Abstract in English:AIM: To evaluate the manifestations of sickle cell disease on the orofacial complex through a review of current literature concerning prevalence of dental caries, periodontal disease, temporomandibular joint disorders and radiographic alterations of maxillofacial bones. METHODS: Full-text papers retrieved from MEDLINE and LILACS electronic databases were critically reviewed. RESULTS: Alterations of maxillofacial bones are well documented in the literature, but studies reporting caries, periodontal condition and temporomandibular joint alterations in are scarce and inconclusive. CONCLUSION: Further well-designed epidemiological studies are needed to indicate the real impact of this disease on the stomatognathic health, collaborating to improve public health policies.
Abstract in English:AIM: To evaluate the influence of the format and surface treatment of implants, as well as the substrate used in primary stability. METHODS: Thirty-two Conexão® implants were used: 8 conical (CC) (11.5 x 3.5 mm) and 24 cylindrical (11.5 x 3.75 mm) - 8 external hexagon implants without surface treatment (MS), 8 external hexagon implants with double Porous treatment (MP), 8 internal hexagon implants with Porous treatment (CA). They were inserted in Nacional® polyurethane in three densities (15, 20 and 40 PCF). The insertion torque (IT) (N.cm) was quantified using the digital Mackena® torque meter, and the pullout force (PF) (N) by means of axial traction force with a 200 kg load cell, performed in a Universal Test Machine (Emic® DL10000) and the Tesc 3.13 software. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Difference was observed between groups (p<0.05). Regarding the IT, MP and MS inserted to the substrate 40PCF showed higher values with statistically significant difference with all interactions implants x substrate; the 15 and 20PCF densities was not significant in all groups of implants. MP, MS, CC and CA did not differ significantly, even inserted in a lower density, where CC showed better IT compared with other densities. For PF, the best performance was the interaction implant CA x 40PCF substrate, showing a difference from the other implants inserted in all substrates. CONCLUSIONS: The higher bone density and cylindrical implants with surface treatment provides greater IT and PF.
Abstract in English:AIM: To evaluate the dimensional stability of a new facial molding technique using thermoplastic custom molding tray. METHODS: The designs established demarcation of facial anthropometrics landmarks, making linear measurements with a digital caliper. Facial molding was carried out using thermoplastic custom trays, constructing a facial plaster cast with the anthropometric landmarks already transferred by measuring the linear dimensions on the plaster cast and statistical analysis. RESULTS: All linear measurements in the palpebral and labial regions presented statistically significant distortions. Only one of the linear measurements from the orbital region did not demonstrate any significant distortion. The nasal region presented the least amount of distortion. CONCLUSIONS: Although statistically significant, distortions were due to the method of breathing and were considered to be clinically irrelevant. The reduction in the working time, the comfort provided to the patient and the dimensional accuracy of the plaster cast obtained by the facial molding technique using custom perforated molding tray suggest that this technique should be employed for making facial prostheses.
Abstract in English:AIM: To evaluate the effects of radioiodine therapy on salivary flow in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. METHODS: A sample comprising 88 patients submitted to ablation with iodine 131 was included in the study. The patients were submitted to sialometry and evaluation of the presence of xerostomia before, 10 days and 3 months after radioiodine therapy. RESULTS: Xerostomia was observed in 36.4% of the patients before radioiodine therapy, 59.15% at 10 days after therapy, and 25% at 3 months after therapy. Significant differences were observed in non-stimulated salivary flow rates between the second and third evaluations (p<0.020) and in stimulated salivary flow between the first and second evaluations (p<0.010). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that changes in salivary flow resulting from radioiodine therapy are more pronounced during the first weeks after treatment and seem to regress after 3 months.
Abstract in English:AIM: To evaluate the influence of bismuth subsalicylate addition in different concentrations on theproperties ofan experimental epoxy-based root canal sealer. METHODS: Bismuth subsalicylate in 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100% and 120 wt% was added tothe sealer. Flow, film thickness, working time, setting time, dimensional change, sorption, solubility and cytotoxicity were evaluated according to ISO standard. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey'stest with a significance level of 5% for all tests. RESULTS:The flow, working and setting times significantly decreased withincreasing particle concentration. The film thickness, dimensional change, water sorption and solubility values significantly increased with higher particle amount. The results for cytotoxicity showed no statistically significant differences among the particle proportions. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the addition up to 80% wt of bismuth subsalicylate appears to be a promising filler particle to root canal sealer development.
