Abstract in English:Aim To evaluate the influence of the parameters L* a* b* on the variation of the color of bovine tooth enamel submitted to artificial darkening, after simulated brushing, with whitening toothpastes containing blue covarine. Methods To undertake this study in vitro, 60 specimens (SP) were divided into 6 groups (n=10): control group (CGwater) and 5 test groups (GT1-Colgate Total 12, GT2-Oral-B 3D White Perfection, GT3-Colgate Luminous Instant White, GT4-CloseUp White Diamond Attraction, GT5-Sorriso Xtreme White). The specimens were darkened with coffee and submitted to simulated brushing for 6, 12, and 24 months. The alteration in the color was evaluated using CIELAB parameters and the ∆L, ∆a, ∆b and ∆E were calculated. The data was analyzed through generalized linear models using the R program and considering a level of significance of 5%. Results The parameters L*, a* and the ∆L, ∆a obtained better results in the test group than in the control group. There were no statistical differences between CG and the test groups for the evaluation of the b* parameter. In the evaluation of the ∆b, the GT3 differed statistically from the CG. In relation to the ∆E, all the group tests showed a variation in color statistically greater than that of the CG and the GT4 showed the greatest variation, not differing from the GT3 during the periods studied. Conclusion The mechanical and optical whitening agents positively influenced the values L*a* and b*, as well as in its variations and in the ∆E. It is important to emphasize, however, that to analyze tooth whitening it is necessary to evaluate their parameters together.
Abstract in English:Aim To evaluate the fracture resistance of roots restored with CAD/CAM-fabricated posts, receiving or not intracanal laser treatment, compared with glass fiber posts under mechanical cycling. Methods Twenty-seven endodontically treated, single-rooted teeth were divided into 3 groups: group 1 (control), prefabricated glass fiber posts relined with resin composite; group 2, CAD/CAM-fabricated intraradicular posts using Resin Nano Ceramic (RNC) blocks; and group 3, CAD/CAM-fabricated intraradicular posts using RNC blocks in canals irradiated with a 940-nm diode laser (100 mJ, 300-um optic fiber, coronal-apical and apical-coronal helical movements, speed of 2 mm/second, 4 times each canal). After cementation of the coping, cyclic loading was applied at an angle of 135° to the long axis of the root, with a pulse load of 130 N, frequency of 2.2 Hz, and 150,000 pulses on the crown at a point located 2 mm below the incisal edge on the lingual aspect of the specimen. Every 50,000 cycles, the specimens were evaluated for root fracture occurring below or above the simulated bone crest. Results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test (p<0.05). Results Group 1 was the least resistant, while groups 2 and 3 were the most resistant. Group 1 differed significantly from groups 2 and 3 (p<0.01), but there was no difference between groups 2 and 3 (p<0.01). Conclusion Treatment of the intracanal surface with diode laser had no influence on fracture resistance of roots restored with CAD/CAM-fabricated posts, but a longer cycling time is required to evaluate the real benefits of diode laser irradiation.
Abstract in English:Direct pulp capping induces a local inflammatory process. Several biomaterials have been used for this procedure. The aim of this study was to compare the dentinal bridge thickness using three different pulp capping biomaterials with the conventional technique (high speed diamond bur) or Er-Yag laser, 1 month after pulp effraction. Materials and Methods Forty two Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surface of 4 maxillary incisors and 2 mandibular incisors of New Zealand rabbits. Specimens were divided into 6 treatment groups. Teeth were treated with: In Group 1: Er-Yag laser and Biodentine® (Septodont), in Group 2: Er: Yag laser and calcium hydroxide (Dycal® Dentsply), in Group 3: Er: Yag laser and adhesive system (Prime& Bond® NT Dentsply), in Group 4: high speed diamond bur and Biodentine® (Septodont), in Group 5: high speed diamond bur and calcium hydroxide (Dycal® Dentsply), and in Group 6: high speed diamond bur and adhesive system (Prime& Bond® NT Dentsply). The preparation was done with copious irrigation. The animals were sacrificed at 30 days and the teeth were extracted and prepared for histological analysis. Results In the group of « laser Er-Yag », iatrogenic pulpal wounds treated with Biodentine® were covered with a thick hard tissue barrier after 1 month. The difference was not significant with the groups of Dycal® used with Er: Yag laser and high speed diamond bur. Prime& Bond® NT Dentsply specimens showed a thin dentinal bridge layer. Conclusion At 1 month, Er-Yag laser proved to be useful with Biodentine® for direct pulp capping procedures.
Abstract in English:Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate the cleaning of mandibular incisors with WaveOne Gold® (WO) under different preparation techniques. Methods A total of 210 human mandibular incisors were selected and divided into seven groups (n = 30), prepared by WO single-files (Small 20/.07 – WOS; Primary 25/.07 – WOP; Medium 35/.06 – WOM; or Large 45/.05 - WOL) and sequential-file techniques (WOS to WOP; WOS to WOM; and WOS to WOL). Further subdivision was made according to irrigation protocol: control group (manual irrigation - CON), E1 Irrisonic® - EIR, and EDDY® - EDD. Debris removal and the smear layer were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed by using Spearman’s correlation test. The significance level was set at 5%. Results For debris and smear layer removal, WOS and WOP, EIR differed from CON and EDD (p <0.05). Conclusion Regardless of the instrumentation used, the agitation of the irrigant solution provided better cleanability. These findings reinforce the need for agitation techniques as adjuvants in cleaning root canal systems in mandibular incisors.
Abstract in English:Aim This study assessed the color and translucency stability of a polymer infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) and compared it with a resin composite (RC) and a feldspathic ceramic (FEL). Methods Disc-shaped samples of a PICN (Vita Enamic), a feldspathic ceramic (Vitablocks Mark II), and a resin composite (Brava block) were prepared from CAD/CAM blocks. PICN and RC surfaces were finished with a sequence of polishing discs and diamond paste. FEL samples received a glaze layer. The samples were subjected to 30-min immersions in red wine twice a day for 30 days. CIE L*a*b* coordinates were assessed with a spectrophotometer at baseline and after 15 and 30 days of immersion. Color alteration (∆E 00 ) and translucency parameter (TP 00 ) were calculated with CIEDE2000. Average roughness was measured before the staining procedures. Color difference and translucency data were analyzed with repeated-measures ANOVA and Tukey’s tests. Roughness was analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results Roughness was similar among the experimental groups. All materials had their color alteration significantly increased from 15 to 30 days of staining. PICN reached an intermediate ∆E 00 between FEL and RC at 15 days. PICN revealed a color alteration as high as the composite after 30 days. No statistical difference was observed regarding translucency. Conclusion PICN was not as color stable as the feldspathic ceramic at the end of the study. Its color alteration was comparable to the resin composite when exposed to red wine. However, the translucency of the tested materials was stable throughout the 30-day staining.
Abstract in English:Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbial contamination in internal and external walls of cone morse implant walls. Methods Eleven patients with edentulous mandibular posterior area were selected to received dental implants, divided into groups: submerged (S), non-submerged (NS), and immediately loaded (IL). Microbiological evaluations (microorganisms’ number, aerobic and anaerobic colony forming units (CFU) number and microorganisms’ qualification) were divided into internal and external collection of the implant walls, at different stages: T0 (surgical procedure), T2 (suture removal), T4 (reopening S group), T6 (suture removal S group), and T8 (abutment placement in S and NS). All data were submitted to statistical analyses, with confidence level of 0.05. Results There was difference in number of microorganisms observed over time within the same group (p < 0.05). A difference was observed in CFU when evaluated within the same group over time (p < 0.05), except for the IL group. In internal collection, a predominance of non-formation of microorganisms was observed at T0 in all groups, while formation of Gram-positive Diplococci and Gram-positive Bacilli was observed at T8 (p>0.05). In external collection, an increase in number of microorganisms was observed at T0. Conclusion There was no difference in microbial contamination among the evaluated groups. The microorganism’s colonization changed over time.
Abstract in English:Aim This study aims to evaluate the clinical assessment results of periimplant soft tissue with morse taper (internal abutment connection). Methods The study was conducted using a rapid review by searching the articles from PubMed NCBI and Cochrane by using keywords. All articles were selected by the year, duplication, title, abstract, full-text, and finally, all selected articles were processed for final review. Following clinical parameters were included; Periimplant Probing Pocket Depth (PPD), Plaque Score (PS), modified Plaque Index (mPI), Mucosal Thickness (MTh), Gingival Height (GH), periimplant mucosal zenith, Pink Esthetic Score (PES), Bleeding On Probing (BOP), Sulcus Bleeding Index (SBI), and modified Gingival Index (mGI). Results 9 selected articles were obtained from the initial literature searching count of 70 articles. The overall samples included 326 morse taper implants. Based on the evaluation, 3 out of 4 articles reported pocket depth < 4 mm, no bleeding was reported in 2 out of 4 articles. 4 out of 4 articles reported low plaque accumulation, low soft tissue recession was reported in 3 out of 3 articles, and 4 out of 4 articles reported acceptable PES values. Conclusion The evaluations indicate that the morse taper (internal abutment connection) has favorable assessment results based on various clinical parameters.
