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Development and validation of a simple and noninvasive method for salivary uric acid: potential applications for monitoring the salivary uric acid level in healthy volunteers and gout patients

Abstract

Serum uric acid (UA) is a traditional biomarker in the clinical diagnosis of gout and hyperuricemia. However, serum treatment and storage are cumbersome, and wounds are susceptible to infection. Therefore, in this study, a simple and noninvasive method was developed to detect the UA in human saliva to monitor the gout. An Inertsil ODS-3 column was used for the analysis under the condition of isocratic elution with the mixed solution phosphate buffer (74 mM, pH=2.2): Methanol=98:2 (v:v) and the UV detection at 284 nm. Using salivary UA data from healthy volunteers (HVs) (n=68) and gout patients (GPs) (n=14), we examined the salivary UA difference in their content. The intra-and inter-day accuracy and precision (RSD %) were less than 2.56%, the limit of detection (LOD) of UA was 5.0 ng/mL, the mean recoveries of the corresponding compounds were 102.48%. Saliva levels of UA in HVs and GPs were 35.26±14.06 µg/mL and 91.96±23.90 µg/mL, respectively. The concentrations of salivary UA in GPs were significantly higher than those in HVs ( p < 0.001). This method was also expected to monitor the hyperuricemia and other metabolic disorders in the future.

Keywords:
Noninvasive; Gout patient; Hyperuricemia; Human saliva; Uric acid

INTRODUCTION

Uric acid (UA) has both anti-and pro-oxidant effects in tissues, blood and the central nervous system of humans (Riis et al., 2018Riis JL, Bryce CI, Matin MJ, Stebbins JL, Kornienko O, Huisstede LV, et al. The validity, stability, and utility of measuring uric acid in saliva. Biomark Med. 2018;12(6):583-96.). Moreover, its imbalance is an important clinical index in dysfunctions, such as gout, cardiovascular, and metabolic disorders (Biscaglia et al., 2016Biscaglia S, Ceconi C, Malagù M, Pavasini R, Ferrari R. Uric acid and coronary artery disease: An elusive link deserving further attention. Int J Cardiol. 2016;213:28-32.; Kanbay et al., 2016Kanbay M, Jensen T, Y Solak, Le M, Roncal-Jimenez C, Rivard C, et al. Uric acid in metabolic syndrome: from an innocent bystander to a central player. Eur J Intern Med. 2016;29:3-8.; Li et al., 2016Li XL, Shi Q, Jin W, Li G, Todoroki K, Mizuno H, et al. Uric acid quantification in fingernail of gout patients and healthy volunteers using HPLC-UV. Biomed Chromatogr. 2016;30(8):1338-42.; Zhang et al., 2015Zhang Y, Xu RX, Li S, Zhu CG, Guo YL, Sun J, et al. Lipoprotein subfractions partlymediate the association between serum uric acid and coronary artery disease. Clin Chim Acta . 2015;441:109-14.; Abeles, 2015Abeles AM. Hyperuricemia, gout, and cardiovascular disease: an update. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2015;17(3):495.; Soukup et al., 2012Soukup M, Biesiada I, Henderson A, Idowu B, Rodeback D, Ridpath L, et al. Salivary uric acid as a noninvasive biomarker of metabolic syndrome. Diabetol Metab Syndr . 2012;4(1):14.). Many studies reveal that high level of serum UA is associated with hypertension, stroke, and chronic kidney disease, in addition, increase the risk for Type-2 diabetes and insulin-resistance (Kushiyama et al., 2014Kushiyama A, Tanaka K, Hara S, Kawazu S. Linking uric acid metabolism to diabetic complications. World J Diabetes. 2014;5(6):787-95.; Lippi et al., 2008Lippi G, Montagnana M, Franchini M, Favaloro EJ, Targher G. The paradoxical relationship between serum uric acid and cardiovascular disease. Clin Chim Acta . 2008;392(1-2):1-7.; de Oliveira, Burini, 2012de Oliveira EP, Burini RC. High plasma uric acid concentration: causes and consequences. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2012;4(1):12.). In this study, we present a low-cost, simple and convenient assay for UA detection to monitor the gout.

