Abstract in English:Orthodontic mini-implants are used in clinical practice to provide efficient and aesthetically-pleasing anchorage. AIM: To evaluate the hardness Vickers hardness and chemical composition of mini-implant titanium alloys from five commercial brands. METHODS: Thirty self-drilling mini-implants, six each from the following commercial brands, were used: Neodent NEO, Morelli MOR, Sin SIN, Conexão CON, and Rocky Mountain RMO. The hardness and chemical composition of the titanium alloys were performed by the Vickers hardness test and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. RESULTS: Vickers hardness was significantly higher in SIN implants than in NEO, MOR, and CON implants. Similarly, VH was significantly higher in RMO implants than in MOR and NEO ones. In addition, VH was higher in CON implants than in NEO ones. There were no significant differences in the proportions of titanium and aluminum in the mini-implant alloy of the five commercial brands. Conversely, the proportion of vanadium differed significantly between CON and MOR/NEO implants. CONCLUSIONS: Mini-implants of different brands presented distinct properties of hardness and composition of the alloy.
Abstract in English:AIM: To compare the number of colony forming units CFU and agar adherence of S. mutans on amalgam AM and resin composite RC occlusal restorations. Sixty-five healthy patients older than 18 years with high caries risk who had at least one occlusal AM and RC restorations n=130 were selected. METHODS: The restorations were evaluated according to the alpha Ryge criteria Cohen-Kappa 0.8. For each patient, a biofilm sample was taken using an impression tray technique with previously loaded with solid trypticase yeast extract cysteine sucrose with bacitracin agar placed over the AM restorations and RC restorations in the same patients. The tray was placed inside an oven at 37 °C for 48 h, and the S. mutans count was then performed. Data were analyzed with the test Wilcoxon with a 95% confidence level. RESULTS: RC restorations had statistically significant higher number of CFU of S. mutans than AM restorations p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: In adult patients with high caries risk, RC occlusal surfaces showed greater agar adherence of S. mutans count than AM restorations.
Abstract in English:AIM: To analyze all court lawsuits in Brazil in relation to civil liability involving radiographic and tomographic images up to February 2014. METHODS: All Brazilian courts were surveyed for "civil liability," "error," "radiology," "radiography," and "tomography," returning 3923 second-instance lawsuits. Out of them were excluded labor legislation, health insurance coverage of radiological examinations, and criminal liability cases and 359 were selected. Compliance with expert reports, involvement of imaging exams, the defendant professional, the reasons of claims and convictions, and indemnity were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 359 selected lawsuits, physicians were defendants in 71%, radiologist physicians in 10.6% and dentists in 18.4%. The prevalence of physicians found liable was related to the lack or delay in requesting the imaging exams 49.6%, and among radiologist physicians, misdiagnosis 47.1%. Considering the dentists, imaging exams had mostly an indirect involvement, and failure of the proposed treatment 73.8% was the most prevalent cause of dentists found liable; no radiologist was sued. Regarding indemnity, 50% of lawsuits resulted in compensation up to R$ 20,000 US$ 8,583. CONCLUSIONS: Misdiagnosis was the main cause of claims and radiologists were found liable. The medical field showed the largest absolute number of claims and physicians were found liable, but the highest proportion was directed to dentists.
Abstract in English:Estrogen deficiency and chronic alcohol consumption may have a synergistic and deleterious effect on bone tissue. AIM: To investigate the effects of estrogen deficiency associated with chronic alcohol consumption on the mandibular condyle in rats. METHODS: Fifty-four female rats were first divided equally into two groups: ovariectomized Ovx and simulated ovariectomy Sham. One month after the surgeries, these groups were equally sub-divided according to their dietary treatment: G1: Sham/ad-libitum diet; G2: Sham/alcohol; G3: Sham/isocaloric; G4: Ovx/ad-libitum diet; G5: Ovx/alcohol, G6: Ovx/isocaloric. Eight weeks after starting the diets, all animals were anesthetized and sacrificed. The condyles were analyzed histologically, histomorphometrically, and immunohistochemically using the antibodies for bone sialoprotein BSP, osteocalcin OCC and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand RANKL. RESULTS: Histological analysis of the mandibular condyles showed that Ovx and Sham groups presented almost the same characteristics. The histomorphometric analysis showed that there was a statistically significant difference only between Ovx/isocaloric and Ovx/ad-libitum groups p=0.049. No difference was observed in the intensity of BSP, OCC, and RANKL antibody staining between the Ovx/alcohol and the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: It may be concluded that there was no histomorphometric, histological, or RANKL, BSP, and OCC staining differences between the Ovx/alcohol group and other experimental groups.