Abstract in English:Aim Although bulk fill composites have been widely used as restorative material, there is no consensus regarding the best clinical protocol in terms of composite technique and adhesive system. Therefore, this clinical trial evaluated the clinical performance of bulk fill composites for class I restorations under different protocols. Methods A randomized clinical trial including 155 class I restorations was conducted using different adhesive systems: conventional technique (phosphoric acid + conventional three-step adhesive system) (Group 1, 2 and 3); or self-etching adhesive system (Groups 4, 5 and 6). Control groups 1 and 4 were restored with conventional composite; groups 2 and 5 with low viscosity bulk fill and conventional composite as occlusal coverage; groups 3 and 6 with high viscosity bulk fill. The FDI criteria was used for clinical evaluation at baseline and after 6 months. Results All groups showed good clinical performance. At baseline, the adhesive system did not affect postoperative hypersensitivity. After 6 months, group 5 showed a significant reduction in color and translucency; group 6 a reduction in terms of anatomical form and for postoperative sensitivity and an improvement in patient satisfaction (p<0.05). Considering the same restorative technique, the use of the self-etching adhesive system showed a significant decrease in color and translucency (p<0.05). Conclusion All groups showed favorable clinical performance, and promising results were found for the conventional adhesive system and high viscosity bulk fill protocol.
Abstract in English:The relationship between patients and dentists today is more worn and less based on trust, which can lead to high rates of lawsuits related to civil liability and dental malpractice. Aim verify if there has been an increase in the number of lawsuits related to questioned dental treatments, and against dentists registered in the city of São Paulo (SP), Brazil, from 2012 to 2017. Methods We outlined an overview based on the list from the São Paulo Council of Dentistry containing 30,238 registered dentists in the city of São Paulo, and searched for lawsuits on the public base of the São Paulo State Court’s. Results The search, after the inclusion and exclusion criteria, found 247 lawsuits, with dental implants as the most involved specialty. The total indemnities requested ranged from R$ 227.42 to R$ 937,000.00, but no indemnity granted exceeded the amount of R$ 100,000.00. Conclusion According to the analysis of cases, there is a progressive increase in the number of civil liability lawsuits against dentists involving dental malpractice litigance.
Abstract in English:Aim To evaluate the influence of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) coping fabrication methods and ceramic application on the marginal and internal fit of metal-ceramic crowns. Methods Co-Cr copings for metal-ceramic crowns were prepared by lost wax casting or CAD-CAM machining of sintered blocks. The fit was analyzed using the silicone replica technique at four assessment points: marginal gap (MG), axial wall (AW), axio-occlusal (AO) angle, and central occlusal (CO) wall. After the initial analysis, the copings were ceramic-veneered with the layering technique, and the fit was again determined. Data were statistically analyzed by paired and unpaired Student’s-t test (α=0.05). Results Marginal and internal fit before ceramic application according to the coping manufacturing method showed significant differences only at CO (p < 0.001), with milled copings (137.98±16.71 μm) showing higher gap values than cast copings (112.86±8.57 μm). For cast copings, there were significant differences at MG (before 109.13±8.79 μm; after 102.78±7.18 μm) and CO (before 112.86±8.57 μm; after 104.07±10.63 μm) when comparing the fit before and after ceramic firing. For milled copings, there was significant difference only at AO (before 116.39±9.64 μm; after 108.54±9.26 μm). Conclusion This study demonstrated that the coping fabrication method influenced the internal fit. Ceramic firing maintained or improved the fit of the metal-ceramic crowns. The marginal discrepancy of all restorations, before and after ceramic firing, can be considered clinically acceptable.
Abstract in English:Aim The objective of this study was to describe a case series concerning internal bleaching of anterior traumatized teeth that underwent regenerative endodontic procedures (REP). Methods Seven non-vital maxillary anterior teeth discolored after regenerative endodontic procedures were included and divided into two groups according to the medication protocol used in the REP: (1) Triple antibiotic paste (TAP) group (n=4); (2) Calcium hydroxide and 2% chlorhexidine gel (HC+CHX) (n=3). The bleaching technique used was walking bleach, where sodium perborate associated with distilled water was used. Bleaching agent was replaced weekly until the darkened tooth was slightly lighter than the adjacent tooth. The color was recorded with the aid of a digital spectrophotometer in two moments (T1: prior the first session of bleaching, T2: fourteen days after the last session of bleaching). The change in color after the procedure (ΔE) was calculated and reported in a descriptive analysis. Results The ΔE for all teeth showed color differences exceeding the perceptibility threshold (ΔE > 3.7). Both groups showed similar ΔE (TAP: 18.3 ± 11.5; HC+CHX: 14 ± 11.2) at the end of the treatment. The average number of sessions needed to achieve satisfactory results was 1.7 ± 0.6 for HC+CHX group and 2.3 ± 0.5 for TAP group. Conclusion Internal bleaching with sodium perborate associated with distilled water is effective in treating discolored teeth after regenerative endodontic procedures.
Abstract in English:Aim To compare the pre-clinical and clinical students` perceptions about the non-pharmacological behaviour management techniques in paediatric dentistry and to investigate the influence of the dental curriculum on the students` knowledge regarding this issue. Methods A total of 283 students from the IV-and X-semester completed a questionnaire, consisted of 12 statements, describing the non-pharmacological behaviour management techniques for the treatment of paediatric dental patients. The acceptability rate was evaluated with a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 5. Results The students from all courses demonstrated high acceptance for Reinforcement and Desensitization techniques and low for the Negative reinforcement and Physical restraint. The comparison between the perceptions of the pre-clinical and clinical students demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the acceptance of the physical restraint, along with Nonverbal communication, Modelling and Parental presence/absence (p<0.05). Conclusion The results provide information about the students’ knowledge and skills in behaviour management techniques together with some insights about how the educational process can modify the students` perceptions and views in dealing with paediatric dental patients.
Abstract in English:Aim To elaborate and validate an instrument for Brazilian Portuguese speakers, to assess dentists’ knowledge about care of patients with diabetes mellitus (Dental-Diabetes). Methods Methodological study comprising four stages: a) Elaboration of instrument; b) Content validation (computing Content Validity Index - CVI) based on Expert Committee assessment; c) Pre-test with 30 dentists, followed by assessment of suggestions by Expert Committee; d) Psychometric validation through instrument application in a sample of 127 dentists by means of the web tool e-Surv. Cronbach’s alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients were used to evaluate, respectively, internal consistency and reproducibility. Results The final version of the instrument consists of 22 questions (7 on sociodemographic data and 15 querying dentists’ knowledge) and those submitted for validation attained a CVI of 0.95 [95% CI 0.916-0,981], showing satisfactory internal consistency, with 0.794 Cronbach’s alpha [95% CI 0.741-0.842] and an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.799 [95% CI: 0.746-0.846] between the test and retest scores. Conclusions Dental-Diabetes is a comprehensive instrument, culturally adequate and validated to assess dentists’ knowledge about care of patients with diabetes.
Abstract in English:Genetic and environmental factors are essential in occlusal variations and malocclusion and have been of considerable interest to orthodontists. Studies on twin pairs are one of the most effective methods for investigating genetically determined occlusal variables. Many studies have focused on distances between first molars or between canines but malocclusions can also occur in other regions of the dental arch. Aim To evaluate the characteristics of the dental arch between pairs of Monozygotic (MZ) and Dizygotic (DZ) twins from Southern India. Methods A random sample of 51 twin pairs (12–18years old) participated in this study. The zygosity of twin pairs was recorded by facial appearance. The occlusion of the first permanent molars was recorded according to Angle’s classification. Study models were prepared to assess dental arch characteristics (i.e., arch form, arch perimeter, arch length; intercanine, intermolar width, and teeth size discrepancy). The obtained data was statistically analyzed using SPSS software 19.0. The student’s t-test (two-tailed, independent) and Chi-square test was used to determine the significance of studied parameters. Results Angle’s Class I molar relation was more commonly observed followed by the Class II molar relationship among twins. The measured dental arch dimensions did not show a statistically significant difference among twin pairs. The ovoid arch form was commonly observed among Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins. There was a similarity among MZ and DZ twins in the anterior and overall Bolton’s ratio. Conclusion There were similar occurrences of measured parameters among twins, which showed genetic predominance in the expression of measured dental arch traits.