Gout is one type of arthritis which is caused by the high concentration of UA in the blood. With the increase of the prevalence, more and more patients are suffering from the insufferable joint pain (Zhao, Huang, 2015Zhao J, Huang Y. Salivary uric acid as a noninvasive biomarker for monitoring the efficacy of urate-lowering therapy in a patient with chronic gouty arthropathy. Clin Chim Acta . 2015;450:115-20.; Tausche et al., 2009Tausche AK, Jansen TL, Schroder HE, Bornstein SR, Aringer M, Müller-Ladner U. Gout-current diagnosis and treatment. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2009;106(34-35):549-55.). The UA detection in human urine and plasma samples have been extensively investigated for the diagnosis of these diseases (Ross, 1994Ross MA. Determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr B . 1994;657(1):197-200.; Siekmann, 1985Siekmann L. Determination of uric acid in human serum by isotope dilution-mass spectrometry. Definitive methods in clinical chemistry, III. J Clin ChemClin Biochem . 1985;23(3):129-35.; Ellerbe, Cohen, 1990Ellerbe P, Cohen A. Determination of serum uric acid by isotope dilution mass spectrometry as a new candidate definitive method. Anal Chem. 1990;62(20):2173-7.; Zhao, 2013Zhao J. A simple, rapid and reliable high performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of creatinine and uric acid in plasma and urine. Anal Methods. 2013;5:6781-7.). Different methods have been developed to detect UA in the plasma and urine samples, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (Inoue et al., 2003Inoue K, Namiki T, Iwasaki Y, Yoshimura Y, Nakazawa H. Determination of uric acid in human saliva by high-performance liquid chromatography with amperometric electrochemical detection. J Chromatogr B . 2003;785(1):57-63.; Jen, Hsiao, Liu, 2002Jen JF, Hsiao SL, Liu KH. Simultaneous determination of uric acid and creatinine in urine by an eco-friendly solvent-free high performance liquid chromatographic method. Talanta. 2002;58(4):711-7.; Li, Franke, 2009Li X, Franke AA. Fast HPLC-ECD analysis of ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid and uric acid. J Chromatogr B . 2009;877(10):853-6.; Cooper et al., 2006Cooper N, Khosravan R, Erdmann C, Fiene J, Lee JW. Quantification of uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine in human serum by HPLC for pharmacodynamic studies. J Chromatogr B. 2006;837(1-2):1-10.; Zhao, 2015Zhao J. Simultaneous determination of plasma creatinine, uric acid, kynurenine and tryptophan by high-performance liquid chromatography: method validation and in application to the assessment of renal function. Biomed Chromatogr . 2015;29(3):410-5.), capillary electrophoresis (CE), (Chu et al., 2007Chu QC, Lin M, Geng CH, Ye JN. Determination of uric acid in human saliva and urine using miniaturized capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection. Chromatographia. 2007;65:179-84.; Pormsila, Krähenbühl, Hauser, 2009Pormsila W, Krähenbühl S, Hauser PC. Capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection for uric acid determination in biological fluids. Anal Chim Acta. 2009;636(2):224-8.; Xing et al., 2008Xing X, Shi X, Zhang M, Jin W, Ye J. CE determination of creatinine and uric acid in saliva and urine during exercise. Chromatographia . 2008;67:985-8.) electrochemical (ED) (Motshakeri et al., 2018Motshakeri M, Travas-Sejdic J, Phillips ARJ, Kilmartin PA. Rapid electroanalysis of uric acid and ascorbic acid using a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-modified sensor with application to milk. Electrochim Acta. 2018;265:184-93.), mass spectrometry (MS) detection (Dai et al., 2007Dai X, Fang X, Zhang C, Xu R, Xu B. Determination of serum uric acid using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/isotope dilution mass spectrometry (ID-MS) as a candidate reference method. J Chromatogr B . 