Anatomical terminology of the internal nose and paranasal sinuses: cross-cultural adaptation to Portuguese Please cite this article as: Bezerra TF, Stamm A, Anselmo-Lima WT, Fornazieri MA, Melo ND, Balsalobre L, et al. Anatomical terminology of the internal nose and paranasal sinuses: cross-cultural adaptation to Portuguese. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2018;84:677-86.

Thiago Freire Pinto Bezerra Aldo Stamm Wilma Teresinha Anselmo-Lima Marco Aurélio Fornazieri Nelson D’Ávila Melo Leonardo Balsalobre Geraldo Pereira Jotz Henrique Zaquia Leão André Alencar Araripe Nunes Alexandre Felippu Antonio Carlos Cedin Carlos D. Pinheiro-Neto Diego Lima Oliveira Eulalia Sakano Eduardo Macoto Kosugi Elizabeth Araújo Fabiana Cardoso Pereira Valera Fábio de Rezende Pinna Fabrizio Ricci Romano Francine Grecco de Melo Pádua Henrique Faria Ramos João Telles Jr. Leonardo Conrado Barbosa de Sá Leopoldo Marques D'Assunção Filho Luiz Ubirajara Sennes Luis Carlos Gregório Marcelo H. Sampaio Marco César Jorge dos Santos Marco Franca Marcos Mocellin Marcus Miranda Lessa Melissa Ameloti G. Avelino Miguel Tepedino Nilvano Alves de Andrade Otavio B. Piltcher Renato Roithmann Renata Mendonça Pilan Roberto Campos Meireles Roberto Eustáquio Guimarães Rodrigo de Paula Santos Rogério Pezato Shirley Pignatari Tatiana Telles Abdo Victor Nakajima Washington Almeida Marcio Nakanishi Richard L. Voegels About the authors

Abstract

Introduction:

Functional endonasal endoscopic surgery is a frequent surgical procedure among otorhinolaryngologists. In 2014, the European Society of Rhinology published the "European Position Paper on the Anatomical Terminology of the Internal Nose and Paranasal Sinuses", aiming to unify the terms in the English language. We do not yet have a unified terminology in the Portuguese language.

Objective:

Transcultural adaptation of the anatomical terms of the nose and paranasal cavities of the "European Anatomical Terminology of the Internal Nose and Paranasal Sinuses" to Portuguese.

Methods:

A group of rhinologists from diverse parts of Brazil, all experienced in endoscopic endonasal surgery, was invited to participate in the creation of this position paper on the anatomical terms of the nose and paranasal sinuses in the Portuguese language according to the methodology adapted from that previously described by Rudmik and Smith.

Results:

The results of this document were generated based on the agreement of the majority of the participants according to the most popular suggestions among the rhinologists. A cross-cultural adaptation of the sinonasal anatomical terminology was consolidated. We suggest the terms "inferior turbinate", "nasal septum", "(bone/cartilaginous) part of the nasal septum", "(middle/inferior) nasal meatus", "frontal sinus drainage pathway", "frontal recess" and "uncinate process" be standardized.

Conclusion:

We have consolidated a Portuguese version of the European Anatomical Terminology of the Internal Nose and Paranasal Sinuses, which will help in the publication of technical announcements, scientific publications and the teaching of the internal anatomical terms of the nose and paranasal sinuses in Brazil.

KEYWORDS
Cross-cultural adaptation; Anatomy; Nose; Paranasal sinus; Consensus

Resumo:

Introdução:

A cirurgia endoscópica funcional endonasal é um procedimento cirúrgico frequente entre os otorrinolaringologistas. Em 2014, a Sociedade Europeia de Rinologia publicou o "Documento Europeu para Posicionamento sobre a Terminologia Anatômica Interna do Nariz e das Cavidades Paranasais" com o objetivo de unificar os termos na língua inglesa. Ainda não dispomos de uma terminologia unificada na língua portuguesa.

Objetivo:

Adaptação transcultural dos termos anatômicos do nariz e das cavidades paranasais para o português da "European Anatomical Terminology of the Internal Nose and Paranasal Sinuses".