Abstract in English:AIM: To analyze the dental arches by occlusal radiographs for possible gender differentiation. METHODS: One hundred occlusal radiographic images were obtained. First, a median line and a line touching the vestibular portions of the projections of the maxillary central incisors were drawn. The intersection of these lines was called point I and from this point a line to the canine most vestibular portion was drawn, from the second premolar and second molar, from the left and right sides, in the maxillary and mandibular arches, thus obtaining the angle measurements. Line measurements relative to the width of the arches in three segments, canines, premolars and second molars were made. RESULTS: The analyses performed by t-test indicated that all linear values obtained were statistically different p<0.05, as may be seen in the values obtained from canine to canine, in which the female average was 3.48 cm 0.16 while the male average was 3.74 cm 0.21 and in respect to the angle measurements, only two angles have shown applicability in the definition of gender. CONCLUSIONS: Gender can be determined by analysis of occlusal radiographs with greater reliability when linear measurements are performed.
Abstract in English:Surface sealants have been suggested as final glaze of the surface of composite restorations. However, little is known about bulk and surface properties of these materials aiming the long-term preservation of the surface integrity of these restorations. AIM: To evaluate the water sorption, solubility and surface roughness of commercial surface sealants for restorations. METHODS: Five disc-shaped specimens 15 mm diameter X 1 mm high were made from the surface sealants Natural Glaze DFL and Permaseal Ultradent and were light cured according to the manufacturer's instructions. The specimens were finished with 1500-grit SiC paper. Water sorption WS and solubility SL were assessed as recommended by the ISO 4049/2000 and were expressed in µg/mm3. Surface roughness was evaluated before and after WS and SL, and was expressed in µm as R1 before WS and SL and R2 after WS and SL. It was obtained from three parallel measurements along a 4mm length. Data were analyzed using t-test and paired t-test α=0.05. RESULTS: Water sorption and solubility of Natural Glaze were significantly lower than that of Permaseal p<0.05. Degradation of the surface sealants did not affect significantly their surface roughness p>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Surface sealants used in composite restorations undergo hydrolytic degradation; however, this degradation seems not to interfere on surface roughness of these materials.
Abstract in English:AIM: To evaluate the bond strength of brackets bonded after different surface treatments on two dental ceramics. METHODS: One hundred and twenty discs 5 mm thick and 7 mm diameter of two ceramic types were made and randomly divided in 8 groups. Groups 1, 3, 5, and 7 used Eris ceramic and groups 2, 4, 6, and 8 used d.Sign ceramic. The ceramic surfaces were treated with 10% hydrofluoric acid G1 and G2, 10% hydrofluoric acid + silane G3 and G4, aluminum oxide blasting + 35% phosphoric acid + silane G5 and G6, CoJet blasting + 35% phosphoric acid + silane G7 and G8. Metallic brackets were cemented with Concise cement. Mechanical test was performed in a universal testing machine until failure. RESULTS: The average values MPa obtained G1 - 7.30; G2 - 6.12; G3 - 17.49; G4 - 19.54; G5 - 18.80; G6 - 21.93; G7 - 6.81 e G8 - 9.77 were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test p<0.05. The fracture patterns were analyzed in stereoscopic microscope 25´X and representative samples of each group were analyzed in SEM. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to conclude that use of silane after hydrofluoric acid increased the bond strength values.
Abstract in English:AIM: To evaluate the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to the surface of the amalgam and copper/aluminum alloy samples and also evaluate the release of metallic ions. METHODS: The prepared medium was changed every 72 h and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Samples were removed from the prepared medium at 15, 30, 48 and 60 days. RESULTS: The result shows that ions released were statistically different among all groups, and so were both biofilm and pits formation and the corrosion induced by the S. mutans in both types of samples. SEM observation of the samples immersed in the prepared medium with S. mutans showed adherence of microorganisms on the whole surface, in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: The S. mutans adhere to both amalgam and copper/aluminum alloy causing corrosion of those restorations. S. mutans produced a greater ions release in Cu/Al alloy; in amalgam, the ions release was not influenced by exposure to S. mutans.