2007;857(2):287-95.; Luo, Cai, Cheng, 2013Luo X, Cai N, Cheng Z. Determination of uric acid in plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to an efficacy evaluation of recombinant urate oxidase. Anal Sci. 2013;29(7):709-13.). For LC-MS, the advantage of its highly sensitive detection, but the disadvantage of its high cost cannot be accepted. CE and ED methods have good ability to separate and detect the analytes, but the lower reproducibility implied that these methods are not suitable to measure the urine and plasma samples. However, the HPLC-UV method was used to analyze the urine and plasma samples due to its high detection sensitivity good resolution and low-cost (Li et al., 2015Li XL, Li G, Jiang YZ, Kang D, Jin CH, Shi Q, et al. Human nails metabolite analysis: A rapid and simple method for quantification of uric acid in human fingernail by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-detection. J Chromatogr B . 2015;1002:394-8.). The inherent problems of blood and urine, such as the needle jabs, and the hygienic practice during its collection and handling is also another consideration. On the contrary, the human saliva seems to be an ideal biological sample due to being clean and noninvasive compared to blood. Moreover, the content of substances in the saliva is similar to that in blood, thus, the basic health condition of humans can be accessed by the analysis of saliva. The risk of cross infection will then be decreased (Fujii et al., 2014Fujii S, Maeda T, Noge I, Kitagawa Y, Todoroki K, Inoue K, et al. Determination of acetone in saliva by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and the monitoring of diabetes mellitus patients with ketoacidosis. Clin Chim Acta . 2014;430:140-4.). The focus on saliva as a non-invasive sample has occurred because of these characteristics (Higashi et al., 2010Higashi T, Ichikawa T, Inagaki S, Min JZ, Fukushima T, Toyo’oka T. Simple and practical derivatization procedure for enhanced detection of carboxylic acids in liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010;52(5):809-18.; Malamud, 2011Malamud D. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid. Dent Clin North Am. 2011;55(1):159-78.; Chiappin, et al., 2007Chiappin S, Antonelli G, Gatti R, De Palo EF. Saliva specimen: a new laboratory tool for diagnostic and basic investigation. Clin Chim Acta. 2007;383(1-2):30-40.). More recent studies revealed that UA is existed in saliva and with the capacity to be measured (Shibasaki et al., 2012Shibasaki K, Kimura M, Ikarashi R, Yamaguchi A, Watanabe T. Uric acid concentration in saliva and its changes with the patients receiving treatment for hyperuricemia. Metabolomics. 2012;8(3):484-91.; Nunes, Brenzikofer, Macedo, 2011Nunes LA, Brenzikofer R, Macedo DV. Reference intervals for saliva analytes collected by a standardized method in a physically active population. Clin Biochem. 2011;44(17-18):1440-4.; Jones, Elwazeer, Taylor, 2018Jones BL, Elwazeer S, Taylor ZE. Salivary uric acid and C-reactive protein associations with hypertension in Midwestern Latino preadolescents and their parents. Dev Psychobiol. 2018;60(1):104-10.; Vakh et al., 2007Vakh C, Koronkiewicz S, Kalinowski S, Moskvin L, Bulatov A. An automatic chemiluminescence method based on the multi-pumping flow system coupled with the fluidized reactor and direct-injection detector: Determination of uric acid in saliva samples. Talanta . 2007;167:725-32.; Guan, Chu, Ye, 2004Guan Y, Chu Q, Ye J. Determination of uric acid in human saliva by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection: potential application in fast diagnosis of gout. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2004;380(7-8):913-7.). Thus, some researchers found that the amount of UA in plasma is related to that in saliva (Bibi, Green, Nagler, 2008Bibi G, Green Y, Nagler RM. Compositional and oxidative analysis in the saliva and serum of predialysis chronic kidney disease patients and end-stage renal failure patients on peritoneal dialysis. Ther Apher Dial. 2008;12(2):164-70.; Deminice, et al., 2010Deminice R, Sicchieri T, Payao PO, Jordão AA. Blood and salivary oxidative stress biomarkers following an acute session of resistance exercise in humans. Int J Sports Med. 2010;31(9):599-603.). Therefore, the noninvasive human saliva sample could be used as an ideal biological sample to measure UA for the diagnosis of gout.