Método:

Um grupo de rinologistas de todo o Brasil, com experiência em cirurgia endoscópica endonasal, foi convidado a participar da elaboração desse posicionamento sobre os termos anatômicos do nariz e das cavidades paranasais para o português conforme metodologia adaptada da previamente descrita por Rudmik e Smith.

Resultados:

Os resultados desse documento foram gerados a partir da concordância da maioria dos participantes conforme as sugestões mais populares entre os rinologistas. Uma adaptação transcultural da terminologia anatômica nasossinusal foi consolidada. Sugerimos que se busque uniformizar termos como "concha inferior", "septo nasal", "porção (óssea/cartilaginosa) do septo nasal", "meato (médio/ inferior) nasal", "via da drenagem do seio frontal", "recesso frontal" e "processo uncinado".

Conclusão:

Consolidamos uma versão adaptada em português da "European Anatomical Terminology of the Internal Nose and Paranasal Sinuses" que auxiliará a publicação de comunicados técnicos, publicações científicas e o ensino dos termos anatômicos internos do nariz e das cavidades paranasais no Brasil.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE
Adaptação transcultural; Anatomia; Nariz; Cavidades paranasais; Consenso

Introduction

Endoscopic surgery and sinonasal computed tomography stimulated rhinology in the early 1980s into the revival of research in the fields of anatomy and physiology of the nose and paranasal sinuses.11 Lund VJ, Stammberger H, Fokkens WJ, Beale T, Bernal-Sprekelsen M, Eloy P, et al. European position paper on the anatomical terminology of the internal nose and paranasal sinuses. Rhinology. 2014;24:1-34. In 1994, the International Conference on Sinus Disease took place aiming to describe the newly identified structures in detail, since Anatomical Terminology had few descriptors of the sinonasal anatomy.22 Voegels RL, Melo NAD, Bezerra T. Unification of sinonasal anatomical terminology. Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016;20:1.,33 Stammberger HR, Kennedy DW. Paranasal sinuses: anatomic terminology and nomenclature. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl. 1995;167:7-16.

In 2014, the European Society of Rhinology published the "European Position Paper on the Anatomical Terminology of the Internal Nose and Paranasal Sinuses" to unify the sinonasal anatomical terminology through the review of anatomical terms and analysis of the official "Anatomical Terminology".11 Lund VJ, Stammberger H, Fokkens WJ, Beale T, Bernal-Sprekelsen M, Eloy P, et al. European position paper on the anatomical terminology of the internal nose and paranasal sinuses. Rhinology. 2014;24:1-34. They sought to respect the embryological development of structures, avoid terminology in Latin, remove eponyms, and simplify the anatomical terms.

Lund et al. summarized in the English language all structures that could be found during a routine sinonasal endoscopic surgery. At that time, there were several publications on clinical anatomy and much discussion about the exact names and definitions for structures of surgical relevance.22 Voegels RL, Melo NAD, Bezerra T. Unification of sinonasal anatomical terminology. Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016;20:1.

It is clearly necessary to unify this terminology in all other languages and, that in the process of cross-cultural adaptation, the defined terms find correspondence in English. This publication in other languages would facilitate technical information, scientific publications and the teaching of the internal anatomical terms of the nose and paranasal cavities.

The purpose of this study is the cross-cultural adaptation of the anatomical terms of the nose and paranasal cavities to the Portuguese language of the European Anatomical Terminology of the Internal Nose and Paranasal Sinuses and the proposition of a Sinonasal Anatomical Terminology in Portuguese.

Methods

This is a prospective study of cross-cultural adaptation, carried out in Brazil, from 2015 to 2016. Forty-four acknowledged rhinologists from all over Brazil were invited to participate (Fig. 1). We followed an adapted version of the method used by Rudmik and Smith.44 Rudmik L, Smith TL. Development of an evidence-based review with recommendations using an online iterative process. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2011;1:431-7. The entire study process was carried out at distance with the aid of a platform, which allowed the unification and analysis of the results.

Figure 1
Study design.

