Abstract in English:The effects of NaCl salinity on seed germination, growth, physiology, and biochemistry of two bambara groundnut landraces (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc), Kakamega (white seed coat) and Mumias (red seed coat), were investigated with the aim of establishing traits, which can provide a basis for breeding to salt tolerance in groundnuts. A study was conducted under laboratorial and greenhouse conditions. Bambara groundnut seeds and plants were subjected to five concentrations of NaCl solutions with several electrical conductivities: 0 (control), 6.96, 12.93, 19.89, and 25.86 dS m-1. Germination percentage, growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, and leaf chlorophyll content were determined. Sodium chloride salinity (p<0.05) significantly decreased germination and plant growth in both landraces. Mumias had significantly higher total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and b content compared to Kakamega landrace. Salinity significantly decreased Fv/Fm ratio and electron transport rate in the two landraces, however there were no significant (p>0.05) differences in the Fv/Fm values for Mumias' landrace, as compared to the Control. Overall, Mumias' landrace seeds seemed to be more salt-tolerant at higher salinity levels compared to Kakamega. A greater reduction in growth in Mumias than in Kakamega is a possible indicator for salt tolerance. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters may not be used to identify salt sensitivity between the two landraces. The results indicated that leaf area and seed germination were suitable parameters for screening the two bambara landraces for salt tolerance.
Abstract in English:This study aimed to characterize the alarm and resistance phases of stress of Caesalpinia echinata under intense irradiance in order to better define its position on forest succession. The alarm phase was identified by rapid reduction in the maximum quantum yield of PSII primary photochemical reactions (ΦP0 = FV/FM) and Performance Index (PIABS) followed by total leaf abscission in the first week of exposure to direct sunlight. The new leaves grown showed recovery of chlorophyll a parameters, increase in blade thickness, elongation of the palisade and spongy parenchymas, higher water content, and reduction of specific leaf area. These changes were associated with the osmoprotector of sucrose and antioxidative of raffinose effects, which indicate an efficient adjustment system to intense irradiance in the resistance phase of stress. However, the continuous decrease in photosynthetic pigments in the resistance phase combined with the photodamage in the fluorescence of Chl a and total abscission of leaves in the alarm phase are strong indications that C. echinata is a shade and late or climax species in forest succession.
Abstract in English:Zinc deficiency is not only the cause of low productivity of crops, but it also results in low zinc content in seeds, which leads to poor dietary zinc intake. To study the effect of zinc foliar application on improving plant yield and seed zinc content for human consumption, chickpea plants were raised in refined sand culture with deficient (0.2 µM) and sufficient (1µM) supply of zinc under glass-house conditions. Prior to initiation of the reproductive phase, zinc was applied as 0.1% ZnSO4 foliar spray to both zinc sufficient and deficient plants. The plants exposed to different zinc treatments were studied for pollen and stigma structure and their involvement in fertilization and seed yield. Zinc deficiency induces flower abortion, pollen, and ovule infertility leading to low seed set and ultimately its yield. Foliar application of ZnSO4 to zinc deficient plants at the time of initiation of flowering partially reverses the adverse effect of zinc deficiency on pollen-stigma morphology, pollen fertility, and greatly enhanced seed yield of plants. Zinc foliar application improved not only the boldness and vigor of seeds in zinc-deficient plants, but also the seed zinc content in zinc-deficient seeds as well as the sufficient ones.
Abstract in English:To evaluate physiological genotypic differences between two Barbados cherry genotypes (13- and 14-CPA) under water deficit, initial growth, water relations, and organic solute accumulation were evaluated in an experiment performed using four-month-old seedlings, which were subjected to four water treatments (100, 75, 50, and 25% of field capacity), with five replications. Severe water deficit (25% of field capacity) negatively affected plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, dry matter of the leaves and stem to both genotypes, and root dry matter to genotype 13-CPA. Predawn (Ywpd) and midday leaf water potentials (Ywmd) were reduced in plants grown under 25% of field capacity, only in the genotype 14-CPA. There was not a change in relative water content, even with the reduction in the leaf water potential. Severe water deficit did not induce organic solutes accumulation, instead it reduced carbohydrate content in leaves of genotypes and aminoacids, proline and proteins, in genotype 13-CPA. In the roots accumulation of all organic solutes studied, it was verified genotype 13-CPA under 25% of field capacity, but only carbohydrates increased in plants under 25% of field capacity to 14-CPA. These results suggest two different mechanisms used by Barbados cherry genotypes to maintain the water status. To the 13-CPA one, the accumulation of soluble organic solutes in the roots is the main mechanism used to maintain the tissue hydration. However, the 14-CPA genotype changed the root to shoot ratio in order to avoid desiccation. Despite the mechanism used by both genotypes, a moderate drought stress does not induce significant morphophysiological changes in Barbados cherry.