Abstract in English:Adults and elderly usually present an expressive tooth loss in household epidemiologic studies. Few studies were found to report oral health conditions in economically active adults. AIM: To describe the oral health status of adult workers in an extended range age (20-64 years old) of a supermarket chain. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in a company in the state of São Paulo. A total of 386 workers aged 20 to 64 years old were examined following the guidelines recommended by the World Health Organization (1997) with respect to caries, treatment needs for caries, and need and use of dental prostheses. Age was stratified into groups for analysis. A descriptive analysis was performed and tooth loss rate was calculated. Kruskal Walis and Tukey's tests were used for the evaluation of differences in DMTF and chi-square test was used for treatment needs. RESULTS:The mean DMFT was 14.6 (± 8.3), and differences were found among the 3 groups, mainly due to missing teeth. DMFT was 10.8 (±6.95) in the 20-34year-old group, 19.6 (±6.13) in the 35-44-year-old group and 22.1(±7.32) in the 45-64-yearold group. Significant differences in tooth loss rate were observed between the age groups (tooth loss rate ranged from 18% to 81%). Among the adults, 53.5% had treatment needs for caries. CONCLUSIONS: The younger adult workers in this study showed better oral conditions and an increase in tooth loss was observed in the older individuals. Considering common risk approach, dentistry should work together with health promotion for the studied population of workers in order to meet the oral treatment needs and prevent new tooth losses.
Abstract in English:AIM: To investigate the amount of connective tissue migrated into the extraction socket using EPTFE and latex membranes. METHODS: Seventeen rats were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups: e-PTFE membrane (n = 6), Latex membrane (n = 6) and Control (no membrane, n=5). After extraction of the maxillary right incisor, the animals of the test groups were subjected to alveolar guided bone regeneration (GBR) surgery and received an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) and a latex membrane, respectively. Thirty days after surgery, the animals were killed and histometric analysis was done to evaluate the migration of connective tissue. Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA and multiple-comparison Tukey's test at 5% significance level. RESULTS: There was statistically significant difference between groups e-PTFE and Latex (p=0.001), and between groups e-PTFE and Control (p=0.012), but no significant difference was found between groups Latex and Control (p=0.416). CONCLUSIONS: The e-PTFE membrane showed better results and appeared more adequate for GBR therapy, forming a barrier to prevent the migration of connective tissue into the extraction socket. The latex membrane, on the other hand, did not show benefits over the control group.
Abstract in English:AIM: To investigate evidence of associations between oral health status of children and adolescents and their school performance and lost school days due to dental problems. METHODS: PubMed electronic database was searched for scientific papers published between 1990 and 2013. Twenty-one papers that attempted to investigate the impact of oral health on school performance and lost school days were retrieved. Brief descriptions of each study's methodology and outcomes were presented and discussed. RESULTS: Although the papers reported statistically significant associations between school performance or lost school days and oral health conditions of schoolchildren, all of them were cross-sectional and ecological studies with an observational design, which may not provide full information about causes and effects. In addition, the lack of standardized criteria did not allow comparisons among the studies retrieved in the search. CONCLUSIONS: Oral diseases appear to impact on lost school days and school performance of children and policy-makers should address this issue when planning health promotion interventions in school settings. However, standardized materials and methodologies as well as longitudinal studies using valid and reliable criteria are needed to confirm the causes or risks of oral health factors in school performance, generating hypotheses for future research and providing important data for determining effective actions in school health programs.
Abstract in English:An essential factor to the virulence of the genus Candida is the ability to produce enzymes and this may be crucial in the establishment of fungal infections. AIM:This study investigated in vitro enzymatic activities of Candida species and their virulence in an in vivo Galleria mellonella experimental model. METHODS: Twenty-four clinical strains of Candida spp. isolated from the human oral cavity were evaluated, including the following species: C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. norvegensis, C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii. All Candida strains were tested in vitro for production of proteinase and phospholipase. The Candida strains were also injected into Galleria mellonella larvae to induce experimental candidiasis, and after 24 hours, the survival rate was assessed. RESULTS: Phospholipase and proteinase activity were observed in 100% of the C. albicans strains. In the non-albicans species, proteinase and phospholipase activity were observed in 25 and 43% of the studied strains, respectively. The most pathogenic Candida species in G. mellonella were C. albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. lusitaniae, whereas C. glabrata was the least virulent species. Furthermore, a positive significant correlation was found between both enzymatic activities with virulence in G. mellonella. CONCLUSIONS: The virulence of Candida strains in G. mellonella is related to the quantity of proteinases and phospholipases production of each strain.
Abstract in English:AIM: This experimental study investigated the association between masticatory hypofunction and mandibular morphological dimensions and internal bone characteristics. METHODS: Twentyfour 21-day-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups, according to the diet consistency. The control group (CG) was fed a solid diet (pellets) and the experimental group (EG) received a powdered diet during 50 days. All animals were euthanized and their mandibles removed and processed for histomorphometric analysis. A calibrated examiner performed linear and angular measurements (mandibular body length and height, mandibular lengths, ramus depth and height, mandibular base depth, mandibular head and gonial angle) on photographs, estimated bone density in the mandibular ramus region on digital radiographs and assessed the area of cortical and trabecular bone tissue in the second molar region, in 5-µm-thick serial cuts stained with Cason's Trichrome. Measurements for the study groups were compared using Mann-Whitney test (α=0.05). larvae to induce experimental candidiasis, and after 24 hours, the survival rate was assessed. RESULTS: some of the macroscopic dimensions evaluated on photographs were significantly smaller in EG compared to CG, specifically mandibular ramus height (10.77 mm vs. 11.11 mm, p=0.0375), mandibular body length (21.67 mm vs. 22.36 mm, p=0.0165) and height (4.24 mm vs. 4.54 mm, p=0.0016), as well as mandibular base depth (1.24 mm vs. 1.47 mm, p=0.0325). The relative mineral bone density was significantly decreased in EG (1.04) compared to CG (1.25), p<0.001. Rats in the EG also presented smaller trabecular and cortical bone area (2.36 mm²) than those in CG (3.16 mm²), p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the above-mentioned measurements, it may be concluded that masticatory hypofunction induced by a powdered diet affected mandibular morphology and was associated with significantly reduced bone content.