Inclusion criteria for the group of rhinologists

  1. - Voluntary interest in participating in the study;

  2. - Otorhinolaryngologists with proven experience in sinonasal endoscopic surgery through publications on the subject and/or working in referral centers in rhinology.

Exclusion criteria for the group of rhinologists

  1. - No interest in participating after the invitation;

  2. - No experience in sinonasal endoscopic surgery through publications on the subject and/or not working in referral centers in rhinology.

Phase 1. Term suggestion phase

The final list of the 126 terms of Supplement 24 (1) was divided into 8 blocks (Table 1) and each block was randomly assigned to a group of 4-5 authors. All authors received a copy of the original supplement by e-mail11 Lund VJ, Stammberger H, Fokkens WJ, Beale T, Bernal-Sprekelsen M, Eloy P, et al. European position paper on the anatomical terminology of the internal nose and paranasal sinuses. Rhinology. 2014;24:1-34. and were invited to suggest three or more known terms in Portuguese for each English term of the block assigned to them. All authors were also encouraged to suggest more terms for other blocks.

Table 1
Final results of the suggested terms and voting frequency of the three voted terms.

Phase 2. Iterative assessment

The most often suggested terms were reviewed by the authors under the supervision of authors with experience in anatomy (G.J. and H.Z.L.). A final list was created with up to three most relevant terms for each term.

Phase 3. Final voting

An electronic survey was sent to each rhinologist through an online platform. The survey included multiple-choice options for each of the 126 terms, divided into the same eight previously defined blocks. All the rhinologists could choose only one term option in Portuguese for each term in English. The most voted term in Portuguese was chosen for each term in English. In cases of tie votes or when there was divergence of names for similar structures, these were discussed and decided by consensus.

Phase 4. Writing of this article

A summarized list of terms in Portuguese was created together with this article for final approval by the authors.

Results

All of the rhinologists accepted the invitation to participate. The final list of terms that were suggested and the voting frequency of the three terms voted on later are shown in Table 1. The proposed terms are underlined.

Discussion

This study proposes a unified sinonasal anatomical terminology through the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the anatomical terms defined for the English language related to the nose and the paranasal cavities. The presence of researchers with experience in anatomical terms (G.J. and H.Z.L.) was important for the project adequacy.

The history of controversy regarding sinonasal anatomical terminology has existed for many years and can be exemplified by the use of the term infundibulum and semilunar hiatus to designate several lateral wall structures to the point that the abandonment of this terminology has been suggested in the past. In this terminology, we propose the use of terms that help to differentiate the anatomical structures so that eponyms are not utilized.55 Layton TB. Preface to Catalogue of the Onodi Collection. Royal College of Surgeons of England; 1934. p. i-xx. We believe this favors the learning and the correct naming of the structures.

The vast majority of the results, as chosen by the rhinologists invited to participate in the study, were maintained. However, the results for some of the terms had to be better discussed to result in a uniform terminology for structures with similar names and a nomenclature adequacy with focus on surgical practice.

The nasal septum is a structure commonly divided into two parts, called bony and membranous parts. The uniformization of the term proposed by most authors for the membranous portion (of the nasal septum) was "Membranous part of the nasal septum", by 53.7% [22/41]. On the other hand, despite the most often suggested term for "bony septum" [Anatomic terminology (AT): "pars osses septi nasi"] was "Bony Nasal Septum", by 48.8% [20/41], we suggested the term "Bony part of the nasal septum" (34.1% [14/41]) to maintain uniformity in relation to the "membranous part of the nasal septum".

We also suggested that for the term "inferior turbinate" (AT: concha nasalis inferior), the term "concha inferior" should be chosen (concha inferior 39% [16/41] vs. concha nasal inferior, 61% [25/41]). This term is most frequently used and will maintain the standardization in relation to the related structures: "Middle turbinate" [51.2% (21/41)], "Basal Lamella of Middle Turbinate" [53.7% (22/41)] "Superior turbinate" [48.8% (20/41)] and "Supreme nasal turbinate" [48.8% (20/41)].