In this study, we have developed a simple and convenient method to quantify the salivary UA level in healthy volunteers and gout patients. The feasibility of using human salivary UA level as a new noninvasive biological sample for monitoring gout was evaluated by the method.

EXPERIMENTAL

Materials and reagents

Methanol (HPLC, Thermo Fisher Scientific Co., Ltd., USA); Acetonitrile (HPLC, Thermo Fisher Scientific Co., Ltd., USA); ultrapure water was prepared using a Unique-R20 Multi-functional ultra-pure water system (Research Scientific Instruments Co., Ltd., Xiamen, China); Lithium carbonate, disodium hydrogen phosphate, phosphoric acid, UA (purity 99%) (Shanghai Aladdin); Hypoxanthine (internal standard, Beijing Bailingwei). KQ-250DE ultrasonic cleaner (Kunshan Ultrasonic Instrument Co., Ltd., China), HSC-12000 centrifuge (AS ONE Corporation, Japan), BSA124S analytical balances (Sartorius Scientific Instruments Co., Ltd., Beijing), BV101-B Vornado Miniature Vortex Mixer (Benchmark Scientific Inc., USA).

HPLC-UV analysis

In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a UV detector (Hitachi 1410, Japan) was used to quantify the UA in saliva. The process of analysis was performed using an Inertsil ODS-3 Column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 4µm) and the mixture of liquid containing phosphate buffer (74 mM, pH=2.2): methanol=98:2 (v:v) as the mobile phase; the column temperature was 40°C, the UV detector wavelength was 284 nm, the flow rate was 1.0 mL/ min, the injection volume was 10 µL, and the analysis time was 7 min.

Collection of human saliva

HVs and GPs fasted and beverage 1 h before the saliva collection. And they were also forbidden to brush their teeth 1 h prior to the collection to avoid contamination of saliva with blood due to potential bleeding. Unstimulated saliva (1 mL) samples were collected by direct spitting into a collecting tube from 68 HVs (age: 20-82, 27 males and 41 females, from the College of Pharmacy, Yanbian University) and 14 GPs form Yanbian Universiry Hospital (age: 30-76, 14 males). The samples were stored at -20°C before analysis. HVs and GPs understood the purpose and significance of this experiment and donated saliva after signing an agreement. The experimental procedures were conducted in accordance with the ethical standards of the Helsinki Declaration and approved by the Ethics Committee of Yanbian University.

Pretreatment of UA in the human saliva

A 50 µL thawed human saliva sample was dissolved in 200 mL of acetonitrile and vortexed for 1 min, centrifuged at 12,000 rpm/min for 5 min, and the supernatant liquid was obtained; the remaining samples were then analyzed and the supernatant liquid obtained, combined with the two supernatants, and 50 µL of an internal standard solution (100 µg/mL hypoxanthine) was added.

Method validation

Calibration curves and limit of detection

A 6.0 mg UA standard was added to 10 mL of a 0.01 M lithium carbonate solution to obtain a 600 µg/ mL UA standard solution then diluted it into the required concentrations (0.5-600 µg/mL). Each concentration was continuously detected five times. The UA standard solution concentration (µg/mL) was plotted on the abscissa of the calibration curves, and the ratio of the UA peak area to the internal standard peak area was plotted on the ordinate of the calibration curves. The precision (relative standard deviation, RSD %) of each concentration and the limit of detection of UA (S/N = 3) were calculated.

