C.; Martins, J.R.M.; Nader, H.B.; Carraro, D.M.; Capelozzi, V.L.; Sá, V. de

    Resumo em Inglês:

    We evaluated whether hyaluronan (HA) levels in the sputum could be used as a noninvasive tool to predict progressive disease and treatment response, as detected in a computed tomography scan in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Sputum samples were collected from 84 patients with histological confirmation of NSCLC, 33 of which were in early-stage and 51 in advanced-stage disease. Patients received systemic chemotherapy (CT) after surgery (n=36), combined CT and immunotherapy (IO) (n=15), or targeted therapy for driver mutation and disease relapse (N=4). The primary end-point was to compare sputum HA levels in two different concentrations of hypertonic saline solution with overall survival (OS) and the secondary and exploratory end-points were radiologic responses to treatment and patient outcome. Higher concentrations of HA in the sputum were significantly associated to factors related to tumor stage, phenotype, response to treatment, and outcome. In the early stage, patients with lower sputum HA levels before treatment achieved a complete tumor response after systemic CT with better progression-free survival (PFS) than those with high HA levels. We also examined the importance of the sputum HA concentration and tumor response in the 51 patients who developed metastatic disease and received CT+IO. Patients with low levels of sputum HA showed a complete tumor response in the computed tomography scan and stable disease after CT+IO treatment, as well as a better PFS than those receiving CT alone. HA levels in sputum of NSCLC patients may serve as a candidate biomarker to detect progressive disease and monitor treatment response in computed tomography scans.
  • Patterns of renal and splanchnic sympathetic vasomotor activity in an animal model of survival to experimental sepsis Research Article

    Milanez, M.I.O.; Liberatore, A.M.A.; Nishi, E.E.; Bergamaschi, C.T.; Campos, R.R.; Koh, I.H.J.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Sepsis causes long-term disability, such as immune dysfunction, neuropsychological disorders, persistent inflammation, catabolism, and immunosuppression, leading to a high risk of death in survivors, although the contributing factors of mortality are unknown. The purpose of this experimental study in rats was to examine renal (rSNA) and splanchnic (sSNA) sympathetic nerve activity, as well as baroreflex sensitivity, in acute and chronic post-sepsis periods. The rats were divided into two groups: control group with naïve Wistar rats and sepsis group with 2-mL intravenous inoculation of Escherichia coli at 108 CFU/mL. Basal mean arterial pressure, heart rate, rSNA, sSNA, and baroreflex sensitivity were evaluated in all groups at the acute (6 h) and chronic periods (1 and 3 months). Basal rSNA and sSNA were significantly reduced in the surviving rats, as was their baroreflex sensitivity, for both pressor and hypotensive responses, and this effect lasted for up to 3 months. A single episode of sepsis in rats was enough to induce long-term alterations in renal and splanchnic sympathetic vasomotor nerve activity, representing a possible systemic event that needs to be elucidated. These findings showed that post-sepsis impairment of sympathetic vasomotor response may be one of the critical components in the inability of sepsis survivors to respond effectively to new etiological illness factors, thereby increasing their risk of post-sepsis morbidity.
  • Subcutaneous injection of an immunologically tolerated protein up to 5 days before skin injuries improves wound healing Research Article

    Franco-Valencia, K.; Nóbrega, I.B.C.; Cantaruti, T.; Barra, A.; Klein, A.; Azevedo-Jr, G.M.; Costa, R.A.; Carvalho, C.R.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Oral tolerance blocks the development of specific immune responses to proteins ingested by the oral route. One of the first registries of oral tolerance showed that guinea pigs fed corn became refractory to hypersensitivity to corn proteins. Mice fed with chow containing corn are tolerant to zein, and parenteral injection of zein plus adjuvant blocks immunization to unrelated proteins injected concomitantly and reduces unspecific inflammation. Extensive and prolonged inflammatory infiltrate in the wound bed is one of the causes of pathological wound healing. Previous research shows that intraperitoneal injection of zein concomitant with skin injuries reduces the inflammatory infiltrate in the wound bed and improves wound healing. Herein, we tested if one subcutaneous injection of zein before skin injury improves wound healing. We also investigated how long the effects triggered by zein could improve skin wound healing. Mice fed zein received two excisional wounds on the interscapular skin under anesthesia. Zein plus Al(OH)3 was injected at the tail base at 10 min, or 3, 5, or 7 days before skin injuries. Wound healing was analyzed at days 7 and 40 after injury. Our results showed that a zein injection up to 5 days before skin injury reduced the inflammatory infiltrate, increased the number of T-cells in the wound bed, and improved the pattern of collagen deposition in the neodermis. These findings could promote the development of new strategies for the treatment and prevention of pathological healing using proteins normally found in the common diet.
  • The protective effect of melatonin supplementation against taxol-induced testicular cytotoxicity in adult rats Research Article

    Aboelwafa, H.R.; Ramadan, R.A.; El-Kott, A.F.; Abdelhamid, F.M.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the toxic influences of taxol (TXL) on the testes of rats and the protective impact of melatonin (MLT) against such effects. Rats were classified into control, sham, TXL, MLT, and MLT+TXL-treated groups. Histological and ultrastructural changes were observed in testicular tissues of TXL-intoxicated rats including thickening of tunica albuginea and degenerative alterations in spermatogenic, Sertoli, and Leydig cells. A significant increase (P≤0.05) was found in the thickness of tunica albuginea and numbers of tubules without sperm, apoptotic germinal epithelia, and apoptotic Leydig cells, whereas the diameter of tubules and height of germinal epithelia displayed a significant decrease (P≤0.05) compared with the control, sham, and MLT-treated groups. Immunohistochemically, a marked decrease (P≤0.05) in Bcl-2 immunoreactivity and significant elevation (P≤0.05) in P53 and caspase-3 immunoreactivities were recorded. Co-treatment of MLT and TXL modulated such histological, histomorphometrical, and ultrastructural changes induced by TXL. Also, MLT had a protective effect against testicular apoptosis induced by TXL, as shown by the elevated expression of Bcl-2 and decreased expression of P53 and caspase-3. In conclusion, the current investigation proved that MLT had a protective role against TXL-induced testicular cytotoxicity, which may be a result of inhibition of testicular apoptosis.
  • Different acquisition systems for heart rate variability analysis may lead to diverse outcomes Research Article

    Oliveira Júnior, F.A. de; Pereira, R.A.; Silva, A.S.; Brito Alves, J.L. de; Costa-Silva, J.H.; Braga, V.A.; Balarini, C.M.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a relevant physiological variable for the estimation of cardiac autonomic function. Although the gold standard for HRV registration is the electrocardiogram (ECG), several applications (APPs) have been increasingly developed. The evaluation carried out by these devices must be compatible with ECG standards. The aim of this study was to compare the data obtained simultaneously with ECG and APP with chest heart rate transmitters. Fifty-six healthy individuals (28 men and 28 women) were evaluated at rest through a short simultaneous HRV measurement with both devices. Data from both acquisition systems were analyzed separately using their own analysis software and exported and analyzed using a validated software. Signal recordings were compatible between the two acquisition systems (Pearson r=0.99; P<0.0001). Although a high correlation was found for the HRV variables obtained in the time domain (Spearman r=0.99; P<0.0001), the correlation decreased in the frequency domain (Pearson r=0.85; P<0.0001) when two software programs were used. Comparison of the averages of spectral analysis parameters also showed differences when HRV data were analyzed separately in each device for low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) bands. Although the portability of these mobile devices allows for optimal HRV evaluation, the direct analysis obtained from these devices must be carefully evaluated with respect to frequency domain parameters.
  • The LDL/HDL ratio predicts long-term risk of coronary revascularization in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a cohort study Research Article

    Zhang, Ruochen; Fan, Yan; Xue, Yanbo; Feng, Yunfei; Dong, Caijuan; Wang, Yamei; Kou, Puqing; Li, Guoli; Ma, Aiqun; Wang, Tingzhong

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Clinical indicators do not adequately predict the long-term prognosis of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio is expected to be a reliable predictor of the long-term prognosis of these patients. This study aimed to explore the correlation between the LDL/HDL ratio and long-term prognosis in STEMI patients undergoing PCI. Patients with confirmed STEMI who underwent PCI in 7 hospitals in China from January 2009 to December 2011 were enrolled. Information about clinical endpoints, including all-cause death and major adverse cardiovascular events, was collected. Overall, 915 patients were included for analysis, the average follow-up time was 112.2 months. According to the LDL/HDL ratio, the patients were divided into 3 groups using the three-quantile method: low (LDL/HDL≤1.963), medium (1.963<LDL/HDL<2.595), and high (LDL/HDL≥2.595) LDL/HDL groups. The rate of coronary revascularization was higher in the high LDL/HDL group (28.52%) than in the low (17.38%, P=0.001) and medium (19.34%, P=0.010) LDL/HDL groups. The hazard ratio of coronary revascularization was significantly higher in the high LDL/HDL group than in the low (P=0.007) and medium (P=0.004) LDL/HDL groups. Increased LDL/HDL ratio was an independent risk factor for long-term coronary revascularization in STEMI patients undergoing PCI (HR=1.231, 95%CI: 1.023-1.482, P=0.028). These findings suggest that an increased LDL/HDL ratio was an independent risk factor for long-term coronary revascularization in STEMI patients undergoing PCI. The risk of coronary revascularization was significantly increased in patients with LDL/HDL≥2.595.
  • Nitric oxide regulates adhesiveness, invasiveness, and migration of anoikis-resistant endothelial cells Research Article

    Mesquita, A.P.S.; Matsuoka, M.; Lopes, S.A.; Pernambuco Filho, P.C.A.; Cruz, A.S.; Nader, H.B.; Lopes, C.C.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Anoikis is a type of apoptosis that occurs in response to the loss of adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Anoikis resistance is a critical mechanism in cancer and contributes to tumor metastasis. Nitric oxide (NO) is frequently upregulated in the tumor area and is considered an important player in cancer metastasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of NO on adhesiveness, invasiveness, and migration of anoikis-resistant endothelial cells. Here, we report that anoikis-resistant endothelial cells overexpress endothelial nitric oxide synthase. The inhibition of NO release in anoikis-resistant endothelial cells was able to decrease adhesiveness to fibronectin, laminin, and collagen IV. This was accompanied by an increase in cell invasiveness and migration. Furthermore, anoikis-resistant cell lines displayed a decrease in fibronectin and collagen IV protein expression after L-NAME treatment. These alterations in adhesiveness and invasiveness were the consequence of MMP-2 up-regulation observed after NO release inhibition. The decrease in NO levels was able to down-regulate the activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) protein expression. ATF3 represses MMP-2 gene expression by antagonizing p53-dependent trans-activation of the MMP-2 promoter. We speculate that the increased release of NO by anoikis-resistant endothelial cells acted as a response to restrict the MMP-2 action, interfering in MMP-2 gene expression via ATF3 regulation. The up-regulation of nitric oxide by anoikis-resistant endothelial cells is an important response to restrict tumorigenic behavior. Without this mechanism, invasiveness and migration potential would be even higher, as shown after L-NAME treatment.
  • First molecular-based detection study of Leishmania infantum in the Tapirapé indigenous population in the Brazilian Amazon Research Article

    Freitas, D.S.C.; Silva, R.E.; Costa, J.O.J.; Markus, D.V.; Soares, H.S.; Minervino, A.H.H.; Lima, J.T.R.; Gennari, S.M.; Marcili, A.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Species of the genus Leishmania parasitize mammals and have life cycles that alternate between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Most species develop in a hematophagous arthropod and infect a specific vertebrate host that may belong to diverse orders and families. Visceral leishmaniasis is a chronic zoonosis with a wide geographic distribution, affecting 350 million people globally, mostly in areas with a high risk of infection. In Brazil, this disease not only has a high incidence but is also expanding to new areas, both in urban centers and rural areas, including territories with tribal communities, due to increasing human intervention. The objective of this study was to perform cathepsin L-like gene-based molecular diagnosis of Leishmania infantum in the indigenous Tapirapé ethnic group in the state of Mato Grosso. From the 372 individuals assessed, only 0.8% (3/372) tested positive for L. infantum, all from the same village (Urubu Branco). Despite the small number of infected individuals, this study demonstrates the first human cases of Leishmania infantum infection in this population, suggesting the need for regular monitoring of visceral leishmaniasis in the area and leading to a broad discussion on the planning and implementation of public health measures for the indigenous population, while respecting their distinctive territories and culture.
  • Functional activation of the periaqueductal gray matter during conditioned and unconditioned fear in guinea pigs confronted with the Boa constrictor constrictor snake Research Article

    Paula, B.B. de; Vieira-Rasteli, E.B.; Calvo, F.; Coimbra, N.C.; Leite-Panissi, C.R.A.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) is an essential structure involved in the elaboration of defensive responses, such as when facing predators and conspecific aggressors. Using a prey vs predator paradigm, we aimed to evaluate the PAG activation pattern evoked by unconditioned and conditioned fear situations. Adult male guinea pigs were confronted either by a Boa constrictor constrictor wild snake or by the aversive experimental context. After the behavioral test, the rodents were euthanized and the brain prepared for immunohistochemistry for Fos protein identification in different PAG columns. Although Fos-protein-labeled neurons were found in different PAG columns after both unconditioned and conditioned fear situations at the caudal level of the PAG, we found greater activation of the lateral column compared to the ventrolateral and dorsomedial columns after predator exposure. Moreover, the lateral column of the PAG showed higher Fos-labeled cells at the caudal level compared to the same area at the rostral level. The present results suggested that there are different activation patterns of PAG columns during unconditioned and conditioned fear in guinea pigs. It is possible to hypothesize that the recruitment of specific PAG columns depended on the nature of the threatening stimulus.
  • Comparison of female and male behavior in the elevated gradient of aversion Research Article

    Bonuti, R.; Morato, S.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The elevated gradient of aversion (EGA) is an apparatus for investigating the exploratory behavior of rats in 3-min sessions, consisting of three different sections of the same size: tunnel, closed arm, and open arm. Factorial analyses have defined three factors: exploration, impulsivity, and self-protection. In general, male rats are placed in the tunnel end and tend to hesitate leaving this starting point. Then, they hesitate leaving the tunnel and entering the closed arm, which they explore and tend to avoid entering the open arm or even just stick their head in and not enter it at all. Since females were not used for this test and are reported to be more explorative than male rats, the present work aimed to compare the behavior of male and female rats in the EGA. Thirty male and 34 female Wistar rats were submitted to 3-min sessions in the EGA. In general, results indicated that females were different from males: they explored more (Factor 1 - Exploration), are more impulsive (Factor 2 - Impulsivity), and are less anxious/fearful (Factor 3 - Self-protection). These results confirmed the results of other studies obtained with other apparatuses and show that females exhibit higher locomotion than males and are less anxious/fearful.
  • Correlation of common inflammatory cytokines with cognition impairment, anxiety, and depression in acute ischemic stroke patients Research Article