Abstract in English:Aim To describe cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) features in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), in terms of degenerative changes, condylar excursions and positioning as well as their possible correlations with signs and symptoms. Methods Clinical records of patients diagnosed with TMD who were seen between January 2018 and December 2019 were retrospectively evaluated. These patients were divided into the following groups based on the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD): arthralgia, myalgia, and arthralgia and myalgia groups. The CBCT examination findings of the patients were evaluated in relation to degenerative changes, estimates of condylar excursion, and condylar positioning. The likelihood ratio test was used to verify the possible differences among the three groups, whereas the chi-square test was used to verify the possible differences among the signs and symptoms for the tomographic findings (p ≤ 0.050). Results In this study, 65 patients with TMD were included. These patients were predominantly female (84.6%) with a mean age of 40.6 years. Tomographic findings of flattening, hyperexcursion and posterior condylar positioning were frequent. A significant correlation was noted between osteophyte and lateral capsule pain (p = 0.027), erosion and posterior capsule pain (p = 0.026), and flattening, pseudocysts (p < 0.050) and condylar excursion (p < 0.001) with mouth opening. Conclusion Few correlations were noted between degenerative changes and signs of joint pain as well as degenerative changes and condylar hypoexcursion with mouth opening. These correlations were likely associated with division by diagnosis, whereas condylar positioning did not correlate with signs and symptoms.
Abstract in English:Aim Evaluating the resin-dentin bond strength of Class II conventional and bulk-fill composite restorations, using different cavity sizes before and after aging. Methods Seventy-five human molars were distributed into groups according to the buccolingual width of the cavities, conservative (n=25) and extended (n=50). They were divided according to the restorative material: conventional (Z100/control group) or bulk-fill resin composites (Filtek Bulk Fill/FBF; Tetric N Ceram Bulk Fill/TNCBF; Filtek Bulk Fill Flow/FBFF; Surefill SDR flow/SDR). The restored teeth were sectioned on sticks (n=50 per restorative materials + width cavities group), half were stored in Water/Ethanol 75% for 30 days and the other half were submitted to the immediate microtensile bond strength (μTBS) test. Data were analyzed applying the Three-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Bonferroni test, test t, and Weibull analyses (p<0.05). Results SDR and FBF presented lower μTBS values for extended preparation when compared to the conservative preparation, before aging. After aging, only for the FBFF, a decrease in the μTBS values was observed. Comparing the μTBS values, before and after aging, the SDR demonstrated lower μTBS values after aging when the conservative cavity was used. A decrease in the μTBS values was observed for the Z100, the FBF and, the FBFF, after aging, when the extended cavity was used. Conclusion The effect of cavity preparation and aging on the resin-dentin of Class II is material dependent. Most of the bulk-fill resin composites evaluated presented a similar performance to the conventional resin composites for all the conditions of this study.
Abstract in English:Aim This study aimed to evaluate the decision-making by patients to replace temporary restorations with permanent restorations after endodontic treatment and to verify the associated factors and evaluate the quality/integrity of the temporary restorative material within one month. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using non-probabilistic sampling which analyzed patients after one month of endodontic treatment. The self-administered questionnaire contained sociodemographic, treatment decision-making and endodontic treatment questions. The restoration present in the mouth was evaluated in the clinical oral examination. The Poisson Regression test was used to verify the prevalence ratio. Results The prevalence failure to perform permanent restorations was 61.1% of patients, and 42.7% reported not having adhered. The reasons are lack of time and not knowing the importance of replacing the restoration with a definitive one. The glass ionomer temporary restorative frequency was higher among those who chose not to replace the temporary restoration with a permanent one (PR=5.19; 95%CI 2.10-12.33). In addition, there was an association between the quality of the restorative material and the type of material, and the best clinical quality of the restoration was statistically associated with glass ionomer and composite resin. Conclusions The findings show the importance of guidance by the dental surgeon in helping patients decide to replace their temporary restoration.
Abstract in English:Aim Tooth loss is very prevalent in Brazil, reflecting high demand for dental services, especially those related to oral rehabilitation. This study aimed to assess the quality of life in total edentulous patients rehabilitated with implants and fixed prosthesis. Methods Thirty-two patients were evaluated before and after rehabilitation with dental implants and fixed prosthesis using the OHIP-14 questionnaire and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) after 6 months follow-up. Results OHIP-14 revealed a significant improvement after treatment in all seven parameters and in the global score (P < 0.001). VAS presented positive results related to patient satisfaction regarding oral rehabilitation, except for the hygiene of the fixed dentures. Conclusion At the end of this study, OHIP-14 scores decreased by 50% in most of the questions raised, and VAS presented positive results, except for hygiene of the fixed dentures, presenting an improvement in the quality of life of total edentulous patients after rehabilitation with implants and fixed prosthesis.
Abstract in English:Aim This study aimed to evaluate the effect of frozen storage on the physical properties of a silicone-based test food material, highly used to evaluate the masticatory performance in research settings. Methods A total of 1,666 silicone cubes of Optosil Comfort® with 5.6-mm edges were shaped and stored at -18°C. The cubes were subsequently tested for flexural strength (maximum force, displacement, stress, and strain) before breaking (n = 136), changes in weight and size (n = 170), and masticatory performance (n = 1360) at eight timepoints: immediately after cube preparation (baseline, no freezing), and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks, and 2, 4 and 6 months after frozen storage. The cubes were thawed 8 h before each assessment. Results The maximum force, stress, maximum displacement, and deformation values for the cubes were not affected by freezing (P > 0.05). At all of the time points, the cubes exhibited similar weight (P = 0.366) and size (identical values). The masticatory performance for the cubes also showed no differences from baseline through 6 months (P = 0.061). Conclusion Freezing Optosil Comfort® silicone cubes did not alter the physical and mechanical properties of the material, being suitable to optimize the assessment of masticatory parameters for research purposes.
Abstract in English:Aim To assess the reliability and validity of morphometric features on 3D digital models produced by scanning maxillary dental casts of Malaysian Malay subjects. Methods Dental casts of 20 subjects were scanned using a 3D laser scanner (Next Engine Inc., Santa Monica, California, USA). The palatal rugae morphometric features were assessed on the resulting 3D models using 3-Matic Research 9.0 software (Materialise NV, Heverlee, Belgium). The assessments were repeated by the first and second authors to assess the intra- and inter-examiner reliability, respectively. Rugae morphometric features were also evaluated on the conventional plaster models to assess the validity of the 3D method. Results Kappa values of the validity ranged from 0.807 to 0.922 for rugae shape, size category and direction. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for rugae number validity was 0.979. For intra-examiner reliability, kappa values ranged from 0.716-1.000 for rugae shape, size category and direction. The ICC for rugae number intra-examiner reliability was 0.949. Kappa values of inter-examiner reliability for rugae shape, size category and direction were 0.723-885, while the ICC of rugae number was 0.896. Conclusion Palatal rugae analyses on 3D digital models scanned by the 3D Next Engine laser scanner using 3-Matic Research 9.0 software are valid and reliable.
Abstract in English:Aim A retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the performance of resin composite restorations placed by undergraduate dental students with 1 to 15 years of placement based on dental records. Methods Four calibrated operators evaluated 498 restorations (anterior and posterior) of 120 patients according to Ryge’s validated criteria (USPHS). Results The criteria that showed the smallest changes between the types of failures were color matching, marginal discoloration and surface texture. Regarding the longevity, the surface texture showed an increase in the frequency of failures from the second time interval (3.1 to 6 years). Higher prevalence of failure was found in class II and III restorations, with secondary caries being the main reason. No significant differences were found for anatomic form, marginal adaptation, and color matching. Class V restorations showed a higher fracture rate with total displacement of the restoration, with no increase in the frequency of fracture over time. Conclusion High rate of restoration failure was observed, possibly due to the lack of experience and skills of the students. This outcome highlight the need for continuous revision and improvements of teaching practice regarding the development of clinical competences and skills by dental students.
Abstract in English:Universal health coverage is a global target included in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals agenda for 2030. Healthcare in Brazil has universal coverage through the Unified Health System (SUS), which guarantees health as basic right to the Brazilian population. Considering the principles of SUS, public oral healthcare management is a huge challenge. Aim To identify good management practices for quality care adopted by local public oral healthcare managers and teams around Brazil. Methods This study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017051639). Five databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus and Lilacs) as well as the reference lists and citations of the included publications were searched according to PRISMA guidelines. Results A total of 30,895 references were initially found, which were evaluated according to the defined eligibility criteria. Twenty qualitative studies, eight surveys and two mixed-model studies were selected. The practices (codes) were organized into three main groups (families), and the Frequency of the Effect Size (FES) of each code was calculated. Among the 20 codes identified, the most relevant ones were: Diagnosis and Health Planning (FES=80%) and Family Health Strategy (FES=66,7). The Intensity of the Effect Size of each study was also calculated to demonstrate the individual contribution of each study to the conclusions. Conclusion The evidence emerging from this review showed that healthcare diagnosis, planning, and performance based on the family health strategy principles were the most relevant practices adopted by public oral healthcare managers in Brazil. The widespread adoption of these practices could lead to improved oral healthcare provision and management in Brazil.