Recovery and precision

Four kinds of saliva samples (2 males and 2 females) were processed as described in section 2.4. One part was used as the blank group. Other groups was added with 50 µL of three groups of UA standard solutions, including low, medium and high (50, 100, 300 µg/mL). They were then centrifuged and dissolved in 200 µL of a lithium carbonate solution. The recovery rate, intra-day and inter-day precision were calculated. The recovery rate is calculated as follows. Firstly, we separately detected concentrations of UA from saliva samples and standard solutions (50, 100, and 300 µg/ mL). Secondly, we determined concentrations of UA from saliva spiked three different contents of UA standard solutions. Finally, we subtract concentration of UA before spiked from concentration of UA after spiking. And we use the above data to divide by concentrations of standard solutions of UA and multiply by one hundred percent.

Stability evaluation

Three kinds of saliva samples were processed by using the method which described in section 2.4. 50 µL of the three groups of UA standard solutions containing low, medium and high (50, 100, 300 µg/mL) levels, which were added to the above three samples, then centrifuged and dissolved in 200 µL of lithium carbonate solution. The evaluation about the stability of the saliva samples were finished by detection within 24 hours at room temperature or after the three freeze-thaw cycles. In addition, the samples were stored under -20°C for 15 day to test the storage stability.

Quantitative analysis of UA in saliva of GPs and HVs

Saliva samples were processed using the method described in section 2.4 (68 HVs, 14 GPs). After centrifugation, the supernatant was dissolved in a 200 µL lithium carbonate solution. The concentrations of UA in the saliva from the gout patients and healthy people were recorded. The average content was calculated for quantitative analysis.

Statistical analysis

The statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney’s U-test. A P value of <0.05 (0.001) was considered statistically significant.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

LC-UV analysis of UA

In the study, standard solutions of UA as well as pooled human saliva were dissolved by the mobile phase. The optimal separation occurred on an Inertsil ODS-3 column maintained at 40°C with the mixed solution of 74 mmol/L sodium phosphate buffer containing 2.0% methanol (pH 2.2) as the mobile phase and at 284 nm for detection. Figure 1 illustrated the HPLC-UV chromatograms of UA in the saliva from the healthy volunteers and gout patients. The retention times of the internal standard (IS) and UA were 4.6 and 6.0 minute, respectively. The retention time of UA in the saliva of the healthy volunteers and gout patients was consistent with the retention time of standard products. Based on these results, these stated conditions of separation were the best suitable for the detection of UA in human saliva.

FIGURE 1
HPLC-UV chromatograms obtained from the analysis of the saliva of healthy volunteers and gout patients.

A: Standard of UA and IS; B: Healthy volunteer female (HV-F); C: Healthy volunteer male (HV-M); D: gout patient male (GP-M).

Validation

In the range of 0.5-600 µg/mL, the calibration curve of UA showed a good linear relation (r 2=0.9999) and its linear equation was y = 0.5333x - 0.4128, the RSD % were 0.54 and 6.42%. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of UA were 5.0 ng/mL and 16.0 ng/mL, respectively. As shown in Table I, the RSD % of the intra-day and inter-day determinations were 0.24-2.56% and 1.62-2.22%, respectively. The accuracies of the determinations were 98.20-105.99%. The mean recoveries of the UA standard in the human saliva were 102.48%. The mean recovery and repeatability showed that the method were suitable for the determination of UA in the human saliva. The stability of UA in the human saliva was shown in Table II. The RSD % of different UA concentrations in the saliva were less than 3.03% within 24 hours at room temperature, three freeze-thaw cycles and 15 days at -20°C. The results indicated that UA was stable in the saliva. The method is simple and precise, and can be used to determine UA in gout patients.