    Li, Rumei; Fan, Wenjun; Li, Dongmei; Liu, Xuesong

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Inflammatory cytokines are related to cognitive function and psychiatric disorders in patients with several diseases. However, few relevant studies have been performed on acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the correlation of common inflammatory cytokines with cognition impairment, anxiety, and depression in AIS patients. Common inflammatory cytokines of 176 AIS patients (including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-17) were measured using Human Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay Kits. Cognition impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for anxiety (HADS-A)), and depression (HADS-D) were evaluated. The incidence of cognition impairment, anxiety, and depression was 43.2, 39.2, and 31.2%, respectively. TNF-α and IL-6 were negatively associated with MMSE score, and high TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were correlated with cognition impairment occurrence. In addition, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-17 were positively associated with HADS-A score, while only high TNF-α was associated with anxiety occurrence. Furthermore, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-17 were positively associated with HADS-D score, while high IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-17 correlated with depression occurrence. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that TNF-α and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ≥5 were associated with high risk of cognition impairment; TNF-α, IL-17, unemployed before surgery, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) correlated with high anxiety occurrence. Furthermore, IL-17, divorced/widowed/single status, diabetes, and NIHSS score ≥5 were associated with high risk of depression. In conclusion, common inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-17 were related to cognition impairment, anxiety, or depression in AIS patients.
  • Rectal roflumilast improves trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced chronic colitis in rats Research Article

    Shaikh-Omar, A.; Murad, H.A.; Alotaibi, N.M.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Roflumilast, a highly selective oral phosphodiesterase IV inhibitor, exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. Oral roflumilast causes gastrointestinal side effects, especially vomiting, which could be reduced by administering roflumilast via off-label routes. Inhaled roflumilast reportedly improved inflammatory and histopathological changes in asthmatic mice. The current study investigated the effects of oral and rectal roflumilast on trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced chronic colitis in rats, an experimental model resembling human Crohn's disease. Five groups of rats (n=8) were used: normal control, TNBS-induced colitis, and three TNBS-treated colitic groups, which received oral sulfasalazine (500 mg·kg-1·day-1), oral roflumilast (5 mg·kg-1·day-1), or rectal roflumilast (5 mg·kg-1·day-1) for 15 days after colitis induction. Then, the following were assessed: the colitis activity score, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-2, and IL-6 serum levels, colonic length, and myeloperoxidase, malonaldehyde, and glutathione levels. Histological examinations employed H&E, Masson trichrome, and PAS stains in addition to immunostaining for KI-67 and TNF-α. The TNBS-induced colitis rats showed significant increases in disease activity scores, serum TNF-α, IL-2, and IL-6 levels, and colonic myeloperoxidase and malonaldehyde content. They also showed significant decreases in colonic length and glutathione levels in addition to histopathological and immunohistochemical changes. All the treatments significantly improved all these changes. Sulfasalazine provided the greatest improvement, followed by oral roflumilast, and then rectal roflumilast. In conclusion, both oral and rectal roflumilast partially improved TNBS-induced chronic colitis, suggesting the potential of roflumilast as an additional treatment for Crohn's disease.
  • Benzodiazepine partially reverses tonic-clonic seizures induced by thiocolchicoside Research Article

    Leitão, D.S.; Andrade, A.R.; Medeiros, N.C.L.; Martins, M.F.C.; Ferreira, L.O.; Santos, V.C.; Hamoy, A.O.; Barbas, L.A.L.; Muto, N.A.; Jóia de Mello, V.; Lopes, D.C.F.; Hamoy, M.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Seizures are a disorder caused by structural brain lesions, life-threatening metabolic derangements, or drug toxicity. The present study describes the behavior related to proconvulsant activity induced by thiocolchicoside (TCC) in rats and investigates the electrocorticographic patterns of this behavior and the effectiveness of classic antiepileptic drugs used to control these seizures. Forty-nine adult male Wistar rats were used and divided into two phases of our experimental design: 1) evaluation of seizure-related behavior and electrocorticographic patterns induced by TCC and 2) evaluation of the efficacy of classical antiepileptic drugs to control the proconvulsive activity caused by TCC. Our results showed that TCC induced tonic-clonic seizures that caused changes in electrocorticographic readings, characteristic of convulsive activity, with average amplitude greater than that induced by pentylenetetrazole. Treatment with anticonvulsants, especially diazepam, reduced the electrocorticographic outbreaks induced by TCC. The results suggested that TCC caused seizures with increased power in brain oscillations up to 40 Hz and that diazepam may partially reverse the effects.
  • miR-23a-3p inhibits sepsis-induced kidney epithelial cell injury by suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling by targeting wnt5a Research Article

    Ye, Junwei; Feng, Huibing; Peng, Zhiyong

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The present study was designed to investigate the involvement of miR-23a-3p in the progression of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). The expression levels of miR-23a-3p and wnt5a in sepsis-induced AKI patients and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated HK-2 cells were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting. Then, the effects of miR-23a-3p overexpression on cell viability, apoptosis, and inflammatory cytokines secretion in LPS-stimulated HK-2 cells were investigated. Moreover, luciferase reporter assay was performed to confirm the regulatory relationship between miR-23a-3p and wnt5a. Whether miR-23a-3p regulated the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling was also explored. mR-23a-3p was lowly expressed in the serum of patients with sepsis-associated AKI and in LPS-treated HK-2 cells. In addition, the overexpression of miR-23a-3p restrained LPS-induced proliferation inhibition and promotion of apoptosis and cytokine production in HK-2 cells. Moreover, wnt5a was identified as a target of miR-23a-3p, which could be negatively regulated by miR-23a-3p. Overexpression of miR-23a-3p suppressed the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in LPS-treated HK-2 cells, which was markedly reversed by wnt5a upregulation. Upregulation of miR-23a-3p may alleviate LPS-induced cell injury by targeting wnt5a and inactivating Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which may serve as a novel therapeutic target for sepsis-associated AKI.
  • Effects of caffeine on central and peripheral fatigue following closed- and open-loop cycling exercises Research Article

    Couto, P.G.; Silva-Cavalcante, M.D.; Mezêncio, B.; Azevedo, R.A.; Cruz, R.; Bertuzzi, R.; Lima-Silva, A.E.; Kiss, M.A.P.D.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    We examined whether endurance performance and neuromuscular fatigue would be affected by caffeine ingestion during closed- and open-loop exercises. Nine cyclists performed a closed-loop (4,000-m cycling time trial) and an open-loop exercise (work rate fixed at mean power of the closed-loop trial) 60 min after ingesting caffeine (CAF, 5 mg/kg) or placebo (PLA, cellulose). Central and peripheral fatigue was quantified via pre- to post-exercise decrease in quadriceps voluntary activation and potentiated twitch force, respectively. Test sensitivity for detecting caffeine-induced improvements in exercise performance was calculated as the mean change in time divided by the error of measurement. Caffeine ingestion reduced the time of the closed-loop trial (PLA: 375.1±14.5 s vs CAF: 368.2±14.9 s, P=0.024) and increased exercise tolerance during the open-loop trial (PLA: 418.2±99.5 s vs CAF: 552.5±106.5 s, P=0.001), with similar calculated sensitivity indices (1.5, 90%CI: 0.7-2.9 vs 2.8, 90%CI: 1.9-5.1). The reduction in voluntary activation was more pronounced (P=0.019) in open- (-6.8±8.3%) than in closed-loop exercises (-1.9±4.4%), but there was no difference between open- and closed-loop exercises for the potentiated twitch force reduction (-25.6±12.8 vs -26.6±12.0%, P>0.05). Caffeine had no effect on central and peripheral fatigue development in either mode of exercise. In conclusion, caffeine improved endurance performance in both modes of exercise without influence on post-exercise central and peripheral fatigue, with the open-loop exercise imposing a greater challenge to central fatigue tolerance.
  • Alterations in pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators are involved in microvascular dysfunction in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus Research Article

    Jarrete, A.P.; Giollo-Junior, L.T.; Vilela-Martin, J.F.; Novais, I.P.; Delbin, M.A.; Zanesco, A.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Evidence has shown that women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have a greater risk of cardiovascular complications compared with men, but this sex difference is not clearly understood. This study assessed the microvascular function and circulatory biomarkers in postmenopausal women (PMW) with T2DM compared with diabetic men and their non-diabetic counterparts. Sixty participants were divided into nondiabetic PMW, PMW with T2DM, non-diabetic men, and diabetic men. Microvascular function was assessed using non-invasive equipment (EndoPAT®) and reported as reactive hyperemia index (RHI). Anthropometric and cardiovascular parameters were also measured. Two-way ANOVA was performed using sex (women or men) and T2DM (non-diabetic and diabetic) as the two factors. RHI impairment (1.97±0.14) was detected in diabetic PMW compared with women without T2DM (2.5±0.13) accompanied by lower adiponectin levels (T2DM: 9.3±1.2 and CTL: 13.8±1.8 ug/mL, P<0.05). An increase in the Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML), nitrate/nitrite, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were observed in diabetic PMW compared to the other groups. Although a poor glycemia control was seen in diabetic men, neither RHI nor circulatory biomarkers were affected by T2DM. Multiple linear regression stratified by sex and T2DM identified some variables with RHI only in PMW with T2DM: HbA1c (P=0.003), body mass index (P=0.029), CML (P=0.032), and CRP (P=0.006). Diabetic PMW were more susceptible to the deleterious effects of hyperglycemia than men, showing microvascular dysfunction with high levels of pro-inflammatory mediators (CML and CRP) and a lower adiponectin concentration.
  • Strenuous swimming raises blood non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity in rats Research Article

    Godoy, G.; Travassos, P.B.; Antunes, M.M.; Iwanaga, C.C.; Sá-Nakanishi, A.B.; Curi, R.; Comar, J.F.; Bazotte, R.B.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The non-enzymatic antioxidant system protects blood components from oxidative damage and/or injury. Herein, plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity after acute strenuous swimming exercise (Exe) and exercise until exhaustion (Exh) was measured in rats. The experiments were carried out in never exposed (Nex) and pre-exposed (Pex) groups. The Nex group did not undergo any previous training before the acute strenuous swimming test and the Pex group was submitted to daily swimming for 10 min in the first week and 15 min per day in the second week before testing. Plasma glucose, lactate, and pyruvate were measured and plasma total protein sulfhydryl groups (thiol), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) levels were evaluated. There were marked increases in plasma lactate concentrations (Nex-Control 1.31±0.20 vs NexExe 4.16±0.39 vs NexExh 7.19±0.67) and in thiol (Nex-Control 271.9±5.6 vs NexExh 314.7±5.7), TEAC (Nex-Control 786.4±60.2 vs NexExh 1027.7±58.2), FRAP (Nex-Control 309.2±17.7 vs NexExh 413.4±24.3), and TRAP (Nex-Control 0.50±0.15 vs NexExh 2.6±0.32) levels after acute swimming and/or exhaustion. Also, there were increased plasma lactate concentrations (Pex-Control 1.39±0.15 vs PexExe 5.22±0.91 vs PexExh 10.07±0.49), thiol (Pex-Control 252.9±8.2 vs PexExh 284.6±6.7), FRAP (Pex-Control 296.5±15.4 vs PexExh 445.7±45.6), and TRAP (Pex-Control 1.8±0.1 vs PexExh 4.6±0.2) levels after acute swimming and/or exhaustion. Lactate showed the highest percent of elevation in the Nex and Pex groups. In conclusion, plasma lactate may contribute to plasma antioxidant defenses, and the TRAP assay is the most sensitive assay for assessing plasma non-antioxidant capacity after strenuous exercise.
  • Study of the relationship between regional cerebral saturation and pCO2 changes during mechanical ventilation to evaluate modifications in cerebral perfusion in a newborn piglet model Research Article

    Silvera, F.; Gagliardi, T.; Vollono, P.; Fernández, C.; García-Bayce, A.; Berardi, A.; Badía, M.; Beltrán, B.; Cabral, T.; Abella, P.; Farías, L.; Vaamonde, L.; Martell, M.; Blasina, F.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) could be a useful continuous, non-invasive technique for monitoring the effect of partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) fluctuations in the cerebral circulation during ventilation. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of NIRS to detect acute changes in cerebral blood flow following PaCO2 fluctuations after confirming the autoregulation physiology in piglets. Fourteen piglets (<72 h of life) were studied. Mean arterial blood pressure, oxygen saturation, pH, glycemia, hemoglobin, electrolytes, and temperature were monitored. Eight animals were used to evaluate brain autoregulation, assessing superior cava vein Doppler as a proxy of cerebral blood flow changing mean arterial blood pressure. Another 6 animals were used to assess hypercapnia generated by decreasing ventilatory settings and complementary CO2 through the ventilator circuit and hypocapnia due to increasing ventilatory settings. Cerebral blood flow was determined by jugular vein blood flow by Doppler and continuously monitored with NIRS. A decrease in PaCO2 was observed after hyperventilation (47.6±2.4 to 29.0±4.9 mmHg). An increase in PaCO2 was observed after hypoventilation (48.5±5.5 to 90.4±25.1 mmHg). A decrease in cerebral blood flow after hyperventilation (21.8±10.4 to 15.1±11.0 mL/min) and an increase after hypoventilation (23.4±8.4 to 38.3±10.5 mL/min) were detected by Doppler ultrasound. A significant correlation was found between cerebral oxygenation and Doppler-derived parameters of blood flow and PaCO2. Although cerebral NIRS monitoring is mainly used to detect changes in regional brain oxygenation, modifications in cerebral blood flow following experimental PaCO2 changes were detected in newborn piglets when no other important variables were modified.
  • Effects of traction therapy on atlantoaxial joint dislocation-induced cervical vertigo Research Article

    Cai, Genghui; Zhu, Dabin; Chen, Jieyun; Lin, Xiuyao; Chen, Ri

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Cervical vertigo is a common complication of atlantoaxial joint dislocation. However, there is no consensus on the effects of different therapies on the recovery of the patients suffering cervical vertigo. The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effect of traction therapy on reducing cervical vertigo induced by atlantoaxial joint dislocation. A total of 96 patients were randomized to receive traction therapy or traditional therapy for two weeks. The overall clinical efficacy was measured based on the 30-point cervical vertigo symptom and function evaluation form. The therapeutic effects were also evaluated based on lateral atlantodental space (LADS), vertigo scale, neck and shoulder pain scale, headache scale, daily life and work scale, psychosocial adaptation scale, and quality of life. Compared with the traditional therapy group, the traction group demonstrated markedly higher overall clinical efficacy (P=0.038). Both the traction therapy group and the traditional therapy group showed significant decrease in LADS (P<0.001), but the traction therapy group had a greater reduction of LAD compared with the traditional group (P<0.01). Traction therapy consistently led to significantly greater relief of cervical vertigo symptoms, including dizziness, neck and shoulder pain, headache, inconvenience in daily living and work activities, impaired psychosocial adaptation, while improving quality of life. The efficacy of traction therapy for cervical vertigo surpasses that of traditional therapy, suggesting that traction therapy is potentially more clinically useful in treating these patients.
  • Nephrotic syndrome in the elderly: epidemiological aspects, clinical data, and renal biopsy findings Research Article