Abstract in English:Aim To evaluate the impact of a dual-cured adhesive system on the in situ degree of conversion (DC), bond strength (BS) and failure mode (FM) of adhesive interfaces in dentin cavities restored with a bulk-fill resin composite. Methods 4-mm-deep dentin cavities with a 3.1 C-factor were created in 68 bovine incisors (n = 17 per group). The light-cured (Scotchbond™ Universal) or the dual-cured (Adper™ Scotchbond™ Multi-purpose Plus) adhesive system was applied to the cavities, which were then restored with a bulk-fill resin composite (Filtek™ Bulk Fill). In situ DC analysis was performed by means of micro Raman spectroscopy at the top and bottom interfaces. Push-out BS was measured in a universal testing machine after 24-h or 6-month water storage. FM was determined with a stereomicroscope. Data of in situ DC and BS were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test (p<0.05), while the FM was analyzed descriptively. Results The groups that received the dual-cured adhesive system showed statistically higher in situ DC and BS than those that received the light-cured adhesive system. Cohesive failure mode was the most frequent in all conditions. Conclusion In situ DC and BS were influenced by the curing strategies of the adhesive systems with better performance of the dual-cured material.
Abstract in English:Aim: To describe the pattern of toothache experience in a cohort of children aged 2-5 over 21 years and to find the relationship between previous toothache experience and later reports of toothache to get finding on the most critical period of toothache as a problem in life. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis from Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS). A total of 1,927 children from IFLS-1 with complete data were included as baseline participants. They were followed up four times within 21 years (age 6-9y, age 9-12y, age 16-19y, age 23-26y). Toothache was based on the question of self-reported toothache experience during the last four weeks. After 21 years, a total of 1,098 individuals could be traced and completed every cohort of the survey. Toothache experiences were reported for frequencies in every cohort and accumulative experiences over 21 years. Logistic regression tests were performed to analyze the association of previous toothache experience and later toothache experience. Results: Almost 40% of the respondents reported toothache at least once in their life. The age of 6-9 years is the period when a high percentage of children had teeth-related pain. The experience of toothache at this period was significantly related to every period of age in life. Conclusions: The period of early mixed dentition is important. Oral health status in this period is associated with future oral health. A comprehensive dental health prevention program targeting this population is essential to increase the quality of life.
Abstract in English:Aim This cross-sectional observational study aimed to evaluate the influence of the Universities lockdown measures on academic perspectives and psychosocial aspects of Brazilian final-year dental students. Methods 268 undergraduate students regularly enrolled in a Dentistry course at public universities were asked about anxiety, depression, stress sensitivity, and their academic perspectives by using an online survey. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure anxiety and depression, while the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) evaluated stress levels. The academic perspective was evaluated by five affirmatives regarding possible difficulties that will be faced when school reopens and after graduation. The possible association between fear of having COVID-19 with psychosocial outcomes and COVID-19 association with academic perspectives were analyzed by ANOVA and chi-square tests, respectively, considering a significance level of 5%. Results Considering possible associations between the fear of having COVID-19 and psychosocial aspects, significant values were found for anxiety (P = 0.018) and stress sensitivity (P = 0.002). Regarding students’ academic perspectives, COVID-19 had significant impact on less opportunity to perform procedures (P = 0.023), additional expenses with personal protective equipment (P = 0.007), and concerns of consulting elderly people (P = 0.012). Conclusion The COVID-19 pandemic led to increased psychological impairments and enlarged concerns with learning and biosecurity, which might impact academic perspectives. Thus, being aware of these apprehensions, university professors and staff can improve the clinical training of final-year dental students in an empathetic way.
Abstract in English:Treatment of dental caries in children still remains challenging due to lack of cooperation with conventional treatment modalities. Recently, the use of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) has proved useful in addressing this challenge. Aim This clinical trial aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) in arresting caries in children in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods This was a phase III balanced randomized controlled school based interventional study on 240 children. The study group was treated with SDF while GIC was used in the control group. Follow up visits in 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months were carried out to assess the treatment outcome. Inferential statistics with the use of Pearson Chi-square test and Independent Student t-test were used at 5% level of significance. Results There was significant relationship between SDF and caries arrest in 2 weeks, 1 month and 3 months’ assessment period (p = 0.001). The control group showed continuous decline (71.7%, 54.3% and 50.9%) in restorative success from 2 weeks to 3 months respectively. The mean ± SD and Confidence Interval (CI) of arrested caries in the SDF group were 113± 1.24 and 113.1 – 113.5 respectively. In the control group the mean ± SD and CI of restorative success were 69.3±11.8 and 67.2 – 71.4. The effect size was 5.24. Conclusion The result of the study showed that SDF was effective in arresting caries in children without any harm and there was statistically significant difference in the use of 38% SDF in arresting caries in children.
Abstract in English:Aim This study aimed to assess the reporting characteristics of systematic review abstracts published in the proceedings of the Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Odontológica (SBPqO) meeting. Methods We selected abstracts published in the SBPqO meeting proceedings of 2019 and 2020, mentioning that a systematic review was conducted in the title, objective or methods sections. One researcher performed the screening and the data extraction after a pilot test training. The following data were extracted: affiliation of the primary author, dental specialization, the term “systematic review” mentioned in the title, reporting of the objective, reporting of eligibility criteria, reporting of information sources, reporting of the number of included studies and if a meta-analysis was performed. A descriptive analysis of the data was performed with data summarized as frequencies. Results We included 235 abstracts. A total of 20 studies were from the Universidade de Uberlândia (8.5%), and the main specialization was Restorative and Esthetic Dentistry, with 47 studies (20%). Most of the studies mentioned the term “systematic review” in the title (n=219; 93.2%) and reported the objective (n=231; 98.3%). A great majority of studies did not report the eligibility criteria (n=97; 41.3%) or it was classified as unclear (n=96; 40.8%). The great majority of studies only reported the databases searched (n=103; 43.8%) or databases and date of search (n=74; 31.5%). Most of the studies reported the number of included studies (n=204; 86.8%). Conclusion Based on this study, the reporting characteristics of systematic review abstracts published in the proceedings of the SBPqO meeting are satisfactory. However, there is room for improvement.
Abstract in English:Aim Facial orthopaedic treatments based on the stimulation or restrictions of craniofacial bone growth are more effective when carried out during the pubertal growth spurt. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the reproducibility of two cervical vertebrae methods (CVM) with manual tracing and direct visual inspection. Methods A sample of 60 lateral cephalometric radiographs (10 of each of the 6 CVM stages) was randomly selected from 171 records. 5 orthodontists classified these radiographs according to the skeletal maturation stage in 2002 and 2005, and the application of both methods was conducted by direct visual inspection and evaluation through manual tracing. Results The average reliability of the two methods determination and the two forms of evaluation was substantial. The direct visual inspection evaluation showed the highest reliability and agreement interexaminer values for both methods, as well as the intraexaminers evaluation. Conclusion The reproducibility of CVM method was substantial, indicating its clinical use to determine the skeletal maturity and the ideal moment for treatment execution.
Abstract in English:Aim To evaluate the accuracy and the validity of orthodontic diagnostic measurements, as well as virtual tooth transformations using a generic open access 3D software compared to OrthoAnalyzer (3Shape) software; which was previously tested and proven for accuracy. Methods 40 maxillary and mandibular single arch study models were duplicated and scanned using 3Shape laser scanner. The files were imported into the generic and OrthoAnalyzer software programs; where linear measurements were taken twice to investigate the accuracy of the program. To test the accuracy of the program format, they were printed, rescanned and imported into OrthAnalyzer. Finally, to investigate the accuracy of editing capabilities, linear and angular transformation procedures were performed, superimposed and printed to be rescanned and imported to OrthoAnalyzer for comparison. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups using the two software programs regarding the accuracy of the linear measurements (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the different formats among all the measurements, (p>0.05). The editing capabilities also showed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). Conclusion The generic 3D software (Meshmixer) was valid and accurate in cast measurements and linear and angular editing procedures. It can be used for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning without added costs.
Abstract in English:Aim This study was fulfilled to evaluate the flexural strength, micro-hardness, and release of two fluoride ions of bioactive restorative materials (Cention N and Activa Bioactive), a resin modified glass ionomer (Fuji II LC), and a resin composite (Filtek z250). Methods Forty samples from four restorative materials (Activa Bioactive, Fuji II LC, Cention N, and Filtek Z250) were provided according to the current standards of ISO 4049/2000 guide lines. Subsequently, the samples were stored for 24 hours and 6 months in artificial saliva, and successively, flexural strength and micro-hardness of the samples were measured. For each studied groups the pH was decreased from 6.8 to 4 in storage solution. The rate of changes in fluoride ion release was measured after three different storage periods of 24 hours, 48 hours, and 6 months in distilled water, according to the previous studies’ method. Two-way ANOVA, One-way ANOVA, Tukey HSD Pair wise comparisons, and independent t-tests were used to analyze data (α= 0.05). Results The highest flexural strength and surface micro-hardness after 24 hours and also after 6 month were observed for Cention N(p<0.001).Flexural strength of all samples stored for 6 months was significantly lower than the samples stored for 24 hours(p<0.001). The accumulative amount of the released fluoride ion in RMGI, after six-month storage period in distilled water was considerably higher (p<0.001) than 24 hours and 48 hours storage. The amount of fluoride ion release with increasing acidity of the environment (from pH 6.8 to 4) in Fuji II LC glass ionomer was higher than the bioactive materials (p<0.05). Conclusion The flexural strength of RMGI was increased after storage against the Activa Bioactive,Cention N and Z250 composite. Storage of restorative materials in artificial saliva leads to a significant reduction in micro hardness. The behavior and amount of released fluoride ions in these restorative materials, which are stored in an acidic environment, were dependent on the type of restorative material.
