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Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences, Volume: 22, Published: 2023
  • Analgesia for anticoagulated patients requires substituting gabapentin for ibuprofen Letter To The Editor

    Friedlander, Arthur H; Friedlander, Ida k; Berti-Couto, Soraya de Azambuja; Couto-Souza, Paulo
  • Prevalence and influence of dental development anomalies in smile esthetics: a cross-sectional analysis Original Article

    Silva Junior, Marcelo Lucio Sousa; Brito, Millena Lopes de; Carvalho, Breno Wesley Leal; Silva, Elen Maria Carvalho da; Lira, Ana de Lourdes Sá de

    Abstract in English:

    Aim To determine the prevalence of dental development anomalies and type of influence on the smile of adolescent students. Method This was a cross-sectional and analytical study carried out in two public (A1) and two private (A2) schools chosen by lot in the city of Parnaíba-Piauí. The sample calculation was based on the target population: number of people enrolled in public and private schools between 15 and 19 years, in the city of Parnaíba-PI, which totaled 6209 students in 2020, according to a survey carried out by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics – IBGE. A questionnaire on epidemiological data and aesthetic self-perception of the smile was applied to 160 adolescents between 15 and 19 years old, from August 2020 to July 2021. The clinical examination was carried out under natural light, to check for the presence of anomaly(s) in the dental development. Students who presented only one pathology would be called group 1 (G1), those who presented two would be called group 2 (G2) and those who presented 3 or more would be called group 3 (G3). On the other hand, adolescents in whom no anomaly was evidenced would participate in the control group (CG), both in A1 and A2. Results It was observed that 37.5% of the sample had only a type of dental anomaly, corresponding to 60 individuals. The most prevalent were enamel hypoplasia, fusion, transposition, agenesis, ectopic eruption, microdent and dens-in-dent. It was possible to verify a higher prevalence in the maxilla, private schools (76.6%) and females (86.6%). In 45% of adolescents with dental anomalies, embarrassment was observed when smiling. Conclusion The prevalence was relatively high, highlighting the enamel hypoplasia, influencing the smile esthetics of a reasonable number of adolescents, whether for acquaintances, strangers or even for photographs.
  • Triclosan antimicrobial activity against dental-caries-related bacteria Original Article

    Farias, Jade Ormondes de; Santo, Jamilca de Almeida do Espírito; Amorim, Ingrid Aquino; Rezende, Taia Maria Berto

    Abstract in English:

    Triclosan (TCS) is a chlorinated diphenyl ether and a possible active agent against microorganisms. Due to its probability of reducing dental plaque accumulation, TCS can be added as a substance for oral hygiene. Aim To evaluate the efficacy and antimicrobial capacity of TCS against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus mutans. Methods This work evaluates the percentage of bacteria inhibition of P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) and S. mutans (ATCC 25175). TCS concentrations between 2 and 128 µg.mL-1 were tested. Results An inhibitory potential of TCS was found against S. mutans. No percentage of inhibition was detected against P. aeruginosa (technical and biological triplicate). Conclusion TCS, an antimicrobial agent used in dentifrices, can reduce S. mutans levels therefore these dentifrices should be indicated for patients with a high risk of caries. However, further study is needed, including antimicrobial analyses against other microbial conditions.
  • Effects of black tea tooth staining previously to 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching Original Article

    Palandi, Samuel da Silva; Kury, Matheus; Picolo, Mayara Zaghi Dal; Florez, Fernando Luís Esteban; Cavalli, Vanessa

    Abstract in English:

    Aim To determine if the artificial staining with black tea (BT) influences the enamel microhardness before in-office bleaching and if BT staining is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide Methods Enamel/dentin blocks were randomized into groups according to the staining protocol (n=5/group): (CO) control – maintained in artificial saliva solution (AS); (BT4) immersed in black tea solution for 4 h; (BT24) immersed in black tea solution for 24 h. After the staining protocols, all specimens were kept in AS for one week, followed by bleaching (three sessions of HP application for 40 min). Knoop surface microhardness (kgF/mm2) was determined at baseline (T0), after staining (T1), after 7 days of storage in AS (T2), and after bleaching (T3). The color (∆E00) and coordinate changes (∆L, ∆a, ∆b) were measured using a digital spectrophotometer at T0 and T3. Data were submitted to one-way (∆E00, ∆L, ∆a, ∆b) or two-way ANOVA repeated measures (kgF/mm2) and Tukey’s test (a=5%). Results The staining protocols (BT4 and BT24) promoted significantly lower microhardness (T1 and T2, p<0.05) than CO, whereas CO was the only group to maintain microhardness values over time. Bleaching promoted perceptible ∆E00 without a significant difference among the groups regardless of the staining protocol (p=0.122). CO and BT4 showed no differences in terms of ∆L and ∆a (p>0.05), but BT4 displayed a higher ∆b than CO. Conclusion The artificial staining with BT negatively affected the enamel surface microhardness and was not essential to evaluate the efficacy of 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching.
  • The effectiveness of EDTA 17% as a cleaning solution for the fiber post space after filling with cements Original Article

    Paula, Luciana Arruda Mendes de; Reis, Lohara Campos de Abreu; Miranda, Jean Soares; Verner, Francielle Silvestre; Junqueira, Rafael Binato; Carvalho, Rodrigo Furtado de

    Abstract in English:

    Aim To evaluate the resistance of the union between a glass fiber post and radicular dentine after cleaning the root with 17% EDTA and filling with different endodontic cements. Methods Forty uniradicular bovine incisors were removed to obtain root lengths of 18 mm. Endodontic treatment was performed on all roots using different filling cements (zinc oxide and eugenol-based, OZE; cement based on epoxy resin, AH) and cleaning solutions (saline, SA or EDTA), which made it possible to obtain four groups: OZESA, OZEEDTA, AHSA and AHEDTA. Subsequently, 12 mm of filling material was removed from the roots, and they were prepared to receive fiber posts luted with resin cement. To execute the mechanical cycles (2x106 cycles, 90 N, 4 Hz), coronal reconstruction was performed with a silicon matrix. The roots were then sliced (2-mm thick) to perform the push-out test. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance (one factor and two factors) and Tukey’s test (α=0,05). Results Bond strength (Mpa) was significantly higher for OZEEDTA (9,18) and AHEDTA (8,70) than for OZESA (6,06) AHSA (8,7). OZEEDTA also presented the highest values in the cervical region (15,18) but was significantly lower in the apical region (2,99). However, AHEDTA had a homogeneous bond strength in all thirds. Conclusion Regardless of the endodontic cement used, EDTA was used as an irrigating solution, culminating in a higher bond strength between the glass fiber post and dentin.
  • Fracture strength and failure load of CAD/CAM fabricated endocrowns performed with different designs Original Article

    Souza, Fernanda Angeloni de; Cumerlato, Catarina Borges da Fonseca; Feltrin, Pedro Paulo; Inoue, Ricardo Tatsuo; Zanetti, Raquel Virginia

    Abstract in English:

    Aim Endocrown restorations are commonly used to rehabilitate endodontically treated posterior teeth and their use is well-founded in these cases. However, to date, there is little scientific evidence of their behavior in anterior teeth. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the compressive strength of upper central incisors teeth, restored with glass-ceramic total crowns by the conventional anatomical core technique, and compare them to teeth restored with endocrowns with and without the presence of ferrule. Methods Thirty teeth were randomly distributed into three groups: GE2 - endocrown group with 2 mm ferrule, GE0 - endocrown group without a ferrule, and GC - conventional crown with intraradicular post group. Crowns were cemented and teeth submitted to the 45o compression test until the fracture happened. Fractured specimens were analyzed to determine the fracture pattern. Descriptive analysis of the variables was performed and one-way analysis of variance was utilized to analyze the data for significant differences at p < 0.05. Results The results of the control group (284.5 ± 201.05N) showed the highest fracture resistance value, followed by the 2mm group (274.54 ± 199.43N) and by the 0mm group (263.81 ± 80.05N). There was no statistically significant difference between all the groups (p = 0.964). Conclusions The absence of a cervical enamel necklace favored a debonding of the pieces and endodontically treated anterior teeth could be restored with endocrown, which could be considered a conservative and viable treatment option.
  • Effect of phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, a protease inhibitor, on enamel surface remineralization Original Article

    Peres, Paulo Edelvar Corrêa; Fu, Jean; Zero, Domenick T; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    Abstract in English:

    Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) is a protease inhibitor widely used in research, but fluoride is released during its action and this knowledge has been neglected in dental research. Aim to evaluate if fluoride released by salivary protease action on PMSF affects enamel remineralization and fluoride uptake. Methods Groups of 10 enamel slabs, with caries-like lesions and known surface hardness (SH), were subjected to one of the following treatment groups: Stimulated human saliva (SHS), negative control; SHS containing 1.0 μg F/mL (NaF), positive control; and SHS containing 10, 50 or 100 µM PMSF. The slabs were subjected to a pH-cycling regimen consisting of 22 h/day in each treatment solution and 2 h/day in a demineralizing solution. After 12 days, SH was again measured to calculate the percentage of surface hardness recovery (%SHR), followed by enamel fluoride uptake determination. The time-related fluoride release from 100.0 µM PMSF by SHS action was also determined. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls test. Results The release of fluoride from PMSF by SHS was rapid, reaching a maximum value after 10 min. Fluoride released from PMSF was more effective in enhancing %SHR and increasing fluoride uptake in enamel compared with SHS alone (p < 0.05); furthermore, it was equivalent to the positive control (p > 0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, fluoride released by saliva from PMSF is available to react with enamel and needs to be taken into account in research using this protease inhibitor.
  • Prevalence of depressive symptoms among dental students is influenced by sex, academic performance, smoking exposure, and sexual orientation: cross-sectional study Original Article

    Freitas, Bruna Oliveira de; Casarin, Maísa; Almeida, Rafaela Zazyki de; Gomes, Jessica Maria Pessoa; Cepeda, Isadora Vilas Boas; Muniz, Francisco Wilker Mustafa Gomes

    Abstract in English:

    Aim To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of self-reported depressive symptoms in undergraduate and graduate dental students. Methods The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) was applied, and only the depression domain was verified. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, behavioral, and COVID-19 pandemic-related fear variables. Academic performance was assessed based on academic records, ranging from 0 (worst possible grade) to 10 (best possible grade). Respondents included 408 regularly enrolled dental students. Bi- and multivariate analyses were performed using Poisson regression with robust variance to verify the association between at least moderate depressive symptoms and independent variables. Results The prevalence of at least moderate depression was 40.5% among undergraduate students and 26% among graduate students. The prevalence of fear and anxiety due to the COVID-19 pandemic was 96.1% among undergraduate students and 93.5% among graduate students. In the final multivariate analysis, being female (prevalence ratio [PR]:2.01; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]:1.36–2.96) was associated with a higher PR for depression. Conversely, no exposure to smoking (PR:0.54; 95%CI:0.36–0.82) and a final academic performance average ≥7.0 (PR:0.56; 95%CI:0.41–0.76) was associated with a lower PR for depression. Finally, among graduate students, a non-heterosexual orientation was associated with a higher PR for depression (PR:6.70; 95%CI:2.21–20.29). Conclusion Higher rates of depression symptoms were observed in female undergraduates, students with lower academic performance and smoking exposure, and graduate dental students with a non-heterosexual orientation.
  • Higher maternal age is associated with higher occurrence of cleft lip/palate in neonates under intensive care Original Article

    Maurique, Luísa de Souza; Muniz, Francisco Wilker Mustafa Gomes; Silveira, Nathalia Preissler Vaz; Camassola, Melissa; Oliveira, Bibiana Mello de

    Abstract in English:

    Aim To assess the prevalence of cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL/P) and associated variables in neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care units (ICU). Methods Medical charts for neonates born and admitted to the ICU between 2012 and 2018 were reviewed. Obstetric and neonatal variables were collected by a trained researcher. In the case group, all neonates with CL/P were included. The control group was formed by matching sex, prematurity and month of birth using random number generation. Neonates with congenital malformations were excluded from the control group. Adjusted logistic regression was used (p<0.05). Results The prevalence of CL/P was 0.43% (n=15). Five cases were excluded, as pairing was not possible. Twenty neonates were included in the control group. In the final multivariate model, CL/P was only associated with increased maternal age. For each year of increase in maternal age, neonates had a 35.2% higher chance of presenting CL/P (95% confidence interval: 1.021–1.792). Conclusions Higher maternal age was associated with higher occurrence of CL/P in neonates admitted to the ICU. No other neonatal or maternal independent variables were associated with CL/P. Due to missing data, interpretation of study results must be approached with caution.
  • Longitudinal analyses of composite resin restoration on erosive lesions: effect of dentin treatment with a chitosan nanoformulation containing green tea Original Article

    Reis, Renato Gonçalves dos; Tedesco, Antônio Cláudio; Curylofo-Zotti, Fabiana Almeida; Cortez, Thiago Vinicius; Borges, Hiago Salge; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    Abstract in English:

    Aim To evaluate the influence of the biomodification of erosive lesions with a chitosan nanoformulation containing green tea (NanoCsQ) on the clinical performance of a composite resin. Methods The study was performed in a split-mouth, randomized and double-blinded model with 20 patients with 40 erosive lesions. The patient’s teeth were randomized into two groups (n=20) according to the surface treatment: 1) Without biomodification (control), and 2) Biomodification with NanoCsQ solution (experimental). The lesions were restored with adhesive (Tetric N-bond, Ivoclar) and composite resin (IPS Empress Direct, Ivoclar). The restorations were polished and 7 days (baseline), 6 months, and 12 months later were evaluated according to the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) modified criteria, using clinical exam and photographics. Data were analyzed by Friedman’s and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results No significant differences were found between the control and experimental groups (p=0.423), and also among the follow-up periods (baseline, six months, and 12 months) (p=0.50). Regarding the retention criteria, 90% of the restoration had an alpha score in the control group. Only 10% of the restorations without biomodification (control) had a score charlie at the 12-month follow-up. None of the patients reported post-operatory sensitivity. Conclusion The NanoCsQ solution did not negatively affect the performance of the composite resin restorations after 12 months.
  • Temporomandibular disorders and associated comorbidities among brazilian dental students during COVID-19 Original Article

    Silva, Francyéllen Teixeira da; Knorst, Jessica Klöckner; Maracci, Lucas Machado; Ferrazzo, Vilmar Antônio; Liedke, Gabriela Salatino; Silva, Tatiana Bernardon; Marquezan, Mariana

    Abstract in English:

    Aim This study aimed to assess the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and psychosocial comorbidities in undergraduate dental students in a southern Brazilian university, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Also, it aimed to verify the association between psychosocial factors and TMD. Methods Fonseca Anamnestic Index, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), a socioeconomic questionnaire, and questions about academic performance and social distancing were applied. Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the association of predictive variables with TMD. Results The prevalence of TMD was found to be 82.4%, and more than half of the students had some degree of stress, anxiety, and depression. Students who had symptoms of stress (RR 1.11; 95% CI 1.04-1.19), anxiety (RR 1.19; 95% CI 1.12-1.27) and reported academic performance worsening (RR 1.12; 95% CI 1.07-1.19) had higher TMD scores. Conclusion The findings suggest that TMD was highly prevalent among dental students at a federal university in southern Brazil during the pandemic, being associated with high levels of stress, anxiety, poor academic performance, and greater social distancing.
  • COVID-19 pandemic and impact on dental education: perception of Brazilian dental students Original Article

    Dias, Clarissa de Aguiar; Karam, Sarah Arangurem; Cumerlato, Catarina Borges da Fonseca; Sartori, Letícia Regina Morello; Fernandez, Matheus dos Santos; Silva, Nathália Ribeiro Jorge da; Bielavski, Camilla Hubner; Silva, Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro; Castilhos, Eduardo Dickie de; Correa, Marcos Britto

    Abstract in English:

    Aim The aim of the present study is to assess the perception of undergraduate students on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Brazilian dental education. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted using an online questionnaire hosted in Google Forms platform and publicized on Instagram® and Facebook®. The questionnaire was available between July 8-27, 2020. Absolute and relative frequencies were obtained for variables of interest using Pearson’s chi-squared and considering 95% confidence intervals. Prevalence of learning resource variables according to self-reported skin color, educational institution, and Brazilian region were presented using equiplots. Results A total of 1,050 undergraduate dental students answered the questionnaire. Most students reported being in full-distance learning mode. Among the undergraduate students, 65.4% reported perceiving a very high impact in dental education, and 16.6% of students reported not being able to follow distance learning. In addition, 14% reported not having a personal laptop or desktop to study with, with this condition being more prevalent among non-white than white individuals. Conclusion We conclude that Brazilian dental students perceived a high impact of COVID-19 on dental education, as well as one-sixth of the students reported not having adequate resources to continue with distance learning. It is important that different policies are developed at the institutional and governmental levels to reduce the impact of the pandemic on dental education.
  • Bond strength of bulk fill composite to teeth prepared with Er:YAG laser Original Article

    Benati, Marcos Roberto de Lima; Baioni, Jean Carlos; Souza, Amanda Guerra Cavalcante de; Ferraz, Laura Nobre; Oliveira, Ana Luisa Botta Martins de; Vitti, Rafael Pino; Scatolin, Renata Siqueira

    Abstract in English:

    Aim The present in vitro study aimed to evaluate the bond strength of a bulk fill composite on dentin surfaces prepared with the Er: YAG laser. Methods Twenty-four permanent third molars were selected and divided into 2 groups: CP - Conventional preparation with high-speed handpiece (control) and LA (laser) - Preparation with Er: YAG laser. The occlusal surface was removed to expose coronal dentin, which was subsequently prepared with a high-speed handpiece or Er: YAG laser (350mJ, 4Hz, 1.5 ml/min water flow). Both groups were restored with Filtek One Bulk Fill (3M ESPE) composite resin. After 24 hours, the samples were evaluated for microtensile bond strength (µTBS), fracture pattern, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results The data obtained in the µTBS test were submitted to t-test (α=0.05). The results showed no difference in µTBS when the different types of cavity preparation were compared (ρ=0.091). Fracture patterns revealed the prevalence of cohesive fracture in composite resin in CP (83.3%) and adhesive fracture in LA (92.1%). In the SEM analysis, the LA group demonstrated the presence of gaps between the composite resin and the irradiated dentin surface. The hybrid layer exhibited more regularity with the presence of longer and uniform resin tags in the CP group. Conclusion The type of cavity preparation did not influence the values of bulk fill composite resin µTBS to dentin. Fracture patterns and scanning electron microscopy analyses suggested less interference at the adhesive interface in preparations performed using CP.
  • Use of scanning electron microscope to evaluate the marginal fit of protocol bars obtained through benchtop or intraoral digital scanners Original Article

    Parizotto, Renês Augusto; Cavalli, Vanessa; Zandoná, Rafael Lacerda; Carvalho, Geraldo Alberto Pinheiro de; Franco, Aline Batista Gonçalves; Ramos, Elimario Venturin; Dias, Sérgio Candido

    Abstract in English:

    Aim To evaluate the marginal fit of protocol bars milled from digital models obtained by conventional molding followed by bench scanning or digital molding with an intraoral scanner. Methods Four morse-cone implants and the mini-pillars were installed in a 3D printed mandible model (master model). Digital models of the master model were obtained by (n=10): (Group A - Conventional) conventional (analog) molding of the master model followed by bench scanning or (Group B - Digital) molding of the master model with an intraoral scanner. All-on-four protocol bars were designed and milled from the digital models for both groups and screwed into the master model. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images from the distal, central, and mesial regions of each implant were obtained and the implant-protocol bar marginal fit was measured in an image software (Image J). The mean misfit of each region was analyzed by two-factor ANOVA, Tukey test, and Student’s t-test (0,05 = 0.05). Results The digital approach (B) showed higher misadaptation than the conventional approach (A, p < 0.05), regardless of the region evaluated. In group A, the central region showed higher maladjustment than the mesial region (p<0.05), however, there were no differences among regions of group B (p>0.05). Conclusion The conventional method of acquiring digital models using the bench scanner produced bars for the All-On-Four protocol with better marginal fit than the digital models obtained with an intraoral scanner.
  • The peri-implant ligament: a scoping review Original Article

    Nascimento, Marvin do; Souza, Bruno Martins de; Posch, Aline Tany

    Abstract in English:

    The peri-implant ligament is formed from the interface of bone tissue, through the anchoring of proteins and the surface of the dental implant. In this sense, it is relevant to understand the extent to which this ligament is structured and biomimics the periodontal ligament functions. Aim The goal of this scoping review is to present and analyze the peri-implant ligament composition and compare the extent to which this ligament is structured and biomimics the periodontal ligament functions. Methods This scoping review was performed according to the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology for scoping reviews and following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses extension for scoping review. Two independent researchers searched Pubmed, Cochrane, Embase, Virtual Health Library, Scielo, Scopus, Web of Science, Brazilian Bibliography of Dentistry, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations from the University of São Paulo and Portal Capes. Studies published in English, Portuguese and Spanish, over the last 21 years (2000-2021). Results A total of 330 titles were identified and after applying inclusion and exclusion factors, 27 studies were included in this review. All proteins were identified regarding their tissue function and classified into 6 major protein groups. After that this new protein ligament was compared with the periodontal ligament regarding its function and composition. The main proteins associated with osseointegration, and thus, with the peri-implant ligament are recognized as belonging to the periodontal ligament. Conclusion This scoping review results suggest evidence of the composition and function of the peri-implant ligament. However, variations may still exist due to the existence of several modulants of the osseointegration process.
  • Dental trauma and oral health-related quality of life among 7th-grade students of public elementary schools Original Article

    Catananti, Isabella Silva; Abreu-e-Lima, Fabio Cesar Braga de; Silva, Silvio Rocha Corrêa da; Pardi, Vanessa; Tagliaferro, Elaine Pereira da Silva

    Abstract in English:

    Dental trauma is a public health problem because of its high prevalence rates and treatment costs and for affecting mainly younger individuals. Aim This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the variables associated with dental trauma and its influence on oral health-related quality of life among 7th-grade students of public elementary schools. Methods The data was collected with semi-structured and self-administered questionnaires and an intraoral clinical examination (n = 204). The variables collected regarded dental trauma, lip coverage, overjet, oral health-related quality of life (Child Perceptions Questionnaire - CPQ11-14 ISF: 8), and sociodemographic profile. Association tests and the Mann-Whitney test were performed at a 5% significance level. Results Dental trauma occurred in 12.3% of students, 94.6% had adequate lip coverage, and the mean overjet was 2.7 mm (±2.0). Sex was the only variable with a statistically significant association with dental trauma (p = 0.021). There was no statistically significant difference in the CPQ11-14 ISF: 8 score between students with and without dental trauma (p = 0.136). Conclusions Dental trauma was significantly associated with sex and did not impact the oral health-related quality of life of the students.
  • Xerostomia and dysgeusia in the elderly: prevalence of and association with polypharmacy Original Article

    Guimarães, Danielly de Mendonça; Parro, Yeda Maria; Muller, Herick Sampaio; Coelho, Eduardo Barbosa; Martins, Vicente de Paulo; Santana, Rafael; Lia, Érica Negrini

    Abstract in English:

    Xerostomia is defined as the perception of dry mouth, and dysgeusia, as a change in taste. Both are common complaints in the elderly, especially among those making use of polypharmacy drug combinations. Aim This study aimed to determine the prevalence of xerostomia and dysgeusia and to investigate their association with polypharmacy in the elderly. Methods older people under follow-up at the Multidisciplinary Elderly Center of the University Hospital of Brasília were interviewed and asked about health problems, medications used, presence of xerostomia and dysgeusia. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the prevalence of the symptoms surveyed. The chi-square test was used to investigate the relationship between xerostomia and dysgeusia and polypharmacy. Secondary associations were performed using binomial logistic regression. Results Ninety-six older people were evaluated and of these, 62.5% had xerostomia and 21.1%, had dysgeusia. The average number of medications used was 4±3 medications per individual. Polypharmacy was associated with xerostomia but not dysgeusia. It was possible to associate xerostomia with the use of antihypertensive drugs. Conclusion Xerostomia was a frequent complaint among elderly people making use of polypharmacy, especially those using antihypertensives. Antihypertensives and antidepressants were used most drugs by the elderly and exhibited interactions with drugs most prescribed in Dentistry. Two contraindications were found between fluconazole and mirtazapine; and between erythromycin and simvastatin.
  • Maximum bilateral bite strength and RMS EMG for the diagnosis of myogenic TMD Original Article

    Pires, Paulo Fernandes; Pelai, Elisa Bizetti; Moraes, Marcio de; Carletti, Ester Moreira de Castro; Mescollotto, Fabiana Foltran; Berzin, Fausto; Bigaton, Delaine Rodrigues

    Abstract in English:

    Aim The study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the maximum bilateral molar bite force and the Root Mean Square (RMS) Electromyography (EMG) index of the masticatory muscles in the maximum bilateral molar bite (MMBMax) of women with myogenic Temporomandibular Disorder (TMD) and asymptomatic. Methods This is a cross-sectional study, composed of 86 women allocated to the TMD Group (n=43) and Control Group (n=43) diagnosis through the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. The maximum bilateral molar bite force was evaluated using a bite dynamometer and the RMS EMG index of the masticatory muscles (anterior temporalis, masseter) during 5 seconds of the MMBMax task. Student t-test was used for data comparison between accuracy of the bite force and RMS EMG of masticatory muscles during the MMBMax. Results The maximum bilateral molar bite force showed high accuracy (AUC=0.99) for the diagnosis of women with myogenic TMD and asymptomatic women, and the RMS EMG index evaluated during the MMBMax showed a moderate level of accuracy for all masticatory muscles (AUC=0.70 to 0.75). Conclusion The bilateral bite dynamometer with a surface EMG during bilateral bite can be used to diagnose TMD in young women.
  • A survey on brazilian dentists’ awareness, perception, and knowledge of bisphosphonates Original Article

    Nunes, Raquel Laís Ottoni; Anjos, Nicole Ribeiro dos; Lima, Luciano Henrique Ferreira; Viana, Ana Paula Cota; Pereira, Larissa de Ávila; Bruzinga, Fábio Fernandes Borém; Grossmann, Soraya de Mattos Camargo

    Abstract in English:

    Aim The purpose of the study was to analyze the knowledge of dentists in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, about bisphosphonates and their clinical implications. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted with a convenience sample of dentists in Belo Horizonte, in a period of 8 weeks. The questionnaire was self-applied and was structured with 10 items about the dentists’ demographic characteristics, professional profile, and knowledge about bisphosphonates. Associations in the data were analyzed by with the Fischer’s exact test with a significance level of 5%. Results Of the 214 participating dentists, 163 (76.17%) were women, and 51 (23.83%) were men, with age ranged for 21 to 73 years (mean of 30 years) and mean of 6 years of professional activity. Nearly half (106/49.53%) reported having knowledge about bisphosphonates, and undergraduate courses were the primary source of such information (73/34.11%). Osteoporosis was the most identified indication for use (75/35.04%), although no participants correctly identified all indications. Regarding the drugs’ side effects, only three dentists (1.40%) could correctly identify all responses, with bone necrosis being recognized by the majority (88/41.12%). Sodium alendronate (54/25.23%) and sodium ibandronate (15/7.01%) were the most identified examples of bisphosphonates. Last, only nine dentists (4.20%) could identify all examples of the drugs, and their capacity was associated with self-reported knowledge (p<0.05). Conclusions More information about bisphosphonates should be disseminated in Belo Horizonte, ideally via better approaches in local undergraduate and postgraduate courses. Until then, knowledge of the basic aspects of bisphosphonates will remain limited.
  • Association of sociodemographic characteristics, mental health, and sleep quality with COVID-19 fear in an elderly Brazilian population Original Article

    Carletti, Talita Malini; Meira, Ingrid Andrade; Gama, Lorena Tavares; Medeiros, Mariana Marinho Davino de; Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus Rodrigues

    Abstract in English:

    Aim This study determined whether COVID-19 fear is correlated with sociodemographic characteristics, general health, mental health, and sleep quality in an elderly Brazilians. Methods Elderly people aged ≥ 60 years replied to an online survey containing questions about their sociodemographic characteristics; general health; levels of stress, anxiety, and depression; sleep quality; and COVID fear. Results Data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics (α = 5%). In total, 705 elderly people with mean age of 66 ± 5 years, and most (82.7%) respondents were women, graduated and from southeastern Brazil. COVID-19 fear correlated positively and moderately with sleep quality and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress (all p < 0.001). It was associated with females. Elderly people from northern and northeastern Brazil and diabetics had increased COVID-19 fear (all p < 0.05). Conclusion The fear of COVID-19 exists among Brazilian female old people, diabetics, increases anxiety and stress symptoms, and worsen sleep quality in elderly people.
  • Impact of xerostomia and the use of dental prosthesis on the quality of life of elderly: a cross-sectional study Original Article

    Demarchi, Larissa Steilmann; Vogel, Mayara Trapp; Haubert, Gabrielle; Rigo, Lilian

    Abstract in English:

    Aim To evaluate the impact of xerostomia, edentulism, use of dental prosthesis, and presence of chronic diseases on quality of life in relation to oral health in institutionalized elderly individuals. Methods This is a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was administered containing the following instruments: Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), which measures the quality of life related to oral health; the Summated Xerostomia Inventory questionnaire (SXI-PL) for evaluation of xerostomia, sociodemographic data, clinical description, and patient-reported factors was assessed (edentulism, use of dental prostheses, and chronic diseases). Results Most elderly individuals did not have any teeth in their mouths and used dental prosthesis. The impact on quality of life, considering the mean of the OHIP-14 scores, was positive in 58.3% of the elderly. Those who used a dental prosthesis were three times more likely to have their oral health negatively impacted (OR=3.09; 95%CI =1.17 8.11), compared to those who did not use, and individuals with xerostomia were more likely to have their oral health negatively impacted (OR=1.57; 95%CI=1.25-1.98) compared to those without xerostomia. There was no difference in the quality of life of individuals with and without chronic diseases. Conclusions The feeling of dry mouth and use of dental prostheses negatively impacted the quality of life in relation to oral health of the elderly.
  • Oral mucositis and microbial status in acute lymphoblastic leukemia subjects undergoing high-dose chemotherapy Original Article

    Duarte, Ana Cláudia Nunes; Barbosa, Anderson Nogueira; Saito, Cristiane Pereira Borges; Paula, Erich Vinicius de; Saito, Daniel

    Abstract in English:

    Aim To assess oral microbial status in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and to unravel possible associations between nosocomial pathogens and the establishment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis (CIOM). Methods Oral mucosa, saliva, and peripheral blood samples were collected from 46 ALL subjects one day prior to chemotherapy (D0) and 2 weeks after treatment initiation (D14). Clinical intraoral inspection was performed by a single practitioner, with mucositis classification performed according to the WHO oral toxicity scale. Blood components were quantified by automatic flow cytometry, while oral Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction with species-specific primers. Associations among bacteria and clinical findings were determined by Fisher’s Exact test, longitudinal bacterial changes by paired Macnemar, and correlations among blood parameters and mucositis status or bacteria via Mann-Whitney. Results S. aureus displayed higher detection rates at D14 (p < 0.05) and was positively associated with mucositis, adoption of a non-solid diet (all p < 0.001), nausea and fever (all p < 0.05). Conversely, P. aeruginosa did not correlate to CIOM clinical parameters. At the systemic standpoint, lower hemoglobin levels associated with CIOM and fever events (all p < 0.01). Conclusion The study evidences S. aureus as a potential pathogen in ALL-CIOM, reaffirming microbial control as an important preventive measure during high-dose immunosuppressive therapy. The weight of non-white-blood-cell parameters should be validated as novel CIOM biomarkers in prospective research.
  • Dentin permeability after pretreatment with titanium tetrafluoride and self-etching or universal adhesive systems Original Article

    Franco, Gabriel Greco; Cardoso, Ruthinea Faria de Moraes; Carlos, Natália Russo; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho do; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    Abstract in English:

    Aim To evaluate dentin permeability after pretreatment with 2.5% aqueous solution of titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4), followed by a self-etching universal adhesive system. Methods Forty dentin discs (1.5 mm thick) were randomly divided into groups according to the application or non-application of a pretreatment, and the type of adhesive system to be tested (two-step self-etching/ Clearfil SE Bond/ Kuraray Medical, or universal adhesive system/ Single Bond Universal/ 3M ESPE). Both sides of the discs were conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid to remove the smear layer. The first hydraulic conductivity measurement (L1) was performed in a permeability machine, under 5 PSI pressure. The samples were sanded again to form a standardized smear layer. The teeth designated for pre-treatment with TiF4 received the TiF4 solutions applied actively for 60 seconds, and the adhesive systems were applied according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Then, a new hydraulic conductivity measurement (L2) was performed for the purpose of calculating the hydraulic conductance at a later time, considering the water viscosity and the thickness of the specimen. The percentage (L) of dentin permeability after application of the adhesive system was obtained (L (%) = [(L1-L2) x100] / L1). The Mann-Whitney non-parametric test was applied. Results There was no difference between the two adhesive systems, or between the groups with or without pretreatment, as regards dentin permeability (p>0.05). Conclusion Pretreatment with 2.5% TiF4 did not influence dentin permeability, irrespective of the adhesive system used.
  • Prevalence of soft tissue calcifications in the maxillofacial region – a radiographic study Original Article

    Darwin, Deepthi; Castelino, Renita Lorina; Babu, Gogineni Subhas; Asan, Mohamed Faizal

    Abstract in English:

    Aim To evaluate the prevalence of soft tissue calcifications in orofacial region and their panoramic radiographic characteristics using digital panoramic radiographs among patients reporting to a tertiary dental hospital. Methods 1,578 digital panoramic radiographs were retrieved from the archives and scrutinized for the presence of calcifications. Soft tissue calcifications were recorded according to age, gender, site (left or right). Data were analysed using Chi-square and Fisher’s exact test using SPSS software and a p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Among the total number of radiographs, calcified carotid artery (34.3%), calcified stylohyoid ligament (21%), tonsillolith (10.3%), phlebolith (17.6%), antrolith (6.3%), sialolith (5.9%), rhinolith (2.5%) and calcified lymph nodes (1.9%) were identified. The most commonly observed calcifications were calcification of carotid artery and stylohyoid ligament and the least commonly observed calcifications were rhinolith and calcified lymph node. A statistically significant association of the presence of calcifications of carotid artery and stylohyoid ligament on the left and right side was observed in females and tonsillolith on the right side in males (p-value < 0.05). Considering the gender and age group, the occurrence of antrolith among males and rhinolith among females of young-adult population, tonsillolith among the males, calcified carotid artery and stylohyoid ligament among the females of middle-aged population was found to be significant. Conclusion Soft tissue calcifications are often encountered in dental panoramic radiographs. Our study revealed that the soft tissue calcifications in orofacial region were more common in women and were found to be increased above 40 years of age.
  • Fixed and on-demand regimens of acetaminophen in periodontal surgery: randomized clinical trial Original Article

    Piardi, Carla Cioato; Vaz, Cristiane Galli; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso; Pilger, Diogo; Fernandes, Marilene Issa; Weidlich, Patrícia

    Abstract in English:

    Aim to evaluate the clinical efficacy of an acetaminophen analgesic by comparing its prescription in fixed versus on-demand schedules after periodontal surgery. The hypothesis of the study was that the fixed regimen would be more effective than the on-demand regimen for postoperative analgesics following periodontal surgery. Methods An open randomized clinical trial was conducted. The 68 patients who needed total flap surgery to restore supracrestal tissue attachment or surgical treatment of periodontitis were randomized”. Visual Analogue Scale was used to assess pain. The fixed group (n = 34) received 500 mg of acetaminophen every 4 hours for 2 days. The on-demand group (n = 34) was instructed to use the acetaminophen “as needed,” at intervals of no less than 4 hours between doses. Ibuprofen was the rescue medication for both groups. Pain scores and medication use were recorded 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after the surgical procedure. The study was registered at the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials under RBR-7wv259. Results The two groups did not differ in relation to the frequency or the intensity of pain in a 48-hour period (n=20 in the fixed group, and n=22 in the on-demand group), or even in the intention-to-treat (n=34 in each group). Individuals who experienced moderate to severe pain used rescue medication more frequently in both groups. No adverse events were reported. Conclusion Both regimens were effective in controlling postoperative pain after periodontal surgery.
  • Influence of the cervical margin relocation on stress distribution - a finite element analysis on lower first molar restored by direct nano-ceramic composite Original Article

    Aggan, Nabil al; Nabih, Sameh Mahmoud; Hady, Abd Allah Ahmed Abd Al

    Abstract in English:

    Aim Evaluate the influence of the cervical margin relocation (CMR) on stress distribution in the lower first molar restored with direct nano-ceramic composite (zenit). Methods A 3D model of the lower first molar was modeled and used. Standardized mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) preparation consisted in two models used in this study with mesial subgingival margin in model II. (CMR) was applied in model II using flowable composite or resin glass ionomer (Riva). Both models were restored with nanoceramic composite and then subjected to six runs (2 for the model I and 4 for model II) with load (100N) as two load cases, one at (11º) and other at (45º) from the vertical axis. The stress distributions (FEA) in the final restoration and (CMR) material were analyzed using 3D models. Results The two models recorded an equivalent Von Mises stress and Total deformation in the final restoration, regardless of the difference in the oblique angle incidence from (11º to 45º) or the type of the material used for (CMR) there was no significant difference in the (FEA) between the model with CMR (model II) and the model without CMR (model I). Conclusions (CMR) technique seems to be biomechanically beneficial with high eccentric applied stress, (CMR) with resin glass ionomer or flowable composite resin in combination with nanoceramic composite improved the biomechanical behavior of (MOD) cavities extended below cement enamel junction (CMR) with high modulus elasticity material like (Riva) exhibits a more uniform stress distribution.
  • Bottom/top hardness ratio and dentin bonding stability of conventional and bulk-fill resin composites Original Article

    Marinho, Maria Eduarda Lima do Nascimento; Sousa-Lima, Rodolfo Xavier de; Chaves, Letícia Virgínia Freitas; Borges, Boniek Castillo Dutra

    Abstract in English:

    Aim To evaluate the bottom/top hardness ratio (B/T) and the dentin bonding stability of conventional and bulk-fill resin composites in high c-factor preparations. Methods Regular conventional (Tetric N-Ceram – TNC, and Polofil Supra – PFS), regular bulk-fill (Tetric N-Ceram Bulk fill – TBF, and Admira Fusion X-tra – AFX), and low viscosity bulk-fill resin composites (Tetric N-flow – TNF, and X-tra Base – XTB) were used to restore 180 dentin conical preparations. The specimens were randomly distributed in 12 groups (n = 15) according to the resin composites and storage time-points (24 h and six months) tested. After 24 h storage, all specimens were subjected to the bottom/top hardness ratio analysis. Then, the push-out bond strength test was performed in half of the specimens and the other half were maintained for six months on water storage before testing. The failure modes were analyzed in a stereomicroscopic. The data were analyzed statistically using one- and two-way ANOVA and Tukey post-test (p <0.05). Results There were no statistically significant differences for the bottom/top hardness ratio among the resin composites (p>0.05). Regardless of the storage time-point, regular bulk-fill resin composites showed the highest bond strength values statistically (p<0.05). Only conventional resin composites showed statistically lower bond strength values at six-month storage (p<0.05). Adhesive failures were more predominant for low-viscosity bulk-fill resin composites. Conclusion Although the DoC was not affected by different materials tested, only bulk-fill resin composites did not present dentin bond strength loss after six-month of water storage.
  • Prevalence of permanent numeric dental anomalies in panoramic radiography in an Iranian population Original Article

    Shokri, Abbas; Bakhshaei, Anahita; Tapak, Leili; Shokouhi, Parisa

    Abstract in English:

    Aim Dental number anomalies are a group of congenital developmental disorders divided into two groups supernumerary and missing teeth. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of numeric dental anomalies using panoramic images in patients referred to the Hamadan Dental Faculty. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 2,197 panoramic radiographs of patients aged 6-49 years were evaluated. These anomalies are divided into two groups: 1) Supernumerary teeth, including Mesiodens, Distodens, and Peridens, and 2) Missing teeth, including Hypodontia, Oligodontia, and Anodontia. A Chi-square test was performed to assess the relationship between the anomalies. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 16, in which P-value < 0.05 was considered the statistical significance level. Results Of 736 males (32.2%) and 1548 females (67.8%) in this study, 32 (4.3%) and 55 cases (3.8%) had supernumerary teeth, respectively. The prevalence of supernumerary teeth was 0.3%, 0.5%, and 0.6% in males and 0.2%, 1% and 1.2% in females for mesiodens, distodens, and peridens, respectively. Also, 243 males (10.6%) and 655 females (28.6%) had missing teeth anomalies. Hypodontia in the maxilla was the most common anomaly in both genders, while mesiodens was the least common. Conclusion Hypodontia was the most common anomaly, followed by peridens; the least common anomaly was mesiodens. The prevalence of supernumerary teeth was greater in males, though the difference was not statistically significant. In comparison, females had a greater prevalence of missing teeth.
  • Influence of diameter in the stress distribution of extra-short dental implants under axial and oblique load: a finite element analysis Original Article

    Vargas-Moreno, Vanessa Felipe; Gomes, Rafael Soares; Ribeiro, Michele Costa de Oliveira; Freitas, Mariana Itaborai Moreira; Cury, Altair Antoninha Del Bel; Marcello-Machado, Raissa Micaella

    Abstract in English:

    Aim This study evaluated the influence of a wide diameter on extra-short dental implant stress distribution as a retainer for single implant-supported crowns in the atrophic mandible posterior region under axial and oblique load. Methods Four 3D digital casts of an atrophic mandible, with a single implant-retained crown with a 3:1 crown-to-implant ratio, were created for finite element analysis. The implant diameter used was either 4 mm (regular) or 6 mm (wide), both with 5 mm length. A 200 N axial or 30º oblique load was applied to the mandibular right first molar occlusal surface. The equivalent von Mises stress was recorded for the abutment and implant, minimum principal stress, and maximum shear stress for cortical and cancellous bone. Results Oblique load increased the stress in all components when compared to axial load. Wide diameter implants showed a decrease of von Mises stress around 40% in both load directions at the implant, and an increase of at least 3.6% at the abutment. Wide diameter implants exhibited better results for cancellous bone in both angulations. However, in the cortical bone, the minimum principal stress was at least 66% greater for wide than regular diameter implants, and the maximum shear stress was more than 100% greater. Conclusion Extra-short dental implants with wide diameter result in better biomechanical behavior for the implant, but the implications of a potential risk of overloading the cortical bone and bone loss over time, mainly under oblique load, should be investigated.
  • Calcium hydroxide diffusion after agitation of endodontic irrigants: an ex vivo study Original Article

    Wakasugui, Lucas Takeo; Perin, Camila Paiva; Abuabara, Allan; Gabardo, Marilisa Carneiro Leão; Roskamp, Liliane; Baratto-Filho, Flares; Mattos, Natanael Henrique Ribeiro

    Abstract in English:

    Aim To compare the influence of two methods of agitation of endodontics irrigants, by diffusion of calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] through the dentinal tubules, measuring the pH of the medium where they were kept. Methods Twenty mandibular incisors were prepared using a WaveOne Gold Large file, in a reciprocating movement, and then divided into (n = 10): gutta-percha cone (GPC) or Easy Clean system (ECS) agitation of 1% sodium hypochlorite and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The specimens were filled with Ca(OH)2 paste, placed in flasks with 4 mL of deionized water, and stored in an incubator. The pH was read using a digital pH meter immediately after storage (T0), after 7 (T1), 14 (T2), 21 (T3), and 35 (T4) days. Results Statistical difference between groups was observed regardless of the day pH was measured (p < 0.01). From T2 on, ECS presented higher pH values in comparison with GPC, with significant difference (p < 0.01). Conclusion Agitation of endodontic irrigants with ECS enhances the Ca(OH)2 diffusion, providing higher pH values, from the 14th day on, when compared with GPC.
  • Prevalence and factors associated with gummy smile in adolescents: a cross-sectional analysis Original Article

    Brito, Millena Lopes de; Silva Junior, Marcelo Lucio Sousa; Carvalho, Breno Wesley Leal; Silva, Elen Maria Carvalho da; Lira, Ana De Lourdes Sá de

    Abstract in English:

    Aim To evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with gummy smiles in adolescents aged between 15 and 18 years attending high school. Methods The cross-sectional and quantitative study was carried out during the Covid-19 pandemic, with 160 adolescents, from two public (A1) and two private (A2) schools chosen by lottery, divided into two groups: G1 (with gummy smile) and G2 (no gummy smile). A clinical examination was carried out on the adolescents, investigating the presence or absence of a gummy smile (GS), by analyzing the variables (interlabial distance at rest, upper incisor exposure at rest, smile arc, measurement from the subnasal to the upper lip philtrum, upper lip length, upper lip thickness, hypermobility and lower/middle third ratio). Means and dispersion were obtained, and the Chi-square association test was applied, to compare the results between A1 and A2 and between G1 and G2. Results The prevalence of GS was 33.8% (=54). It was found that no statistically significant associations were found (p > 0.05), regarding the type of school and gender with the presence of GS in adolescents. There was no statistically significant difference (χ2 = 1.82; p = 0.07) between the groups and the age of adolescents. There was a significant association between the studied variables and GS (p < 0.05). Conclusion The prevalence was high with a predominance of females. There were no statistically significant associations regarding the type of school and gender, but there was a significant association between gummy smile and lip dimensions.
  • Normalization of the electromyographic signals of masticatory muscles during non-habitual chewing activity Original Article

    Pelai, Elisa Bizetti; Castro-Carletti, Ester Moreira de; Foltran-Mescollotto, Fabiana; Pires, Paulo Fernandes; Berzin, Fausto; Moraes, Marcio de; Rodrigues-Bigaton, Delaine

    Abstract in English:

    There is no consensus on the most appropriate method for normalizing electromyography (EMG) signals from masticatory muscles during isotonic activity. Aim To analyze the best method for data processing of the EMG signal of the masticatory muscles during isotonic activity (non-habitual chewing), comparing raw data and different types of normalization. Methods This is a cross-sectional study. Women aged between 18 and 45 years were selected. Anthropometric data were collected (age, height, body mass index – BMI, masticatory preference) as well as EMG signal (root mean square – RMS) data for the anterior temporal and masseter bilaterally, and for the suprahyoid muscles, during isotonic (non-habitual chewing) and isometric tasks. EMG data were processed offline using Matlab® Software. The normalization of the EMG signal was carried out using the 2nd masticatory cycle, chosen at random, of the 20 cycles collected, the maximum RMS value, and the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). To analyze the best method of data processing for the isotonic data, the coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated. Descriptive data analysis was adopted, using the mean and standard deviation. ANOVA with repeated measures was used to detect significant differences between the methods of normalization. Statistical significance was set at 5% (α<0.05). Results The final sample of this research was composed of 86 women. The volunteers presented an average age of 27.83±7.71 years and a mean BMI of 22.85±1.91 Kg/m2. Regarding masticatory preference, 73.25% reported the right side, and 26.75% the left side. Considering the comparison between the methods, the %CV measure of the 2nd cycle showed the lowest variation coefficient during biting for all the muscles from the raw data, RMS Max, and MVC (p=0.001, p=0.003, and p=0.001 respectively). Conclusion In conclusion, for non-habitual chewing activity, the results of this study recommend data processing using normalization with the second cycle during chewing.
  • Investigation of the effect of indirect pulp capping materials on dentin mineral density Original Article

    Misilli, Tuğba; Uslu, Gülşah; Orhan, Kaan; Bayrakdar, İbrahim Şevki; Erdönmez, Demet; Özyürek, Taha

    Abstract in English:

    Aim To evaluate the potential of inducing mineral density changes of indirect pulp capping materials applied to demineralized dentin. Methods A total of 50 cavities were prepared, 5 in each tooth, in extracted ten molars without caries, impacted or semi-embedded. The cavities were scanned by microcomputed tomography (µ-CT) after creating artificial caries by microcosm method (pre-treatment). Each cavity was subjected to one of 5 different experimental conditions: control (dental wax), conventional glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP Extra), resin-modified calcium silicate (TheraCal LC), resin-modified calcium hydroxide (Ultra-Blend Plus), MTA (MM-MTA) and the samples were kept under intrapulpal pressure using simulated body fluid for 45 days. Then, the second µ-CT scan was performed (post-treatment), and the change in dentin mineral density was calculated. Afterward, elemental mapping was performed on the dentinal surfaces adjacent to the pulp capping agents of 5 randomly selected samples using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) apparatus attached to a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The Ca/P ratio by weight was calculated. Friedman test and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test were used to analyze the data. Results There was a significant increase in mineral density values of demineralized dentin after treatment for all material groups (p<0.05). Resin-modified calcium silicate had similar efficacy to MTA and conventional glass ionomer cement, but was superior to resin-modified calcium hydroxide in increasing the mineral density values of demineralized dentin. Conclusions Demineralized dentin tissue that is still repairable can be effectively preserved using materials with remineralization capability.
  • Influence of medium-translucency monolithic zirconia thicknesses and light-curing time on the polymerization of dual-cure resin cements Original Article

    Jamel, Raghad S

    Abstract in English:

    Aim To investigate and compare the effects of different thicknesses of medium-translucency monolithic zirconia and light curing times on the polymerization of two types of dual-cured resin cement. Methods A total of 200 cement specimens were prepared from TheraCem and RelyX U200 cement. The specimens were divided into 5 groups: Group I, without interposing zirconia; Group II, 0.50 mm thickness; Group III, 1.00 mm; Group IV, 1.50 mm; and Group V, 2.00 mm thickness. Each group was subdivided into (1) RelyX U200 and (2) TheraCem. Each subgroup was subdivided according to the light-curing time into (a) 20 s and (b) 40 s (n =5). The polymerization was tested using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and a Vickers microhardness tester. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA, an independent sample t-test, and Tukey’s test at a significance level of 0.05. Results The control group had the highest values of DC and VMH, followed by 0.50, 1.00, and 1.50 mm, respectively, while the 2.00 mm group showed the lowest values. The specimens irradiated for 40 s had greater DC and VMH than those irradiated for 20 s. RelyX U200 revealed higher values for both parameters compared to TheraCem cement. Conclusion The polymerization of self-adhesive cement depends on the thickness of the monolithic zirconia, the light curing time, and the composition of the cement. The cement should be irradiated for a longer period than recommended to overcome the light attenuation of zirconia. TEGDMA-based self-adhesive cement showed a higher DC and VMH than BISGMA-based cement.
  • Implant digital impression accuracy using extraoral scanners: a three-dimensional analysis Original Article

    Gomes, Grazielle Franco; Aroni, Mónica Estefanía Tinajero; Oliveira, Lucas Portela; Arioli Filho, João Neudenir; Binda, Carolina Mollo; Mollo Júnior, Francisco de Assis

    Abstract in English:

    Aim To analyze the accuracy of extraoral systems (Ceramill Map400+, AutoScan-DS200+, and E2) in full implant-prosthetic rehabilitation three-dimensionally. Methods A metallic edentulous maxilla with four implants was digitalized by a contact scanner (MDX-40 - Roland, control) and used as a control image to compare with other images generated by three laboratory scanners (10 samples per group). Letters identified all the four components: A and D angled 45º, and B and C parallel. The BioCAD software exported the images (.STL) to compare and verify deviations of the analogs on the X, Y, and Z axes. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test and the two-way ANOVA on ranks with a post hoc Tukey test analyzed the data with 5% significance. Results No statistical differences were observed in the accuracy between the extraoral scanners (p=0.0806). However, when analyzing only the components, component D was more accurate when scanned with Ceramill Map400+ compared with AutoScan DS200+ (p<0.001) and with E2 (p=0.002). Conclusions All extraoral systems assessed showed digitalization accuracy but with more deviations in angled implants. The Ceramill Map400+ scanner showed the best results for the digital impression of a complete arch.
  • A hospital-based observational study on clinical and radiographic findings in COVID-19 associated rhinomaxillary mucormycosis: revealing the pandora box Original Article

    Ansari, Sulem; Charantimath, Shivayogi; Jirge, Vasanti Lagali; Keluskar, Vaishali

    Abstract in English:

    Mucormycosis is a rare, rapidly spreading, fulminant, opportunistic infection that is caused by a group of filamentous molds. During the second wave of COVID-19 India reported most of the cases of mucormycosis which is termed as COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM). Aim The purpose of this study is to describe and understand the clinical and radiographic findings related to COVID-19 associated rhinomaxillary mucormycosis. Methods In this observational study 76 individuals with proven rhinomaxillary mucormycosis were included. The demographic profile, predisposing factors, anatomic structures involved, oral manifestations, radiographic findings management, and 90-day mortality were recorded and analyzed. Results Among 76 individuals with COVID-19-associated rhinomaxillary mucormycosis diabetes mellitus was present in 93.42% of cases. Almost all patients received corticosteroids during COVID-19 treatment. The maxilla was most commonly involved in around 98.6% of cases. Interestingly 1 case involving the mandible was noted and the maxillary sinus was the most commonly involved. Mortality occurred in 1.31% (n=1) of cases. Conclusion Diabetes was the most common predisposing factor. Administration of corticosteroids was evident. A considerable number of patients developed diabetes during the treatment of COVID-19. Early signs and oral manifestations of rhinomaxillary mucormycosis play a pivotal role in the early diagnosis and prompt treatment to reduce mortality and morbidity in COVID-19 associated-rhinomaxillary mucormycosis patients.
  • Correlation of fasting blood, salivary glucose and malondialdehyde in subjects with & without type 2 diabetes Original Article