    Soares, L.R.; Pantoja Junior, J.M.S.; Jorge, L.B.; Yu, L.; Cavalcante, L.B.; Malheiros, D.M.A.C.; Woronik, V.; Dias, C.B.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Nephrotic syndrome is the most common clinical presentation of glomerular disease in elderly patients, and renal biopsy is an important diagnostic resource. The aim of this study was to describe nephrotic syndrome among elderly patients in Brazil, focusing on tubulointerstitial and vascular involvement. This was a retrospective study of patients over 65 years of age with nephrotic syndrome who underwent renal biopsy between January 2012 and December 2019. Of the 123 renal biopsies that occurred during the study period, 44 (35.8%) were performed for the investigation of nephrotic syndrome. Among those 44 cases, the main etiologies were membranous nephropathy in 13 cases (29.5%), amyloidosis in ten (22.7%), non-collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in four (9.1%), and collapsing FSGS in four (9.1%). Patients with minimal change disease (MCD) had the lowest degree of interstitial fibrosis compared with the other glomerulopathies, and histological signs of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) were less common among those with amyloidosis than among those with membranous nephropathy, FSGS, or MCD (P=0.0077). Of the patients with ATN, the frequency of acute kidney injury (AKI) was highest in those with MCD (P<0.001). All patients had some degree of vascular involvement, regardless of the type of glomerulopathy. In conclusion, the second most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in this population was amyloidosis, and acute interstitial tubule involvement was more marked in MCD. Vascular involvement is something that cannot be dissociated from the age of the patient and is not only due to the underlying glomerulopathy.
  • Predictive value of DNA repair gene expression for response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer Research Article

    Kneubil, M.C.; Goulart, K.O.B.; Brollo, J.; Coelho, G.P.; Mandelli, J.; Orlandin, B.C.; Corso, L.L.; Roesch-Ely, M.; Henriques, J.A.P.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Genome-wide analysis using microarrays has revolutionized breast cancer (BC) research. A substantial body of evidence supports the clinical utility of the 21-gene assay (Oncotype DX) and 70-gene assay (MammaPrint) to predict BC recurrence and the magnitude of benefit from chemotherapy. However, there is currently no genetic tool able to predict chemosensitivity and chemoresistance to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) during BC treatment. In this study, we explored the predictive value of DNA repair gene expression in the neoadjuvant setting. We selected 98 patients with BC treated with NACT. We assessed DNA repair expression in 98 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded core biopsy fragments used at diagnosis and in 32 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded post-NACT residual tumors using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The following genes were selected: BRCA1, PALB2, RAD51C, BRCA2, ATM, FANCA, MSH2, XPA, ERCC1, PARP1, and SNM1. Of 98 patients, 33 (33.7%) achieved pathologic complete response (pCR). The DNA expression of 2 genes assessed in pre-NACT biopsies (PALB2 and ERCC1) was lower in pCR than in non-pCR patients (P=0.005 and P=0.009, respectively). There was no correlation between molecular subtype and expression of DNA repair genes. The genes BRCA2 (P=0.009), ATM (P=0.004), FANCA (P=0.001), and PARP1 (P=0.011) showed a lower expression in post-NACT residual tumor samples (n=32) than in pre-NACT biopsy samples (n=98). The expression of 2 genes (PALB2 and ERCC1) was lower in pCR patients. These alterations in DNA repair could be considered suitable targets for cancer therapy.
  • Metagenomics analysis reveals universal signatures of the intestinal microbiota in colorectal cancer, regardless of regional differences Research Article

    Berbert, L.; Santos, A.; Magro, D.O.; Guadagnini, D.; Assalin, H.B.; Lourenço, L.H.; Martinez, C.A.R.; Saad, M.J.A.; Coy, C.S.R.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The human gut microbiota is a complex and dynamic community of microorganisms living in our intestines and has emerged as an important factor for colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC). The purpose of our study was to investigate the microbiota composition in Brazilian CRC patients compared with a local control population (CTL) to find out which changes could be considered universal or regional features in CRC microbiota. Fecal samples were obtained from 28 CRC and 23 CTL individuals. The 16S rRNA gene was used for metagenomic analysis. In addition to the anthropometric variables, the clinical stage (TNM 2018) was considered. Patients with CRC had a significant increase in alpha diversity and a higher percentage of genus Prevotella and a decreased proportion of Megamonas and Ruminococcus. Additionally, the proportion of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii was associated with a better prognosis in the first stages of CRC, and Fusobacterium nucleatum proved to be an important marker of colorectal carcinogenesis and tumor aggressiveness. Although regional differences influence the composition of the microbiota, in the case of CRC, the microhabitat created by the tumor seems to be a major factor. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the carcinogenic process, and even in different environments, some factors appear to be characteristic of the microbiota of patients with CRC.
  • Impact of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on hemodynamic and autonomic profile of elastase-2 knockout mice Research Article

    Prates-Costa, T.C.; Oliveira, M. de; Fazan Jr, R.; Salgado, H.C.; Becari, C.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Elastase-2 (ELA-2) is an angiotensin II-generating enzyme that participates in the cardiovascular system. ELA-2 is involved in hemodynamic and autonomic control and is upregulated in myocardial infarction and hypertension. The inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) increased ELA-2 expression in the carotid arteries and heart of spontaneously hypertensive rats. In this study, we sought to investigate the role of ACE inhibition in hemodynamic and autonomic balance in elastase-2 knockout (ELA-2 KO) mice. Male ELA-2 KO and C57BL/6 mice were treated with the ACE inhibitor enalapril or saline for 10 days. After treatment, mice underwent surgery for cannulation of the femoral artery and arterial pressure recordings were made five days later in awake animals. The variability of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and pulse interval (PI) was evaluated in the time and frequency domain. Spontaneous baroreflex was assessed by the sequencing method. ACE inhibition caused a significant decrease in mean arterial pressure (117±2.2 vs 100±2.8 mmHg) and an increase in heart rate (570±32 vs 655±15 bpm) in ELA-2 KO mice. Despite a tendency towards reduction in the overall heart rate variability (standard deviation of successive values: 7.6±1.1 vs 4.7±0.6 ms, P=0.08), no changes were found in the root of the mean sum of squares or in the power of the high-frequency band. ACE inhibition did not change the spontaneous baroreflex indices (gain and baroreflex effectiveness index) in ELA-2 KO mice. Altogether, this data suggested that ACE played a role in the maintenance of hemodynamic function in ELA-2 KO mice.
  • Reference equations of oxygen uptake for the step test in the obese population Research Article

    Fagundes, C.F.; Thommazo-Luporini, L. Di; Goulart, C.L.; Braatz, D.; Ditomaso, A.; Borghi-Silva, A.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The aim of this study was to establish reference equations for the six-minute step test (6MST) based on demographic, anthropometric, body composition, and performance variables able to predict oxygen uptake (V̇O2) in obese individuals. Seventy-three obese adults (42±14 years old, body mass index >30 kg/m2) from both sexes were included. They underwent anamnesis, body composition evaluation, and the 6MST with expired gases registered simultaneously. Three equations were developed for the obese population (n=73; 59% female). The first equation was composed of the up-and-down step cycles (UDS), sex, and age as predictors; the second equation was composed of the UDS, age, and lean mass (LM). Both equations collectively explained 68.1% of the V̇O2 variance in the 6MST, while the third equation, composed of the UDS, age, and body mass, accounted for 67.7% of the V̇O2 variance. UDS, sex, age, LM, and body mass were important V̇O2 predictors of 6MST in these obese individuals. This study contributes to the dissemination of a simple, inexpensive, and fast evaluation method that can provide important indicators of cardiorespiratory fitness and guide strategies for rehabilitation.
  • Factors affecting executive function performance of Brazilian elderly in the Stroop test Research Article

    Braga, P.L.G.; Henrique, J.S.; Almeida, S.S.; Arida, R.M.; Gomes da Silva, S.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Aging is related to a decrease in physiological abilities, especially cognitive functions. To unravel further evidence of age-related cognitive decline, we analyzed which physical and functional variables are predictors of cognitive performance in a sample of 498 Brazilian elderly (67.26% women). To do so, we used the Stroop test as a tool to evaluate executive functions and the General functional fitness index (GFFI) to evaluate the functional fitness of the participants. A linear regression analysis revealed that female sex (β=-0.097; t=-2.286; P=0.023), younger age (β=0.205; t=4.606; P<0.0001), more years of education (β=-0.280; t=-6.358; P<0.0001), and higher GFFI (β=-0.101; t=-2.347; P<0.02) were predictors of better cognitive performance. Body mass index (kg/m2) and nutritional status (underweight, eutrophic, overweight, or obese) were not predictors of cognitive performance. Interestingly, among the GFFI tasks, muscle strength influenced the test execution time, both in upper and lower limbs (elbow flexion: β=-0.201; t=-4.672; P<0.0001; sit-to-stand: β=-0.125; t=-2.580; P<0.01). Our findings showed that: 1) women performed the Stroop test faster than men; 2) the older the person, the lower was the cognitive performance; 3) the higher the education, the better the test execution time; and 4) higher scores in the GFFI were associated with a better performance in the Stroop test. Therefore, gender, age, education, and functional fitness and capacity were predictors of cognitive performance in the elderly.
  • Lactate modulates cardiac gene expression in mice during acute physical exercise Research Article

    Cunha, T.F.; Vieira, J.S.; Santos, J.B.; Coelho, M.A.; Brum, P.C.; Gabriel-Costa, D.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The aim of the present study was to verify the role of lactate as a signaling molecule in cardiac tissue under physiological conditions. C57BL6/J male mice were submitted to acute running bouts on a treadmill at different exercise intensities (30, 60, and 90% of maximal speed - Smax) under the effect of two doses (0.5 and 5 mM) of α-cyano-4-hydroxycynnamate (CINN), a blocker of lactate transporters. Cardiac lactate levels, activity of the enzymes of glycolytic [hexokinase (HK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)] and oxidative metabolism [citrate synthase (CS)], and expression of genes also related to metabolism [LDH, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF-2), cytochrome oxidase IV (COX-IV), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α)] were evaluated. Elevated cardiac lactate levels were observed after high intensity running at 90% of Smax, which were parallel to increased activity of the HK and CS enzymes and mRNA levels of PGC-1α and COX-IV. No changes were observed in cardiac lactate levels in mice running at lower exercise intensities. Interestingly, prior intraperitoneal administration (15 min) of CINN (0.5 mM) significantly reduced cardiac lactate concentration, activities of HK and CS, and mRNA levels of PGC-1α and COX-IV in mice that ran at 90% of Smax. In addition, cardiac lactate levels were significantly correlated to both PGC-1α and COX-IV cardiac gene expression. The present study provides evidence that cardiac lactate levels are associated to gene transcription during an acute bout of high intensity running exercise.
  • Bidirectional genetic selection of behaviors involved in social interaction of Wistar rats Research Article

    Bonuti, R.; Morato, S.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Bidirectional selection is a procedure in which an arbitrary characteristic is chosen as a selection criterion and animals exhibiting more of this characteristic are bred in one group and animals exhibiting less are bred in another group. The procedure is repeated along generations until the selected characteristic becomes stable, resulting in two strains that are opposite in relation to the chosen characteristic. The present study aimed at selectively breeding rats exhibiting either a high or a low tendency to socialize by using the proximity test. We tested male and female Wistar rats in a square open field with a communicating birdcage, separated by a grid, containing a co-specific rat and coupled on the outside. Subjects that remained more time in front of the birdcage, interacting with the co-specific rat were bred in a group considered of high sociability (SOC+). Likewise, subjects that remained little time in front of the birdcage, with little interaction with the co-specific rat, were bred in a second group considered of low sociability (SOC–). By the 10th generation, the bidirectional selection resulted in SOC+ rats that spent a large amount of time in front of the cage sniffing and rearing in interaction with the co-specific rat and spent less time in the corners, exploring and grooming. It also resulted in SOC– rats that spent a small amount of time in front of the cage sniffing and rearing in interaction with the co-specific rat and spent more time in the corners and used most of their time grooming.
  • In vitro maturation medium supplementation: utilization of repaglinide, L-carnitine, and mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium to improve developmental competence of oocytes derived from endometriosis mouse models Research Article

    Kalehoei, E.; Moradi, M.; Azadbakht, M.; Zhaleh, H.; Parvini, M.; Cheraghbaeigi, S.; Saghari, S.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Endometriosis (EMS) is one of the most prevalent causes for female infertility. Herein, we investigated the effect of the repaglinide (RG), L-carnitine (LC), and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (BMSC-CM) supplementation during in vitro maturation (IVM) on the quality, maturation, and fertilization rates, as well as embryonic quality and development of oocytes derived from normal and EMS mouse model. Immature oocytes were collected from two groups of normal and EMS-induced female NMRI mice at 6-8 weeks of age. Oocytes were cultured in IVM medium unsupplemented (control group), or supplemented with 1 M RG, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/mL LC, and 25 and 50% BMSC-CM. After 24 h of oocyte incubation, IVM rate and antioxidant status were assessed. Subsequently, the rates of fertilization, cleavage, blastulation, and embryonic development were assessed. Our results demonstrated that supplementation of IVM medium with LC and BMSC-CM, especially 50% BMSC-CM, significantly enhanced IVM and fertilization rates, and markedly improved blastocyst development and total blastocyst cell numbers in EMS-induced mice compared to the control group (53.28±0.24 vs 18.09±0.10%). Additionally, LC and BMSC-CM were able to significantly modulate EMS-induced nitro-oxidative stress by boosting total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and mitigating nitric oxide (NO) levels. Collectively, LC and BMSC-CM supplementation improved oocyte quality and IVM rates, pre-implantation developmental competence of oocytes after in vitro fertilization, and enhanced total blastocyst cell numbers probably by attenuating nitro-oxidative stress and accelerating nuclear maturation of oocytes. These outcomes may provide novel approaches to refining the IVM conditions that can advance the efficiency of assisted reproductive technologies in infertile couples.
  • ITGBL1 transcriptionally inhibited by JDP2 promotes the development of pancreatic cancer through the TGF-beta/Smad pathway Research Article

    Du, Tiancong; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Zhongbo; Guo, Aijia; Yu, Guilin; Xu, Yuanhong

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the malignant tumors with the worst prognosis worldwide because of a lack of early diagnostic markers and efficient therapies. Integrin, beta-like 1 (ITGBL1) is a β-integrin-related extracellular matrix protein and is reported to promote progression of some types of cancer. Nevertheless, the function of ITGBL1 in PC is still not clear. Herein, we found that ITGBL1 was highly expressed in PC tissues compared to normal tissues (P<0.05) and PC patients with higher TGBL1 expression showed worse prognosis. PANC-1 and AsPC-1 cells were used for gain/loss-of-function experiments. We found that ITGBL1-silenced cells exhibited decreased proliferation, migration, and invasion abilities and delayed cell cycle, whereas ITGBL1 overexpression reversed these malignant behaviors. ITGBL1 was also demonstrated to activate the TGF-β/Smad pathway, a key signaling pathway in PC progression. Additionally, ITGBL1 expression was found to be suppressed by a suppressor of PC progression, c-Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2). Results of dual-luciferase assay indicated that transcription factor JDP2 could inhibit TGBL1 promoter activity. ITGBL1 overexpression inversed the effects of JDP2 up-regulation on cell function. Collectively, we concluded that ITGBL1 may be transcriptionally suppressed by JDP2 and promote PC progression through the TGF-β/Smad pathway, indicating that ITGBL1 may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of PC.
  • Role of aerobic physical training on cardiac autonomic and morphophysiological dysfunction in hypertensive rats subjected to ovarian hormone deprivation Research Article