Abstract in English:AIM: To compare bacterial leakage in root canals obturated with the modified single-cone, lateral condensation, and continuous wave of condensation techniques. METHODS: Distobuccal root canals of maxillary molars were shaped up to ProTaper F2 and obturated with modified singlecone, lateral condensation or continuous wave of condensation technique. Two-chamber bacterial model using Enterococcus faecalis was employed for bacterial leakage evaluation for 30 days. The chi-square test was applied to evaluate differences between turbid and non-turbid samples, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used for evaluating the time necessary for microleakage. A significance level of 5% was set for all analyses. RESULTS: The modified single-cone technique showed leakage in 73.3% of samples, lateral condensation in 66.6%, and continuous wave of condensation in 53.3%, but there were no significant differences among the groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that the modified single-cone technique shows similar sealing efficacy to that of lateral condensation and continuous wave of condensation technique.
Abstract in English:AIM: To report the frequency of oral lesions in HIV-positive patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), comparing with a non-HIV infected control group, and to correlate the presence of lesions with demographic and clinical features of HIV-seropositive patients. METHODS: A quantitative case-control study was conducted by a dental professional, using a questionnaire, analysis of medical records of patients and clinical examinations. RESULTS: According to the results, oral lesions were found in 23% of HIV-positive patients versus 5% in controls. Candidiasis (29%) and periodontal changes (25%) were the most frequent oral lesions found in these patients. Gender and viral load values were statistically significant when HIV-positive patients with and without oral lesions were compared. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed a change in lesion pattern of HIV patients on HAART, highlighting a high frequency of these new lesions and reinforcing the need for periodic dental evaluation of HIV-positive patients.
Abstract in English:AIM: The aims of this study were: a) to verify if the instructions displayed on the packages and labels of dental plaster available for purchase in the city of Porto Alegre are in accordance with the Brazilian laws, and b) to analyze how information is available on packages and labels of dental plaster acquired by dentists. METHODS: For this study, it was used the method proposed by Silva et al. (2010) modified, according to which the information related to instructions for product use displayed on packages and labels, if present, provided by manufacturers and/or importers from each brand of plaster was reviewed: how to use, composition, price, expiration date, health risks and disposal instructions. The collected information was subsequently confronted with the requirements laid out in national legislation on trade of dental plaster. RESULTS: No product showed the price or the instructions for disposal. One brand showed no information of the package and another one showed only the composition of the product; this requirement was present in most products. The mode of use and the expiration date were present in almost all packages, except for two brands. Only two brands presented information on health risks, and yet unsatisfactory. CONCLUSIONS: The different brands and types of dental plaster analyzed presented some kind of violation of the provisions of the Brazilian legislation, most with missing or unsatisfactory information.
Abstract in English:AIM: To evaluate the loss of applied torque (detorque) values in cast and pre-machined abutments for external hex abutment/implant interface of single implant-supported prostheses subjected to mechanical cycling. METHODS: Ten metal crowns were fabricated using two types of UCLA abutments: cast and pre-machined with metal base in NiCrTi alloy and tightened to regular external hex implants with a titanium alloy screw, with an insertion torque of 32 N.cm, measured with a digital torque gauge. Samples were embedded with autopolymerizing acrylic resin in a stainless steel cylindrical matrix, and positioned in an electromechanical machine. Dynamic oblique loading of 120 N was applied during 5 x 10(5) cycles. Then, each sample was removed from the resin and detorque values were measured using the same digital torque gauge. The difference of the initial (torque) and final (detorque) measurement was registered and the results were expressed as percentage of initial torque. The results of torque loss were expressed as percentage of the initial torque and subjected to statistical analysis by the Student's t-test (p<0.05) for comparisons between the test groups. RESULTS: Statistical analysis demonstrated that mechanical cycling reduced the torque of abutments without significant difference between cast or pre-machined UCLA abutments (p=0.908). CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it may be concluded that the mechanical cycling, corresponding to one-year use, reduced the torque of the samples regardless if cast or pre-machined UCLA abutments were used.
Abstract in English:Patients with platelet-mediated disorders often present clinical manifestations of bruising and bleeding. Although these changes are detected most frequently on the skin, the oral cavity also may exhibit signs of bleeding. In this report, we describe a patient who presented isolated oral features of hemorrhagic bullae with bleeding, indicative of a bleeding disorder. Results of laboratory tests revealed severe thrombocytopenia and a careful history disclosed dengue fever as the cause. The importance of recognizing the oral manifestations of thrombocytopenia is highlighted here, since the oral cavity is a frequent site of hemorrhage and could be the only manifestation of the disease.