Abstract in English:AIM: To evaluate caries experience and associated factors in 5-year-old preschool children in the city of Indaiatuba, SP, Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, representative study, conducted from an epidemiological oral health survey (2010) with 303 children. The sample was established by the systematic probabilistic method, in public and private schools, in accordance with WHO criteria. The sample was checked for caries experience (dmft) by four trained and calibrated dentists, reaching acceptable levels of agreement for data collection. Parents or guardians answered questions related to their education and monthly income, and the children answered questions related to dental care and pain. Descriptive and bivariate analyses of independent variables were performed. Variables with p<0.20 were included in the model (Poisson regression analysis). RESULTS: The sample consisted of 151 boys and 152 girls, with a mean dmft of 1.46. The reasons for visiting a dentist due to pain or need for treatment were associated with dmft > 0 (PR=3.76, 95%CI=2.06-6.84) after adjustment of the regression model. CONCLUSIONS: Among the preschool children of this study, pain or need for treatment due to caries disease in the primary dentition and the reason to visit the dentist due pain emphasizing the importance of the professional not only in curative actions, but as a health promoter at the first contact with the child.
Abstract in English:AIM : To evaluate clinical and radiographic aspects before and after endodontic treatment with an intracanal dressing paste composed of calcium hydroxide, chlorhexidine and zinc oxide in traumatized teeth followed-up for 1 year. METHODS : Patients (n=105) treated at the Dental Trauma Service of Piracicaba School of Dentistry, Brazil were enrolled in the study. Two groups of teeth were formed: immature (G1) (n=28) and completely developed teeth (G2) (n=174). All teeth were endodontically treated and received an intracanal dressing with a paste composed by calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine gel and zinc oxide at a 2:1:2 rate. Clinical and radiographic aspects were evaluated initially, monthly and after 1-year. RESULTS : Most of the immature teeth suffered extrusive luxation (39.3%), whereas intrusive luxation (40.8%) was more common in completely developed teeth. There was a significant reduction in pain on percussion and mobility (p=0.0001) for immature teeth. Mature teeth showed reduction of spontaneous pain, fistula, mobility and pain on percussion (p<0.0001). Radiographic examination showed decrease in all evaluated parameters for both groups, in addition to stabilization of root resorption. CONCLUSIONS : This new intracanal dressing paste for traumatized teeth showed promising results in both immature and completely developed teeth, and may prevent post-traumatic complications.
Abstract in English:AIM: To identify a possible association between the occurrence of dental caries and tooth erosion and to correlate the dietary factor with an increased risk of dental caries. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in a multistage random sample of 1,211, 8 to 12-years-old Brazilian schoolchildren in private and public schools was conducted in Pelotas, Brazil. The prevalence of dental caries and tooth erosion was assessed. Dietary habits data were collected by a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression model taking into account the cluster sample (Prevalence ratio - PR; 95% Confidence Interval - CI). RESULTS: The prevalence of dental caries and tooth erosion was 32.4% (95% CI: 30.0; 35.2) and 25.0% (95% CI: 23.4; 29.0), respectively. Most children had high consumption of sweets (65%). Consumption of fruits, such as oranges (31%), strawberries (23.6%), pineapple (12%), and natural fruit juices (oranges, lemon) was low. Soft drinks consumption, 3 or more times a week was observed in 40% of the children. CONCLUSIONS: Dental caries was not statistically associated with tooth erosion. The consumption of acidic fruits/drinks was not associated with dental caries. Dental caries and dental erosion were not associated with each other and with acidic fruits or drinks consumption.
Abstract in English:AIM: To apply the Lamendin et al. (1992) technique on a Brazilian sample to assess its accuracy on this specific population. METHODS: The authors present two measurements in single-rooted teeth: the peridontosis and transparency of the root. Then, these variables are inserted in an equation to estimate the individual's age. The sample comprised 49 teeth obtained from the collection of the Forensic Medicine Institute of Guarulhos, Brazil. Statistical analysis was performed with t and paired t tests, comparing chronological and estimated ages. RESULTS: It was possible adjust the original formula for Brazilians by linear regression analysis: A = (P x 0.18) + (T x 0.47) + 31.77. Where, A = age; P = (periodontosis height x 100)/root height; and T = (transparency height x 100)/root height. CONCLUSIONS: The method is accurate only for young adults but it could be used with caution in individuals between 45 and 60 years of age to assist in estimating an age range. However, the technique loses its efficacy in older individuals.