    Rossi, B.R.O.; Philbois, S.V.; Maida, K.D.; Sánchez-Delgado, J.C.; Veiga, A.C.; Souza, H.C.D.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Here we investigated the effects of physical training on cardiovascular autonomic control and cardiac morphofunctional parameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) subjected to ovarian hormone deprivation. Forty-eight 10-week-old SHRs were divided into two groups: ovariectomized (OVX, n=24) and sham (SHAM, n=24). Half of each group (n=12) was trained by swimming for 12 weeks (OVX-T and SHAM-T). Cardiac morphology and functionality were assessed using echocardiography, and autonomic parameters were assessed using double pharmacological autonomic block, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV). Ovariectomy did not influence the cardiac autonomic tonus balance unlike physical training, which favored greater participation of the vagal autonomic tonus. Ovariectomy and aerobic physical training did not modify HRV and BRS, unlike BPV, for which both methods reduced low-frequency oscillations, suggesting a reduction in sympathetic vascular modulation. Untrained ovariectomized animals showed a reduced relative wall thickness (RWT) and increased diastolic and systolic volumes and left ventricular diameters, resulting in increased stroke volume. Trained ovariectomized animals presented reduced posterior wall thickness and RWT as well as increased final diastolic diameter, left ventricular mass, and stroke volume. Ovarian hormone deprivation in SHRs promoted morphofunctional adaptations but did not alter the evaluation of cardiac autonomic parameters. In turn, aerobic physical training contributed to a more favorable cardiac autonomic balance to the vagal autonomic component and promoted morphological adaptations but had little effect on cardiac functionality.
  • The combination of berberine and evodiamine ameliorates high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease associated with modulation of gut microbiota in rats Research Article

    Dai, Yufan; Zhu, Wenyu; Zhou, Jiaxuan; Shen, Tao

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered to be a manifestation of hepatic metabolic syndrome. Some studies on the pathogenesis of NAFLD by targeting gut microbiota have attracted wide attention. Previous studies have demonstrated the positive effects of berberine and evodiamine on metabolic diseases and gut microbiota dysbiosis. However, it is not known whether the combination of berberine and evodiamine (BE) can prevent the development of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD. Therefore, we aimed to explore the protective effects of BE on the development of HFD-induced NAFLD from the perspective of the gut microbiota. Gut microbiota profiles were established by high throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The effects of BE on liver and intestinal tissue, intestinal barrier integrity, and hepatic inflammation were also investigated. The results showed that the abundance and diversity of gut microbiota were enriched by BE treatment, with an increase in beneficial bacteria, such as Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Prevotella, and a decrease in pathogenic bacteria such as Fusobacterium and Lachnospira. In addition, BE effectively improved liver fat accumulation and tissue damage, inhibited the apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells, increased the contents of intestinal tight junction proteins, and decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory factors. Consequently, BE treatment could be an effective and alternative strategy for alleviating NAFLD by modulating gut microbiota and safeguarding the intestinal barrier.
  • Riboflavin did not provide anti-inflammatory or antioxidant effects in an experimental model of sepsis Research Article

    Vale, A.H.F.; Nascimento, D.C.; Pineros, A.R.; Ferreira, R.G.; Santos, J.D.; Aragon, D.C.; Cunha, F.Q.; Ramalho, F.S.; Alves-Filho, J.C.; Carlotti, A.P.C.P.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    We aimed to evaluate whether the administration of riboflavin to septic animals reduces inflammation, oxidative stress, organ dysfunction, and mortality. C57BL/6 mice, 6-8 weeks old, were allocated to the study group (polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) + antibiotic + iv riboflavin), control (CLP + antibiotic + iv saline), or naïve (non-operated controls). Serum concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), urea, and creatinine, and markers of inflammation [interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2)], and oxidative stress (malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured 12 h after the experiment. Animal survival rates were calculated after 7 days. Means between groups were compared using linear regression models adjusted under the Bayesian approach. No significant difference was observed between control and study groups in serum concentrations of IL-6 (95% credible interval) (-0.35 to 0.44), TNF-α (-15.7 to 99.1), KC (-0.13 to 0.05), MIP-2 (-0.84 to 0.06), MDA (-1.25 to 2.53), or ALT (-6.6 to 11.5). Serum concentrations of CK-MB (-145.1 to -30.1), urea (-114.7 to -15.1), and creatinine (-1.14 to -0.01) were higher in the study group. Survival was similar in both groups (P=0.8). Therefore, the use of riboflavin in mice undergoing sepsis induced by CLP did not reduce inflammation, oxidative stress, organ dysfunction, or mortality compared with placebo.
  • Short isocapnic hyperoxia affects indices of vascular remodeling and intercellular adhesion molecules in healthy men Research Article

    Garcia, V.P.; Mattos, J.D.; Mentzinger, J.; Leite, P.E.C.; Rocha, H.N.M.; Campos, M.O.; Rocha, M.P.; Mansur, D.E.; Secher, N.H.; Nóbrega, A.C.L.; Fernandes, I.A.; Rocha, N.G.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    In preparation for tracheal intubation during induction of anesthesia, the patient may be ventilated with 100% oxygen. To investigate the impact of acute isocapnic hyperoxia on endothelial activation and vascular remodeling, ten healthy young men (24±3 years) were exposed to 5-min normoxia (21% O2) and 10-min hyperoxia trials (100% O2). During hyperoxia, intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1) (hyperoxia: 4.16±0.85 vs normoxia: 3.51±0.84 ng/mL, P=0.04) and tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) (hyperoxia: 8.40±3.84 vs normoxia: 5.73±2.15 pg/mL, P=0.04) increased, whereas matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9) activity (hyperoxia: 0.53±0.11 vs normoxia: 0.68±0.18 A.U., P=0.03) decreased compared to the normoxia trial. We concluded that even short exposure to 100% oxygen may affect endothelial activation and vascular remodeling.
  • Poor prognosis indicators of type-2 diabetic COVID-19 patients Research Article

    Gorjão, R.; Hirabara, S.M.; Masi, L.N.; Serdan, T.D.A.; Gritte, R.B.; Hatanaka, E.; Souza-Siqueira, T.; Pithon-Curi, A.C.; Lima, T.M. de; Pithon-Curi, T.C.; Marchini, J.F.M.; Machado, M.C.C.; Souza, H.P.; Curi, R.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Diabetes is associated with a worse prognosis and a high risk of morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. We aimed to evaluate the main factors involved in the poor prognosis in diabetic patients. A total of 984 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 admitted to the hospital were included in this study. Patients were first divided into type-2 diabetic (DM+) and non-diabetic (DM–) groups. The participants were analyzed based on the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) and on the Quick-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) to find the best prognostic risk score for our study. The DM+ and DM– groups were divided into non-severe and severe groups. Comparative and correlative analyses were used to identify the physiological parameters that could be employed for creating a potential risk indicator for DM+ COVID-19 patients. We found a poorer prognosis for the DM+ COVID-19 patients with a higher ICU admission rate, mechanical ventilation rate, vasopressor use, dialysis, and longer treatment times compared with the DM– group. DM+ COVID-19 patients had increased plasma glucose, lactate, age, urea, NEWS, and D-dimer levels, herein referred to as the GLAUND set, and worse prognosis and outcomes when compared with infected DM– patients. The NEWS score was a better indicator for assessing COVID-19 severity in diabetic patients than the q-SOFA score. In conclusion, diabetic COVID-19 patients should be assessed with the NEWS score and GLAUND set for determining their prognosis COVID-19 prognosis.
  • Using data from a private provider of telemedicine to assess the severity of the early 2021 Covid-19 wave in Brazil Research Article

    Barbosa, P.M.; Silva Júnior, F.C. da; Lima, G.M.C.; Bertini, S.; Lima, R.R. de; Furuta, K.A.; Mapa, C.H.; Roschel, L.; Oliveira, E.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    In early 2021, Brazil saw a dramatic recurrence in Covid-19 cases associated to the spread of a novel variant of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the P1 variant. In light of previous reports showing that this variant is more transmissible and more likely to infect people who had recovered from previous infection, a retrospective analysis was conducted to assess if the early 2021 Covid-19 wave in Brazil was associated with an increase in the number of individuals presenting with a more severe clinical course. Fifty-one thousand and fourteen individuals who underwent telemedicine consultations were divided into two groups: patients seen on or before January 31, 2021, and on or after February 1, 2021. These dates were chosen based on the spread of the P1 variant in Brazil. Referral to the emergency department (ED) was used as a marker of a more severe course of the disease. No differences were seen in the proportion of patients referred to the ED in each group nor in the odds ratio of being referred to the ED from the 1st of February 2021 (OR=0.909; 95%CI: 0.81-1.01). Considering the entire cohort, age had an impact on the odds of being referred to the ED, with individuals older than 59 years showing twice the risk of the remaining population and those less than 19 years showing a lower risk.
  • Cellular consequences of small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from chromosome 12: mosaicism in daughter and father Research Article

    Freitas, M.O.; Santos, A.O. dos; Barbosa, L.S.; Figueiredo, A.F. de; Pellegrini, S.P.; Santos, N.C.K.; Paiva, I.S.; Rangel-Pozzo, A.; Sisdelli, L.; Mai, S.; Land, M.G.P.; Ribeiro, M.G.; Ribeiro, M.C.M.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Constitutional genomic imbalances are known to cause malformations, disabilities, neurodevelopmental delay, and dysmorphia and can lead to dysfunctions in the cell cycle. In extremely rare genetic conditions such as small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC), it is important to understand the cellular consequences of this extra marker, as well the factors that contribute to their maintenance or elimination through successive cell cycles and phenotypic impact. The study of chromosomal mosaicism provides a natural model to characterize the effect of aneuploidy on genome stability and compare cells with the same genetic background and environment exposure, but differing in the presence of sSMC. Here, we report the functional characterization of different cell lines from two familial patients with mosaic sSMC derived from chromosome 12. We performed studies of proliferation dynamics, stability, and variability of these cells using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), and conventional staining. We also quantified the telomere-related genomic instability of sSMC cells using 3D telomeric profile analysis by quantitative-FISH. sSMC cells exhibited differences in the cell cycle dynamics compared to normal cells. First, the sSMC cells exhibited lower proliferation index and higher frequency of SCE than normal cells, associated with a higher level of chromosomal instability. Second, sSMC cells exhibited more telomeric-related genomic instability. Lastly, the differences of sSMC cells distribution among tissues could explain different phenotypic repercussions observed in patients. These results will help in our understanding of the sSMC stability, maintenance during cell cycle, and the cell cycle variables involved in the different phenotypic manifestations.
  • The extent of involvement of ouabain, hippocampal expression of Na+/K+-ATPase, and corticosterone/melatonin receptors ratio in modifying stress-induced behavior differs according to the stressor in context Research Article

    Abdelmissih, S.; Sayed, W.M.; Rashed, L.A.; Kamel, M.M.; Eshra, M.A.; Attallah, M.I.; El-Naggar, R.A-R.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of two types of stressors, regarding the extent of involvement of ouabain (OUA), hippocampal sodium/potassium ATPase (NKA) expression, and the hippocampal corticosterone receptors (CR)/melatonin receptors (MR) expression ratio, on the behavioral and cardiovascular responses and on the hippocampal cornu ammonis zone 3 (CA3) and dentate gyrus (DG). Thirty adult male Wistar albino rats aged 7-8 months were exposed to either chronic immobilization or a disturbed dark/light cycle and treated with either ouabain or vehicle. In the immobilized group, in the absence of hippocampal corticosterone (CORT) changes, rats were non-responsive to stress, despite experiencing increased pulse rate, downregulated hippocampal sodium/potassium pump, and enhanced hippocampal CR/MR expression ratio. Prolonged darkness precipitated a reduced upright attack posture, with elevated CORT against hippocampal MR downregulation. Both immobilization and, to a lesser extent, prolonged darkness stress resulted in histopathological and ultrastructural neurodegenerative changes in the hippocampus. OUA administration did not change the behavioral resilience in restrained rats, despite persistence of the underlying biochemical derangements, added to decreased CORT. On the contrary, with exposure to short photoperiods, OUA reverted the behavior towards a combative reduction of inactivity, with unvaried CR/MR and CORT, while ameliorating hippocampal neuro-regeneration, with co-existing NKA and MR repressions. Therefore, the extent of OUA, hippocampal NKA expression, and CR/MR expression, and subsequent behavioral and cardiac responses and hippocampal histopathology, differ according to the type of stressor, whether immobilization or prolonged darkness.
  • Presence of SARS-CoV-2 on food surfaces and public space surfaces in three districts of Lima, Peru Research Article

    Alvis-Chirinos, K.; Angulo-Bazán, Y.; Escalante-Maldonado, O.; Fuentes, D.; Palomino-Rodriguez, M.G.; Gonzales-Achuy, E.; Mormontoy, H.; Hinojosa-Mamani, P.; Huamán-Espino, L.; Aparco, J.P.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of SARS-CoV-2 on food surfaces and surfaces in public spaces in 3 districts of Lima, Peru. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in three districts of the Lima metropolitan area. Surfaces that were most exposed to users were selected. Samples were swabbed for 4 weeks and transported to the laboratory to determine the presence of the virus. One thousand ninety-five inert surface samples and 960 food surface samples were evaluated for the identification of SARS-CoV-2 by the real time-PCR molecular test, whereby only one sample from an automated teller machine was positive. Most of the inert and food surfaces evaluated did not show the presence of SARS-CoV-2 during the time of sample collection. Despite the negative results, the frequency of disinfection and hygiene measures on high-contact surfaces should be maintained and increased to prevent other highly contagious infectious diseases.
  • Early introduction of exercise prevents insulin resistance in postnatal overfed rats Research Article