TABLE I
Recovery and precision data of uric acid (UA) from the saliva of healthy volunteers

TABLE II
Stability of uric acid in human saliva

Determination of UA in saliva of HVs and GPs

For clinical research and treatment, the content of UA in blood is used as a medical index for the diagnosis of gout. However, the process of blood collection requires a professional medical staff and the invasive with pain problem are undesirable. On the contrary, some researchers would use human saliva with the advantages of easily storage, relatively clean, painless collection and the optimal collection time of the human saliva was optimized. Figure 2 shows the UA content in saliva collected from men and women of HV at different times over one day. That UA content in the human saliva is relatively stable between 6:30-22:00. At 11:30 a.m., the UA content in the saliva was very stable, therefore, we chose 11:30 a.m. Thus, some useful information in the diagnosis of gout disorders was provided in order to more accurately determine the human saliva UA level. The saliva of HVs (age 20-82; 27 males and 41 females) and GPs (age 30-76; 14 males) was used as the UA samples to analyze using the recommended procedures. According to the test results of the serum UA level, gout patients were diagnosed at the Affiliated Hospital of Yanbian University. Figure 1 B, C and D shows the HPLC-UV chromatograms of UA in the saliva from healthy volunteer females, healthy volunteer males and the gout patients. The peak related to the UA was achieved with good separation without interference from the endogenous substances in the human saliva. Figure 3 shows the quantitative values of the UA in the saliva of the healthy volunteer males (n=27) and healthy volunteer females (n=41). Comparing the results, the concentration of UA in the men was higher than that in women but without statistical significance. Figure 4 illustrates the statistical analysis of the concentration of UA in the saliva from the HVs (n = 68) and GPs (n = 14). The mean amounts of UA in the saliva from the HVs and GPs were 35.26±14.06 µg/ mL and 91.96±23.90 µg/mL, respectively. We found that there is a significantly statistical difference between two groups (p < 0.001). These results prove that the detection method of the UA in the human saliva could be used to diagnose and assess the disease activity in GPs.

FIGURE 2
Judgment of the best time to collect saliva from healthy volunteers.

FIGURE 3
Quantitative values of the uric acid in saliva of healthy volunteer females (HV-F, n=41) and healthy volunteer males (HV-M, n=27).

FIGURE 4
Statistical analysis of UA concentration in the healthy volunteers (male=27) and gout patients (male=14). HV-M, Healthy volunteer male; GP-M, Gout patient male; (*** p < 0.001).

CONCLUSION

A simple and practical quantification procedure for the detection of UA in the saliva from gout patients was developed. Furthermore, rapid detect and separation within 7 min was done by using LC and an ODS-3 Column. The present method has a favorable sensitivity and was proven to be simple and comparable to previous methods such as LC-MS. The UA content of the healthy males was higher than that of the females. Furthermore, comparing the concentrations of UA from the HVs and GPs, we found that there is a significant statistical difference between each other (p < 0.001). Consequently, the proposed procedure is useful for the noninvasive salivary monitoring of GPs. The popularity of the method could perfect the health examination setting and monitoring for GPs.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Authors would like to acknowledge the consultant of the project Prof0. Jin Wenlong. And the research assistant Qing Shi for their scientific and technical assistance.