Abstract in English:AIM: To analyze the relationships between perceived oral health quality of life and work ability index. METHODS: The data regarding administrative workers of a private textile company in São Paulo - Brazil, included socio-demographic, occupational characteristics, self-perceived oral health OHIP 14 and self-perceived work ability index WAI. RESULTS: The response rate of the questionnaires was 75.20% and the reliability of the instruments Conbrach's alpha was 0.89 for OHIP 14 and 0.64 for WAI. Linear multiple regression analyses showed that OHIP 14 was associated with educational level p=0.009 and work ability index p=0.001 of workers, regardless of other variables. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed the importance of adopting oral health programs in private companies to improve oral health and work ability.
Abstract in English:AIM: To evaluate the influence of the classification of cerebral palsy CP on the caries experience in children and adolescents, and determine the types of teeth most affected by dental caries. METHODS: A total of 181 individuals with CP, aged 8.30±4.10 years were examined for dental caries diagnosis in primary, mixed and permanent dentitions. The sample consisted of 96 quadriplegic individuals, 56 diplegic, 18 hemiplegic and 11 with choreoathetosis. The groups were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square tests. Univariate logistic regression models were used to identify whether age was a predictor of caries risk α=5%. RESULTS: The sample was homogeneous as regards sex and age, among patients with quadriplegia, diplegia, hemiplegia and choreoathetosis. Out of the total sample, 51.4% of the individuals were caries free. The overall mean for the dmft and DMFT indices were 1.70±3.30 and 0.70±1.60, respectively. The mean caries experience in primary, mixed and permanent dentitions did not vary significantly according to the CP classification p>0.05. Child´s age was a predictor for dental caries experience p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The CP classification did not influence on caries experience, and the teeth most affected by dental caries were the primary and first permanent molars.
Abstract in English:AIM: To evaluate the mechanical behavior of reciprocating endodontic files, comparing nickel-titanium NiTi and stainless steel 316L St.St. 316L as manufacturing material for such instruments. METHODS: A three-dimensional finite element model was designed for this study. The simplified instrument model geometry was created on commercial CAD/CAM software. Real strain stress curves of St.St. 316L and NiTi were used in the analysis. Non-linear static analysis was performed to simulate the instrument inside root canal at an angle of 45° in the apical portion, and subjected to torsion of 0.3 N.cm. RESULTS: Non-linear NiTi material showed super elasticity and high functionality in such applications. Very high levels of stress appeared in the file at 3 mm from the tip close to yield point. CONCLUSIONS: St. St. 316L is not suitable for manufacturing reciprocating instruments. Modeling of the instrument with equivalent circular cross-sectional area did not affect results quality. Reciprocating instruments have short lifespan, thus manufacturers recommend using one file per tooth. Reciprocating instruments are recommended for less experienced dentist.
Abstract in English:AIM: To evaluate in vivo the association of hypericum Hypericum perforatum, valerian Valeriana officinalis and kava Piper methysticum with analgesia by assessing their effects in reducing orofacial pain as well as the possible hepatic, hematologic and biochemical alterations induced by regular administration of these extracts. METHODS: Orofacial pain was induced in mice with the administration of 2.5% formalin in the upper lip. After 60 min, the animals were treated with saline, carbamazepine and hydroalcoholic plant extracts. The nociceptive intensity was determined by the timing at which the animal remained rubbing the injected area. To assess the hepatotoxic effect, mice were chronically treated for 25 days with saline, carbamazepine and hydroalcoholic extract. The animals were euthanized and the liver weighed, followed by a differential count of leukocytes and measurement of alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. RESULTS: The evaluation of analgesic activity in phase 1 reduced the time of rubbing compared to the control by 86% 0.05 mL/10 g and 76% 0.10 mL/10 g. In phase 2, the extracts reduced rubbing time by 94% and 85%, respectively. In the evaluation of alkaline phosphatase, the groups treated with extracts at doses of 0.05 mL/10 g and 0.1 mL/10 g increased by 16.1% and 9.5% compared to the control group and a reduction of 8.5% and 9.1% in the evaluation of alanine transaminase respectively. It was demonstrated that in the differential counts showed an increase in eosinophils in the treated group with 0.05 mL/10 g. CONCLUSIONS: The use of hydroalcoholic extract of the associated plants reduced the orofacial formalin-induced pain with better results than carbamazepine, at both the neural conductor level of pain phase 1 and in inflammatory or later pain phase 2 without presenting hepatotoxicity. The observed eosinophilia is suggestive of a phenomenon called hormesis.