    Fischer, S.V.; Appel, M.H.; Naliwaiko, K.; Pagliosa, D.D.; Araújo, D.N.; Capote, A.E.; Oliveira, B.A.C.; Fernandes, L.C.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Early childhood obesity increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We examined the early introduction of exercise in small-litter obese-induced rats (SL) on glucose metabolism in the epididymal adipose tissue (AT) and soleus muscle (SM). On day 3 post-birth, pups were divided into groups of ten or three (SL). On day 22, rats were split into sedentary (S and SLS) and exercise (E and SLE) groups. The rats swam three times/week carrying a load for 30 min. In the first week, they swam without a load; in the 2nd week, they carried a load equivalent to 2% of their body weight; from the 3rd week to the final week, they carried a 5% body load. At 85 days of age, an insulin tolerance test was performed in some rats. At 90 days of age, rats were killed, and blood was harvested for plasma glucose, cholesterol, and triacylglycerol measurements. Mesenteric, epididymal, retroperitoneal, and brown adipose tissues were removed and weighed. SM and AT were incubated in the Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer, 5.5 mM glucose for 1 h with or without 10 mU/mL insulin. Comparison between the groups was performed by 3-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey post-hoc test. Sedentary, overfed rats had greater body mass, more visceral fat, lower lactate production, and insulin resistance. Early introduction of exercise reduced plasma cholesterol and contained the deposition of white adipose tissue and insulin resistance. In conclusion, the early introduction of exercise prevents the effects of obesity on glucose metabolism in adulthood in this rat model.
  • Mild-to-moderate COVID-19 impact on the cardiorespiratory fitness in young and middle-aged populations Research Article

    Back, G.D.; Oliveira, M.R.; Camargo, P.F.; Goulart, C.L.; Oliveira, C.R.; Wende, K.W.; Bonjorno Junior, J.C.; Arbex, R.F.; Caruso, F.R.; Arena, R.; Borghi-Silva, A.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The goal of the present study was to compare pulmonary function test (PFT) and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) performance in COVID-19 survivors with a control group (CG). This was a cross-sectional study. Patients diagnosed with COVID-19, without severe signs and symptoms, were evaluated one month after the infection. Healthy volunteers matched for sex and age constituted the control group. All volunteers underwent the following assessments: i) clinical evaluation, ii) PTF; and iii) CPET on a cycle ergometer. Metabolic variables were measured by the CareFusion Oxycon Mobile device. In addition, heart rate responses, peak systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and perceived exertion were recorded. Twenty-nine patients with COVID-19 and 18 healthy control subjects were evaluated. Surviving patients of COVID-19 had a mean age of 40 years and had higher body mass index and persistent symptoms compared to the CG (P<0.05), but patients with COVID-19 had more comorbidities, number of medications, and greater impairment of lung function (P<0.05). Regarding CPET, patients surviving COVID-19 had reduced peak workload, oxygen uptake (V̇O2), carbon dioxide output (V̇CO2), circulatory power (CP), and end-tidal pressure for carbon dioxide (PETCO2) (P<0.05). Additionally, survivors had depressed chronotropic and ventilatory responses, low peak oxygen saturation, and greater muscle fatigue (P<0.05) compared to CG. Despite not showing signs and symptoms of severe disease during infection, adult survivors had losses of lung function and cardiorespiratory capacity one month after recovery from COVID-19. In addition, cardiovascular, ventilatory, and lower limb fatigue responses were the main exercise limitations.
  • Dexmedetomidine pretreatment alleviates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting neuroinflammation through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway Research Article

    Liu, Huan; Li, Jianli; Jiang, Li; He, Jinhua; Zhang, Huanhuan; Wang, Keyan

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is known to provide neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury (CIRI), but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. This study was conducted to investigate whether DEX pretreatment conferred neuroprotection against CIRI by inhibiting neuroinflammation through the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed to establish a cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model. Specific-pathogen-free male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Sham, I/R, DEX, DEX+IL-6, and AG490 (a selective inhibitor of JAK2) groups. The Longa score, TTC staining, and HE staining were used to evaluate brain damage. ELISA was used to exam levels of TNF-α. Western blotting was used to assess the levels of JAK2, phosphorylated-JAK2 (p-JAK2), STAT3, and phosphorylated-STAT3 (p-STAT3). Our results suggested that both pretreatment with DEX and AG490 decreased the Longa score and cerebral infarct areas following cerebral I/R. After treatment with IL-6, the effects of DEX on abrogating these pathological changes were reduced. HE staining revealed that I/R-induced neuronal pathological changes were attenuated by DEX application, consistent with the AG490 group. However, these effects of DEX were abolished by IL-6. Furthermore, TNF-α levels were significantly increased in the I/R group, accompanied by an increase in the levels of the p-JAK2 and p-STAT3. DEX and AG490 pretreatment down-regulated the expressions of TNF-α, p-JAK2, and p-STAT3. In contrast, the down-regulation of TNF-α, p-JAK2, and p-STAT3 induced by DEX was reversed by IL-6. Collectively, our results indicated that DEX pretreatment conferred neuroprotection against CIRI by inhibiting neuroinflammation via negatively regulating the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.
  • Plastination with low viscosity silicone: strategy for less tissue shrinkage Research Article

    Monteiro, Y.F.; Silva, M.V.F.; Bittencourt, A.P.S.V.; Bittencourt, A.S.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Plastination is an anatomical technique for preserving biological tissues based on the principle of replacing body fluids with a curable polymer. An inconvenient aspect of this technique is the tissue shrinkage it causes; several studies seek ways to reduce or avoid this shrinkage. Additionally, there are no studies in the literature that quantitatively evaluate the use of low viscosity silicones in plastination having shrinkage of tissue as a parameter. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the use of Silicones S10 (Biodur) and P1 (Polisil) in the plastination of different types of biological tissues of a sliced human body, having as a parameter the tissue shrinkage caused in the forced impregnation stage. Human cardiac, pulmonary, splenic, renal, hepatic, muscular, and bone tissues were analyzed. For such purpose, a male human body was used, sliced in 13-15-mm-thick pieces, having as a parameter the before and the after plastination with the different silicones. The standard protocol of the plastination of the slices was followed: dehydration, forced impregnation, and curation. Half of the pieces obtained were plastinated with silicone P1 (group P1) and the other half with S10 (group S10). All tissues and anatomical segments analyzed in this study showed less or equal shrinkage when plastination of the control group (S10) was compared with that of the P1 group. Therefore, we concluded that the lower viscosity silicone promoted less tissue shrinkage, making it a viable alternative to the reference.
  • In vivo evaluation of the potential protective effects of prolactin against damage caused by methylmercury Research Article

    Cunha, L.; Bonfim, L.; Lima, G.; Silva, R.; Silva, L.; Lima, P.; Oliveira-Bahia, V.; Freitas, J.; Burbano, R.; Rocha, C.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Non-biodegradable metals such as mercury accumulate in living organisms during life (bioaccumulation) and also within trophic webs (biomagnification) and may reach high concentrations in humans. The contamination of humans by mercury in drinking water and food may be common, in particular in riverside communities that have a diet rich in fish. In vitro studies of human cell lines exposed to the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of methylmercury have shown that prolactin has potential cytoprotective properties and may act as a co-mitogenic factor and inhibitor of apoptosis. The present in vivo study investigated the protective potential of prolactin against the toxic effects of methylmercury in the mammal Mus musculus. Histological and biochemical analyses, together with biomarker of genotoxicity, were used to verify the protective potential of prolactin in mice exposed to methylmercury. The reduction in kidney and liver tissue damage was not significant. However, results of biochemical and genotoxic analyses were excellent. After prolactin treatment, a significant reduction was observed in biochemical parameters and mutagenic effects of methylmercury. The study results therefore indicated that prolactin has protective effects against the toxicity of methylmercury and allowed us to suggest the continuation of research to propose prolactin in the future, as an alternative to prevent the damage caused by mercury, especially in populations that are more exposed.
  • Diabetic nephropathy patients show hyper-responsiveness to N6-carboxymethyllysine Research Article

    Dias, C.G.; Venkataswamy, L.; Balakrishna, S.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of N6-carboxymethyllysine (CML) on NF-κB gene expression and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production in diabetic nephropathy. This was an observational study comprised of three groups: diabetic nephropathy (n=30), type II diabetes mellitus (n=28), and healthy volunteers (n=30). Blood samples collected from the study participants were cultured for 24 h in the presence of CML or an appropriate control. After incubation, the cultures were centrifuged to separate the cells from the conditioned media. cDNA was prepared from the cell pellet and used to quantify NF-κB gene expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The conditioned media were used to measure TNF production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The CML-induced fold change in NF-κB gene expression was significantly different among the study groups (P=5.4×10-5). Also, the CML-induced fold change in TNF levels was significantly different among the three groups (P=4.3×10-8). These results imply that patients with diabetic nephropathy and type II diabetes mellitus showed an elevated response to CML.
  • Cardiorespiratory fitness as a mediator in the relationship between lung function and blood pressure in adults Research Article

    Almeida, F.R.; Ostolin, T.L.V.D.P.; Almeida, V.R.; Gonze, B.B.; Sperandio, E.F.; Simões, M.S.M.P.; Godoy, I.; Tanni, S.E.; Romiti, M.; Arantes, R.L.; Dourado, V.Z.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    It is unclear whether physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are pathways that link low pulmonary function (LPF) to increased blood pressure (BP). Therefore, we investigated the extent to which CRF and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) mediate the relationship between LPF and high BP in adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 1,362 participants that underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), spirometry, and wore an accelerometer to determine physical activity patterns. We performed mediation analyses using structural equations considering peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and MVPA as mediators, forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) as independent variables, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) as dependent variables. The probability of alpha error was set at 5%. We found a significant total effect of FVC on SBP and DBP considering V̇O2 as mediator (P<0.01). Indirect effects were also significant, with 42.6% of the total effect of FVC on SBP and 77% on DBP mediated by V̇O2 (P<0.01). We did not observe a direct effect of FVC on SBP and DBP. Considering FEV1 as an independent variable, the total effect on SBP was also significant, as were the indirect effects, mediated by V̇O2 at 14.8% for SBP and 7.6% for DBP (P<0.01). We did not find an indirect effect of FVC or FEV1 considering the MVPA as a mediator. CRF mediates the pathway that links LPF and elevated BP. Therefore, CRF is more sensitive to variations in FVC and FEV1 than MVPA.
  • Determination of glyphosate in breast milk of lactating women in a rural area from Paraná state, Brazil Research Article

    Camiccia, M.; Candiotto, L.Z.P.; Gaboardi, S.C.; Panis, C.; Kottiwitz, L.B.M.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The aim of this study was to verify the presence of glyphosate in breast milk and to characterize maternal environmental exposure. Sixty-seven milk samples were collected from lactating women in the city of Francisco Beltrão, Paraná, living in urban (n=26) and rural (n=41) areas, at the peak of glyphosate application in corn and soy crops in the region (April and May 2018). To characterize the study population, socio-epidemiological data of the women were collected. To determine glyphosate levels, a commercial enzyme immunosorbent assay kit was used. Glyphosate was detected in all breast milk samples analyzed with a mean value of 1.45 µg/L. Despite some descriptive differences, there were no statistically significant differences (P<0.05) between the categories of the variables tested. Also, glyphosate was detected in drinking water samples from the urban area and in artesian well water from the rural area of the region where the studied population lived. The estimation of the total amount of glyphosate ingested by breastfeeding babies in a period of 6 months was significant. These results suggest that the studied lactating population was contaminated with glyphosate, possibly through continued environmental exposure.
  • Nephroprotective effect of exercise training in cisplatin-induced renal damage in mice: influence of training protocol Research Article

    Almeida, A.A.; Correia, T.M.L.; Pires, R.A.; Silva, D.A. da; Coqueiro, R.S.; Machado, M.; Magalhães, A.C.M. de; Queiroz, R.F.; Soares, T.J.; Pereira, R.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Cisplatin is an effective antineoplastic agent, but its use is limited by its nephrotoxicity caused by the oxidative stress in tubular epithelium of nephrons. On the other hand, regular exercise provides beneficial adaptations in different tissues and organs. As with many drugs, dosing is extremely important to get the beneficial effects of exercise. Thus, we aimed to investigate the influence of exercise intensity and frequency on cisplatin-induced (20 mg/kg) renal damage in mice. Forty male Swiss mice were divided into five experimental groups (n=8 per group): 1) sedentary; 2) low-intensity forced swimming, three times per week; 3) high-intensity forced swimming, three times per week; 4) low-intensity forced swimming, five times per week; and 5) high-intensity forced swimming, five times per week. Body composition, renal structure, functional indicators (plasma urea), lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activity, expression of genes related to antioxidant defense, and inflammatory and apoptotic pathways were evaluated. Comparisons considered exercise intensity and frequency. High lipid peroxidation was observed in the sedentary group compared with trained mice, regardless of exercise intensity and frequency. Groups that trained three times per week showed more benefits, as reduced tubular necrosis, plasma urea, expression of CASP3 and Rela (NFkB subunit-p65) genes, and increased total glutathione peroxidase activity. No significant difference in Nfe2l2 (Nrf2) gene expression was observed between groups. Eight weeks of regular exercise training promoted nephroprotection against cisplatin-mediated oxidative injury. Exercise frequency was critical for nephroprotection.
  • High expression of P4HA3 in obesity: a potential therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes Research Article

    Zhuang, Langen; Li, Can; Hu, Xiaolei; Yang, Qingqing; Pei, Xiaoyan; Jin, Guoxi

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the expression of prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha 3 (P4HA3) in adipocytes and adipose tissue and to explore its effect on obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We initially demonstrated that P4HA3 was significantly upregulated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of obesity and T2DM patients, and its functional roles in adipocyte differentiation and insulin resistance were investigated using in vitro and in vivo models. The knockdown of P4HA3 inhibited adipocyte differentiation and improved insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 cells. In C57BL/6J db/db mice fed with a high fat diet (HFD), silencing P4HA3 significantly decreased fasting blood glucose and triglycerides (TG) levels, with concomitant decrease of body weight and adipose tissue weight. Further analysis showed that P4HA3 knockdown was correlated with the augmented IRS-1/PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 signaling pathway in the adipose and hepatic tissues of obese mice, which could improve hepatic glucose homeostasis and steatosis of mice. Together, our study suggested that the dysregulation of P4HA3 may contribute to the development of obesity and T2DM.
  • Foxa1 mediates eccrine sweat gland development through transcriptional regulation of Na-K-ATPase expression Research Article

    Zhao, Junhong; Zhang, Lei; Du, Lijie; Chen, Zixiu; Tang, Yue; Chen, Lijun; Liu, Xiang; You, Lei; Zhang, Yonghong; Fu, Xiaobing; Li, Haihong

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Eccrine sweat glands (ESGs) perform critical functions in temperature regulation in humans. Foxa1 plays an important role in ESG maturation and sweat secretion. Its molecular mechanism, however, remains unknown. This study investigated the expression of Foxa1 and Na-K-ATPase (NKA) in rat footpads at different development stages using immunofluorescence staining, qRT-PCR, and immunoblotting. Also, bioinformatics analysis and Foxa1 overexpression and silencing were employed to evaluate Foxa1 regulation of NKA. The results demonstrated that Foxa1 was consistently expressed during the late stages of ESGs and had a significant role in secretory coil maturation during sweat secretion. Furthermore, the mRNA abundance and protein expression of NKA had similar accumulation trends to those of Foxa1, confirming their underlying connections. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that Foxa1 may interact with these two proteins via binding to conserved motifs in their promoter regions. Foxa1 gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments in Foxa1-modified cells demonstrated that the activities of NKA were dependent on the presence of Foxa1. Collectively, these data provided evidence that Foxa1 may influence ESG development through transcriptional regulation of NKA expression.
  • Modeling functional network topology following stroke through graph theory: functional reorganization and motor recovery prediction Research Article