REFERENCES

  • Abeles AM. Hyperuricemia, gout, and cardiovascular disease: an update. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2015;17(3):495.
  • Biscaglia S, Ceconi C, Malagù M, Pavasini R, Ferrari R. Uric acid and coronary artery disease: An elusive link deserving further attention. Int J Cardiol. 2016;213:28-32.
  • Bibi G, Green Y, Nagler RM. Compositional and oxidative analysis in the saliva and serum of predialysis chronic kidney disease patients and end-stage renal failure patients on peritoneal dialysis. Ther Apher Dial. 2008;12(2):164-70.
  • Chu QC, Lin M, Geng CH, Ye JN. Determination of uric acid in human saliva and urine using miniaturized capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection. Chromatographia. 2007;65:179-84.
  • Chiappin S, Antonelli G, Gatti R, De Palo EF. Saliva specimen: a new laboratory tool for diagnostic and basic investigation. Clin Chim Acta. 2007;383(1-2):30-40.
  • Cooper N, Khosravan R, Erdmann C, Fiene J, Lee JW. Quantification of uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine in human serum by HPLC for pharmacodynamic studies. J Chromatogr B. 2006;837(1-2):1-10.
  • Dai X, Fang X, Zhang C, Xu R, Xu B. Determination of serum uric acid using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/isotope dilution mass spectrometry (ID-MS) as a candidate reference method. J Chromatogr B . 2007;857(2):287-95.
  • de Oliveira EP, Burini RC. High plasma uric acid concentration: causes and consequences. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2012;4(1):12.
  • Deminice R, Sicchieri T, Payao PO, Jordão AA. Blood and salivary oxidative stress biomarkers following an acute session of resistance exercise in humans. Int J Sports Med. 2010;31(9):599-603.
  • Ellerbe P, Cohen A. Determination of serum uric acid by isotope dilution mass spectrometry as a new candidate definitive method. Anal Chem. 1990;62(20):2173-7.
  • Fujii S, Maeda T, Noge I, Kitagawa Y, Todoroki K, Inoue K, et al. Determination of acetone in saliva by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and the monitoring of diabetes mellitus patients with ketoacidosis. Clin Chim Acta . 2014;430:140-4.
  • Guan Y, Chu Q, Ye J. Determination of uric acid in human saliva by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection: potential application in fast diagnosis of gout. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2004;380(7-8):913-7.
  • Higashi T, Ichikawa T, Inagaki S, Min JZ, Fukushima T, Toyo’oka T. Simple and practical derivatization procedure for enhanced detection of carboxylic acids in liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010;52(5):809-18.
  • Inoue K, Namiki T, Iwasaki Y, Yoshimura Y, Nakazawa H. Determination of uric acid in human saliva by high-performance liquid chromatography with amperometric electrochemical detection. J Chromatogr B . 2003;785(1):57-63.
  • Jen JF, Hsiao SL, Liu KH. Simultaneous determination of uric acid and creatinine in urine by an eco-friendly solvent-free high performance liquid chromatographic method. Talanta. 2002;58(4):711-7.
  • Jones BL, Elwazeer S, Taylor ZE. Salivary uric acid and C-reactive protein associations with hypertension in Midwestern Latino preadolescents and their parents. Dev Psychobiol. 2018;60(1):104-10.
  • Kanbay M, Jensen T, Y Solak, Le M, Roncal-Jimenez C, Rivard C, et al. Uric acid in metabolic syndrome: from an innocent bystander to a central player. Eur J Intern Med. 2016;29:3-8.
  • Kushiyama A, Tanaka K, Hara S, Kawazu S. Linking uric acid metabolism to diabetic complications. World J Diabetes. 2014;5(6):787-95.
  • Li XL, Shi Q, Jin W, Li G, Todoroki K, Mizuno H, et al. Uric acid quantification in fingernail of gout patients and healthy volunteers using HPLC-UV. Biomed Chromatogr. 2016;30(8):1338-42.
  • Lippi G, Montagnana M, Franchini M, Favaloro EJ, Targher G. The paradoxical relationship between serum uric acid and cardiovascular disease. Clin Chim Acta . 2008;392(1-2):1-7.
  • Li X, Franke AA. Fast HPLC-ECD analysis of ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid and uric acid. J Chromatogr B . 2009;877(10):853-6.
  • Li XL, Li G, Jiang YZ, Kang D, Jin CH, Shi Q, et al. Human nails metabolite analysis: A rapid and simple method for quantification of uric acid in human fingernail by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-detection. J Chromatogr B . 2015;1002:394-8.