"Nasal meatus" was also chosen instead of the term "meatus", since there are other anatomical structures called "meatus" in other parts of the human body. Although this option received fewer votes, it would be the most appropriate one: "Inferior meatus" 53.7% (22/41) vs. "Inferior nasal meatus" 43.9% (18/41); "Middle meatus" 48.8% (20/41) vs. "Middle nasal meatus" 17.1% (7/41); "Superior meatus" 48.8% (20/41) vs. "Superior nasal meatus" 41.5% (17/41). Another recommended term that did not receive the most votes one was "supreme nasal meatus" instead of "nasal supreme meatus". The most voted term, "nasal supreme meatus", suggests that meatus is above the nose.

The term "olfactory fiber(s)", 48.8% (20/41), although receiving the most votes, was also passed over for another term, because it is important to indicate that it is a "nerve" and to add the term "nerve". We chose to use "olfactory nerve fibers", 46.3% (19/41).

It was suggested that the site should be added to the term "accessory ostium", 87.8% (36/41), since there are other accessory ostia in the body, and the term "accessory ostium of maxillary sinus" was suggested.

Despite the diverse voting, it was proposed that the term "ethmoidal cells" be replaced by "complexo etmoidal" following the English term "ethmoidal complex". The "ethmoidal complex" would be subdivided into "anterior ethmoidal complex" and "posterior ethmoidal complex"; also diverging from the most voted terms: "anterior ethmoidal cells" and "posterior ethmoidal cells" for the same reason.

The term "frontal sinus drainage pathway" was also re-discussed consensually and we chose "Via da drenagem do Seio frontal" (26.8%; 11/41). Although it has been suggested that we use the term "frontal recess" (63.4%, 26/41) to designate this structure, the chosen term emphasizes that it is a different entity from the "frontal recess", the proposed term of which is "Recesso frontal" (97.6%; 40/41). Although controversial, the terms "frontal recess" and "frontal sinus drainage pathway" are generally distinct entities. The frontal recess is generally defined as the most anterosuperior part of the ethmoid, inferior to the sinus opening.11 Lund VJ, Stammberger H, Fokkens WJ, Beale T, Bernal-Sprekelsen M, Eloy P, et al. European position paper on the anatomical terminology of the internal nose and paranasal sinuses. Rhinology. 2014;24:1-34. Its use as a synonym of "frontal sinus drainage pathway" is not appropriate, since the drainage pathway of the frontal sinus through the frontal recess is a complex one, altered by the configuration of the air cells within it and by the different connections of the uncinate process.11 Lund VJ, Stammberger H, Fokkens WJ, Beale T, Bernal-Sprekelsen M, Eloy P, et al. European position paper on the anatomical terminology of the internal nose and paranasal sinuses. Rhinology. 2014;24:1-34. It commonly includes the frontal recess, but is not constituted exclusively by it. Usually, the frontal recess is posteriorly delimited by the anterior wall of the ethmoidal bulla (if that is fixed at the base of the skull), antero-inferiorly by the agger nasi, laterally by the lamina papyracea and inferiorly by the terminal recess of the ethmoidal infundibulum, if present. The term "ducto nasofrontal" (from the anatomical terminology, "Ductus nasofrontalis") was abandoned because the frontal sinus drainage pathway is not a true duct. The term "maxillary crest" (from the term "Lacrimal buldge" in English) was defined for this important structure as a point of reference for endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy and is formed by the frontal process of the maxilla.

Final consideration

We propose an adapted version in Portuguese of the "European Anatomical Terminology of the Internal Nose and Paranasal Sinuses", that will help with the publication of technical announcements, scientific publications and the teaching of the internal anatomical terms of the nose and paranasal sinuses in Brazil.