    Sangappa, Sunila Bukanakere; Das, Tamal; Preethi, Basavaraj Patil

    Abstract in English:

    Oxidative stress is identified as the common pathogenic factor that leads to insulin resistance in diabetics. Malondialdehyde is a product of lipid peroxidation. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the variation in the Salivary malondialdehyde (MDA) among subjects with and without T2DM in comparison to the fasting blood and Salivary glucose. Methods This study involved 29 healthy participants as Controls (group I) and 29 participants with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as Cases (group II). Salivary Glucose was analysed by glucose oxidase end-point assay. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay method was considered for estimation of MDA in fasting saliva. Data was Statistically analysed using SPSS20. Parametric test was performed to analyse the data. Results The correlation calculated between FBG with FSG level was found to be highly significant. A positive correlation between MDA levels with FBG was found. The relationship between FBG and FSG (r = 0.7815, p < 0.05), FBG and MDA (r =0.3678, p < 0.05) and FSG and MDA (r = 0.2869, p < 0.05) were found to be positively significant. Conclusion Saliva as a unique body fluid can serve as a medium for biochemical analysis only in standard settings and with multiple measures to be used as a diagnostic tool in par with the gold standard serum. Salivary MDA levels can be considered as one of the oxidative stress markers in Type 2 Diabetic condition.
  • Factors associated with oral health literacy among users of primary health care: a cross-sectional study Original Article

    Bado, Fernanda Maria Rovai; Oliveira Júnior, Alcir José de; Silva Junior, Manoelito Ferreira; Soares, Gustavo Hermes; Cortellazzi, Karine Laura; Mialhe, Fábio Luiz

    Abstract in English:

    Aim To analyze associations between sociodemographic factors, self-perception, self-care practices in health with Oral Health Literacy (OHL) levels among users of Primary Health Care (PHC). Methods A cross-sectional and analytical study was performed in Piracicaba (São Paulo), Brazil, in 2018, with a convenience sample of users of PHC that were aged over 18 years. Data were collected with a questionnaire by a trained dentist in two Family Health Units. The outcome variable was OHL, measured by the OHLA-B instrument, which was dichotomized by median into low (≤8 point) and high (>8 point). The independent variables were sociodemographic conditions (age, sex, self-declared skin color, and education), self-perceived oral health and self-care practices in health (tooth brushing frequency, smoking habits, reason for the last visit to the dentist, and source of health information search). Unadjusted and adjusted analyses were performed between OHL and independent variables for multiple logistic regression model (p≤0.05). Results The sample consisted of 450 adults. A total of 54.7% had a low OHL. After adjusting for sex and age, OHL was associated with skin color (OR=0.57; 95%CI=0.37-085), educational level (OR=4.92; 95%CI=3.16-7.79), health information from health professionals (OR=2.40; 95%CI=1.42-4.16) and internet (OR=2.88; 95%CI=1.59-5.32), toothbrushing >1 time a day (OR=3.23; 95%CI=1.27-9.92) and smokers (OR=0.42; 95%CI=0.23-0.73). After adjusting for sex, age and income, OHL was associated with (OR=0.63; 95%CI=0.41-096), educational level (OR=4.06; 95%CI=2.57-6.51) and smokers (OR=0.48; 95%CI=0.26-0.84). Conclusions Low OHL was associated with socioeconomic factors, source of information and smoking. This fact highlights the importance of health professionals to promote OHL.
  • Antibiotic prescription in the management of endodontic infections amongst Iraqi final-year undergraduate dental students Original Article

    Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil; Hadi, Elaf Ahmed; al-Talib, Zeyad Nazar; Daher, Aqil M; Al-Adhamy, Mohammed; Ahmed, Hany Mohamed Aly

    Abstract in English:

    Aim This study aimed to examine the prescription of antibiotics for endodontic infections among undergraduate dental students. Methods Two government Iraqi dental schools [(the University of Baghdad (UOB) (n=99) and University of Babylon (UB) (n=70)], and one private dental school [Osouldeen University College (OUC) (n=103)] were included in this survey study. A paper-based questionnaire composed of seven questions was distributed to students, and collected. A chi-square test was used for data analysis, and the level of significance was set at 0.05 (P=0.05). Results A statistically significant difference (P<0.05) was identified between students’ answers in the three dental schools regarding antibiotic selection for endodontic infections in which patients had no known allergies (P=0.001). In comparison to other dental schools, a statistically significantly higher proportion of respondents from UOB (32%) favored Azithromycin 500mg for treating patients with penicillin hypersensitivity (P=0.003). A high percentage of participants (62.1%) selected antibiotic prescription in cases with necrotic pulp and symptomatic apical periodontitis (with swelling and moderate/severe preoperative symptoms). However, there were no significant differences between the 3 dental schools (P>0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, a significantly greater percentage of UB chose amoxicillin for the treatment of endodontic infection in patients with no medical allergies. Azithromycin 500mg was selected by UOB as the preferred option in patients who were sensitive to penicillin. Our findings support the need for the implementation of strategies to raise awareness of good antibiotic prescribing practices among dentists in Iraq.
  • Success and survival rates of immediate anatomic zirconia implants: a prospective clinical and radiographic evaluation Original Article

    Al-Moziek, Mohammed Yamen Al-Shorbaji; AlKhouri, Issam; Mozayek, Rami Shurbaji

    Abstract in English:

    Modern immediate titanium implants have two major drawbacks which are the black metal appearance that might be seen through the mucosa and the gap between implant and extraction socket. Immediate anatomical zirconia implants were introduced to match the shape of the extracted root and fill the socket without gaps while still providing better metal-free appearance. Aim This study aims to investigate success and survival rates of immediate anatomical zirconia implants. Methods This prospective interventional study was held between 2017 and 2020 in the faculty of dental medicine, Damascus University, Syria. The sample consisted of 27 immediate anatomical zirconia implants in 21 patients from both genders. Implants were designed and manufactured starting from CBCT image and prior to extraction. Specialized software applications were used to modify implant design. Implants went through different processing procedures to make them ready for insertion immediately after tooth extraction. Restorations were made after a minimum period of 3 months, clinical and radiographic follow ups were performed after 10 - 13.5 months from restoring the implants in order to evaluate their success/survival. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to assess marginal bone loss, t test for probing depth assessment. Results Immediate anatomical zirconia implants showed success in (n=17) 63% of total cases, satisfactory survival (n=3) 11.1%, compromised survival (n=2) 7.4% and they failed in (n=5) 18.5%. Conclusions Immediate anatomical zirconia implants had low success/survival rates when compared to conventional immediate implants. Therefore, they cannot be considered as a predictable alternative in their current form.
  • How Brazilian oral health care workers face COVID-19: surveillance, biosafety, and education strategies Original Article

    Palma, Luciana Zambillo; Bitencourt, Fernando Valentim; Velho, Gabriel Ricardo; Pires, Fabiana Schneider; Baldani, Márcia Helena; Colussi, Claudia Flemming; Warmling, Cristine Maria

    Abstract in English:

    Aim To investigate surveillance, biosafety, and education strategies of Brazilian oral health care workers (OHCWs) during the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods This was a cross-sectional study covering OHCWs from a single multicenter research centre. A self-administered and validated online questionnaire was used for data collection, including the following variables: sociodemographic, medical history, biosafety, professional experience, surveillance, and education. Results The sample consisted of 644 OHCWs (82.5% dentists, 13.2% dental assistants and 4.3% technicians), most without comorbidities (84.8%), from the public (51.7%) and private (48.3%) health systems, in 140 cities of a southern state. The most prominent measures of surveillance were waiting room distancing and visual alerts, symptom assessment, and availability of guidelines on COVID-19. Regarding biosafety measures, the lowest adherence was related to intraoral radiographs (2.7±1.4; 95%CI: 2.6–2.9), use of dental dams (2.1±1.4; 95%CI: 2.0–2.2), and availability of high-power suction systems (2.5±1.7; 95%CI: 2.3–2.6). Among OHCWs, 52.6% received guidance on measures to take during dental care in the workplace. Continuing education was mainly through documents from non-governmental health authorities (77.4%). Conclusion Surveillance and biosafety measures were adopted, but activities that reduce the spread of aerosols had less adherence. These findings underscore the importance of considering dental practices, and surveillance and education strategies to formulate policies and relevant support to address health system challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. A coordinated action of permanent education by policymakers is necessary.
  • Parents’ sense of coherence in the use of dental services by children aged 12 years old in the city Manaus/AM Original Article

    Gomes, Andressa Coelho; Silva, Vivian Casanova da; Quadros, Larissa Neves; Rebelo, Maria Augusta Bessa; Vieira, Janete Maria Rebelo

    Abstract in English:

    Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the sense of coherence (SOC) of parents/guardians and the use of dental services by children who are 12 years old. Methods This is a cross-sectional study conducted in the eastern zone of the city of Manaus, with 358 children enrolled in the 7th grade in the municipal public school system. Data collection was performed through self-administered questionnaires sent to parents/guardians, which contained questions about socioeconomic conditions, use of dental services by children and Antonovsky’s SOC-13 scale. Data were examined by descriptive and bivariate analysis, using the Chi-square test, with a 5% significance level. Results Of the 358 children, 58.4% were female; in addition, 75.4% of the parents/guardians self-reported to be brown and 39.9% of them had a family income of ½ to 1 minimum wage. SOC was categorized as strong SOC and weak SOC by the median. The association between strong or weak SOC and the use of dental services in terms of frequency (p= 0.839) and reason for last visit (p= 0.384), was not significant. Conclusion It was concluded that SOC of parents/guardians and utilization of dental services by children were not associated.
  • Patient care in the restorative clinic of a public dental school after COVID-19 lockdown Original Article

    Macedo, Kennedy Santana de; Machado, Alana Cristina; Sobral, Maria Angela Pita

    Abstract in English:

    Aim This study, with the aim of checking some of the changes in patients’ daily habits and their reasons for needing restorative treatment was conducted at a public university immediately on return to attendance after the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. Methods This survey consisted of interviews held by applying 2 questionnaires to students and patients. A single researcher collected data in all the restorative dentistry clinics at the university after the return to face-to-face activities in the period between 02/02/2021 and 07/30/2021. Data obtained by means of the questionnaires were submitted to descriptive analysis. Results Ninety (90) participants answered the patient questionnaire. When considering possible associations between being in social isolation or not, significant values were found for changed type of diet (p=0.0011), frequency of eating (p=0.011) and toothbrushing (p=0.034). Data about 417 restorations were collected and among the reasons for restorative intervention, 33.03% were restoration replacement, 31.87% treatment of primary caries and 24.40% of dental wear/non-carious lesions. Conclusion Patients who isolated themselves during the pandemic tended to change their eating habits and frequency of oral hygiene. Toothache was the main reason for seeking dental treatment and the replacement of pre-existing restorations was the main reason for restorative treatments.
  • Soft tissue and incisor position changes in class I bimaxillary subjects after retraction using friction and frictionless mechanics Original Article

    Menta, Sai Kalyan; Kandavara, Prajwal Shetty; Ravi, MS; Shashidhar, Keerthan; Revaneti, Megha R

    Abstract in English:

    Aim Bimaxillary protrusion is a common condition observed irrespective of race and ethnicity and is a chief concern for patients who seek orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate changes in soft tissue structures and incisor positions in class I bimaxillary protrusion subjects undergoing orthodontic therapy when friction and frictionless mechanics were used. Methods Two groups with a total of 40 patients aged 18–30 years diagnosed with class I bimaxillary protrusion treated by extracting first premolars were considered for this study. Patients treated with friction mechanics were included in Group 1 and those treated with frictionless mechanics in Group 2. The digital lateral cephalograms were calibrated and analyzed using Nemoceph software. Selected landmarks were marked on pre- and post-treatment cephalograms and assessed for intra- and inter-group soft tissue and incisor position changes. Student’s t-test was used to analyze the collected data using SPSS 20 software. Result Intra-group comparison revealed significant changes in both groups. Inter-group comparison of the selected parameters between groups 1 and 2 showed differences but without any statistical significance, except for the inter-incisal angle. Conclusion Pre- and post-treatment comparison analysis revealed significant soft tissue changes in both groups. However, the comparison between friction and frictionless mechanics showed no statistically significant changes.
  • Effect of two methods of irrigant agitation on the temperature and cleanliness of sodium hypochlorite associated or not with a chelator Original Article

    Borges, Mariana Maciel Batista; Barros, Mirela Cesar de; Queiroz, Índia Olinta de Azevedo; Andrade, Flaviana Bombarda de; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    Abstract in English:

    Aim This study investigated the influence in vitro of different sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) agitation protocols associated or not with DualRinse (HEDP) on the temperature of the solution. Methods Forty-eight premolars were instrumented and their apical third sealed to allow a closed irrigation system. The teeth remained immersed in a basin of warm water (37°C). The teeth were divided into the groups: G1 ( NaOCl+Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation (PUI) ), G2 (NaOCl/HEDP+PUI), G3 ( NaOCl + EasyClean (EC) ) and G4 (NaOCl/HEDP+EC). The canals were filled with the respective solutions and after 180 seconds the first temperature measurement was taken (T0). Then, the solutions were agitated, following the different protocols, for 60 seconds and a new measurement was performed (T60). The temperature was measured using a digital thermometer for type “K” sensors that was inserted into the middle third of the teeth. At the end of the measurements, the teeth were sectioned and prepared for scanning electron microscopy. The dentinal wall of middle third was graded according to the amount of debris and smear layer remaining on the walls. The results were analyzed using ANOVA test and Tukey’s multiple comparisons (p<0.05). Results G1 and G2 had an average increase in temperature of 1.1°C and 1.65°C, respectively (p>0.05). EasyClean caused a decrease in the temperature of the solutions in both groups, without a significant statistical difference with T0 (p>0.05). Regarding cleaning, it was only possible to observe clean dentinal tubules in the groups with the chelator. PUI discretely increased the temperature of the solution, regardless of the solution. The opposite effect was observed after activation with EasyClean. Conclusion The association of NaOCl with a chelating agent promoted the cleaning of the dentinal tubules.
  • Does the rehabilitation treatment predispose the patient with cleft to endodontic treatment? Original Article

    Brandelero Junior, Sávio; Moreira, Renata Artioli; Pinto, Lidiane de Castro; Dalben, Gisele da Silva

    Abstract in English:

    Aim to verify the relation between endodontic treatment of teeth adjacent to the cleft area and the rehabilitation of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate, at the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies. Methods the present split-mouth study was composed of 406 individuals with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate who had completed the rehabilitation process in a single tertiary cleft center (55.9% males). The information was collected from the dental history on the patients’ records and radiographs. The frequency of endodontic treatment in the upper incisors and canines was calculated for the cleft and non-cleft sides. The comparison between sides was performed by the chi-square test (p <0.05). Results endodontic treatment was more frequent in teeth adjacent to the cleft than in contralateral teeth. The frequency of endodontic treatment in at least one tooth adjacent to the cleft was 18.97%, and 11.6% on the contralateral side. It was observed that endodontic treatment was necessary in 63.5% of patients who had been submitted to orthodontic treatment, 42.4% of those rehabilitated with fixed partial dentures and 12.0% of patients who underwent dental reshaping of teeth adjacent to the cleft. The treatments performed included vital pulp therapy (46.1%), non-vital pulp therapy (46.8%) and endodontic retreatment (7.1%). Conclusion in individuals with complete cleft lip and palate, teeth close to the bone defect area and used for rehabilitation treatment presented greater need of endodontic intervention.
  • Effect of S. mutans biofilm on the hybrid ceramic-resin cement bond strength assessed by different methods Original Article

    Mushashe, Amanda Mahammad; Almeida, Sarah Aquino de; Ferracane, Jack Libório; Merritt, Justin; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Correr, Gisele Maria

    Abstract in English:

    Aim The purpose of this study was to investigate the biofilm effect on the hybrid ceramic-resin cement bond strength (BS) by comparing two methods. Methods Teeth were distributed into groups (n=5), according to the resin cement (Maxcem Elite-(MC) or NX3 Nexus-(NX)) and degradation method (24h or 7 days in distilled water; 7 or 30 days incubated with biofilm and 30 days in sterile media). Treated surfaces of Vita Enamic blocks (5x6x7mm) were luted to treated or no treated dentin surfaces and light-cured. After 24h, beams were obtained (1x1x10mm) and stored accordingly. The flexural bond strength (FBS) was assessed by four-point bending test. Additional beams were obtained from new teeth (n=5), stored for 24h or 7 days in distilled water, and submitted to a microtensile bond strength (µTBS) assay. Failure modes were determined by scanning electron microscopy (100X). The flexure strength of the cements (n=10) was assessed by a four-point bending test. Data were analyzed by 1 and 2-ways ANOVA, and Tukey’s test (α=0.05). Results There was no significant difference between the degradation methods for the FBS groups. For the µTBS, the significant difference was as follows: NX 7days > NX 24h > MC 7days = MC 24h. Failure mode was mainly adhesive and mixed, but with an increase of cohesive within cement and pre-failures for the MC groups assessed by µTBS. NX had better performance than MC, regardless of the method. Conclusions The biofilm had no effect on the materials BS and FBS test was a useful method to evaluate BS of materials with poor performance.
  • Changes in the properties of bulk-fill resins under conditions of gastroesophageal reflux and bulimia Original Article

    Arnez, Mayara Manfrin; Dotta, Tatiane Cristina; Almeida, Leonardo de Pádua Andrade; Castelo, Raisa; Ugarte, David Emanuel; Reis, Andréa Cândido dos; Catirse, Alma Blasida Concepcion Elizaur Benitez

    Abstract in English:

    Aim Evaluate the roughness, microhardness and color change of different Bulk Fill resins when submitted to the condition of gastroesophageal reflux and bulimia. Methods 60 specimens (n = 10) of Bulk-Fill composite resins were made: M1 – Filtek™; M2 – Tetric N-Ceram and M3 – OPUS, through a matrix 2x6 mm and light cured by the VALO light source. After polishing, initial analyzes (48 hours - T0) of surface roughness (Ra), microhardness (VHN) and color change (ΔE) were performed. To simulate the oral condition of severe gastroesophageal reflux and bulimia, the specimens were immersed in hydrochloric acid (S1) (pH 1.7) 4 minutes a day, for 7 days. Control group specimens were immersed in artificial saliva (S2). Subsequently to immersions, mechanical brushing was performed for 3 minutes, three times a day, simulating 7 days of brushing. And again, the analyzes of Ra, VHN and ΔE were performed (7 days - T1). Thus, hydrochloric acid immersion, mechanical brushing and Ra analysis were repeated at 14 days (T2) and 21 days (T3); and T2, T3 and T4 (3 years) for VHN and ΔE. Results After Shapiro-Wilk statistical test, ANOVA and Tukey test with Bonferroni adjustment (p>0.05), M3 showed the lowest Ra at all times compared to the other resins, while the highest Ra was at T0. M1 and T1 showed higher VHN. And M2 and T4 showed higher ΔE. Conclusion Bulk Fill resins can be indicated for patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux and Bulimia, nonetheless, Tetric N-Ceram resin showed the worst results.
  • Evaluation of last-year dental students’ knowledge of prescription of analgesics and anti-bacterial agents for pregnant and lactating women Original Article

    Abbasi, Fatemeh; Forootan, Sabra; Ebadi, Mehrdad; Saied-Moallemi, Zahra

    Abstract in English:

    Aim Oral health in pregnant and lactating women can affect maternal and child health. Dental treatments in this period should not have adverse effects on maternal and child health. This study was conducted to investigate the last-year dental students’ knowledge of the prescription of analgesics and antibiotics for pregnant and lactating mothers in Isfahan city, Iran. Methods A total of 104 last-year dental students of Khorasgan Islamic Azad University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences were recruited in this descriptive-analytical study. They completed a 16-item questionnaire on the prescription of analgesics and antibiotics for pregnant and lactating mothers. Data were analyzed by SPSS (Version 22) statistical software(t-test). Results The total mean score of students’ knowledge was 9.02±1.91. The highest level of knowledge about the safest analgesic (acetaminophen) was reported for the pregnant patients so that 100% of them had correct information in this regard. Further, the lowest level of knowledge was found for the use of dexamethasone during lactation, as only 10.6% of respondents were able to provide a correct response in this regard. Conclusion The dental students had average knowledge about the prescription of antibiotics and analgesics for pregnant and lactating patients. To prevent the possible risks for these patients, further information should be provided to dental students.
  • Effect of lingual frenotomy on the breastfeeding improvement Original Article

    Possamai, Camila Fontanella; Schäfer, Antônio Augusto; Quadra, Micaela Rabelo; Martins, Carla Damasio; Meller, Fernanda de Oliveira

    Abstract in English:

    Aim To evaluate breastfeeding in babies up to six months of age before and after frenotomy surgery in a reference hospital in a city from Santa Catarina state. Methods An observational quality improvement study, carried out with babies up to six months of age undergoing frenotomy and their mothers in a reference hospital in southern Santa Catarina state. A questionnaire was applied to the mothers in two moments (before and after the surgery), with information regarding breastfeeding, sociodemographic, anthropometric and behavioral characteristics of them and of the babies. Descriptive analyzes were performed and the association between breastfeeding and the independent variables was assessed through Pearson’s chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests, using a 5% significance level. Results A total of 74 children were studied, with 48 of them returning after surgery. 83.8% were breastfed before surgery and 64.9% after surgery. Before surgery, 58.1% of children effectively took the breast at once. After surgery, this prevalence was 83.3% (p=0.015). Before surgery, 75.9% of the mothers reported not feeling pain, while, after surgery, almost all of them (95.8%) reported this (p=0.004). Most mothers reported improvement in grip (83.3%), increase in the duration of breastfeeding (69.0%), improvement of baby’s breathing (75.0%), and an increase in the frequency of breastfeeding (51.7%). Conclusions There was a decrease in the prevalence of breastfeeding after frenotomy. However, there was an improvement in the babies ‘grip and breathing and a reduction in the mothers’ pain when breastfeeding. It is emphasized the need to implement multidisciplinary actions in both primary and hospital care to assist mothers in order to prolong the duration of exclusive breastfeeding.
  • Flexural strength and Vickers hardness of milled and 3D-printed resins for provisional dental restorations Original Article

    Souza, Ana Luiza Caetano; Cruvinel Filho, Jorge Luiz de Oliveira; Rocha, Sicknan Soares da

    Abstract in English:

    Aim Various forms of temporary resins are offered on the market; however, the properties of temporary resins obtained by milling and 3D printing have not been fully examined. This study aimed to compare the flexural strength and Vickers hardness of milled and 3D-printed resins. Methods Three resins were tested: Evolux PMMA (milled resin), Cosmos Temp (3D-printed resin), and Structur 2 SC (bis-acrylic resin, group control). Specimens were prepared with rectangular shapes (n = 12) for flexural strength measurements and disc shapes (n = 9) for Vickers hardness tests. Flexural strength tests were performed at a crosshead speed of 0.75 mm/min, and the Vickers hardness was measured under a load of 20 N for 10 s. The obtained data were subjected to the Kruskal–Wallis test. Results A significant difference (p < 0.05) in flexural strength was observed among the three sample groups: Evolux PMMA (111.76 MPa), Structur 2 SC (87.34 MPa), and Cosmos Temp (56.83 MPa). No significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed between the Vickers hardness values of Structur 2 SC (33.37 VHN) and Evolux PMMA (29.11 VHN); however, both materials were statistically superior to Cosmos Temp (10.90 VHN). Conclusion While the mechanical properties of the milled resin were superior or similar to those of the bis-acrylic resin, the 3D-printed resin was statistically inferior to both the milled and bis-acrylic resins.
  • Clinical dental management of the head and neck irradiated patient: topics of interest for clinicians Original Article

    Prisinoto, Nuryê Rezende; Alcântara, Cariniana Macedo de; Macedo, Dhiancarlo Rocha; Ferreira, Meire Coelho; Fagundes, Daniela Malagoni; Soares, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira

    Abstract in English:

    Aim To discuss important topics regarding the dental procedures performed in patients before, during and after the radiotherapy treatment. The biological effects of ionizing radiation on bone tissue focusing on clinical care will be described. The invasive and not invasive procedures after radiotherapy treatment in the head and neck region will be addressed using scientific evidences to determine the appropriate moment for tooth extractions, periodontal management, and preventive procedures for osteoradionecrosis. Methods Thirty-three studies including original studies and reviews were selected in MEDLINE database (PubMed). No year of publication restriction was applied. Language was restricted to the English, and the following Medical Subject Heading terms were used: radiotherapy, osteoradionecrosis, dental management. Studies of osteoradionecrosis involving clinical management of irradiated patients, with an emphasis on updated guidelines and protocols were selected. Results Care in dental procedures were related about restorative treatment, endodontic treatment, rehabilitation for edentulous regions using prostheses and implants and periodontal procedures before, during and after RTX treatment. Conclusions The dental procedures should and can be performed before, during but also after radiotherapy. However, the clinical procedures should be less invasive as possible. A maintenance plan that reduces the necessity for major and more invasive treatments after radiotherapy is recommended.
  • Sensitivity and specificity of salivary pipecolic acid in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma Original Article

    Ferrazzo, Kívia Linhares; Melo, Larissa Daiane Willrich de; Danesi, Cristiane Cademartori; Thomas, Alexander; Bonzanini, Laura Izabel Lampert; Zanatta, Nilo

    Abstract in English:

    Aim The aim of the present preliminary case-control study was to test the sensitivity and specificity of salivary pipecolic acid in predicting head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods High-performance liquid chromatography was used for the analysis of non-stimulated saliva samples from 40 individuals: 20 in the case group (recently diagnosed with untreated HNSCC) and 20 in the control group (individuals without cancer). Both groups included patients taking daily oral hypoglycemic drugs (comorbidity). The case and control groups were matched at a proportion of 1:1 for sex and comorbidity. Results Mean salivary levels of pipecolic acid were 169.38 ng/mL in the case group and 114.66 ng/mL in the control group (p<0.001). Individuals who took oral hypoglycemic drugs had higher levels of pipecolic acid in both the case and control groups (p<0.001). The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed 90% sensitivity and 65% specificity for head and neck cancer, with an area under the curve of 0.838 between the case and control groups. Conclusions Pipecolic acid had high sensitivity for the diagnosis of HNSCC but low specificity in the sample analyzed. Our findings suggest that salivary pipecolic acid levels are associated with glucose homeostasis. Studies with larger samples are required to evaluate the specificity of this metabolite.
  • Influence of pH-cycling and abrasion wear on the mechanical properties of conventional and bulk fill resin composites Original Article