    Almeida, S.R.M.; Stefano Filho, C.A.; Vicentini, J.; Novi, S.L.; Mesquita, R.C.; Castellano, G.; Li, L.M.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The study of functional reorganization following stroke has been steadily growing supported by advances in neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Concomitantly, graph theory has been increasingly employed in neuroscience to model the brain's functional connectivity (FC) and to investigate it in a variety of contexts. The aims of this study were: 1) to investigate the reorganization of network topology in the ipsilesional (IL) and contralesional (CL) hemispheres of stroke patients with (motor stroke group) and without (control stroke group) motor impairment, and 2) to predict motor recovery through the relationship between local topological variations of the functional network and increased motor function. We modeled the brain's FC as a graph using fMRI data, and we characterized its interactions with the following graph metrics: degree, clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, and betweenness centrality (BC). For both patient groups, BC yielded the largest variations between the two analyzed time points, especially in the motor stroke group. This group presented significant correlations (P<0.05) between average BC changes and the improvements in upper-extremity Fugl-Meyer (UE-FM) scores at the primary sensorimotor cortex and the supplementary motor area for the CL hemisphere. These regions participate in processes related to the selection, planning, and execution of movement. Generally, higher increases in average BC over these areas were related to larger improvements in UE-FM assessment. Although the sample was small, these results suggest the possibility of using BC as an indication of brain plasticity mechanisms following stroke.
  • Antifungal activity of linalool against fluconazole-resistant clinical strains of vulvovaginal Candida albicans and its predictive mechanism of action Research Article

    Medeiros, C.I.S.; Sousa, M.N.A. de; Filho, G.G.A.; Freitas, F.O.R.; Uchoa, D.P.L.; Nobre, M.S.C.; Bezerra, A.L.D.; Rolim, L.A.D.M.M.; Morais, A.M.B.; Nogueira, T.B.S.S.; Nogueira, R.B.S.S.; Filho, A.A.O.; Lima, E.O.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated opportunistic pathogen in the female genital tract, with 92.3% of cases in Brazil associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Linalool is a monoterpene compound from plants of the genera Cinnamomum, Coriandrum, Lavandula, and Citrus that has demonstrated a fungicidal effect on strains of Candida spp., but its mechanism of action is still unknown. For this purpose, broth microdilution techniques were applied, as well as molecular docking in a predictive manner for this mechanism. The main results of this study indicated that the C. albicans strains analyzed were resistant to fluconazole and sensitive to linalool at a dose of 256 µg/mL. Furthermore, the increase in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of linalool in the presence of sorbitol and ergosterol indicated that this molecule possibly affects the cell wall and plasma membrane integrity of C. albicans. Molecular docking of linalool with proteins that are key in the biosynthesis and maintenance of the cell wall and the fungal plasma membrane integrity demonstrated the possibility of linalool interacting with three important enzymes: 1,3-β-glucan synthase, lanosterol 14α-demethylase, and Δ 14-sterol reductase. In silico analysis showed that this monoterpene has theoretical but significant oral bioavailability, low toxic potential, and high similarity to pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the findings of this study indicated that linalool probably causes damage to the cell wall and plasma membrane of C. albicans, possibly by interaction with important enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of these fungal structures, in addition to presenting low in silico toxic potential.
  • Matteucinol combined with temozolomide inhibits glioblastoma proliferation, invasion, and progression: an in vitro, in silico, and in vivo study Research Article

    Netto, J.B.; Melo, E.S.A.; Oliveira, A.G.S.; Sousa, L.R.; Santiago, L.R.; Santos, D.M.; Chagas, R.C.R.; Gonçalves, A.S.; Thomé, R.G.; Santos, H.B.; Reis, R.M.; Ribeiro, R.I.M.A.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Glioblastoma is the most prevalent and malignant brain tumor identified in adults. Surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy, mainly with temozolomide (TMZ), is the chosen treatment for this type of tumor. However, the average survival of patients is around 15 months. Novel approaches to glioblastoma treatment are greatly needed. Here, we aimed to investigate the anti-glioblastoma effect of the combination of matteucinol (Mat) (dihydroxyflavanone derived from Miconia chamissois Naudin) with the chemotherapeutic TMZ in vitro using tumor (U-251MG) and normal astrocyte (NHA) cell lines and in vivo using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. The combination was cytotoxic and selective for tumor cells (28 μg/mL Mat and 9.71 μg/mL TMZ). Additionally, the combination did not alter cell adhesion but caused morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis in vitro. Notably, the combination was also able to reduce tumor growth in the chick embryo model (CAM assay). The docking results showed that Mat was the best ligand to the cell death membrane receptor TNFR1 and to TNFR1/TMZ complex, suggesting that these two molecules may be working together increasing their potential. In conclusion, Mat-TMZ can be a good candidate for pharmacokinetic studies in view of clinical use for the treatment of glioblastoma.
  • Clinical presentation and in-hospital prognosis of lung cancer patients presenting with suspected and confirmed COVID-19 Research Article

    Peixoto, D.; Callia, J.P.B.; Bittencourt, M.S.; Generoso, G.; Anastácio, V.M.; Alves-Jr., J.L.; Silva, T.L. da; Belizário, J.C.; Araújo, B.L.M.; Ho, W.; Diz, M.D.P.E.; Hoff, P.M.; Abdala, E.; Ibrahim, K.Y.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    We sought to compare the clinical presentation and prognosis of patients with lung cancer and confirmed COVID-19 infection to those with negative RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 results. We included patients with confirmed lung cancer and suspected COVID-19 who presented to the emergency department. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality and secondary outcomes included admission to intensive care unit (ICU) or mechanical ventilation. We analyzed the characteristics according to RT-PCR results and primary outcome. We constructed a logistic regression for each RT-PCR result group to find potential predictors of the primary outcome. Among 110 individuals with confirmed lung cancer (65±9 years, 51% male), 38 patients had positive RT-PCR and 72 patients had negative RT-PCR. There was no difference between groups for any clinical characteristic or comorbidities though individuals with confirmed COVID-19 had higher functionality in the ECOG scale. Leucocytes and lymphocytes were lower in individuals with positive tests. The primary outcome occurred in 58 (53%) individuals, 37 (34%) were admitted to the ICU, and 29 (26%) required mechanical ventilation. Although mortality was similar between the two groups, individuals with confirmed COVID-19 were significantly more likely to be admitted to the ICU or receive mechanical ventilation. Only lower lymphocytes and higher CRP were significantly associated with higher mortality. The clinical presentation of COVID-19 in lung cancer is not sufficient to identify higher or lower probability groups among symptomatic individuals, the overall mortality is high irrespective of RT-PCR results, and lymphopenia on admission was associated with the diagnosis and prognosis for COVID-19.
  • The antitumor activity of hPRDX5 against pancreatic cancer and the possible mechanisms Research Article

    Cui, Lihua; Jin, Yuanyuan; Zou, Sen; Xun, Jing; Yu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Qi; Yang, Zhaoyong

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Recombinant human peroxiredoxin-5 (hPRDX5), isolated from anti-cancer bioactive peptide (ACBPs), shows a homology of 89% with goat peroxiredoxin-5 (gPRDX5) and is reported to display anti-tumor activity in vivo. Herein, we explored the effect of hPRDX5 and the responsible mechanism in treating pancreatic cancer. Tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into normal PBS group and treatment group (n=5; 10 mg/kg hPRDX5). Flow cytometry was employed to examine lymphocytes, myeloid-derived suppressor cell subsets, and the function proteins of natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood, spleen, and tumor tissues of mice. Western blot was used to measure the protein expressions of the key nodes in TLR4-MAPK-NF-κB signaling pathway. The rate of tumor suppression was 57.6% at a 10 mg/kg dose in orthotopic transplanted tumor mice. Moreover, the population of CD3+CD4+T cells, NK cells, and CD3+CD8+T cells was significantly increased in the tumor tissue of the hPRDX5 group, while the proportion of granulocytic-myeloid-derived suppressor cells decreased slightly. In addition, after treatment with hPRDX5, the percentage of NK cells in blood increased more than 4-fold. Our findings indicated that hPRDX5 effectively suppressed pancreatic cancer possibly via the TLR4-MAPK-NF-κB signaling cascade; hence hPRDX5 could be a prospective immunotherapy candidate for treating pancreatic cancer.
  • Convalescent plasma therapy in COVID-19 patients: a non-randomized case-control study with concurrent control Research Article

    Cacilhas, P.; Caberlon, E.; Angoleri, L.; Fassina, K.; Ribeiro, R.N.; Pinto, L.C.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Convalescent plasma therapy has shown controversial results in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients. We performed a non-randomized case-control study with contemporaneous controls in a hospital in southern Brazil. Patients were selected for treatment with convalescent plasma by medical decision and compared with patients who did not receive plasma and were hospitalized due to COVID-19 at the same time. The outcomes of interest were intensive care unit (ICU) admission and in-hospital death. Patients that received convalescent plasma had lower in-hospital mortality than patients that did not receive plasma (relative risk (RR) 0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29 to 0.79) and these results were consistent after changing the subset of control patients. There were no differences regarding ICU admission between groups (RR=0.80; 95%CI: 0.47 to 1.35). In this study, patients that received convalescent plasma for COVID-19 had lower in-hospital mortality, but this finding requires further confirmation given the retrospective nature of the study.
  • Intracranial compliance in type 2 diabetes mellitus and its relationship with the cardiovascular autonomic nervous control Research Article

    Galdino, G.A.M.; Moura-Tonello, S.C.G.; Linares, S.N.; Milan-Mattos, J.C.; Spavieri Jr., D.L.; Oliveira, S.M.; Porta, A.; Beltrame, T.; Catai, A.M.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The intracranial compliance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and the association with cardiovascular autonomic control have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess intracranial compliance using the noninvasive intracranial pressure (niICP) and the monitoring of waveform peaks (P1, P2, and P3) and the relationship with cardiovascular autonomic control in T2DM patients. Thirty-two men aged 40-60 years without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) were studied: T2DMG (n=16) and control group CG (n=16). The niICP was evaluated by a noninvasive extracranial sensor placed on the scalp. Cardiovascular autonomic control was evaluated by indices of the baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), from temporal series of R-R intervals of electrocardiogram and systolic arterial pressure, during supine and orthostatic positions. The participants remained in the supine position for 15 min and then 15 min more in orthostatism. T2DMG presented a decrease of the P2/P1 ratio during the orthostatic position (P<0.001). There was a negative moderate correlation between the P2 peak with cardiovascular coupling (K2HP-SAPLF) in supine (r=-0.612, P=0.011) and orthostatic (r=-0.568, P=0.020) positions in T2DMG. We concluded that T2DM patients without CAN and cardiovascular complications presented intracranial compliance similar to healthy subjects. Despite preserved intracranial adjustments, T2DM patients had a response of greater magnitude in orthostatism. In addition, the decoupling between the heart period and blood pressure signal oscillations in low frequency appeared to be related to the worsening of intracranial compliance due to the increased P2 peak.
  • Digestive tract toxicity associated with exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in rats Research Article

    Mariotti, V.C.B.S.; Naufal, I.Z.F.; Amorim, I.A.R.; Parizi, J.L.S.; Nai, G.A.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a herbicide of the chlorophenoxy class and the second most widely used herbicide applied to several different crops worldwide. Environmental factors, especially those related to diet, strongly affect the risk of developing cancer of the gastrointestinal tract. There is currently no evidence to determine whether there is an association between 2,4-D exposure and gastrointestinal disorders. We evaluated the histological effect of chronic oral and inhalation exposure to 2,4-D on the digestive tract of rats. Eighty male adult albino Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups (n=10): two control groups, one for inhalation and one for oral exposure, and 6 groups exposed orally or by inhalation at three different concentrations of 2,4-D [3.71×10-3 grams of active ingredient per hectare (gai/ha), 6.19×10-3 gai/ha, and 9.28×10-3 gai/ha]. The animals were exposed for 6 months. The esophagus, stomach, and intestine were collected for histopathological analysis. Animals exposed to 2,4-D had hyperkeratosis of the esophagus, regardless of the exposure route. All animals exposed to a higher concentration of 2,4-D orally presented mild dysplasia of the large intestine. In the small intestine, most animals exposed to moderate and high concentrations of 2,4-D had mild dysplasia. No gastric changes were observed in any of the groups studied. Chronic exposure to 2,4-D, especially at moderate and high concentrations, regardless of the exposure route, caused reactive damage to the esophagus (hyperkeratosis) and dysplastic changes to the intestine.
  • Effects of serum albumin on the photophysical characteristics of synthetic and endogenous protoporphyrin IX Research Article

    Codognato, D.C.K.; Pena, F.S.; Reis, E.R. dos; Ramos, A.P.; Borissevitch, I.E.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The study of the interaction of synthetic protoporphyrin IX (PpIXs) and protoporphyrin IX extracted from Harderian glands of ssp Rattus novergicus albinus rats (PpIXe) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was conducted in water at pH 7.3 and pH 4.5 by optical absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. PpIXs is present as H- and J-aggregates in equilibrium with themselves and with monomers. The PpIXs charge is 2− at pH 7.3 and 1− at pH 4.5. This increases its aggregation at pH 4.5 and shifts the equilibrium in favor of J-aggregates. In spite of electrostatic attraction at pH 4.5, where BSA is positive, the binding constant (Kb) of PpIXs to BSA is 20% less than that at pH 7.3, where BSA is negative. This occurs because higher aggregation of PpIXs at pH 4.5 reduces the observed Kb value. At both pHs, water-soluble PpIXe exists in the monomeric form with the charge of 1− and its Kb exceeds that of PpIXs. At pH 4.5, its Kb is 12 times higher than that at pH 7.3 due to electrostatic attraction between the positively charged BSA and the negatively charged PpIXe. The higher probability of PpIXe binding to BSA makes PpIXe more promising as a fluorescence probe for fluorescence diagnostics and as a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy. The existence of PpIXe in the monomeric form can explain its faster cell internalization. Aggregation reduces quantum yields and lifetimes of the PpIXs excited states, which explains higher phototoxicity of PpIXe toward malignant cells compared with PpIXs.
  • A haplotype in the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 gene impacts glycemic-related traits of Brazilian older adults Research Article

