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Brazilian Journal of Oceanography, Volume: 66, Issue: 3, Published: 2018
  • Tidal and subtidal oscillations in a shallow water system in southern Brazil Original Article

    Andrade, Mauro Michelena; Toldo, Elírio Ernestino; Nunes, José Carlos Rodrigues

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Sea level oscillations in time scales between hours and days have a great vertical amplitude regarding the low lying coastal gradient of the beaches in the Rio Grande do Sul coast. However, the mechanism of oscillations is poorly understood since the scarcity of observational data makes it impossible to determine the forces that control sea level oscillations. Therefore, hourly sea level and wind time series with a time period of 650 days were examined. It has been found that the mean tidal and subtidal amplitudes were very similar to each other and that a considerable portion of the energy from sea level oscillations was due to astronomical forces. A new perspective was introduced when high and low frequencies were compared, leading to the comprehension that astronomical tides should be considered in coastal studies in southern Brazil. The sea level time series analyzed in this study showed that the maximum amplitude of the high spring tide was 0.53m, and that the subtidal rise caused by the wind reached up to 0.66m. In general, when large tidal and subtidal amplitudes are added, it can generate extreme events of sea level rise on the coast, which constitute a direct threat to coastal communities and habitats.
  • Subtidal soft sediments of the Paranaguá Bay inlet: mapping habitats and species distribution at a landscape scale Original Article

    Negrello-Filho, Orlei Antonio; Ugaz-Codina, Juan Carlos; Oliveira, Luiz Henrique Sielski de; Souza, Maria Cristina de; Angulo, Rodolfo José

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to map habitats and species distribution in a benthoscape section of the Paranaguá Bay inlet, Paraná State, Southern Brazil. The degree of correspondence between maps independently generated through sidescan imagery and macrofauna and sediment samples was also evaluated. The study area had approximately 9km2 and was chosen considering both diverse landscape features and proximity to future port developments. Sampling was performed in 67 evenly distributed and unreplicated sites. Patterns related to backscatter intensity (high and low) and the presence or absence of bedforms were observed, as well as other large-scale features like sand waves and beach rock outcrops. Local sedimentary environments were represented in a mosaic used for comparisons with sedimentary and faunistic data. Cluster analysis using grain size data formed four groups with similar particle size distribution. A strong correspondence between habitats and grain size distribution was found in only one habitat class. Macrofauna around the deeper Poço Point region and the Mel Island shallower banks presented high species richness and number of individuals. These were considered habitats of high biological relevance. Regions with bedforms indicate higher rates of sand transport in which a few species can thrive. The navigation channel had the lowest number of species and individuals when compared to vicinal regions, indicating persistent impacts. The study evidenced local estuarine bottom heterogeneity and contributed to the understanding of local processes of both bottom sediments dynamics and their associate faunal components.
  • Genesis of submerged sandstones in Paraná State continental shelf, Southern Brazil, based on cementation patterns, ages and stable isotopes Original Article

    Simioni, Bruno Ivan; Angulo, Rodolfo José; Veiga, Fernando Alvim; Oliveira, Luiz Henrique Sielski; Souza, Maria Cristina de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Beachrocks are a common feature along the Brazilian coast and although their occurrence in intertidal zones is concentrated in tropical regions, similar formations have been described submerged on the continental shelf in subtropical regions. In the state of Paraná, submerged sandstones are present on the continental shelf and their formation could be associated with the cementation of beach sediments. This would provide an excellent indicator of the stabilization of the coastline during lower sea-level periods. In this study, samples were identified and collected in Paraná State, Southern Brazil, at depths between 18 and 33 meters in the continental shelf and at 6 meters depth in the Paranaguá Bay inlet. As in situ observations proved problematic, analysis relied mainly on their petrography, mineralogy, ages and isotopic values (δ13C and δ18O). Whole rock dating demonstrated that the oldest acquired sample was formed 28109-26406 cal. years BP, being exposed to atmospheric conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum. This exposure is reflected in its cements, composed uniquely of microcrystalline and spar calcite, and on its δ18O/δ13C values, which indicates formation on a fresh water environment. Contrarily to most carbonate cemented products described along Brazilian coastline, δ13C values ranged between -26.36 and -51.07‰ on all other samples, interpreted as a result of cement precipitation prompted by methane, either: in a paleo-estuarine/ paleo-lagunar to transgressive environment buried under a pile of coarser material or; after transgression and drowning of organic-rich sediments by coarser sediments, and due to upward migration of methane on the sedimentary column. Both processes would result in cements identified on these samples, apart from the one collected closer to shore which indicates some freshwater influence. Two of the samples separated by 15km distance perpendicularly to the actual coastline and 11m depth difference yielded max and minimum ages of 7913 and 7452 cal. years BP. Such a short time span between these samples could be either the result of their formation on a linked environment or older carbon signature from drowned environments being present on younger cements.
  • Structure of microphytoplankton community and environmental variables in a macrotidal estuarine complex, São Marcos Bay, Maranhão - Brazil Original Article

    Cavalcanti, Lisana Furtado; Azevedo-Cutrim, Andrea Christina Gomes; Oliveira, Amanda Lorena Lima; Furtado, Jordana Adorno; Araújo, Bethânia de Oliveira; Sá, Ana Karoline Duarte-dos-Santos; Ferreira, Francinara Santos; Santos, Nágela Gardênia Rodrigues; Dias, Francisco José Silva; Cutrim, Marco Valério Jansen

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT São Marcos Bay is an estuarine complex with semidiurnal tides that can reach more than 7 m during equinoctial spring tides. It is situated in the second largest Brazilian coastline and is subjected to continuous human activities holding an important port complex of Latin America. In order to contribute to the knowledge about the structure of the phytoplankton in a macrotidal systems, this study aims to evaluate the phytoplankton community and its relationship with environmental conditions in the São Marcos Bay. Five surveys in 2010 and 2011 were carried out on four sampling points during the rainy and dry seasons. Samples were taken during the flood and ebb phases at neap tides. Hydrological parameters were correlated with biological data (phytoplankton composition, abundance and biomass) using statistical analysis. The phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a) characterized the bay as quite productive (10.43±7.62 mg m-3) with the nanophytoplankton as the dominant fraction. Seasonal variation was observed in phytoplankton abundance with higher values (34,262±18,422 cells L-1) in the rainy season. Diatoms were the most important phytoplankton group, pointing out Nitzschia sp., Diploneis weissflogii and Synedra sp. as the dominant species. This study revealed that the composition of phytoplankton community was mainly influenced by the local dynamics, governed by macrotides, and precipitation regime that mostly contributed to the seasonal fluctuations of the environmental conditions, such as salinity, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients.
  • New records of association between Brachyscelus cf. rapacoides (Arthropoda: Amphipoda) and medusae (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa) from São Sebastião Channel, southeast Brazil Note

    Tapia, Francisco Alejandro Puente; Gasca, Rebeca; Genzano, Gabriel; Schiariti, Agustín; Morandini, André Carrara
  • The role of plant-crab interaction in structuring microphytobenthic communities in a shallow temperate estuary Note

    Fernández, Carolina; Da-Rodda, Constanza; Gauna, María Cecilia; Croce, María Emilia; Parodi, Elisa R.
  • Diet and reproductive aspects of the endangered butterfly ray Gymnura altavela raising the discussion of a possible nursery area in a highly impacted environment Note

    Silva, Fernanda Gonçalves; Vianna, Marcelo
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