    Orlando, Larissa Daniela; Lins, Rodrigo Barros Esteves; Santi, Marina Rodrigues; Martins, Luís Roberto Marcondes

    Abstract in English:

    Aim The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of abrasion wear on surface roughness and microhardness of different commercially available resin composites simulating pH-challenges of the oral cavity. Methods Three resin composites (RC) were used in this study: one conventional: Z250; and two bulk fill resin composites (BRC): Tetric N-Ceram (TNC) and Sonic Fill (SF). The RC was inserted in a prefabricated mold (15mm wide x 4mm thickness) in two layers, or in a single layer for BRC. Thirty samples were prepared and surface roughness (Ra) and Knoop microhardness (KHN) test were performed at three different time-points of evaluation: baseline (24h after sample preparation); partial (after pH cycling); and final (after simulated toothbrushing procedure). Two samples of each group were selected after different treatments and analyzed descriptively on a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data from Ra and KHN were analyzed by two-way repeated-measures ANOVA and Bonferroni’s post-hoc test with a significance level set at 5%. Results Ra increased for all groups (p<0.001), at the final time-point, Z250 and TNC groups present the highest values. Oppositely, KHN decreased for all groups (p<0.001), Z250 group showed the highest KHN values for all time-points (p<0.001). The SEM imagens showed a regular surface for samples cycled and irregular with inorganic particles exposed for samples toothbrushed. Conclusion pH-cycling and simulated toothbrushing affected the superficial properties (roughness and Knoop microhardness), as observed at SEM imagens, with irregular surface with inorganic particles exposure.
  • Histopathological evaluation of the effect of Salvadoria persica and Nigella sativa on the healing of tooth extraction socket in animal Original Article

    Al-Niaimi, Ali Idrees; Sulaiman, Noor A.; Salim, Huda A.; Al-Taee, Faris Ghanim Ahmed

    Abstract in English:

    Aim to assess the effects of Salvadoria persica and Nigella sativa combination in tooth socket healing after extraction that can be a novel remedy for tooth extraction socket. Methods Forty rabbits were included in this study, divided into two groups (control and experimental) with 20 rabbits. Upper right central incisors were extracted for all animals, the tooth sockets of the experimental group were dressed using an admix of Salvadoria persica and Nigella sativa immediately after irrigation with normal saline. In contrast, the extraction sockets of the control group were left without dressing. Biopsies were taken after euthanizing the animals at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after treatment, histological examination was done for the samples at the given periods respectively. Results On day 1 post-treatment, histological examination of the experimental group sections showed less acute inflammatory reaction than the control group. This continued to be reduced until the seventh day. The amount of granulation tissue formation was more in the experimental group along the different periods of the study, while new bone formation was observed after 1 week as woven bone, increased after 2 weeks and appeared as woven and lamellar bone in both experimental and control groups. Conclusions A mixture of Salvadoria persica and Nigella sativa has an anti-inflammatory effect and accelerate bone healing by stimulating bone formation in the tooth extraction socket.
  • Protein interactions with osseointegrable titanium implants Original Article

    Nascimento, Marvin do; Brito, Thays Obando; Lima, Andreza Menezes; Elias, Carlos Nelson

    Abstract in English:

    Aim this review aims to present the mechanisms of protein interactions with titanium dental implant surfaces. Methods the analyses were based on searches of scientific articles available in English and Portuguese in PubMed (MEDLINE), Bireme (LILACS), Scielo, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Results titanium dental implant treatments success rates (95-98%) are mainly due to the biocompatibility of titanium oxide on the implant surface, surgical techniques adopted, good implants manufacturing processes and biomechanical knowledge of the systems. Studies in past decades has empirically developed implant surfaces with significant changes in morphologies, roughness, wettability, surface energy, chemical composition, and chemical groups density or deposited molecules. These changes promoted better protein adsorption, osteoblast adhesion, and changes in the mechanisms involved in osseointegration. Thus, the time to put the implant in function has been reduced and the success rates have increased. In the osseointegration process, at the nanoscale, there is no contact between the bone and the implant surface, but there is the formation of a protein anchorage between the periosteum and the implant with an interface formed by proteins. In all the reactions between the body and the implant surface, the activities of fibronectin and integrin are essential, since they are responsible for transmitting information to the cell for its differentiation, adhesion and mobility. Conclusion thus, the analyses of protein-implant interactions are indispensable for a better understanding of the performance of osseointegrated dental implants.
  • Survival of young and elderly adults with oral squamous cell carcinoma in a population in northeastern Brazil Original Article

    Amorim, Marília de Matos; Pires, Alessandra Laís Pinho Valente; Assis, Ana Letícia Marques de Souza; Silva, Carlos Alberto Lima da; Santos, Jean Nunes dos; Freitas, Valéria Souza

    Abstract in English:

    Aim To compare the profile and overall survival of young adults and elderly people diagnosed with SCC. Methods A retrospective study was carried out at a High Complexity Oncology Unit, between 2010 and 2016. A descriptive analysis, a bivariate analysis using the chi-square and Fisher’s exact test and the Kaplan-Meier estimator were performed. The predictor variables were tested using the log-rank test and those with statistical significance and the literature were maintained for the Cox regression model. Results 282 cases of SCC were recorded, with only 12.4% diagnosed in young adults. The profile was similar between groups, with the majority of cases of the disease occurring in males, smokers and alcohol consumers. The lesions predominantly located on the tongue and were diagnosed in an advanced stage of the disease, resulting in 35.7% of deaths. The median survival time was 30 months in the elderly and 31 months in young people. In the multivariate analysis, age was not statistically significant, only staging and treatment were predictors of reduced overall survival. Conclusion Tumor staging, and treatment were prognostic factors for the disease.
  • A multilevel analysis model for dental caries determinants in independently-living elderly Original Article

    Branco, Natália Teixeira Tavares; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Souza, Jéssica Vancarla Rodrigues de; Moreira, Allyson Nogueira; Diniz, Ivana Márcia Alves; Magalhães, Cláudia Silami

    Abstract in English:

    Aim To evaluate the prevalence of untreated caries and its association with biological, individual, and environmental variables in independently-living elderly people. Methods This cross-sectional study included 72 elderly (≥60 years) patients of a university dental clinic in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Sociodemographic data, systemic diseases, medications, and free sugar intake were collected. Visible plaque, Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT), and Decayed and Filled Root (DFR) indexes were assessed through clinical examination. Unstimulated saliva was collected to determine salivary flow, pH, and buffering capacity. Descriptive analysis and multilevel logistic regression analysis were performed following a dental caries theoretical model ( p <0.05, 95% CI). Results The mean DMFT and DFR were 24.44 (SD=4.59) and 3.21 (SD=2.93), respectively. The prevalence of untreated caries was 61.11%. In the adjusted multilevel regression model involving 1639 teeth, untreated dental caries was significantly associated with the presence of biofilm (OR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.24–2.74), salivary buffering capacity (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77–0.99) and per capita income (OR = 0.06; 95% CI: 0.004–0.74). Conclusion The experience of dental caries was widespread among independently-living elderly patients, and its variability was best explained by the presence of biofilm, reduced salivary buffering capacity, and low per capita income. A comprehensive assessment is needed of the biological, individual, and environmental factors related to the presence of dental caries in independently-living elderly people.
  • Socket regeneration after immediate loading implants with tissue and bone graft: 1-year clinical follow-up Original Article

    Nicchio, Nicolas; Frizzera, Fausto; Vaz, Sergio Lins de Azevedo; Silva, Fernanda Coelho; Marcantonio Junior, Elcio

    Abstract in English:

    Aim Evaluation of ridge alteration after 1 year follow up after immediate loading implant placement. Methods Ten patients were included in the study, in whom the ridge volume, height, and thickness were evaluated from region of interest (ROI) of tomographic images of the operated areas (test group) and compared to the opposite tooth (control group). Results After one year, there was no implant loss and all patients were satisfied with the treatment. In the test group there was a statistically significant increase in ridge height (2.89±1.05 mm) when compared to the control group. No significant difference in relation to ridge volume and thickness was observed. In the intragroup evaluation, a significant gain in ridge height (2.65±3.08 mm) was observed when compared to baseline. Conclusion The placement of an immediate implant, temporary crown, and tissue regeneration in sockets with buccal defects promotes the regeneration of the buccal wall while preventing the reduction of bone volume and thickness.
  • Prevalence of bruxism among college students: what are the associated factors? A cross-sectional study Original Article

    Alencar, Layla Beatriz Barroso de; Silva, Ismael Lima; Sousa, Samara Crislâny Araújo de; Araújo, Vitória Freitas de; Oliveira, William Harvey Machado de Sousa Lacerda; Moura, Cristiano

    Abstract in English:

    Aim Evaluate the prevalence of bruxism and to analyze what are the possible associated factors with this condition in students of a Brazilian university. Methods This was a cross-sectional study, with a sample of 230 students randomly selected among undergraduate courses at a university center. The dependent variable was the presence of awake bruxism and sleep bruxism. The independent variables were sociodemographic factors, smoking, alcohol consumption, oral habits and stress perception (Perceived Stress Scale- PSS 14). Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were used. Results The prevalence of awake bruxism was 28.7% and was associated with the independent variables: course (degree program), gum chewing habits, chin hand placing, facedown sleeping and one-side biting. Sleep bruxism had a 7.0% prevalence and displayed association with gum chewing, pens/pencils/objects biting, tongue/lips/cheeks biting, nails biting and one-side biting. Perceived stress was not associated with either type of bruxism. Conclusion Bruxism has an important prevalence among university students, especially when distinguishing between awake bruxism and sleep bruxism.
  • Nicotine is a potent extracellular polysaccharide inducer in Fusobacterium nucleatum biofilms Original Article

    Matos, Adaias Oliveira; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Gregory, Richard Lee

    Abstract in English:

    Aim: The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the influence of nicotine on the extracellular polysaccharides in Fusobacterium nucleatum biofilm. Methods: F. nucleatum (ATCC 10953) biofilms supplemented with different concentrations of nicotine (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/mL) were grown in two different BHI broth conditions [no sucrose and 1% sucrose]. Extracellular polysaccharides assay, pH measurements, and a spectrophotometric assay were performed. Data were submitted for ANOVA and Tukey honestly significant difference analyses (HSD) tests (α =.05). Results: Extracellular polysaccharides synthesis was influenced by an interaction between nicotine concentrations and growth medium solution containing sucrose (P<.05). The pH values declined in the sucrose-exposed biofilm were greater than in the group exposed only to nicotine (P<.05). The biofilm exposed to sucrose and nicotine had a higher total biofilm growth (P<.05) than the nicotine-treated biofilm without sucrose. Conclusions: Regardless of sucrose exposure, biofilms exposed to different nicotine concentrations influenced the amount of extracellular polysaccharides.
  • Periodontitis in rheumatoid arthritis: a case-control study in a brazilian sample Original Article

    Crisigiovanni, Angelo Cesar; Wojcik, Leandro Roberto; Giovanini, Allan Fernando; Hadlich, Laura Edla Ronau; Skare, Thelma Larocca; Nisihara, Renato Mitsunori

    Abstract in English:

    Aim To investigate the presence of periodontitis in RA patients comparing it with controls in a Brazilian sample. Methods This is a case control study conducted in a public health rheumatologic center. One hundred and sixteen RA patients and 68 paired controls were compared for epidemiological data and presence of periodontal disease evaluated by number of remaining teeth, presence of bacterial plaque, bleeding on probing, probing depth and clinical level of gingival insertion. In addition, data on comorbidities was collected. Results RA patients and controls have the same amount of teeth loss (P = 0.84). RA patients had more calculus (P = 0.02); dental plaques (P = 0.04); gingival recession (P = 0.02) and bleeding (P = 0.01). Although the number of individuals with periodontitis was higher in RA patients, the severity of periodontitis was similar in both groups (P = ns). Presence of diabetes and hypothyroidism also associated with periodontitis (P = 0.01 and 0.02 respectively). In a model of logistic regression built to assess the independence of association of RA and its comorbidities with periodontitis, only diabetes and RA remained independent. Conclusion This case control study shows higher frequency of periodontitis in RA patients than controls.
  • Dose-response relationship between toothpaste soluble fluoride absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and saliva fluoride secretion Original Article

    Rocha, Deborah Rackel Caldas da; Ricomini Filho, Antônio Pedro; Tabchoury, Cinthia Pereira Machado; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    Abstract in English:

    Aim This study aimed to evaluate if there is a dose-response relationship between toothpaste chemically soluble fluoride absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and fluoride secreted by saliva, giving support to the use of saliva as surrogate for plasma fluoride. Methods A 4-phase single blind study was conducted, in which 10 participants were subjected in each phase to one of the assigned treatment groups: group I: fresh sample of a Na2FPO3/CaCO3-based toothpaste with 1,334 μg F/g of total soluble fluoride (TSF) and groups II–IV: aged samples of this toothpaste presenting TSF concentrations of 1,128, 808, and 687 μg F/g, respectively. In all phases, the participants ingested an amount of toothpaste equivalent to 70.0 μg F/Kg body weight, as total fluoride (TF). Saliva and blood samples were collected before (baseline) and up to 180 min after toothpaste ingestion as indicator of fluoride bioavailability. F concentration in saliva and blood plasma was determined with a fluoride ion-specific electrode. The areas under the curve (AUC) of F concentration versus time (AUC = ng F/mL × min) and the peaks of fluoride concentration (Cmax) in saliva and plasma were calculated. Results A significant correlation between mg of TSF ingested and the AUC (r=0.47; p<0.01), and Cmax (r=0.59; p<0.01) in saliva was found; for TF, the correlation was not significant (p>0.05). In addition, the correlations between plasma and saliva fluoride concentrations were statistically significant for AUC (r=0.55; p<0.01) as for Cmax (r=0.68; p<0.01). Conclusion The findings support that saliva can be used as a systemic biomarker of bioavailable fluoride present in Na2FPO3/CaCO3-based toothpaste.
  • Influence of number and position of porcelain specimens in the furnace on flexural strength and translucency Original Article