    Alves, E.S.; Tonet-Furioso, A.C.; Alves, V.P.; Moraes, C.F.; Pérez, D.I.V.; Bastos, I.M.D.; Córdova, C.; Nóbrega, O.T.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) regulates various physiological pathways and has a pivotal role in glucose homeostasis. The objective of this study was to verify the association of a haplotype constituted by two single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2268894 and rs6741949) in the DPP4 gene with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and fasting glycemia-related variables in a sample of Brazilian older adults, taking serum levels and enzymatic activity of DPP4 into account. Clinical, biochemical, and anthropometric characteristics as well as DPP4 serum levels and enzymatic activity were determined in 800 elderly (≥60 years old) individuals. Assessment of polymorphic sites was performed by real-time PCR whereas haplotypes were inferred from genotypic frequencies. Statistical analyses compared measures and proportions according to T2DM diagnosis and DPP4 haplotypic groups. The most common haplotype consisted of the T-rs2268894/G-rs6741949 string, which was 20% more frequent among non-diabetics. Considering non-diabetic patients alone, carriers of the T/G haplotype had significantly lower levels of blood glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR index, and DPP4 activity. Among diabetic patients, the T/G haplotype was associated with lower DPP4 levels whereas glycemic scores were not affected by allelic variants. Our results suggested that the genetic architecture of DPP4 affects the glycemic profile and DPP4 serum levels and activity among elderly individuals according to the presence or absence of T2DM, with a possible implication of the T/G haplotype to the risk of T2DM onset.
  • Inspiratory muscle training as adjuvant therapy in obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized controlled trial Research Article

    Azeredo, L.M. de; Souza, L.C. de; Guimarães, B.L.S.; Puga, F.P.; Behrens, N.S.C.S.; Lugon, J.R.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to analyze the effects of an inspiratory muscle training (IMT) program on apnea and hypopnea index (AHI), inspiratory muscle strength, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), whether or not they used continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP (+/−) therapy. The intervention group underwent IMT with a progressive resistive load of 40-70% of the maximum inspiratory pressure (PImax) for 30 breaths once a day for 12 weeks. The control group was submitted to a similar protocol, but with at a minimum load of 10 cmH2O. Changes in the AHI were the primary outcome. PImax was measured with a digital vacuometer, daytime somnolence was measured by the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), and the quality of sleep by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). CPAP use was treated as a confounder and controlled by stratification resulting in 4 subgroups: IMT−/CPAP−, IMT−/CPAP+, IMT+/CPAP−, and IMT+/CPAP+. Sixty-five individuals were included in the final analysis. Significant variations were found in the 4 parameters measured throughout the study after the intervention in both CPAP− and CPAP+ participants: PImax was increased and AHI was reduced, whereas improvements were seen in both ESS and PSQI. The twelve-week IMT program increased inspiratory muscle strength, substantially reduced AHI, and had a positive impact on sleep quality and daytime sleepiness, whether or not participants were using CPAP. Our findings reinforce the role of an IMT program as an adjunct resource in OSA treatment.
  • Ad libitum consumption of milk supplemented with omega 3, 6, and 9 oils from infancy to middle age alters behavioral and oxidative outcomes in male mice Research Article

    Silva Neto, L.B. da; Chaves Filho, A.J.M.; Casadevall, M.Q.F.C.; Azevedo, O.G.R. de; Macêdo, D.S.; Vasconcelos, P.R.L. de

    Resumo em Inglês:

    We tested the hypothesis that administration of omega (ω)-9, ω-3, and ω-6 to mice can prevent oxidative alterations responsible for behavioral and cognitive alterations related with aging. Twenty-eight-day-old mice received skim milk (SM group), SM enriched with omega oil mixture (EM group), or water (control group) for 10 and 14 months, equivalent to middle age. Mice were evaluated for behavioral alterations related to depression and memory and oxidative status [brain levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), and myeloperoxidase (MPO)]. The 10-month EM group increased immobility time during the forced swimming test compared with control, indicating increased stress response. The 14-month SM- and EM-treated groups increased sucrose consumption compared with control, showing an expanded motivational state. The 14-month SM group decreased the number of rearings compared with the 14-month control and EM groups. The number of entries and time spent in the central square of the open field was higher in the 10-month EM group than in the control, revealing an anxiolytic-like behavior. TBARS decreased in the hippocampus and striatum of the 10-month EM group compared with the control. A similar decrease was observed in the striatum of the 10-month SM group. GSH levels were higher in all 14-month treated groups compared with 10-month groups. MPO activity was higher in the 14-month EM group compared with the 14-month control and SM groups, revealing a possible pro-inflammatory status. In conclusion, omega oils induced conflicting alterations in middle-aged mice, contributing to enhanced behavior and anxiolytic and expanded motivational state, but also to increased stress response and pro-inflammatory alterations.
  • Naringin regulates mitochondrial dynamics to protect against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity by activating the AMPK/Nrf2 signaling pathway in vitro Research Article

    Wu, Qiao; Yu, Pengfei; Bi, Yanzhen; Li, Zhijie; Guo, Wei; Chen, Yu; Duan, Zhongping

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Naringin (Nar) has been reported to exert potential hepatoprotective effects against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced injury. Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in APAP-induced liver injury. However, the protective mechanism of Nar against mitochondrial damage has not been elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of Nar against APAP and the possible mechanisms of actions. Primary rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells were utilized to establish an in vitro model of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. The effect of APAP and Nar on cell viability was evaluated by a CCK8 assay and detection of the concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase. The cellular concentrations of biomarkers of oxidative stress were measured by ELISA. The mRNA expression levels of APAP-related phase II enzymes were determined by real-time PCR. The protein levels of Nrf2, phospho (p)-AMPK/AMPK, and biomarkers of mitochondrial dynamics were determined by western blot analysis. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was measured by high-content analysis and confocal microscopy. JC-1 staining was performed to evaluate mitochondrial depolarization. Nar pretreatment notably prevented the marked APAP-induced hepatocyte injury, increases in oxidative stress marker expression, reductions in the expression of phase II enzymes, significant loss of MMP, mitochondrial depolarization, and mitochondrial fission in vitro. In conclusion, Nar alleviated APAP-induced hepatocyte and mitochondrial injury by activating the AMPK/Nrf2 pathway to reduce oxidative stress in vitro. Applying Nar for the treatment of APAP-induced liver injury might be promising.
  • The protective role of raltegravir in experimental acute lung injury in vitro and in vivo Research Article

    Xu, Zehui; Ren, Rui; Jiang, Wanglin

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Disruption of pulmonary endothelial permeability and associated barrier integrity increase the severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This study investigated the potential ability of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) integrase inhibitor raltegravir to protect against acute lung injury (ALI) and the underlying mechanisms. Accordingly, the impact of raltegravir treatment on an in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell (HPMEC) model of ALI and an in vivo LPS-induced two-hit ALI rat model was examined. In the rat model system, raltegravir treatment alleviated ALI-associated histopathological changes, reduced microvascular permeability, decreased Evans blue dye extravasation, suppressed the expression of inflammatory proteins including HMGB1, TLR4, p-NF-κB, NLRP3, and MPO, and promoted the upregulation of protective proteins including claudin 18.1, VE-cadherin, and aquaporin 5 as measured via western blotting. Immunohistochemical staining further confirmed the ability of raltegravir treatment to reverse LPS-induced pulmonary changes in NLRP3, claudin 18.1, and aquaporin 5 expression. Furthermore, in vitro analyses of HPMECs reaffirmed the ability of raltegravir to attenuate LPS-induced declines in VE-cadherin and claudin 18.1 expression while simultaneously inhibiting NLRP3 activation and reducing the expression of HMGB1, TLR4, and NF-kB, thus decreasing overall vascular permeability. Overall, our findings suggested that raltegravir may represent a viable approach to treating experimental ALI that functions by maintaining pulmonary microvascular integrity.
  • Validation of the online PREDICT tool in a cohort of early breast cancer in Brazil Research Article

    Magário, M.B.; Santos, R.R. dos; Teixeira, L.A.; Tiezzi, D.G.; Pimentel, F.F.; Carrara, H.H.A.; Andrade, J.M. de; Reis, F.J. Candido dos

    Resumo em Inglês:

    PREDICT is a tool designed to estimate the benefits of adjuvant therapy and the overall survival of women with early breast cancer. The model uses clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical variables. This study aimed to evaluate the model's performance in a Brazilian population. We assessed the discrimination and calibration of the PREDICT model to estimate overall survival (OS) in five and ten years of follow-up in a cohort of 873 women with early breast cancer diagnosed from January 2001 to December 2016. A total of 743 patients had estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and 130 had ER-negative tumors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for discrimination was 0.72 (95%CI: 0.66–0.78) at five years and 0.67 (95%CI: 0.61–0.72) at ten years for women with ER-positive tumors. The AUC was 0.72 (95%CI: 0.62–0.81) at five years and 0.67 (95%CI: 0.54–0.77) at ten years for women with ER-negative tumors. The predicted survival in ER-positive tumors was 91.0% (95%CI: 90.2–91.6%) at five years and 79.3% (95%CI: 77.7–81.0%) at ten years, and the observed survival 90.7% (95%CI: 88.6–92.9%) and 77.2% (95%CI: 73.4–81.4%), respectively. The predicted survival in ER-negative tumors was 84.5% (95%CI: 82.5–86.6%) at five years and 75.0% (95%CI: 71.6–78.5%) at ten years, and the observed survival 76.3% (95%CI: 69.1–84.3%) and 67.9% (95%CI: 58.6–78.6%), respectively. In conclusion, PREDICT was accurate to estimate OS in women with ER-positive tumors and overestimated the OS in women with ER-negative tumors.
  • Whole blood circular RNA hsa_circ_0002171 serves as a potential diagnostic biomarker for human adenovirus pneumonia in children Research Article

    Yang, Diyuan; Sun, Ke; Huang, Feng; Fan, Huifeng; Shi, Tingting; Chen, Xinxin; Lu, Gen

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Severe pneumonia related to human adenoviruses (HAdVs) has a high lethality rate in children and its early diagnosis and treatment remain a major challenge. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are novel long noncoding RNAs that play important roles in gene regulation and disease pathogenesis. To investigate the roles of circRNAs in HAdV pneumonia, we analyzed the circRNA profiles of healthy children and children with HAdV pneumonia, including both mild and severe cases, and identified 139 significantly upregulated circRNAs in children with HAdV pneumonia vs healthy controls and 18 significantly upregulated circRNAs in children with severe HAdV pneumonia vs mild HAdV pneumonia. In particular, hsa_circ_0002171 was differentially expressed in both groups and might thus be useful as a diagnostic biomarker of HAdV pneumonia and severe HAdV pneumonia. To identify the underlying mechanisms of circRNAs in HAdV pneumonia, we analyzed the transcriptome of children with HAdV pneumonia and established a circRNA-mRNA regulatory network. Enrichment analysis of differentially expressed target mRNAs demonstrated that the differentially expressed genes between healthy controls and HAdV pneumonia patients were mainly involved in RNA splicing while the differentially expressed genes between children with mild and severe HAdV pneumonia were mainly involved in regulating lymphocyte activation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis suggested that hsa_circ_0002171 had a significant value in the diagnosis of HAdV pneumonia and of severe HAdV pneumonia. Taken together, the circRNA expression profile was altered in children with HAdV pneumonia. These results demonstrated that hsa_circ_0002171 is a potential diagnostic biomarker of HAdV pneumonia.
  • N-Methyl-(2S, 4R)-trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline, the major bioactive compound from Sideroxylon obtusifolium, attenuates pilocarpine-induced injury in cultured astrocytes Research Article

    Aquino, P.E.A.; Siqueira, E.A. de; Paes, L.C.F.; Magalhães, E.P.; Barbosa, T.M.; Carvalho, M.A.J. de; Azul, F.V.C. Serra; Lustosa, I. Rosal; Mottin, M.; Sampaio, T.L.; Martins, A.M.C.; Silveira, E.R.; Viana, G.S.B.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Glial cells have been implicated in temporal lobe epilepsy in humans and in its models. Astrocytes are lost in several brain regions after acute seizures induced by pilocarpine and may suffer hyperplasia at subsequent time points. This study investigated the effect of N-methyl-(2S,4R)-trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline (NMP) on astrocytes exposed to cytotoxic concentrations of pilocarpine. Astrocytes were incubated with pilocarpine (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50)=31.86 mM) for 24 h. Afterwards, they were treated with NMP at concentrations ranging from 3.12 to 100 μg/mL for 24 h. Cell viability was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) were analyzed by flow cytometry using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) and rhodamine-123 (Rho123), respectively. Expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and voltage-dependent anion channel-1 (VDAC-1) were measured by western blot. Pilocarpine significantly decreased cell viability and mitochondrial potential and increased ROS concentration significantly by 6.7 times compared to the control. NMP concentrations ≥25 µg/mL protected astrocytes against pilocarpine-induced injury in a concentration-dependent manner. Concomitantly, NMP reduced cytoplasmic ROS accumulation to 27.3, 24.8, and 12.3% in the groups treated with 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL NMP, respectively. NMP also protected mitochondria from pilocarpine-induced depolarization. These effects were associated with improvement of pilocarpine-induced GFAP and VDAC-1 overexpression, which are important biomarkers of astrocyte dysfunction. In conclusion, the improvement of ROS accumulation, VDAC-1 overexpression, and mitochondrial depolarization are possible mechanisms of the NMP protective action on reactive astrocytes.
  • Is there a higher frequency of anal dysplasia and infection by human papillomavirus in Crohn's disease patients? Research Article

    Guzela, V.R.; Sobrado Junior, C.W.; Nadal, S.R.; Villa, L.L.; Mota, G.R.; Gonçalves, A.P.; Nadal, C.R.M.; Nahas, C.S.R.; Nahas, S.C.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of dysplasia and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the anal canal of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) with a control group and assess whether there is a correlation between use of immunosuppressants and anal manifestation of CD. Patients with CD and control individuals were submitted to anal cytology and material collection for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The cytology was classified as normal, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), or high-grade (HSIL). PCR was considered positive or negative according to virus presence or absence. A total of 117 patients were included (54 in the control group and 63 in the CD group, being 32 without and 31 with immunosuppressants). ASCUS and LSIL were found in 25.9 and 22.2% of control patients and 28.6 and 39.7% of CD patients. HPV was identified in 14.8% of the control group and 27% of the CD group. In CD patients, HPV was found in 37.5 and 16.1% of those without and with immunosuppressants, respectively. Patients with perianal involvement had 15.6% of PCR positivity. There was no statistical difference in dysplasia and infection by HPV between the groups. Use of immunosuppressants did not influence the result, but anal manifestation was inversely proportional to viral detection.
  • The potential of mRNA expression evaluation in predicting HER2 positivity in gastroesophageal cancer Research Article

    Oliveira, I.M. de; Nicolau-Neto, P.; Fernandes, P.V.; Lavigne, T.S.; Neves, P.F.; Tobar, J.C.; Soares-Lima, S.C.; Simão, T.A.; Pinto, L.F. Ribeiro

