Abstract in English:Plants growing in temperate regions are often exposed to stress conditions caused by high temperatures. Photosynthesis is one of the metabolic processes most sensitive to high temperature stress, and it is often inhibited before other cellular functions. Using peach leaf disks, we studied the transient chlorophyll a fluorescence along with the gas exchanges at temperatures of 25 (control) 30, 35, 40 and 45°C in the dark for a period of 30 minutes. Temperatures above 35°C caused significant changes in the transient fluorescence of chlorophyll a, including an increase in the initial fluorescence (F0), a decrease in maximum fluorescence values (F M) and the appearance of K and L bands. The values of the net assimilation rate decreased as the temperature increased and reached negative values at 45°C.
Abstract in English:The effects of aminooxyacetic acid, benzyladenine, and 1-methylcyclopropene treatments on the post-production flower quality of potted carnation plants (Dianthus caryophyllus L. Clove Pink) were investigated considering ethylene production and antioxidant metabolism. Maximum plant longevity (17 days) was obtained using 70 ppb of 1-methylcyclopropene. As compared to control plants, ethylene production was significantly decreased by aminooxyacetic acid at concentrations over 100 mg L-1, benzyladenine at 20 or 30 mg L-1, and 1-methylcyclopropene at 70 and 140 ppb. A significant increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid concentration was observed in 1-methylcyclopropene treated plants compared with the control ones. On the other hand, decline in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid concentration was observed after using 100 or 150 mg L-1 of aminooxyacetic acid. Use of 1-methylcyclopropene (70 or 140 ppb), aminooxyacetic acid (100 or 150 mg L-1), and benzyladenine (20 or 30 mg L-1) significantly decreased H2O2 concentration and superoxide radical when compared with the untreated control. Significant increases in activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase were noticed when plants were treated with 70 ppb 1-methylcyclopropene. In conclusion, aminooxyacetic acid, benzyladenine (at high concentrations), and 1-methylcyclopropene treatments can be suitable candidates for extending plant longevity, maintaining the visual quality, and reducing the loss of flower anthocyanin.
Abstract in English:Annona emarginata (Schldtl.) H. Rainer ("araticum-de-terra-fria") is used as a rootstock for several species of Annonaceae. It is suggested that these seeds should be sown immediately after extraction and, therefore, they could be intolerant to desiccation. There are several mechanisms involved with desiccation tolerance. Soluble sugars, for example, can accumulate and act as osmoprotectants for the membrane system during desiccation. The aim of this study is to assess desiccation tolerance in A. emarginata seeds. In addition, we examined the soluble sugars involved in desiccation tolerance. Finally, we determined the effect of gibberellic acid (GA4+7) and N-(phenylmethyl)-aminopurine in promoting the germination of seeds with different water contents. The experiment consisted of a randomized 4x5 factorial design (desiccation levels x concentration of growth regulators). After drying, seeds containing 31 (control), 19, 12 and 5% water were incubated in different concentrations of GA4+7 N-(phenylmethyl)-aminopurine (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg L-1) for 60 hours. The experiment was conducted in a germination chamber with alternating temperature and photoperiod of 20ºC for 18 hours of darkness and 30ºC for 6 hours of light. We analyzed electrical conductivity, germination rate, mean germination time, germination speed, frequency and uniformity of germination, percentage of dormant seeds and soluble sugar profile in intact seeds through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The data were subjected to analysis of variance, and the means were compared using Tukey's test at a threshold of p<0.05. The results showed that seeds of A. emarginata appears to be desiccation tolerant and, also, that sucrose increases when seed water content is reduced to values as low as 12%, exogenous GA4+7+N-(phenylmethyl)-aminopurine improves its germinability.