Abstract in English:We studied the effects of n-propyl gallate, which is a plastid terminal oxidase inhibitor involved in chlororespiration, on photosynthesis and physiological parameters in Dunaliella salina grown under different salinities and under low or high irradiance using chlorophyll a fluorescence transient measurements and pigment analysis. The inhibitor up to 1 mM had an additive significant effect on the photosynthetic efficiency in the cell suspensions grown under low salinity and irradiance. However, in the presence of high n-propyl gallate concentration (4 mM), there was a negative effect on all physiological aspects. In contrast, this high concentration of the inhibitor could enhance efficiency of electron transport and growth parameters under high irradiance. On the other hand, with salinity increase, the unfavorable effects of high inhibitor concentration on the efficiency of photosystem II were less evident than of low salinity. Interestingly, n-propyl gallate high concentration had a positive effect on fluorescence and on physiological parameters when high salinities-grown cells were exposed to high irradiance. The results suggest that there is a rational correlation between increase of salinity and algae ability to bypass n-propyl gallate inhibited plastid terminal oxidase function and also direct influence of its lethal concentration on photosystem II compartment. The ability is especially substantial when the increase of salinity is accompanying high irradiance. Furthermore, these data show that algal responses to inhibitor concentrations are different under various environmental conditions.
Abstract in English:Two maize varieties, viz. Sartaj and Deccan, have been evaluated according to their responses to chromium (Cr) in terms of specific physiological and biochemical attributes. During the exposure to Cr concentration (0, 50, 100, 200 and 300 µM) of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) for seven days, significant changes of oxidative stress in terms of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were recorded along with other antioxidative pathways. It is revealed that irrespective of varieties, Sartaj was more prone to oxidative stress since the amount of superoxide due to Cr exposure was found to be significant, unlike the second variety, Deccan. In addition, for Sartaj the activity of NAD(P)H oxidase recorded a significant linear increase in a dose response manner.The changes of antioxidative enzymes recorded significant variation in both varieties under stress compared to control. However, Deccan maintains a consistent up regulation in SOD and GPX activities. Contrarily, APX activity was less sensitive to both varieties. The activation of antioxidative mechanisms due to the impact of Cr-induced oxidative stress has been described subsequently. The results deriving from this investigation might be effective for the selection of tolerant plant types under chromium contamination.
Abstract in English:Nicotiana glauca, a shrub native to southern South America, is widely distributed in the Americas, from Patagonia to the USA, from zero up to 3,700 m; it rapidly invades disturbed environments. In Venezuela, it has been reported from zero up to 2,000 m growing in contrasting conditions of relative humidity, temperature, rainfall, and salinity. In order to gain insight into the extent and mode of resistance to drought and salinity in N. glauca, we studied the effect of these factors on water relations and photosynthesis under both natural and greenhouse conditions. In the field, water potential, photosynthetic rate (A) and stomatal conductance (gs), but not relative water content (RWC) decreased because of drought. Manual removal of epicuticular wax increased excess energy dissipation through non-photochemical quenching without altering the capacity of photochemical quenching. In the greenhouse, water deficit as well as salinity resulted in osmotic adjustment; at the end of the experiment, turgor potential and RWC under water deficit were similar to control and higher under salinity. Water deficit and salinity caused marked decreases in A and gs. There were very few or no changes with natural drought, salinity or experimental water deficit in potential quantum efficiency of PSII, which could be explained partly by an increased non-photochemical quenching. We conclude that the partial tolerance to drought and salinity in plants of N. glauca resides in their ability to achieve water conservation through stomatal closure and osmotic adjustment, reduce absorption of excess radiation through the presence of leaf wax and dissipate it through increased non-photochemical quenching. All these characteristics confer plants of N. glauca advantages to invade disturbed areas, subject to salinity and/or seasonal drought under high irradiance.
Abstract in English:Phytohormone analysis using liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry is a very important tool for studies involving plant metabolism; however, this analysis can be affected by matrix composition. Although it is necessary to understand this effect to produce reliable results, it has been widely neglected in analyses of plant hormones. Leaf extracts from Bauhinia variegata were obtained by solvent extraction followed by solid-phase cleanup. The extract was analyzed with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) in negative ionization mode, using the multiple reaction monitoring mode with two or three transitions to enhance analytical quality control. Although deuterated standards were used as surrogates, pronounced matrix effects were detected for phaseic acid (PA), abscisic acid (ABA) -glycosyl ester (ABA-GE) and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA), whereas ABA, neoPA and 7'-hydroxy-ABA (7'OHABA) showed negligible matrix effects. The method was validated using spiked samples and was applied to monitor ABA, PA, DPA, neoPA, 7Â´OHABA and ABA-GE on a daily basis. Analyte recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 67% to 87%. The highest leaf concentration of phytohormones was found at 2:00 pm and 5:00 pm, which represent typical day times related to the decrease of stomatal conductance. Despite the use of deuterated phytohormones as internal standards, we showed that the use of a calibration curve constructed with a matrix extract is mandatory for the reliable quantification of ABA and its metabolites, especially PA, ABA-GE and DPA. Daily variations in endogenous ABA leaf concentration were discussed.