Abstract in English:Aim This study aimed to analyze the influence of finishing and polishing (F/P) protocols on resin surface through roughness (Ra) values and laser scan microscopy observations. Methods Forty-eight (n=48) resin specimens were sorted into four groups (n=12), according to the type of resin used: Filtek Z250 (Z250), Filtek Z350 (Z350), Filtek One Bulk Fill (BF), Filtek P60 (P60). The specimens were sorted into six groups according to the type of F/P system used (n=2/group): Control group, Diamond bur (KG Sorensen), Soflex Pop-On Discs (3M ESPE), Soflex Spiral (3M ESPE), Dura Gloss (American Burs), and Praxis (TDV). Results The highest roughness values (Ra) were attributed to BF group for all F/P systems, except for the Soft-Lex PopOn discs. The Soft-Lex PopOn, Spiral, and Praxis discs presented a better performance for the surface treatment of the tested composite resins. Regardless of the restorative material, the use of diamond bur or single-step abrasive rubber (Dura Gloss) were associated with the highest Ra values. Conclusion The effect of F/P systems on Ra is material-dependent and instrument or system-dependent.
Abstract in English:Aim This study aims to evaluate and validate the sensibility and the level of agreement between different gingival color measures obtained by a spectrophotometer (SPECTRO) and a photography (PHOTO) method. Methods Among 40 patients, the color was measured 2 mm apical to the gingival margin by CIE L*, a*, b* system using a reflectance spectrophotometer and the photography’s plus software. The level of agreement between three different measures (m1, m2, m3) in parameters L*, a*, b*, and ∆E (color variation) was evaluated by random and systematic errors, as well as the limits and coefficient of concordance. A comparison between the methods was performed by the Bland-Altman test and the sensibility level was evaluated accordingly to the ∆E: 3.7 thresholds with p<0.05 as the level of significance for these comparisons. Results The SPECTRO method has not presented the systematic error (p>0.05) and had reproducibly and agreement level in three variable measures L* (r: 0.6), a* (r: 0.3), and b* (r: 0.5) as to the PHOTO method L* (r: 0.6), a* (r: 0.5), and b* (r: 0.5), which presented systematic error in L* values (p<0.05). The means of ∆E between measurements were: 6.5 SPECTRO and 5.9 PHOTO. There was no good level of sensitivity ∆E> 3.7 and agreement between the methods, mainly for the a* values. On the other hand, for the L* and in for the most comparisons of b* values, the level of agreement was higher. Conclusion Both methods could quantify the gingival color from the coordinates L *, a *, and b *, which has shown greater reliability between the measurements acquired by the SPECTRO method.
Abstract in English:Aim The study aimed to evaluate children’s and parent’s preferences of dentist’s attire during Covid-19 pandemic and their relationship with dental anxiety. Methods A total of 139 Children(71 boys, 68 girls) aged 6-12 years were shown videos of a pediatric dentist working with different attire such as Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and pedoscrub, and they were asked to express the way they preferred their dentist to be dressed. Children’s anxiety levels with different attire of paediatric dentists were assessed in different age groups and for boys and girls separately and recorded it using the Facial image scale. A questionnaire regarding dental anxiety was created online and completed by 139 parents (76 females, 63 males) of various ages and different educational backgrounds who were asked to choose between two outfits. Results were tabulated and statistically analysed using Chi-square test. Results Children aged 10-12 years preferred PPE by 50.6%, whereas 48.1% of children aged 6-9 years least preferred PPE (<0.05). About 46 (33%) were scored as anxious children and they had a preference for pedoscrub. Also, nonanxious children 43(31%) preferred PPE. All educated parents (100%) selected PPE over pedoscrub and the result were shown to be statistically significant. (<0.05). Conclusion Ultimately, the majority of the anxious children chosen pedoscrub, whereas non - anxious children have chosen PPE. Furthermore, the data reveals that both educated parents and older children preferred PPE as their attire for paediatric dentists.
Abstract in English:Aim Assessing the intracoronal bleaching effectiveness of an experimental chlorine dioxide product, based on the walking bleach technique. Methods Extracted bovine incisors were artificially stained with bovine blood and filled with zinc phosphate cement at cementoenamel junction level. Teeth were divided into 3 groups (n=10): (SP) sodium perborate added with distilled water, (CD) chlorine dioxide and (C) control – dry cotton inserted into the pulp chamber. Bleaching agents were used at 0, 7 and 14 days. VITA Easyshadetm (∆Eab) was used to analyze tooth color at the 7th, 14th and 21st days, based on the CIE2000 system. Data were analyzed through ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results There were no statistically significant differences in Δb, ΔE, ΔE00 and ΔWID between CD and the control group. These parameters have shown significant differences between CD and SP, which differed from the control. However, they did not show significant differences either in the control group or in CD at the 7th, 14th and 21st days. Values recorded for SP at the 7th day differed from those recorded at the 14th and 21st days. Δa has shown differences within the same group at the 7th, 14th and 21st days. There was no difference between groups, when they were compared at the same day (7th and 14th). The control group differed from SP at the 21st day. CD did not differ from the other two groups. ΔL did not show differences between groups and times. Conclusion Stabilized chlorine dioxide (0.07%, at pH 3.5) should not be used as intracoronal bleaching agent along with the walking bleach technique.
Abstract in English:Aim One of the reasons for the failure of adhesion in composite restorations and secondary caries may be the chemical irrigants used during the endodontic treatment. NaOCl is widely used for the biomechanical preparation of root canals due to its antimicrobial properties and capacity to dissolve organic material. In addition, another very effective decontamination solution is chlorhexidine 2%. There are few studies about the effect of root canal irrigation solutions on bond strength of universal adhesives therefore, in this study we have investigated the influence of CHX 2% and NaOCl 5.25% on micro-tensile bond strength of G-Premio Bond. Methods Twenty-four human teeth were randomly allocated to the following groups: G1, immersion in saline solution 0.9% for 30 minutes (control); G2, immersion in CHX 2% for 30 minutes; G3, immersion in NaOCl 5.25% for 30 minutes. After restoration, the dentin/resin interface was tested by micro-tensile bond strength. The surfaces morphology was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey test in SPSS software Version 24. Results There was a statistically significant difference between G3 and G1 (P < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences among G1 and G2, G2 and G3. Conclusion Root canal irrigation with NaOCl 5.25% significantly reduced the micro-tensile bond strength in the G-Premio Bond at self-etch mode, but the use of CHX did not make a significant difference.
Abstract in English:Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is recognized for its high prevalence, presenting characteristic signs and symptoms. Cervical spine pain is present in 70% of diagnosed TMD cases. Aim To verify if women with TMD present changes in isometric muscle strength in the scapula elevation. Methods This is an observational, cross-sectional study. Thirty-five women, aged 22.89±2.04 years, were divided into the TMD group (TMDG), diagnosed with TMD according to the DC/TMD, and control group (CG), with asymptomatic individuals. The volunteers accessed a online link by the smartphone in order to answer questions on personal data, the Fonseca Anamnestic Index (FAI), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Masticatory preference. In all participants, evaluation of the force of the scapula elevation muscles was performed, using a load cell model MM-100 (Kratos® SP, Brazil). Data were analyzed descriptively using the maximum, mean, and standard deviation and a two-way ANCOVA test was applied for all variables. A significance level of 5% was considered. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the TMDG and CG for the maximal and mean muscle strength of scapular elevation. There were statistically significant differences in FAI (p <0.001*) between the CG and the TMDG. Conclusion Based on the results, it was not possible to confirm the hypothesis that women diagnosed with TMD present lower isometric strength during scapular elevation (right/left).