Abstract in English:AIM: To evaluate the effects of three hydrogen peroxide (HP) concentrations on enamel mineral content (MC), following three peroxide applications and using three methods to measure the MC. METHODS : Forty samples were obtained from bovine incisors and randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10). The control group remained untreated, while the experimental groups were tested for three HP concentrations (10%, 35% and 50%). The HP gel was applied 3 times on the enamel surface for 30 min per application and the samples were analyzed after each application. The MC of the enamel was determined before and after bleaching using Fourier transform (FT-Raman) spectroscopy and micro energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (µEDXRF). The calcium (Ca) lost from the bleached enamel was quantified with an atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). The data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA, Tukey and Dunnett´s tests (p<0.05). RESULTS: The FT-Raman showed a decrease in MC for all bleaching treatments, without influence of the different HP concentrations or the number of applications. µEDXRF did not detect any changes in MC. CONCLUSIONS: Ca loss was observed by the AAS, with no difference among the three HP concentrations. The FT-Raman and AAS analyses detected MC reduction and Ca loss after HP bleaching.
Abstract in English:AIM: To assess the knowledge and attitude of undergraduate dental students about oral cancer. METHODS: A cross-sectional, quantitative study was conducted based on a questionnaire containing 15 questions about prevention, clinical aspects, and attitudes towards oral cancer. One hundred-thirty-three undergraduate dental students between the second and fifth years were enrolled. The statistical significance was measured by Pearson's chi-square test. RESULTS: There was a predominance of females (58.65%) and most students were between 20 and 30 years of age (75.19%). The risk factors for oral cancer mainly described by the students were smoking (92.48%) and drinking (84.21%). Squamous cell carcinoma was described as the most common type of oral cancer by 48.12% of the students. As much as 53.38% of the participants considered the tongue as the most affected anatomic region, 57.89% reported ulcers as the most frequent clinical aspect, and 44.36% attributed a firm and painless aspect to the regional metastatic lymph nodes. Most students reported regularly conducting a thorough examination of the oral cavity (81.95%). Two of the 15 variables showed differences between the students, according to the school time: previous head and neck carcinoma (Pearson's chi-square, p = 0.03) and guidance on the discontinuation of harmful habits (Pearson's chi-square, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Students have a good knowledge of the etiology of oral cancer and are apparently alert in their examinations. The clinical aspects of the oral carcinoma, however, are not so clear. The difference regarding knowledge and attitudes towards oral cancer was minimal when different undergraduate years were considered. It is necessary to implement the clinical suspicion of oral cancer throughout the undergraduate course to enable awareness and early diagnosis.
Abstract in English:AIM: To determine the prevalence and the hygiene methods used by 6-16-year-old private school children and adolescents to clean removable orthodontic appliances (ROA) in the city of Pelotas, RS, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in private schools located in the urban area after the school tutors signed an informed consent form. Questionnaires were applied to children using removable orthodontic appliances. Data regarding hygiene methods of orthodontic appliances were collected. Descriptive analysis was performed. Pearson's chi-square test and Linear Trend with a confidence level of 95% were used for analytical analysis. RESULTS: Children using ROA in private schools were 7.6%. The most frequent hygiene method used was mechanical cleansing with toothbrush and toothpaste (85.6%). Daily cleansing was the frequency most reported by children (51.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Use of ROA in students from private schools was low and the most used hygiene method was brushing with toothpaste.
Abstract in English:AIM: To estimate tooth loss prevalence among adolescents in São Paulo, considering socioeconomic and demographic factors, dental service use and pain. METHODS: Data were obtained from the São Paulo Oral Health Survey 2008. The sample comprised 2858 adolescents from 15 to 19 years old from public and private schools, who underwent through an oral examination. In addition, a questionnaire was applied regarding the characterization of factors related to socioeconomics, demographics, use of dental services and pain in the last six months. At least one tooth lost was the outcome. The independent variables included gender, ethnicity, parents' schooling, type of school, number of rooms, people and cars per home, family income, dental service use, decayed teeth, toothache. A multivariate logistic regression model was used. RESULTS: The prevalence of tooth loss was 7%. The independent variables decayed tooth (RP=1.71), toothache (RP=2.04), father's schooling - elementary (RP=1.40) and per capita family income - less than 1/2 a minimum salary (RP=1.45) were associated with the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that socioeconomic factors may contribute to the increase of early tooth loss among adolescents.