Abstract in English:Lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) is an exotic fruit from the Andes Mountains with a high export potential. However, the browning that is produced during harvest and the postharvest processes alters the organoleptic and nutritional properties of this fruit, which has made its management as a fresh fruit difficult. The browning processes are regulated by the enzyme family of the polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) located in the thylakoids of the chloroplast. When there is damage at the tissue level, the phenolic compounds found in the vacuoles enter into contact with the polyphenol oxidase. This enzyme produces polymerization among the phenolic compounds, as well as between them and the proteins and cell walls. This study analyzed the polyphenol oxidase in lulo var. Castilla at the genetic level, based on DNA and RNA samples. The results showed a high level of homology with other polyphenol oxidases from plants. The highest degree of homology was found with Solanum melongena L., which belongs to the same clade, Leptostemonum. The tyrosinase and two copper-binding domains, characteristic of the polyphenol oxidase, the conserved residues that maintain the natural environment, the sequence of a signal peptide for targeting chloroplast, and the UTRA domain of transcription regulation for recognizing small molecules were identified. Southern blot was used to analyze the number of gene copies, identifying at least eight ones in the lulo genome.
Abstract in English:Water supply is the main yield-limiting abiotic factor of oil palm in Colombia. To determine the effect of water deficit on the physiology of oil palm and to assess the tolerance degree to this condition, interspecific Elaeis oleifera versus Elaeis guineensis 'U1273', 'U1859', 'U1914', and 'U1937' hybrids were planted for 60 days in soil with different water potentials (-0.042, -0.5, -1.0, and -2.0 MPa) in a complete randomized factorial design with three replications. The water potential, osmotic adjustment molecules (total and reducing sugar content), gas exchange (photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and leaf respiration), and vegetative growth (height, bulb diameter, leaf area, number of leaves, total dry matter, and assimilate partitioning between roots and aerial parts) were measured. Soil water potential had a significant effect on the ecophysiological response of the hybrids. At -2 MPa, there was practically no carbon dioxide assimilation. Under optimal moisture conditions, the 'U1859' hybrid recorded the highest photosynthetic rate and the lowest respiratory rate, while under moderate and severe water deficits, the 'U1937' hybrid showed the highest photosynthetic rate, the lowest respiratory rate, moved its assimilates mainly towards the roots, and was the only one to adjust its water potential (active accumulation of sugars). Two environment/genotype tolerance relationships were established based on high photosynthetic rate, low leaf respiration rate, water potential adjustment, water use efficiency under adequate moisture conditions ('U1859'>'U1937'='U1914'>'U1273'), and under water deficit ('U1937'>'U1914'>'U1859'>'U1273').
Abstract in English:The present study was conducted to evaluate salt tolerance in seven different pure-line cultivars of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) viz. K-21, Pusa Ruby, Pusa Gorav, Hera research, Selection N5, PKM-1 and S-22 based on several physiological and biochemical traits. Seedlings were transplanted to the pots, being exposed to different salinity levels in the form of NaCl (0, 50, 100, or 150 mM) at a 35-day stage of growth for six days. The plants exposed to salt stress presented a significant decline in growth, photosynthetic parameters, maximum quantum yield of PSII and leaf water relations, which were drastically reduced in variety S-22, while variety K-21 was the least affected. Electrolyte leakage was superior in proportion to an increase in salinity levels. Proline content and activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were found maximum in variety K-21. Almost all the growth and physiological and biochemical traits had a significant genotypic variation, indicating that these parameters could be used as novel screening criteria for selecting the tolerant and sensitive cultivars exposed to salt stress.
Abstract in English:Physiological and anatomical features of Cd-tolerance in Pfaffia glomerata were examined by exposing plantlets to nutrient solutions with increasing Cd concentrations (0, 15, 45, and 90 µmol Cd L-1), and possible Cd-tolerance markers were established. Cd contents were found to be higher in roots than in shoots. According to the bio-concentration factor data, this species is effectively a Cd-hyperaccumulator, as previously attested. Cd induced the appearance of xeromorphic characteristics in leaves (decreased water potential, increased numbers and decreased stomata size) and increased root endodermis thickness. The enzymatic antioxidant systems of roots and leaves were differently affected by Cd. The coordinated activities of antioxidant enzymes were effective in reducing Cd-induced reactive oxygen species in plants, mainly in leaves. Root endodermis thickness, stomatal size and numbers, root superoxide dismutase, and guaiacol peroxidase, as well as leaf guaiacol peroxidase and catalase activities can all be considered Cd-tolerance markers in Pfaffia glomerata. Due to its high root Cd accumulation, Pfaffia glomerata may be useful in Cd-phytoextraction programs, however the pharmacological use of plants grown in the presence of Cd must be avoided.