Abstract in English:RESUMO Aim Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) is a global health problem whose incidence varies by geographic region and race according to risk factors. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a significant risk factor for HNSCC. HPV-16 and HPV-18 are two forms of HPV that are carcinogenic. HNSCCs that are HPV positive have a better prognosis rather than HPV negative. The purpose of this research was to characterize HPV-16, -18 variations in the saliva of HNSCC patients by examining the genetic diversity of HPV-16, -18 utilizing the full E6, E7, and L1 genes. Methods The case-control research included 15 patients with HNSCC and 15 healthy volunteers. Unstimulated entire saliva samples were obtained from the case and control groups by spitting method. Genomic DNA was isolated from all saliva samples. A PCR reaction was used to determine the presence of HPV in saliva. HPV-positive samples were genotyped and data were analyzed. We conducted a variant study on the HPV-16, -18 E6, and E7 genes. Results Three patients with HNSCC were HPV-positive for two HPV genotypes out of 30 people diagnosed with HPV-DNA. HPV-16 and -18 were the most common genotypes. The HPV-16, -18 E6, and E7 genes were sequenced and compared to the HPV-16, -18 (E6, E7) prototype sequence. In all, HPV-16 lineages A1 and HPV-18 lineages A3 were discovered. Conclusion Regarding the variation of HPV found in Iranian HNSCC patients, the need for further studies in HPV genotyping was seen. Sequencing HPV genes in HNSCC may help answer questions about HPV genotyping in the Iranian population. HPV genotype analysis aids in the development of vaccinations against HNSCC, halting disease progression and preventing HPV-associated HNSCC.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Aim The aim of our study was to analyze the content related to dentistry published on Instagram ® and to investigate the students’ profiles related to the use of social networks in a sample from a Dentistry School. Methods This study was carried out in two stages. First, research was conducted to analyze content published on Instagram® related to dentistry. The second part investigated the profiles of students’ from a dental school in relation to the use of social networks through a questionnaire. A descriptive analysis was performed and associations between the variables were tested using Fisher’s exact test. Results We found a diversified and large amount of content related to dentistry published on Instagram ® , and publications that involved advertising were more prevalent in our study. There are also many publications that are violating the Code of Dental Ethics. In addition, in the second part of our study, we observed an enormous use of social networks by dental students (98.4%). Conclusions As a result, we believe that it is important to update professionals about the ethical infractions related to social networks which could be approached during graduate courses in universities. Finally, the analyzed social network seems to be an interesting alternative for disseminating health information in order to dialogue with greater proximity to the large number of users who participate in it.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Aim To evaluate the occlusal and internal marginal adaptation of inlay restorations made of different materials, using CAD-CAM. Methods Preparations were made for MOD inlays of one-third intercuspal width and 4 mm depth in 30 third human molars. The teeth were restored using CAD-CAM materials (n=10) of nanoceramic resin (Lava Ultimate), polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (VITA ENAMIC), or lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (IPS e.max CAD). The specimens were cemented with dual resin cement and sectioned at the center of the restoration, after which the two halves were evaluated, and photographed The occlusal and internal discrepancy (µm) was determined at five points: cavosurface angle of the occlusal-facial wall (CA-O); center of the facial wall (FW); faciopulpal angle (FPA); center of the pulpal wall (PW); and center of the lingual wall (LW). The data were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis and the Dunn tests (α=0.05). Results No difference was observed among the materials regarding the occlusal discrepancy at the CA-O, FPA, or PW internal points. The e.max CAD measurement at FW showed larger internal discrepancy than that of Lava (p=0.02). The internal discrepancy at LW was greater for e.max CAD than VITA ENAMIC (p=0.02). Conclusion Lithium disilicate glass-ceramic presented greater internal discrepancy in relation to the surrounding walls of the inlay preparations.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Background Tooth extraction socket in the aesthetic area is a major indication for immediate implant placement greatly improving patient satisfaction and preserving the alveolar ridge. However, the effect of non-axial force on the peri-implant bone with subsequent early implant failure remains unclear. Objective Evaluate the prognosis of tilted implants immediately placed and restored with angled abutments in comparison to straight implants restored with straight abutments in the esthetic area (anterior or premolars) using computer-aided surgical guides. Material and methods: Badly decayed non-restorable teeth in the aesthetic zone (anterior or premolars) were extracted atraumatically. Immediately after guided implant insertion, the abutments were adjusted and placed according to the allocation group (0, 15, or 25-degree angle) then a temporary crown was performed out of occlusion in centric and eccentric relation. Early implant failure was assessed at three and six months. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P=0.305). Straight and angled abutment groups showed 6 (14.3%) and 8 (20%) failed cases, respectively. The post-hoc subgroup analysis showed no statistically significant difference between angle 15 and angle 25 degree groups where (P=0.686) or between Anterior and Premolar groups (P=0.853). Conclusion There was no statistically significant difference in the failure rate when comparing angled to straight immediately placed & restored implants. This applies to both anterior and premolar implants.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Parents are responsible for their children’s health care, and their oral health-related knowledge, attitude, and habits can affect their children’s oral health. Aim The objective of this study was to evaluate parents’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding their children’s oral health. Methods In this study, a sample of 398 parents of 4- to 6-year-old children completed a self-designed questionnaire. The parents’ oral health-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices were assessed. Children’s oral health was evaluated using decayed, missing, and filled tooth index (dmft). Data were analyzed using the SPSS version 23.0 with a p < 0.05 as statistically significant. Categorical data were reported as frequency (%), and continuous data were reported as mean ± SD. Moreover, Spearman’s correlation, multiple regression, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal Wallis test, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test were used. Results Most of the parents had a satisfactory level of knowledge and positive attitudes regarding their children’s oral health. The knowledge and attitude scores were higher among parents with higher education (p<0.001), and the knowledge score was higher among mothers (p=0.004). Also, the attitude score was correlated with the number of decayed, missed, and filled teeth of children (p=0.01, p=0.04, and p=0.007, respectively). However, there was no significant relationship between dmft and the parents’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices using multiple regression. The mean dmft of children was 6.86 ± 3.56, and most of the parents had poor oral health-related practices. Conclusion The parents’ level of knowledge and attitudes were satisfactory, but they had poor oral health practices. Moreover, there was no significant relationship between children’s oral health and their parents’ level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Educating programs and strategies are needed to enhance parents’ oral health-related attitudes and knowledge and, more importantly, change their oral health practices.
Abstract in English:Aim This study analyzed public procurements for different endodontic materials used in the Brazilian public health system and evaluated the variables related to their cost. Methods A time-series study was performed by screening materials for endodontic application in the public Brazilian Databank of Healthcare Prices from 2010 to 2019. Data were categorized according to material composition and clinical application. The collated variables were used in a multiple linear regression model to predict the impact of unit price in procurement processes. Results A total of 5,973 procurement processes (1,524,693 items) were evaluated. Calcium hydroxides were found in 79% of the observations (4,669 processes). Prices drop each year by US$1.87 while MTAs and epoxy resins are increasingly purchased at higher prices (US$50.87; US$67.69, respectively). The microregion, the procurement modality, and the type of institution had no influence on unit prices in the adjusted model (p > 0.05). Conclusions Calcium hydroxide-based materials were the cheapest and most frequently purchased endodontic materials in the public health care system. Novel formulations are being implemented into clinical practice over time and their cost may be a barrier to the broad application of materials such as MTAs, despite their effectiveness.
Abstract in English:Aim To verify the validity of maternal reports on the number of deciduous teeth erupted in their children. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed with children enrolled in a Birth Cohort at the age of 12 months in the first stage and 24 months in the second stage. At both stages, children were clinically examined, and mothers reported the number of teeth of their children. Comparison between groups was performed using the Mann-Whitney non-paired Wilcoxon test. Level of agreement between two methods were estimated by the Observed Agreement, Weighted Kappa and Intraclass Correlation coefficients. Results A total of 125 children were examined in the first stage, with mean number of reported teeth of 6.2. In the second stage, 149 children were examined, with mean number of reported teeth of 15.9. High level of agreement, kappa values and intraclass correlation coefficients were observed for both arches in both periods (p<0.001). Conclusions Maternal report on the number of teeth erupted in children was reliable and valid. Thus, it seems to be a useful instrument for collecting data in population-based epidemiological studies targeting young children.
Abstract in English:Aim to evaluate the association of the patients’ perception about dentist’s affect and cognition on trust and, consequently, on intention to return and patient satisfaction with life. Methods Analytical cross-sectional study conducted in patients’ adults and elderly at of two dentistry clinics in the south of Brazil. Patients had to have a previous relationship with the dentist (at least one previous consult) and 18 years of age or older. The data were collected through self-administrated questionnaire using measures adapted from other research, using structural equation modeling. We test using a chi-square difference test (p-value<0,05). Results The mean age of the 197 patients was 37.0 years (σ = 15.5). The affect perceived by the patient at the dentist had a positive effect (β = .53) on the trust that the patient develops in relation to the dentist. The same is true for the effect of the rational or cognitive aspects perceived by the patient at the dentist (β = .41). The trust positively influences the patient’s intention to return to that dentist (β = .82). In addition, the intention to return to the dentist positively influences the patient’s satisfaction with life (β = .49). Conclusions Affective and cognitive aspects positively influenced the patient’s trust in the dentist. The greater the patient’s trust in the dentist, the greater the intention to return to that dentist. Furthermore, a good relationship with the dentist improve the patient’s satisfaction with life.