Abstract in English:AIM: To describe cases of dental caries in Indian mother-child pairs of the middle and lower Xingu River - Xingu Indigenous Park. METHODS: A total of 246 children aged 3-5 years old and their respective mothers took part in this study. Caries indexes dmft and DMFT were analyzed for deciduous and permanent dentitions, respectively, according to criteria proposed by the World Health Organization. RESULTS: Analysis of the DMFT index showed a mean value of 14.3 for mothers. In mothers aged between 35 and 44 years, tooth loss accounted for more than 80% of the total index score. With regard to the children, dmft index was 4.7, on average, and only 13.4% were caries-free. No significant correlation was found between mother and child caries experience (p = 0.16). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that it is important to consider the community as a whole, and not only the mother, regarding the oral health of indigenous children. Community should be involved in the planning of strategies for caries prevention and health promotion, taking into account the socio-cultural complexity and specificities of indigenous population and adapt them to the local reality for these strategies to become actually effective.
Abstract in English:AIM: To evaluate the influence of ovariectomy combined with lack of masticatory force in the evolution of periodontal disease induced in rats. METHODS: Forty rats were bilaterally ovariectomized and 40 were submitted to sham ovariectomy. Periodontal disease was induced in the mandibular left first molar and the maxillary left first molar was extracted from half of the rats. The rats were randomly euthanized at 3, 7, 14 and 30 days post periodontal disease induction. Serial sections were obtained from the furcation area and stained for histological and histomorphometric analysis. The results of the histomorphometric analysis were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey tests. RESULTS: The results demonstrated statistically significant differences in the percentage of bone tissue when the variables presence or absence of estrogen (p=0.020) and time of euthanasia (p=0.002) were evaluated. However, the extraction procedure did not significantly affect the percentage of bone tissue (p=0.598). CONCLUSIONS : The bone loss resulting from periodontal disease is increased by estrogen deficiency and varies according to the time course of periodontitis. In contrast, masticatory force does not seem to interfere in bone loss derived from periodontal disease.
Abstract in English:AIM: To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT). METHODS: The microorganism indicators were: Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. A microbial pool was prepared (108 cells/mL), from which aliquots were transferred to culture plates for carrying out the PDT using methylene blue (50 µM) and low-power laser (660 nm, 100 mW and 9 J).The effect of methylene blue alone, low power laser and the absence of treatments were evaluated. Then, aliquots of 1 µL were plated in a media culture, the number of colony forming units (CFU/mL) was obtained and the data submitted to the F test (ANOVA) with Tamhane's comparisons. RESULTS: The laser radiation in the presence of methylene blue was able to eliminate 74.90% of C. albicans, 72.41% of P. aeruginosa, 96.44% of E. faecalis and 95.42% of S. aureus, thus statistically significant differences were found among the groups (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: PDT was effective in reducing the number of viable cells in the studiedmicroorganisms, especially E. faecalis and S. aureus.
Abstract in English:Salivary glands contribute to oral health. It is therefore of interest to study therapies that may favor their function and protection. AIM: To evaluate the effect of astaxanthin, fish oil and association of them on enzymatic antioxidant system and functional parameters of salivary glands. METHODS: Healthy rats (n=32) were divided into 4 groups: untreated-control, astaxanthin-treated (1 mg/kg body weight- BW), fish oil-treated (10 mg EPA/kg BW and 7 mg DHA/kg BW), and fish oil plus astaxanthin-treated. A prophylactic dose was administered in each group daily by gavage, for 45 days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reductase, and α-amylase activities were determined in salivary glands and compared by ANOVA and Tukey post-test (p<0.05). RESULTS: Parotid gland presented increased catalase and glutathione system and unaffected SOD activity after astaxanthin and astaxanthin plus fish oil treatment (p<0.05). Fish oil stimulated only glutathione peroxidase activity of parotid gland (p<0.05). Submandibular gland presented stimulated SOD and catalase, and reduced glutathione reductase activities after fish oil and fish oil plus astaxanthin treatment (p<0.05). SOD and glutathione reductase activities were reduced by astaxanthin treatment in submandibular gland (p<0.05). Parotid gland presented increased α-amylase activity in all groups supplemented and submandibular glands presented no changes (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Astaxanthin, fish oil and combination of them stimulated the antioxidant system and functional parameter of salivary glands, which could be beneficial to oral health.