    Machado, Pablo Soares; Camponogara, Jeanni Gonçalves; Rodrigues, Camila da Silva; Jacques, Letícia Borges; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Rippe, Marília Pivetta

    Abstract in English:

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the quantity and positioning of feldspathic ceramic specimens inside the furnace on their flexural strength and translucency. The tested hypotheses were that the arrangement of specimens in the furnance would not influence 1) the translucency or 2) the biaxial strength of the porcelain. Methods Ninety porcelain specimens were made (1.2 mm thickness and 13.5 mm diameter) and assigned into two main groups (n=15): G1 group - 15 firing cycles containing only one specimen each, always at the center of the refractory; and G5 group - 15 firing cycles containing five specimen each, where one specimen was at the center of the refractory and four specimens positioned equidistantly on the periphery. The translucency test was performed using a spectrophotometer, followed by the flexural strength test, according to ISO 6872:2015. T-student test was performed for both the mechanical and optical obtained data. Results The flexural strength of the porcelain was not affected by the positioning (center x periphery) of the specimens inside the furnace (p =0.08), but the translucency was affected (periphery > center; p =0.009). Regarding to the number of feldspathic ceramic specimens, the biaxial flexural strength was affected (p =0.025), as well as the translucency (p <0.05). Conclusion A higher quantity of feldspathic ceramic specimens for each firing cycle decreased its biaxial flexural strength and translucency. Also, specimens positioned at the center of the refractory became less translucent than those positioned at the periphery.
  • Physical violence in children and adolescents: a retrospective study of injuries to the head and neck region Original Article

    Silveira, Isadora Augusta da; Silva Neto, Tomaz Alves da; Conceição, Luciana Domingues; Nascimento, Gustavo Giacomelli; Azevedo, Marina Sousa; Lund, Rafael Guerra

    Abstract in English:

    Aim This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of physical violence and head and neck injuries among children and adolescents who suffered physical aggression, firearm aggression, and white gun aggression referred to the Legal Medical Department in a southern city in Brazil. Methods This study was performed at Legal Medical Department in the city of Pelotas, RS, Brazil, from January 2011 to December of 2015. Data were collected from medical reports of children and adolescents (0-19 years old). Demographic information such as sex, age, and skin color was collected. Data were submitted to Chi-square test and multivariate Poisson regression analysis. Results In this study, 2,716 physical examination reports were analyzed, with a total of 2,171 exams resulting from violence; lesions that had physical aggression as their etiology (1,951) had a higher prevalence. The analysis of the exams revealed that the majority were adolescents (90,05%), white (84.09%), and female (50.21%). The head and neck regions were affected in most cases of violence (57.90%). In the adjusted model, the occurrence of injuries in the head and neck region was higher in males (PR 1.16, CI 95% 1.08 - 1.25), among adolescents (PR 1.28, CI 95% 1.10 - 1.48) and in victims of physical aggression compared to victims of the firearm (2.81, CI 95% 1.79 - 4.40). Conclusion The results revealed a high prevalence of head and face injuries in victims of violence and that there was a greater prevalence of physical violence among adolescents compared to children and males.
  • Viability of periodontal ligament cells in selected transport media for avulsed teeth: an in vitro study Original Article

    Williams, Adeola T.; Denloye, Obafunke O.; Popoola, Bamidele O.; Adeniji, Johnson A.; Adewumi, Olubusuyi M.; Akinleye, Toluwanimi E.; Akinyamoju, Clara A.

    Abstract in English:

    Aim To compare the viability of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells stored in Hanks Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) with those in readily available transport media over a variable period of time. Methods Periodontal ligament cells harvested from premolars freshly extracted for orthodontic reasons were cultured for exponential growth. The cells were exposed to egg white, evaporated milk, water and Hanks Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) at room temperature. Their viability was evaluated after 30 minutes, 1 hour and 3 hours with the tetrazolium salt-based colorimetric assay (MTT assay). Statistical analysis was done using the IBM® SPSS version 23.0 software. Comparison between the Mean Optical Densities (MODs) of the cells stored in HBSS and other media at each time interval was done using the independent t test. Repeated measure ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test were also carried out to compare the MOD of cells within each medium over time. The level of significance was set at p <0.05. Result The PDL cells stored in egg white had higher MODs than those in HBSS at 30 minutes and 1 hour. Conversely, the MODs of the cells stored in milk and water were lower than those in HBSS at all the studied points. There was a significant difference in the viability of the cells stored in HBSS and water at all the time points (p<0.05). Conclusion For up to an hour, egg white was found to perform better than HBSS in supporting the viability of PDL cells.
  • Evidence-practice gap in treatment decisions about defective composite and amalgam restorations among Brazilian dentists Original Article

    Tagliaferro, Elaine Pereira da Silva; Riley III, Joseph L.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Silva, Silvio Rocha Correa da; Rosell, Fernanda Lopez; Valsecki Junior, Aylton; Gordan, Valeria Veiga

    Abstract in English:

    Aim Better understanding of dentists’ decision-making about defective restorations is needed to close the evidence-practice gap (EPG). This study aimed to quantify the EPG about defective restorations and identify dentist factors associated with this EPG. Methods 216 dentists from São Paulo State, Brazil, completed a questionnaire about three clinical case scenarios involving defective composite restorations with cementum-dentin margins (case 1) and enamel margins (case 2), and an amalgam (case 3) restoration. Dentists were asked what treatment, if any, they would recommend, including preventive treatment, polishing, re-surfacing, or repairing the restoration, or replacing the entire restoration. Replacing the entire restoration in any of these three scenarios was classified as inconsistent with the evidence, comprising an EPG. Bivariate analyses using Chi-square, ANOVA, or multiple comparison tests were performed (p<.05). Results for defective composite restorations, 49% and 55% of dentists chose to replace the entire restoration for cases 1 and 2, respectively. Twenty-nine percent of dentists chose to replace the entire amalgam restoration. Dentists were significantly more likely to choose to replace the defective amalgam restoration than the composite restoration with a defect at the cementum-dentin margins or the enamel margins (both at p < .001). Female dentists were more likely to choose a conservative treatment than male dentists for cases 1 (p=.034) and 2 (p=.009). Dentists with a higher percentage of patients interested in individualized caries prevention were also more conservative in case 1 (p=.045). Conclusion a substantial EPG regarding treatment decisions for defective restorations exists, especially for composite restorations. This study adds to the international evidence that an EPG exists in this clinical area and that global strategies need to be developed to close the gap.
  • Mango peel as a potential enzyme inducer in Trichoderma harzianum: a strategy for cariogenic biofilm degradation and reuse of industrial waste Original Article

    Bem, Jéssica Silva Peixoto; Polizello, Ana Cristina Morseli; Cabral, Hamilton; Rosa-Garzon, Nathalia Gonsales da; Rechia, Carem Gledes Vargas; Aires, Carolina Patrícia

    Abstract in English:

    Water-insoluble exopolysaccharides (I-EPS) are a virulence factor for dental biofilms. It has already been demonstrated that mango pulp induces the secretion of glucan-hydrolytic enzymes in the fungus Trichoderma harzianum, and that they have an effect on I-EPS from young biofilms. Aim Evaluate the effect of mango peel as an enzyme inducer in T. harzianum, and the effect of enzymes secreted on mature biofilms. Methods Fractions of the peel (PL) and ethanol-precipitated pulp (PP) of Tommy Atkins mangoes were sterilized and added to a culture medium containing T. harzianum for induction of hydrolytic enzymes. After 192 h, the culture medium was centrifuged and the supernatant (enzyme extract) was used as treatment on S. mutans biofilms (n=9): a) NaCl 0.9 %; b) 0.12 % chlorhexidine digluconate; and c) extract of enzymes induced by PL or PP. Acidogenicity, bacterial viability, quantification of insoluble polysaccharides, and three-dimensional analysis of the biofilm by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by the Tukey test (α=5 %). Results The hydrolytic enzymes did not alter the metabolism or bacterial viability of the biofilm (p<0.05). Although the images obtained by SEM suggest some degree of matrix degradation, the quantification of I-EPS for the PL and PP groups did not differ from the control group (p>0.05), suggesting a slight effect on the disorganization of the mature S. mutans biofilm. Conclusion The results suggest that mango peel fraction can induce secretion of mutanase by T. harzianum, however in an insufficient amount to generate significant degradation on cariogenic biofilm.
  • Endodontic file separation and its management among dentists in Punjab, Pakistan: a cross-sectional study Original Article

    Hassan, Hammad; Ali, Syed Moiz; Khawar, Baneen; Riaz, Sidra; Zia, Razia; Hameed, Marij

    Abstract in English:

    Aim The study aimed to find the incidence and awareness of endodontic instrument separation and its management among dental house officers, postgraduate trainees, demonstrators, consultants, and general dentists. Methods This online questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted with the approval of the IRB in private and public dental hospitals and dental clinics in Punjab. The authors developed the survey tool, which comprises 24 closed-ended items regarding demographics, the incidence of file separation, and awareness about its management. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 24. The Chi-Square Test was used to compare percentages of categorical variables. Results Postgraduate trainees experienced the most instrument separations (43.6%), made the most retrieval attempts (49.2%), and experienced the most secondary errors during retrieval (52.1%) (p<0.001). Around four out of ten respondents always informed the patients (39.6%) and department (41.6%) about errors. Manual files (69.8%), stainless steel files (75.8%), and short files (60.4%) were more frequently separated, and the most frequent cause was older fatigue files (57.7%). Manual files were more frequently broken in public dental institutes (p=0.003). Two-thirds of the file separations (72.5%) occurred during cleaning and shaping in the apical third of molars (65.1%), especially in mesiolingual canal (56.4%). Bypass attempt was the most common in symptomatic teeth (47.7%). Conclusions Preventive approaches such as limiting file reuse and constructing a glide path can reduce the occurrence of file separation. Operators should be familiar with the number of uses of the instrument before fatigue and should be trained through workshops and refresher courses.
  • Dental students’ self-perception of security and biosafety measures in times of pandemic by COVID-19: a cross-sectional study in private Universities in Southern Brazil Critical Review

    Grave, Luísa Quevedo; Costa, Francine dos Santos; Chisini, Luiz Alexandre; Conde, Marcus Cristian Muniz

    Abstract in English:

    The study investigated the factors associated with the self-perception safety of dental students in clinical activities during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional study was based on a semi-structured online (google forms) self-applied questionnaire, sent by e-mail to three private Dental Schools in Brazil. The variables were: 1) sociodemographic information; 2) questions about the measures adopted by dental schools before returning to clinical activities; 3) dental students’ self-perception of security; 4) the General Health Questionnaire. Data were submitted to Fisher’s exact test (p<0.05). Of the 294 eligible students, 97% were evaluated and 100% received previous specific biosafety training predominantly theoretical (72.16%) longer than one hour (51.55%). Most students (81.44%) felt secure performing clinical care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Students undergoing specific biosafety training for longer than one hour felt safer than those perfoming training for up to 1 hour (p=0.004). Students from schools where the aerosol-producing restriction was applied felt safer than those without restrictions (p=0.016). Women reported feeling less secure than men (p=0.046), and students who submitted to COVID-19 Specific Biosafety Training felt safer in clinical activities than those submitted to theoretical training only (p=0.011). Students from private universities presenting psychosomatic changes felt less secure in practicing clinical dental care activities (p=0.006). In conclusion, time-spent training in biosafety, restriction of the use of aerosol-producing procedures, and the gender of students were associated with the self-perception safety of students. Students with practical training felt safer in clinical activities for patients with COVID-19 than those who had only theoretical training.
  • Is the adhesive or mechanical behavior of glass ceramics influenced by the adhesive layer application after etching and silanization? A literature review Critical Review

    Velho, Helder Callegaro; Machado, Pablo Soares; Rosa, Lucas Saldanha da; Prochnow, Catina; Pisani-Proença, Jatyr

    Abstract in English:

    Aim This review investigated the effect of applying an adhesive after surface treatment of glass-ceramics on the bonding, mechanical or clinical behavior. Methods Studies comparing the adhesive, mechanical or clinical behavior of glass-ceramics, with or without adhesive application after surface treatment, were included. Searches were performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Sciences databases (January 2022), resulting in 15 included studies. Results Regarding the evaluated outcomes, 13 studies assessed bond strength, 2 studies assessed biaxial flexural strength and 1 study assessed fatigue failure load, while no study evaluating clinical outcomes was included. It was possible to observe that the adhesive application after ceramic surface treatment was unfavorable or did not influence the evaluated outcomes. Conclusion Most of the evidence available in the literature shows that the adhesive application after surface treatment does not improve the adhesive and mechanical behavior of glass-ceramics.
Faculdade de Odontologia de Piracicaba - UNICAMP Avenida Limeira, 901, cep: 13414-903, Piracicaba - São Paulo / Brasil, Tel: +55 (19) 2106-5200 - Piracicaba - SP - Brazil
E-mail: brjorals@unicamp.br