Abstract in English:Aim Resin modified glass ionomer (RMGI) is class of material that can be used as sealant for preventing and arresting the progression of caries in pits and fissures. As these are hybrid materials, their properties can be affected by factors related to the polymerization process. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of different generations of LED curing units (Elipar DeepCure-L and VALO Grand) on Knoop microhardness values (KHN) of RMGI sealants (Clinpro XT and Vitremer). Methods Forty cylindrical specimens (6mm ø x 1 mm high) were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions and divided into four groups (n=10) according to the type of RMGI and LED used. The KHN of the top surface of each sample was calculated 7 days after light-curing. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA (α = 0.05). Results Vitremer had higher KHN values than Clinpro XT after using both LEDs (p<0.0001), but especially when light-cured with the use of VALO Grand (p<0.0001). Whereas the KHN value of Clinpro was not influenced by the LED device (p>0.05). Conclusions Top surface microhardness values of RGMI sealants were affected by both material composition and generations of LED curing units used. Third generation LED curing units seemed to be more efficient for the polymerization of RMGI-based sealants.
Abstract in English:Aim This study analyzes factors associated with dimensions of health literacy (HL) functional, communicative and critical among public health service users with chronic non-communicable diseases. Methods A cross-sectional analytical research was carried out in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil, with adults and older adults attending Family Health Units (FHU). Data were collected by oral exam (CPOD and CPI) and a questionnaire on systemic conditions, sociodemographic factors, health behaviors and HLS (HLS-14). The outcomes consisted of functional, communicative, and critical HL dimensions dichotomized by median (high and low), which were analyzed by chi-square test (p<0.05) to find associations with the variables studied. Results The study sample comprised 238 FHU users with 62.7 (± 10.55) mean age, of which 47.5% (n=113) showed high functional HL, 50.0% (n=119) high communicative HL, and 46.2% (n=110) high critical HL. High functional HL was associated with men (p<0.05). Functional and communicative HL were associated with having higher education (p<0.001 and p=0.018, respectively). High communicative and critical HL were associated with regular use of dental and medical services (p<0.05). Individuals with low functional HL were more likely to present poor tooth brushing (p=0.020). High HL (in all three dimensions) was associated with regular flossing and having more teeth (p<0.05). Conclusion Functional, communicative and critical HL were associated with health behaviors and clinical outcomes, whereas the functional dimension was also associated with sociodemographic factors. HL dimensions allowed to differentiate health-related factors.
Abstract in English:The use of selective barriers as resorbable membranes has become a routine clinical procedure for guided bone regeneration. Therefore, the production of membranes with a low inflammatory potential during their resorption process has become the goal of a considerable number of researches. Aim The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of poly (L- lactic acid) (PLLA) and biocelulose membranes (BC) inserted in the subcutaneous tissue on the dorsum of rats. Methods Fifteen animals underwent surgical procedures for the insertion of 4 types of membranes: COL (Collagen membrane) – Control Group; BC (Biocellulose membrane); BCAg (Biocellulose membrane impregnated with Silver); PLLA (Poly (L-lactic acid) membrane). All membrane types were inserted into each animal. Animals were euthanized after 3, 7, and 15 days of the surgical procedure. Descriptive histological analyses were carried out to investigate host tissue reaction to membrane presence by assessing the anti-inflammatory process composition associated with the membrane resorption and the presence of foreign-body reaction or encapsulation. Results The BC membranes showed a higher degree of inflammation and poor pattern of integration with the surrounding tissues than the PLLA and COL membranes. Conclusion The PLLA and COL membranes present better biocompatibility than the BC membranes.
Abstract in English:Dental implants could give back function, esthetics and quality of life to patients. The correct choice of the implant, especially in borderline cases, is essential for a satisfactory result. Aim Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the mechanical behavior of Morse taper implants with two different prosthetic interfaces. Methods Twenty self-locking Morse taper implants, 2.9 mm in diameter (FAC), and 20 Morse taper implants, 3.5 mm in diameter (CM) were divided into two groups (n=10), and submitted to strength to failure test, optical microscopic evaluation of fracture, metallographic analysis of the alloy, finite element analysis (FEA) and strain gauge test. A Student’s t test (α = 0.05) was made for a statistical analysis. Results For the strength to failure test, a statistically difference was observed (p <0.001) between FAC (225.0 ± 19.8 N) and CM (397.3 ± 12.5 N). The optical microscopic evaluation demonstrated a fracture pattern that corroborated with FEA´s results. The metallographic analysis determined that the implants of the FAC group have titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy in their composition. In the strain gauge test, there was no statistical difference (p = 0.833) between CM (1064.8 ± 575.04 μS) and FAC (1002.2 ± 657.6 μS) groups. Conclusion Based on the results obtained in this study, ultra-narrow implants (FAC) should ideally be restricted to areas with low masticatory effort.
Abstract in English:Aim to evaluate the surgical effects of two rehabilitation protocols on dental arch occlusion of 5-year-old children with or without cleft lip and palate. Methods this is a retrospective longitudinal study the sample comprised 45 digitized dental casts divided into followed groups: Group 1 (G1) – children who underwent to cheiloplasty (Millard technique) at 3 months and to one-stage palatoplasty (von Langenbeck technique) at 12 months; Group 2 (G2) – children who underwent to cheiloplasty (Millard technique) and two-stage palatoplasty (Hans Pichler technique for hard palate closure) at 3 months and at 12 months to soft palate closure (Sommerlad technique); and Group 3 (G3) – children without craniofacial anomalies. Linear measurements, area, and occlusion were evaluated by stereophotogrammetry software. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to verify normality. ANOVA followed by posthoc Tukey test and Kruskal-Wallis followed by posthoc Dunn tests were used to compared groups. Results For the measures intercanine distance (C-C’), anterior length of dental arch (I-CC’), and total length of the dental arch (I–MM’), there were statistical differences between G1x G3 and G2xG3, the mean was smaller for G1 and G2. No statistically significant differences occurred in the intermolar distance and in the dental arch area among groups. The occlusion analysis revealed significant difference in the comparison of the three groups (p=0.0004). Conclusion The surgical effects of two rehabilitation protocols affected the occlusion and the development of the anterior region of the maxilla of children with oral clefts when compared to children without oral clefts.
Abstract in English:Scientific research and publication play an important role during the training of dentists, but one of the most outstanding barriers is the authorship conditions of the journals. Aim: The objective of the study was to determine the accessibility to student publication in dental journals in the world. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out. 208 journals indexed in Scimago Journal & Country Rank that met inclusion and exclusion criteria were included. The instructions for the authors were reviewed, an email was subsequently sent to the journal contact and articles with student affiliation were searched in the database of each journal. For the analysis of the descriptive statistical data of frequencies and percentage, the IBM SPPS Statistics Standard Edition 22 program was used. Results: 208 journals were included, 77.67% accepted the student publication without condition. The United States, United Kingdom and India were the countries with the highest number of journals with student participation. Likewise, the journals of Q4 (85.70%), Q3 (85.40%) and Basic Sciences (100%), Dental Education (100%), Endodontic (100%), Geriatrics and Gerontology (100%) and Public Dental Health (100%), mostly accepted student authorship. Conclusion: It is concluded that 167 (77.67%) of the dental journals accept the publication of dental students without condition, being more frequent in journals positioned in Q4 (85.70%). Also, journals with thematic areas on Basic Sciences, Dental Education, Endodontic, Geriatrics and Gerontology and Public Dental Health.
Abstract in English:Studying the different indicators of functional dentition classification can contribute to the understanding of the associated factors, and thus help in the definition of strategies associated with oral health care. This approach has been little explored in the literature, especially when considering the older age group. Aim The aim of this study is to evaluate the factors associated with three distinct functional dentition classification. Methods Cross-sectional exploratory study using secondary data from the Frailty in Older Brazilians (FIBRA) Project of 876 older adults living in Campinas, Brazil. The indicators of dental function assessed was number of natural teeth present, occluding pairs of teeth and the Eichner index, which were verified by trained dentists, following the World Health Organization criteria for epidemiological studies in oral health. The explanatory variable assessed was the self-perception of oral health-related quality of life measured by the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) and its dimensions. It was also collected sociodemographic information such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, schooling, family income, smoking behavior and frailty status. The association was verified through Poisson regressions for number of teeth and pairs of teeth in occlusion and multinomial regression for the Eichner index, adjusted by sociodemographic and health variables. Results Lower prevalence of participants with less than 21 teeth who negatively perceived GOHAI´s pain and discomfort dimension and higher prevalence of having less teeth among the ones that negatively perceived GOHAI´s physical and functional dimensions. No association was found between the perception of quality of life and occlusion pairs of teeth and the Eichner Index. Conclusion Two out of three indicators assessed were associated with quality of life. Therefore, it is important to select sensitive indicators to be able to identify and better comprehend this relationship.