Abstract in English:AIM: To compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of a solvent free self-etch adhesive with solvent containing adhesives. METHODS: Forty-five human teeth were sectioned longitudinally to expose superficial dentin and substrates polished with 600-grit SiC paper. The adhesive area was isolated with a cylindrical Teflon mold 3x4 mm. Fifteen specimens were prepared for each material. Were evaluated a solvent free self-etch adhesive (Bond 1 SF), an ethanol self-etch adhesive (Futurabond M), and a water-acetone-ethanol self-etch adhesive (Optibond All-In-One). All specimens were subjected to an aging procedure by thermo-cycling (5000 cycles). Thirty-six specimens were stressed in shear at a rate of 0.5mm/min. Mean data values were analyzed statistically using the Welch robust analysis of variance and the Games-Howell statistic. Failure patterns were analyzed using stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additional more dentin specimens were prepared for SEM. RESULTS: The Bond 1 SF showed the statistically significant lowest SBS to dentin (Welch statistic p<0.001). Failures for Bond 1 SF were mainly adhesive failures with partial cohesive failures in the adhesive resin, while for Futurabond M and Optibond All-In-One were mainly mixed. SEM findings confirm the results. CONCLUSIONS: Eliminating solvents from self-etch adhesive systems may decrease the bonding strength to dentin.
Abstract in English:AIM: To evaluate the clinical and radiographic success of endodontic treatment in human primary teeth with necrotic pulp with and without radiographically visible furcal/periapical lesion treated with a calcium hydroxide (CH) and chlorhexidine (CHX) intracanal dressing. The tested hypothesis was that there is no difference in the clinical and radiographic success in primary teeth medicated with CH pastes prepared with polyethylene glycol (PEG) or CHX. METHODS: Thirty-two teeth with necrotic pulp were used in this randomized clinical study: 12 without and 20 with lesion. Canals were prepared and medicated with CH pastes with polyethylene glycol (CH/PEG) (n=16) or 2% CHX gel (CH/CHX) (n=16). Definitive filling was done after 30 days. The teeth were clinically and radiographically examined during 12 months to determine the success of the endodontic therapy. Data from clinical and radiographic examination of the initial condition and 12 months after treatment were compared using the Z test (α = 0.05). RESULTS: There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the success rate of teeth with and without lesion medicated with CH/PEG or CH/CHX. No significant difference (p>0.05) was found between the pastes regardless of the presence of lesion. CONCLUSIONS: Combination of CHX and CH was not more effective than the CH/PEG paste, as similar clinical and radiographic success rate was observed in teeth medicated with either type of intracanal dressing.
Abstract in English:AIM: To evaluate health parameters (blood pressure, heart rate and blood glucose), the use of medicines and alcohol consumption in elderly residents in the city of São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil. METHODS: A sample of 500 elderly individuals (98 men and 402 women, with mean age of 69.5 years) was examined. Personal data and medicines used by the patients were recorded, general health aspects were assessed and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was applied to survey alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Two hundred and four patients (40.8%) presented high blood pressure and 93 patients (18.6%) had hyperglycemia. The most used pharmacological groups were antihypertensive drugs, antilipidemics, drugs to control hypothyroidism and hypoglycemic agents. Possible pharmacological interactions with alcohol were present in 60.9% of the used medicines. The AUDIT results showed that 91% of the sample presented a low-level intake of alcohol and only 1% presented characteristics of alcohol addiction. Associations were found among AUDIT scores with age (p=0.037), since a larger number of alcohol addicts were found among younger patients, and use of drugs (p=0.046), since patients who consumed more daily medicines made less use of alcohol (low-level). CONCLUSIONS: The studied sample presented a high prevalence of hypertension and relatively low incidence of diabetes. A low use of drugs was verified and women made more use of daily medications than men. Low alcohol consumption was also observed, and women consumed less alcohol than men.