  • Luo X, Cai N, Cheng Z. Determination of uric acid in plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to an efficacy evaluation of recombinant urate oxidase. Anal Sci. 2013;29(7):709-13.
  • Malamud D. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid. Dent Clin North Am. 2011;55(1):159-78.
  • Motshakeri M, Travas-Sejdic J, Phillips ARJ, Kilmartin PA. Rapid electroanalysis of uric acid and ascorbic acid using a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-modified sensor with application to milk. Electrochim Acta. 2018;265:184-93.
  • Nunes LA, Brenzikofer R, Macedo DV. Reference intervals for saliva analytes collected by a standardized method in a physically active population. Clin Biochem. 2011;44(17-18):1440-4.
  • Pormsila W, Krähenbühl S, Hauser PC. Capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection for uric acid determination in biological fluids. Anal Chim Acta. 2009;636(2):224-8.
  • Riis JL, Bryce CI, Matin MJ, Stebbins JL, Kornienko O, Huisstede LV, et al. The validity, stability, and utility of measuring uric acid in saliva. Biomark Med. 2018;12(6):583-96.
  • Ross MA. Determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr B . 1994;657(1):197-200.
  • Siekmann L. Determination of uric acid in human serum by isotope dilution-mass spectrometry. Definitive methods in clinical chemistry, III. J Clin ChemClin Biochem . 1985;23(3):129-35.
  • Soukup M, Biesiada I, Henderson A, Idowu B, Rodeback D, Ridpath L, et al. Salivary uric acid as a noninvasive biomarker of metabolic syndrome. Diabetol Metab Syndr . 2012;4(1):14.
  • Shibasaki K, Kimura M, Ikarashi R, Yamaguchi A, Watanabe T. Uric acid concentration in saliva and its changes with the patients receiving treatment for hyperuricemia. Metabolomics. 2012;8(3):484-91.
  • Tausche AK, Jansen TL, Schroder HE, Bornstein SR, Aringer M, Müller-Ladner U. Gout-current diagnosis and treatment. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2009;106(34-35):549-55.
  • Vakh C, Koronkiewicz S, Kalinowski S, Moskvin L, Bulatov A. An automatic chemiluminescence method based on the multi-pumping flow system coupled with the fluidized reactor and direct-injection detector: Determination of uric acid in saliva samples. Talanta . 2007;167:725-32.
  • Xing X, Shi X, Zhang M, Jin W, Ye J. CE determination of creatinine and uric acid in saliva and urine during exercise. Chromatographia . 2008;67:985-8.
  • Zhao J, Huang Y. Salivary uric acid as a noninvasive biomarker for monitoring the efficacy of urate-lowering therapy in a patient with chronic gouty arthropathy. Clin Chim Acta . 2015;450:115-20.
  • Zhao J. A simple, rapid and reliable high performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of creatinine and uric acid in plasma and urine. Anal Methods. 2013;5:6781-7.
  • Zhao J. Simultaneous determination of plasma creatinine, uric acid, kynurenine and tryptophan by high-performance liquid chromatography: method validation and in application to the assessment of renal function. Biomed Chromatogr . 2015;29(3):410-5.
  • Zhang Y, Xu RX, Li S, Zhu CG, Guo YL, Sun J, et al. Lipoprotein subfractions partlymediate the association between serum uric acid and coronary artery disease. Clin Chim Acta . 2015;441:109-14.
  • ETHICS APPROVAL AND CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE

    The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Yanbian University, China (YBU 2018-0027).
  • HUMAN AND ANIMAL RIGHTS

    The experimental procedures were conducted in accordance with the ethical standards of the Helsinki Declaration and approved by the Ethics Committee of Yanbian University.
  • CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

    Not applicable.
  • AVAILABILITY OF DATA AND MATERIALS

    The data sets used and/or analysed during this study are available from the corresponding author on request.
  • FUNDING

    The present research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81660594, 81760148), and Education Department and Science Technology Development Project of Jilin Province of China (JJKH20191151KJ).

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    17 Feb 2023
  • Date of issue
    2022

History

  • Received
    07 Dec 2020
  • Accepted
    03 Feb 2021
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