Abstract in English:Aim In Brazil, COVID-19 remains one of the epicenters of the pandemic, thus, presential educational activities are suspended. The study aimed to describe the approach of flipped classroom performed to provide social distancing and to maintain teaching activities during COVID-19-pandemic. Methods Flipped Classroom was chosen to be associated with the role-play technique as a central methodology. To bring students closer to activities performed in the non-pandemic period, some actions and assessments were also role-played by Professor simulating patients in virtual meetings. Results Although the changes in the format of the lessons, our approaches stimulated the students maintained the high frequency of students in the activities (almost 100%) providing continuity activities. Conclusions This report can reinforce that meaningful learning can be taught by using a virtual/remote approach. However, the potential positive results observed cannot be used as an excuse to maintain remote teaching activities with the objective of cost-cutting by the institutions.
Abstract in English:Aim This study aimed to systematically review existing literature regarding the association between dental procedures—such as tooth extractions and periodontal therapy—and occurrence of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) in individuals using bone-modifying drugs. Methods Search strategies were performed in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library for a timeframe ending in December 2021. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias were analyzed independently by two researchers. Three meta-analyses were performed, estimating the crude risk ratio (RR), the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for the association between tooth extraction and MRONJ. Results Of the 1,654 studies initially retrieved, 17 were ultimately included. The majority of patients with MRONJ in these studies were female, with a mean age of 64 years. Zoledronic acid was the most commonly used drug among patients with MRONJ, and cancer was the most frequent underlying health condition. Regarding the performed meta-analyses, crude and adjusted analyses demonstrated that tooth extraction increased the risk for MRONJ by 4.28 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.73–10.58), the OR for MRONJ by 26.94 (95%CI: 4.17–174.17), and the HR for MRONJ by 9.96 (95%CI: 4.04–24.55). Conclusion It was concluded that performing dental procedures, especially tooth extraction, in patients using bone-modifying drugs increased the risk of MRONJ occurrence and, therefore, should be avoided. Further studies, using adjusted data, are warranted.
Abstract in English:Aims To verify the efficacy of Er,Cr:YSGG laser for debonding of lithium disilicate (LD) reinforced glass ceramic veneers of different thicknesses. Methods Forty bovine teeth were prepared and randomly divided into four groups (n=10/group) according to the ceramic disc thickness: C0.5 (Control group) and L0.5 (Laser irradiated group) in which LD discs had a thickness of 0.5mm and 5mm diameter; C1 and L1 in which LD discs had a thickness of 1mm and 5mm diameter. The lithium disilcate discs (IPS E.max®, shade HTA2) were fabricated following the manufacturer’s recommendations and cemented to the prepared tooth surface. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser was applied to the laser groups at 2.5W and 25Hz for 60seconds. Universal testing machine was used to evaluate the shear bond strength for all samples at a cross head speed of 1mm/min in an inciso-gingival direction parallel to the sample surface. After debonding, the samples were examined under stereoscope to evaluate the mode of failure according to the adhesive remnant index (ARI). Results Laser irradiation significantly diminishes the shear bond strength from 10.868 MPa to 3.778 MPa for C0.5 and L0.5 groups respectively (p=0.00) and from 14.711 MPa to 4.992 MPa for C1 and L1 groups respectively (p=0.00). The shear bond strength required for debonding increased with increasing thickness of discs, but without significant difference (p=0.110). Higher ARI scores were seen in the laser groups (more cement remaining adhered to the tooth) when compared to the control groups. Conclusions The Er,Cr:YSGG laser could be an effective and useful tool in debonding of lithium disilicate ceramic veneers as it decreases the shear bond strength required for veneer debonding.
Abstract in English:Aim This study aimed to investigate whether non-ionizing radiation emitted by smartphones is likely to cause genotoxic effects on oral epithelial cells. Methods Thirty adults were distributed into two groups according to the mobile phone brand used, namely Samsung (Samsung, Seoul, South Korea) and Apple (Apple, California, USA). The material was collected with gentle swabbing of the right and left buccal mucosa using a cervical brush, then the micronucleus test was performed. Results The Mann-Whitney test with a 5% significance level did not reveal statistically significant differences in micronuclei frequency between the exposed and non-exposed sides (p=0.251). The different brands do not seem to cause risks of inducing genetic damage because there were no statistically significant differences between them (p=0.47). Conclusion Therefore, our results suggest no correlations of micronuclei frequency in the exposed buccal cells of mobile phone users at the exposure standard levels observed.
Abstract in English:Aim This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between clinical findings and some factors such as age, gender, and remaining teeth on the anatomy of the temporomandibular joint in order to diagnose normal variations from abnormal cases. Methods In this cross-sectional study, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of 144 patients referring to Tabriz Dental School for various reasons were selected and evaluated. The different aspects of the clinical parameters and the morphology of the condyle were evaluated on coronal, axial, and sagittal views. The CBCT prepared using the axial cross-sections had been 0.5 mm in thickness. The sagittal cross-sections had been evaluated perpendicular to the lengthy axis of the condyle at a thickness of 1 mm and the coronal cross-sections had been evaluated parallel to the lengthy axis of the condyle at a thickness of 1 mm. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods and t-test, chi-squared test, using SPSS 20. The significance level of the study was p < 0.05. Results There was a significant relationship between the condyle morphology, number of the teeth, and mastication side (p = 0.040). There were significant relationships between the condyle morphology, age between 20-40, and occlusion class I on the all the three views (coronal, axial, sagittal) (p = 0.04), (p = 0.006), (p = 0.006). Also, significant relationships were found in the condyle morphology and location of pain according to age, the number of remaining teeth, and gender. (p = 0.046) (p = 0.027) (p = 0.035). Conclusion There are significant relationships between the clinical symptoms and condyle morphology based on age, gender, and the number of remaining teeth. The clinical finding that has the most significant relationship between the condyle morphology, remaining teeth (9-16 teeth), all of the age range (20-80 year), and gender was mastication side.
Abstract in English:Aim The present study aimed to asses enamel microhardness after office bleaching with diode laser and LED light compared to the conventional bleaching procedure. Methods Thirty-nine human premolar teeth were collected and randomly divided into three groups regarding of the bleaching technique. Group 1: Snow O bleaching gel with LED light-curing unit; Group 2: Snow L bleaching gel with diode laser irradiation; and Group 3: Opalescence Boost bleaching gel with no light source in group 3. Enamel surface changes were evaluated in one tooth in each study group and one intact tooth as a reference under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the remaining samples (n=12), enamel microhardness was determined by Vickers microhardness test before and after bleaching. Data were analyzed with repeated-measures ANOVA to compare microhardness changes, followed by post hoc Tukey tests at the 0.05 significance level. Results Enamel microhardness decreased in all the groups after bleaching, with the maximum decrease in microhardness in the Snow O bleaching group with LED light, which was significantly higher than the other groups (P=0.002). The two other groups did not exhibit any significant difference in microhardness decrease (P>0.05). Conclusion Based on the limitations of this study, it can be concluded power bleaching with 980nm diode laser was less time-consuming compare to conventional bleaching procedure and yielded better outcomes in terms of enamel surface microhardness compared to the use of an LED light-curing unit.
Abstract in English:Aim To evaluate the psychological impact of COVID-19 on undergraduate and graduate students of the Dental School of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo. Methods Three questionnaires were used: sociodemographic, WHO Abbreviated Quality of Life Inventory, and General Anxiety Disorder-7. Data were analyzed using Graph Pad Prism 7a (α = 5%). Mann-Whitney or Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn post-tests were used for statistical comparisons. The Spearman test was used as the correlation test. Results 257 students responded to the online form that assessed their quality of life and anxiety level. On a scale from 1 to 100, with 100 being the best quality of life, the average obtained was 64.71 (± 13.36). In addition, 87.6% of the students rated their quality of life as good or very good. 74.7% reported good or very good health. The anxiety analysis resulted in an average of 10.04 (± 4.5), indicating moderate anxiety levels. There was an inversely proportional correlation between age and degree of anxiety (p = 0.008, r = -0.1628) and self-perceived learning and student commitment (r = 0.69). Conclusion Despite the good quality of life and the students’ good self-perception of health, they showed a moderate degree of anxiety during the social distancing caused by COVID-19, also demonstrating a decrease in interest and commitment during distance education.
Abstract in English:During COVID-19 pandemic, fulminant deep fungal infection started emerging in India, known as Mucormycosis. This type of mucormycosis was termed as COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM). These patients had previous history of COVID-19 infection. Such cases were mainly reported in immunocompromised patients such as patients with poorly controlled diabetes and chronic renal diseases etc. Rhinomaxillary mucormycosis is an aggressive, fulminant, fatal deep fungal infection of head and neck region. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with the disease; hence we present case series of rhinomaxillary mucormycosis to create awareness amongst dental surgeons.