Abstract in English:AIM: To measure torque angle values of brackets designed for canines, comparing it to their prescription values. METHODS: One hundred and sixty maxillary -2o and mandibular -11o canine brackets of Roth prescription from the following brands were selected: Abzil, Eurodonto, Morelli and Ormco. The brackets were set in wax and images were obtained by scanning. Reference points were determined over these images, lines drawn and the torque angle was measured. The Student's t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: For maxillary canine brackets, the medium torque angle values were: Abzil -0.93o ± 0.88o; Eurodonto 0.13o ± 0.34o; Morelli -2.56o ± 0.50o, and Ormco -1.16o ± 1.27o. For mandibular canine brackets, the values were: Abzil -11.76o ± 0.40o; Eurodonto -10.40o ± 0.25o; Morelli -11.18o ± 0.56o, and Ormco -11.36o ± 0.30o. For maxillary canine brackets, the brands Abzil, Morelli, and Ormco presented statistically diferente values from those indicated for prescription. For mandibular canine brackets, the brands Abzil, Eurodonto, and Ormco presented statistically different values from the prescribed ones. CONCLUSIONS: Some marketed brands present differences between the torque angle found in the brackets and those recommended in the prescription. However, these differences are clinically acceptable.
Abstract in English:AIM: To compare two types of treatment for Class II deep overbite malocclusion assessing maxillary and mandibular arches behavior in subjects submitted to full orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise appliance and those who used straight wire appliance. METHODS: The sample consisted of 50 patients treated with full fixed appliances either with edgewise appliance n=25, Group 1, or with straight wire appliance n=25, Group 2. In both groups lateral cephalometric radiographs were compared with those done at the beginning of treatment and at its end, in order to quantify the cephalometric measures 8 linear and 6 angular presenting the maxillary and mandibular arches behavior in the anteroposterior and vertical directions. All patients were treated without extraction or use of Class II intermaxillary elastics during the full orthodontic treatment. RESULTS: In both groups the treatment of malocclusion contributed for mandibular forward displacement, reduction of deep overbite and overjet, reduction of mandibular plane with anti-clockwise rotation and labial projection of maxillary incisors. CONCLUSIONS: In both groups the sample showed favorable mandibular displacement, reduction of facial convexity, and profile improvement with anti-clockwise rotation. The correction of deep overbite was due to labial projection and intrusion of maxillary incisors.
Abstract in English:AIM: To evaluate the performance of dental caries detection when adjunct methods are associated and their applicability in epidemiological survey of dental caries, at D3 cavitated carious lesions at dentin layer and D1+D3 non cavitated and cavitated carious lesions at enamel/dentin layer diagnostic thresholds. METHODS: A total of 2189 posterior teeth from 165 12-year-old schoolchildren underwent visual examination without CL1 and with artificial lighting CL2, radiographic bitewing BW, fiber-optic transillumination/FOTI FT, DIAGNOdentTM DD and associations of these methods. Reproducibility was calculated by Kappa statistics and validity was calculated by sensitivity, specificity and accuracy tests. ANOVA Scott-Knott test was performed in order to compare the average values of DMF-S obtained by the diagnostic methods. RESULTS: The CL2FTDDBW D3 and CL2BW D1+D3 exams presented the highest values for accuracy at epidemiological setting. The DMF-S index obtained for those exams was statistically different at D3 and D1+D3 thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: The association of adjunct methods increased the validity of dental caries examination in an epidemiological setting. However, the potential of CL2BW traditional caries detection methods or visual exam performed under a more refined diagnostic criteria must be considered in dental caries epidemiological surveys.