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Gastroesophageal cancer (GEC) is an aggressive disease characterized by a high frequency of metastasis and poor overall survival rates. GEC presents HER2 overexpression in 5 to 25% of tumors eligible for HER2-targeted therapy. HER2 evaluation requires protein levels and copy number alteration analyses by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (FISH or SISH), respectively. These are semiquantitative methodologies that need an expert and well-trained pathologist. Therefore, the use of new surrogate methods for HER2 evaluation in cancer, such as gene expression analysis, might improve GEC HER2 classification. We evaluated HER2 positivity in GEC through conventional IHC and SISH analyses and investigated the potential application of HER2 mRNA expression by quantitative PCR to categorize GEC samples as HER2-positive or HER2-negative. Among 270 GEC samples, 10.9% were HER2-positive by IHC and SISH analyses. HER2 mRNA was overexpressed in HER2-positive GEC samples and presented high accuracy in distinguishing those tumors from HER2-negative GEC. Nevertheless, HER2 mRNA analysis was not capable of classifying HER2-equivocal GEC samples into HER2-positive or -negative according to SISH data. Quantitative PCR analysis showed HER2 overexpression in HER2-positive GEC samples. Nevertheless, HER2 mRNA analysis failed to classify HER2-equivocal GEC according to SISH data.
  • Association between age and muscle function, architecture, and composition in long-distance master runners: a cross-sectional study Research Article

    Teixeira, J.; Brauer Júnior, A.G.; Lima-Silva, A.E.; Bento, P.C.B.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The aim of this study was to describe the muscle function, architecture, and composition of long-distance master runners, and verify the association between age and these variables. Additionally, different clusters of runners were compared based on age and training variables. Forty male runners (≥50 years) reported their training routine and had their muscle function evaluated through maximum knee extensor isometric peak torque (PT) assessed with an isokinetic dynamometer. The cross-sectional area (CSA), pennation angle (PA), fascicle length (FL), muscle thickness (MT), and echo intensity (EI) were evaluated through ultrasound (muscle architecture and composition). The participants were 58.7±6.2 years old and had been training for 18.4±10.3 years, 4 sessions/week with 298.8±164.7 min/week of training. The absolute torque was 226.92±63.44 N·m, and the specific torque (PT/CSA) was 7.29±3.78 N·m/cm2. Regarding muscle architecture, the phase angle was 17.34±4°, the fascicle angle 6.78±1.04 cm, muscle thickness 2.93±0.56 cm, and the cross-sectional area 21.24±5.88 cm2. Concerning muscle composition, the master runners showed echo intensity values of 62.05±11.68 AU. The analysis demonstrated a weak and negative association between age and some muscle architecture variables (CSA and MT) and muscle function (PT). No association was verified between age and muscle composition (EI). Age partially explained CSA, MT, and muscle function changes (13, 11, and 14%, respectively). Participants' high level of physical training might have contributed to the low association between these variables and the lack of association with muscle composition.
  • Nanosized copper particles induced mesangial cell toxicity via the autophagy pathway Research Article

    Xu, Pengjuan; Cao, Min; Dong, Xueqian; Yu, Zhichao; Liu, Jianwei; Tan, Junzhen; Wang, Yiyi; Li, Tao; Zhao, Shuwu

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Nanosized copper particles (nano Cu) have been incorporated into products in multiple industries, although studies have demonstrated that these particles are nephrotoxic. We investigated the cytotoxicity of nanosized copper particles on rat mesangial cells and measured rates of apoptosis, the expression of caspase-3, and generation of reactive oxygen species. We also measured autophagy through the acridine orange (AO) staining and expression of Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, and p62 to screen the underlying mechanism of toxicity. Nanosized copper particles inhibited mesangial cell viability, up-regulated the activity of caspase-3, and increased the rates of apoptosis and the generation of reactive oxygen species in a concentration-dependent manner. Exposure to nano Cu increased the formation of acidic vesicular organelles and the expression of Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, and p62, and treatment with an autophagy inhibitor reduced nephrotoxicity. This indicated that the autophagy pathway is involved in the toxicity induced by nanosized copper particles to mesangial cells. This finding can contribute to the development of safety guidelines for the evaluation of nanomaterials in the future.
  • Exposure to air pollution and hospitalization due to COVID-19 in São José dos Campos, Brazil Research Article

    Santos, A.O.R.; Lucarevschi, B.R.; Cunha, C.J.D.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Cesar, A.C.G.; Nascimento, L.F.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The association between exposure to air pollutants and respiratory diseases is well known. This study aimed to identify the association between this exposure and hospitalizations for COVID-19 in São José dos Campos, SP, a medium-sized city, between April 2020 and April 2021. Hospitalization data, concerning code B34.2, was supplied by DATASUS, and data concerning pollutants and climate variables were supplied by CETESB. Cases were quantified by sex, age, length of hospital stay in days, and type of discharge, whether hospital discharge or death. The negative binomial regression model was chosen. Estimates were produced for the relative risk (RR) of significant exposure to pollutants (P≤0.05) with a 10 µg/m3 increase of pollutant, as well as for excess hospitalizations. There were 1873 hospitalizations, with a daily average of 4.7 (±3.8), ranging from zero to 21: 716 deaths (38.2%) were recorded, 1065 admissions were men, and women were less susceptible (OR=0.82). The average age of women was higher than that of men; in cases of death, men were older than women; discharged patients were younger. All the above variables were significant. The risk of ozone exposure was higher and more significant in Lag 2, and the risk of nitrogen dioxide exposure was high in Lag 3, which was the period of the highest increase in hospitalizations, at 11.3%. The findings of this study, the first conducted in Brazil, corroborate the results of studies conducted in other centers.
  • Serum levels of IL-12, IL-18, and IL-21 are indicators of viral load in patients chronically infected with HBV Research Article

    Zhou, Fangye; Xiong, Haoran; Zhen, Shenghang; Chen, Aimin; Huang, Min; Luo, Yupeng

    Resumo em Inglês:

    This study explored the correlation between interleukins (IL)-12, IL-18, and IL-21 and the viral load in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV). A total of 142 patients were consecutively enrolled. All were hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive for >6 months and did not receive drug therapy. An ELISA kit was used to test the IL-12, IL-18, IL-21, and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) levels in serum samples from chronic HBV patients and healthy control groups. The amounts of IL-12 and IL-18 were highest in the 5-6log10 (high viral load) group, while IL-21 was highest in the 3-4log10 (low viral load) group. Also, the IL-21 amount was decreased in the HBsAg+/HBeAg/HBcAb+ group, and IL-12, IL-18, and IL-21 were decreased in the normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) group compared to the abnormal ALT group. These data suggested that IL-12, IL-18, and IL-21 serum levels were positively correlated with disease progression and could reflect disease severity for different HBV-DNA loads. Detection of IL-12, IL-18, and IL-21 levels was found to be helpful for evaluating the degree of liver cell damage and predicting the progression of hepatitis.
  • Sagittal balance and intervertebral disc composition in patients with low back pain Research Article

    Savarese, L.G.; Menezes-Reis, R.; Jorge, M.; Salmon, C.E.G.; Herrero, C.F.P.S.; Nogueira-Barbosa, M.H.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between quantitative T2 relaxation measurements of lumbar intervertebral discs (IVDs) and spinopelvic parameters in patients with chronic low back pain. The study was approved by the Clinical Hospital of the Ribeirao Preto Medical School (USP) Ethics Committee, and written consent was obtained from all patients. A total of 455 IVDs from 91 consecutive patients with chronic low back pain were included in this prospective study. All subjects were assessed using the Oswestry Disability Index and visual analogue scale questionnaires and were confirmed to have no other spine diseases except disc degeneration. Spinopelvic parameters including the pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), sagittal vertical axis (SVA), global tilt (GT), T1 pelvic angle (TPA), lumbar lordosis (LL), thoracic kyphosis (TK), pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis mismatch (PI-LL), and lack of lumbar lordosis (LLL) were measured. The study group was categorized according to the Roussouly classification. Sagittal T2 maps were acquired to extract the IVD relaxation times, and the complete manual segmentation of IVDs at all levels was performed using Display® software. Lumbar IVD T2 relaxation times showed significant correlation with PT (P<0.01), GT (P<0.01), TPA (P<0.01), PI-LL (P=0.01), and LLL (P=0.01). No difference was noted between Roussouly subtypes regarding T2 relaxation times at any disc level. Data from questionnaires showed no correlation with T2 relaxation times. Global tilt and T1 pelvic angle were correlated with IVD composition changes (T2 relaxometry). There was no correlation between clinical symptoms and IVD T2 relaxation times.
  • MicroRNA-181a regulates Treg functions via TGF-β1/Smad axis in the spleen of mice with acute gouty arthritis induced by MSU crystals Research Article

    Wang, Yu; Tu, Shenghao; Huang, Ying; Qin, Kai; Chen, Zhe

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play critical roles in restricting inflammatory pathogenesis and limiting undesirable Th2 response to environmental allergens. However, the role of miR-181a in regulating acute gouty arthritis (AGA) and Treg function remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the potential roles of miR-181a in Treg immunity and the associated signaling pathway in the AGA mouse model. A solution with monosodium urate (MSU) crystals was injected into the joint tissue of mice to induce AGA. ELISA was used to examine inflammatory factors in blood samples, and flow cytometry was used to analyze Treg profile in mice with MSU-induced AGA. Cell proliferation and viability were assessed by CCK-8 assay. TGF-β1/Smad signaling activation was detected by western blot. We found that miR-181a expression showed a positive correlation with the changes of splenic Tregs percentage in AGA mice. miR-181a regulated the TGF-β1/Smad axis, since the transfection of miR-181a mimic increased the level of TGF-β1 and the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in Tregs in AGA mice. Additionally, miR-181a mimic also promoted responses of Tregs via TGF-β1 in vitro and in vivo. Our work uncovered a vital role of miR-181a in the immune function of Treg cells by mediating the activity of the TGF-β1/Smad pathway in the AGA mouse model induced by MSU.
  • Isolation and characterization of farm pig adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells Research Article

    Garcia, G.A.; Oliveira, R.G.; Dariolli, R.; Rudge, M.V.C.; Barbosa, A.M.P.; Floriano, J.F.; Ribeiro-Paes, J.T.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (ASCs) are considered important tools in regenerative medicine and are being tested in several clinical studies. Porcine models are frequently used to obtain adipose tissue, due to the abundance of material and because they have immunological and physiological similarities with humans. However, it is essential to understand the effects and safe application of ASCs from pigs (pASCs) as an alternative therapy for diseases. Although minipigs are easy-to-handle animals that require less food and space, acquiring and maintaining them in a bioterium can be costly. Thus, we present a protocol for the isolation and proliferation of ASCs isolated from adipose tissue of farm pigs. Adipose tissue samples were extracted from the abdominal region of the animals. Because the pigs were not raised in a controlled environment, such as a bioterium, it was necessary to carry out rigorous procedures for disinfection. After this procedure, cells were isolated by mechanical dissociation and enzymatic digestion. A proliferation curve was performed and used to calculate the doubling time of the population. The characterization of pASCs was performed by immunophenotyping and cell differentiation in osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. The described method was efficient for the isolation and cultivation of pASCs, maintaining cellular attributes, such as surface antigens and multipotential differentiation during in vitro proliferation. This protocol presents the isolation and cultivation of ASCs from farm pig as an alternative for the isolation and cultivation of ASCs from minipigs, which require strictly controlled maintenance conditions and a more expensive process.
  • Behavioral effects of a low molecular weight peptide fraction from Phaseolus vulgaris in rats Research Article

    Graziani, D.; Ribeiro, J.V.V.; Turones, L.C.; Costa, E.A.; Reis-Silva, L.L.; Araújo, E.G.; Paula, L.G.F. de; Ferreira-Junior, M.D.; Gomes, R.M.; Campos, H.M.; Ghedini, P.C.; Batista, K.A.; Fernandes, K.F.; Xavier, C.H.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Seminal studies stated that bean proteins are efficient neuronal tracers with affinity for brain tissue. A low molecular weight peptide fraction (<3kDa) from Phaseolus vulgaris (PV3) was previously reported to be antioxidant, non-cytotoxic, and capable of reducing reactive oxygen species and increasing nitric oxide in cells. We evaluated the effects of PV3 (5, 50, 100, 500, and 5000 µg/kg) on behavior and the molecular routes potentially involved. Acute and chronic PV3 treatments were performed before testing Wistar rats: i) in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) to assess the anxiolytic-like effect; ii) in the open field (OF) to evaluate locomotion and exploration; and iii) for depression-like behavior in forced swimming (FS). Catecholaminergic involvement was tested using the tyrosine hydroxylases (TH) enzyme inhibitor, α-methyl-DL-tyrosine (AMPT). Brain areas of chronically treated groups were dissected to assess: i) lipid peroxidation (LPO); ii) carbonylated proteins (CP); iii) superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymatic activities. Neuronal nitric oxide synthases (nNOS) and argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) protein expression was evaluated by western blotting. Acute treatment with PV3 increased the frequency and time spent in the EPM open arms, suggesting anxiolysis. PV3 increased crossing episodes in the OF. These PV3 effects on anxiety and locomotion were absent in the chronically treated group. Acute and chronic PV3 treatments reduced the immobility time in the FS test, suggesting an antidepressant effect. TH inhibition by AMPT reverted acute PV3 effects. PV3 decreased LPO and CP levels and SOD and CAT activities, whereas nNOS and ASS were reduced in few brain areas. In conclusion, PV3 displayed central antioxidant actions that are concomitant to catecholaminergic-dependent anxiolytic and antidepressant effects.
  • Apgar scores correlate with survival rate at discharge in extremely preterm infants with gestational age of 25-27 weeks Research Article

    Lin, Lili; Liu, Guosheng; Li, Ying; Shi, Bijun; Su, Zhiwen; Jia, Chunhong; Wu, Fan

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Low Apgar score is associated with increased risk of death in preterm or full-term infants. However, the use of Apgar score to assess extremely preterm (EP) infants is controversial. In this study, we characterized the distribution of Apgar scores in EP infants with gestational age between 25 and 27 weeks, and investigated the association of Apgar score with survival rate at discharge by analyzing the clinical data of the EP infants discharged between January 2008 and December 2017 from 26 neonatal intensive care units in Guangdong Province, China. A total of 1567 infants with gestational age of 26.84±0.79 weeks and birth weight of 951±169 grams were involved in our study. The Apgar score increased with gestational age from 25 to 27 weeks and with time from birth from 1 to 10 min. The survival rate increased with a higher Apgar score, but no significant difference was found for 1-min Apgar score and the survival rate between infants with 25 or 26 weeks of gestation or 5-min Apgar score in infants with 25 weeks of gestation. The Apgar score is associated with survival of EP infants.
  • Erratum notice for: “NOP14 inhibits melanoma proliferation and metastasis by regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway” [Braz J Med Biol Res 2019;52(1):7952] Erratum

  • Erratum notice for: “Suppressive effect of platycodin D on bladder cancer through microRNA-129-5p-mediated PABPC1/PI3K/AKT axis inactivation” [Braz J Med Biol Res 2021;54(3):e10222] Erratum

  • Erratum 2 for: “Puerarin inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma invasion and metastasis through miR-21-mediated PTEN/AKT signaling to suppress the epithelial-mesenchymal transition” [Braz J Med Biol Res (2020) 53(4): e8882] Erratum

  • Retraction notice for: “Suppressive effect of platycodin D on bladder cancer through microRNA-129-5p-mediated PABPC1/PI3K/AKT axis inactivation” [Braz J Med Biol Res 2021;54(3): e10222] Retraction

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