  • Peer Review under the responsibility of Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial.
  • Please cite this article as: Bezerra TF, Stamm A, Anselmo-Lima WT, Fornazieri MA, Melo ND, Balsalobre L, et al. Anatomical terminology of the internal nose and paranasal sinuses: cross-cultural adaptation to Portuguese. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2018;84:677-86.
  • ERRATUM

    In the article "Anatomical terminology of the internal nose and paranasal sinuses: cross-cultural adaptation to Portuguese", publicado no Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2018;84(6):677-686, on page 677, where it reads:
    Thiago Freire Pinto Bezerraa,b*, Aldo Stammc, Wilma Teresinha Anselmo-Limad, Marco Aurélio Fornazierie,f, Nelson D'Ávila Melog, Leonardo Balsalobrec, Geraldo Pereira Jotzh, Henrique Zaquia Leãoh, André Alencar Araripe Nunesi, Alexandre Felippuj, Antonio Carlos Cedink, Carlos D. Pinheiro-Netol, Diego Lima Oliveiram, Eulalia Sakanon, Eduardo Macoto Kosugio, Elizabeth Araújoh, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira Valerad, Fábio de Rezende Pinnab, Fabrizio Ricci Romanob, Francine Grecco de Melo Páduap, Henrique Faria Ramosq, João Telles Jr.r, Leonardo Conrado Barbosa de Sár, Leopoldo Marques D'Assunção Filhoa, Luiz Ubirajara Sennesb, Luis Carlos Gregórioo, Marcelo H. Sampaion, Marco César Jorge dos Santoss, Marco Francat, Marcos Mocellinu,s, Marcus Miranda Lessav, Melissa Ameloti G. Avelinow, Miguel Tepedinor,x, Nilvano Alves de Andradey, Otavio B. Piltcherh, Renato Roithmannz, Renata Mendonça Pilanb, Roberto Campos Meirelesaa, Roberto Eustáquio Guimarãesbb, Rodrigo de Paula Santoso, Rogério Pezatob,o, Shirley Pignatario, Tatiana Telles Abdob, Victor Nakajimacc, Washington Almeidadd, Richard L. Voegelsb
    a Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE, Brasil
    b Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Faculdade de Medicina (FM), São Paulo, SP, Brasil
    c Complexo Hospitalar Edmundo Vasconcelos, Centro de Otorrinolaringologia e Fonoaudiologia (COF), São Paulo, SP, Brasil
    d Universidade de São Paulo (USP-RP), Faculdade de Medicina (FM), Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil
    e Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), Londrina, PR, Brasil
    f Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná (PUC-PR), Londrina, PR, Brasil
    g Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), Aracaju, SE, Brasil
    h Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil
    i Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Fortaleza, CE, Brasil
    j Instituto Felippu de Otorrinolaringologia e Base do Crânio, São Paulo, SP, Brasil
    k Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil
    l Albany Medical Center, Albany, NY, EUA
    m Hospital Memorial Arthur Ramos (HMAR), Maceió, AL, Brasil
    n Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, Brasil
    o Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), São Paulo, SP, Brasil
    p Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP, Brasil
    q Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES), Vitória, ES, Brasil
    r Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
    s Instituto Paranaense de Otorrinolaringologia, Curitiba, PR, Brasil
    t Faculdade de Enfermagem e Medicina Nova Esperança (FAMENE), João Pessoa, PB, Brasil
    u Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba, PR, Brasil
    v Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Faculdade de Medicina, Salvador, BA, Brasil
    w Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG), Goiânia, GO, Brasil
    x Policlínica Botafogo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
    y Fundação Bahiana para Desenvolvimento das Ciências, Salvador, BA, Brasil
    z Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Faculdade de Medicina, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil
    aa Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
    bb Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
    cc Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP, Brasil
    dd Hospital Otorrinos de Feira de Santana, Feira de Santana, BA, Brasil
    It should read:
    Thiago Freire Pinto Bezerra a, b∗, Aldo Stamm c, Wilma Teresinha Anselmo-Lima d, Marco Aurélio Fornazieri e, f, Nelson D'Ávila Melo g, Leonardo Balsalobre c, Geraldo Pereira Jotz h, Henrique Zaquia Leão h, André Alencar Araripe Nunes i, Alexandre Felippu j, Antonio Carlos Cedin k, Carlos D. Pinheiro-Neto l, Diego Lima Oliveira m, Eulalia Sakano n, Eduardo Macoto Kosugi o, Elizabeth Araújo h, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira Valera d, Fábio de Rezende Pinna b, Fabrizio Ricci Romano b, Francine Grecco de Melo Pádua p, Henrique Faria Ramos q, João Telles Jr. r, Leonardo Conrado Barbosa de Sá r, Leopoldo Marques D'Assunção Filho a, Luiz Ubirajara Sennes b, Luis Carlos Gregório o, Marcelo H. Sampaio n, Marco César Jorge dos Santos s, Marco Franca t, Marcos Mocellin u, s, Marcus Miranda Lessa v, Melissa Ameloti G. Avelino w, Miguel Tepedino r, x, Nilvano Alves de Andrade y, Otavio B. Piltcher h, Renato Roithmann z, Renata Mendonça Pilan b, Roberto Campos Meireles aa, Roberto Eustáquio Guimarães bb, Rodrigo de Paula Santos o, Rogério Pezato b, o, Shirley Pignatari o, Tatiana Telles Abdo b, Victor Nakajima cc, Washington Almeida dd, Marcio Nakanishi ee, Richard L. Voegels b
    a Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE, Brasil
    b Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Faculdade de Medicina (FM), São Paulo, SP, Brasil
    c Complexo Hospitalar Edmundo Vasconcelos, Centro de Otorrinolaringologia e Fonoaudiologia (COF), São Paulo, SP, Brasil
    d Universidade de São Paulo (USP-RP), Faculdade de Medicina (FM), Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil
    e Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), Londrina, PR, Brasil
    f Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná (PUC-PR), Londrina, PR, Brasil
    g Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), Aracaju, SE, Brasil
    h Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil
    i Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Fortaleza, CE, Brasil
    j Instituto Felippu de Otorrinolaringologia e Base do Crânio, São Paulo, SP, Brasil
    k Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil
    l Albany Medical Center, Albany, NY, EUA
    m Hospital Memorial Arthur Ramos (HMAR), Maceió, AL, Brasil
    n Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, Brasil
    o Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), São Paulo, SP, Brasil
    p Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP, Brasil
    q Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES), Vitória, ES, Brasil
    r Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
    s Instituto Paranaense de Otorrinolaringologia, Curitiba, PR, Brasil
    t Faculdade de Enfermagem e Medicina Nova Esperança (FAMENE), João Pessoa, PB, Brasil
    u Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba, PR, Brasil
    v Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Faculdade de Medicina, Salvador, BA, Brasil
    w Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG), Goiânia, GO, Brasil
    x Policlínica Botafogo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
    y Fundação Bahiana para Desenvolvimento das Ciências, Salvador, BA, Brasil
    z Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Faculdade de Medicina, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil
    aa Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
    bb Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
    cc Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP, Brasil
    dd Hospital Otorrinos de Feira de Santana, Feira de Santana, BA, Brasil
    ee Universidade de Brasília (UnB), Faculdade de Medicina, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Medicas, Brasília, DF, Brasil

References

  • 1
    Lund VJ, Stammberger H, Fokkens WJ, Beale T, Bernal-Sprekelsen M, Eloy P, et al. European position paper on the anatomical terminology of the internal nose and paranasal sinuses. Rhinology. 2014;24:1-34.
  • 2
    Voegels RL, Melo NAD, Bezerra T. Unification of sinonasal anatomical terminology. Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016;20:1.
  • 3
    Stammberger HR, Kennedy DW. Paranasal sinuses: anatomic terminology and nomenclature. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl. 1995;167:7-16.
  • 4
    Rudmik L, Smith TL. Development of an evidence-based review with recommendations using an online iterative process. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2011;1:431-7.
  • 5
    Layton TB. Preface to Catalogue of the Onodi Collection. Royal College of Surgeons of England; 1934. p. i-xx.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Nov-Dec 2018

History

  • Received
    23 July 2018
  • Accepted
    8 Aug 2018
Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Sede da Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico Facial, Av. Indianópolia, 1287, 04063-002 São Paulo/SP Brasil, Tel.: (0xx11) 5053-7500, Fax: (0xx11) 5053-7512 - São Paulo - SP - Brazil
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