Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of intravenous administration of Berberis vulgaris root bark aqueous extract (BRBD) on the cardiovascular and renal functions of healthy normotensive rats. The different doses of BRBD 1, 10 and 20 mg/kg were administered intravenously (i.v) in normal rats. Blood pressure, diuretic activity and serum renal profile were analyzed. Intravenous injection of BRBD at the different doses of 1, 10 and 20 mg/kg showed a dose-dependent reduction in mean arterial blood pressure (P<0.001). At different doses of 1, 10 and 20 mg/kg, the hypotensive effect remained for more than one hour. Single dose administration of BRBD at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg caused a significant increase in urine output (P<0.001) as compared to the control rats. Serum renal profile test (albumin, Urea, Uric Acid, creatinine and BUN) did not show any significant alteration. The authors conclude that the BRBD is a potent hypotensive and possesses diuretic potential
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that primarily affects the central area of the face; it is characterized by erythema, papules, pustules, nodules, and telangiectasia. This condition arises between 30-60 years of age, and it usually occurs in fair-skinned people. Rosacea is characteristic of sensitive skin, as it is a disease marked with punctuated phases of exacerbated signs and symptoms that alternate with periods of remission. Humans have long incorporated cosmetics in their daily habits; given the scientific and technological developments that emerged in cosmeceuticals or dermocosmetics, the current cosmetic options are now used for much more than adornment or cleansing. The purpose of cosmetic care in rosacea is to restore the balance of the skin, while reducing the underlying inflammation, sensitivity, and dehydration. This review aims to highlight the various dermocosmetic care options that can reduce discomfort for and bring benefit to patients who have reactive and sensitive skin associated with rosacea. Additionally, this report discusses how pharmacists - public health agents - can and should offer counseling and support interventions to patients once oral or topical medications are dispensed to this pathology.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Cancer is a multifactorial disease and a serious public health problem. Currently, alternative drug treatments for cancer are actively being sought, which is the case of synthetic phosphoethanolamine (PHOS-S), a compound that could possibly have anticarcinogenic effects. To analyze the available scientific evidence to evaluate the anticarcinogenic effects of in vivo and in vitro PHOS-S. A systematic literature review of scientific articles aimed at evaluating the anticarcinogenic potential of PHOS-S, in vivo and in vitro, using the databases PubMed, ScienceDirect, SciElo, CAPES Portal and LILACS. The selected papers suggest a possible anticarcinogenic effect of PHOS-S by inhibiting tumor growth by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle blockade as well as cytotoxic potential against leukemia cells. However, a possible stimulatory effect of tumor growth was also observed. Although some of the evaluated studies indicated a possible anticarcinogenic effect of PHOS-S, the limitations of these studies must be evaluated. Most were performed by the same research group, and in the scientific literature, we identified only preclinical studies (in cells or in animals). No human study has been published. Thus, more studies are needed to confirm the anticarcinogenic capacity of PHOS-S.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The search for new pharmaceutical dosage forms and different drug delivery systems already used in therapeutics is a global trend, serving as an opportunity to expand the portfolio for the pharmaceutical industry. In this context, multiparticulate systems, such as pellets, granules, and minitablets, represent an attractive alternative, given the range of possibilities they provide. Among the methods used in the production of these systems, we highlight the process of extrusion-spheronization for pellet manufacture, wet granulation and hot-melt extrusion for the obtention of granules, and direct compression for minitablets. Although highly versatile, depending on the technology chosen, many processes and formulation variables can influence the ensuing stages of manufacture, as well as the final product. Therefore, the characterization of these small units is of fundamental importance for achieving batch homogeneity and optimal product performance. Analyses, including particle size distribution, morphology, density, porosity, mechanical strength and disintegration, are example tests used in this characterization. The objective of this review was to address the most widely used tests for the physical evaluation of multiparticulate systems.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study was carried out to understand the influence of a selected antiarrhythmic drug on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of an antidiabetic drug in animal models. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic responses were determined by measurements of blood glucose and serum insulin and serum metformin to drug interactions between disopyramide and metformin. Single dose and multi dose studies showed that the maximum blood glucose reductions in normal and diabetic rats were at the 6th hour, and in rabbits at the 3rd hour. Glucose-insulin homeostasis was evaluated to assess the safety and effectiveness of the combination. There was a marginal increase in the pharmacokinetic parameters of metformin with multiple dose treatments of disopyramide but no significant changes in kinetic parameters between single and multiple dose studies, compared to metformine alone. There may be a possibility of disopyramide and metformin interaction at the excretion stage, or an additive pharmacodynamic action. This study validates the drug interaction in two dissimilar species, which indicates more probability of its occurrence in humans.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Considering the reported activity of carvone in the literature, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial, cytotoxic and chemopreventive activities of (+)- and (-)-carvone, (+)- and (-)- hydroxydihydrocarvone and α,β-epoxycarvone. (+)-Hydroxydihydrocarvone (HC+), (-)-hydroxydihydrocarvone (HC-) and α,β-epoxycarvone (EP) were obtained by synthesis using (+)-carvone (C+) or (-)-carvone (C-) as precursors. The antifungal activity (MIC and MFC) were evaluated against Candida parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. albicans and the antibacterial activity (MIC and MBC) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The cytotoxicity assays were performed with human cancer cell lines HepG-2 and SiHa and the normal strain MRC-5 through sulphorrodamine B assay. Chemoprevention was evaluated through quinone reductase assay. Our results showed no cytotoxicity on tumor and normal cell lines and no induction of the quinone reductase enzyme. C- and HC- presented activity against E. coli. All compounds presented weak antifungal activity against C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis. EP and C+ showed moderate activity against C. krusei. Results suggest the potential use of carvones and its derivatives as antifungal agents against Candida yeasts. The absence of cytotoxicity in cell lines indicates safety in the use of these compounds.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The receptor protein PfATP6 has been identified as the common target of artemisinin and curcumin. The work was initiated to assess the antimalarial activity of six curcumin derivatives based on their binding affinities and correlating the in silico docking outcome with in vitro antimalarial screening results. A ligand library of thirty two Knoevenagel condensates of curcumin were designed and docked against PfATP6 protein and six compounds with the best binding scores were synthesized and screened for their antimalarial activity against the sensitive 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. ADME/Tox, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of the designed compounds were analyzed and reported. 4-FB was found to have similar binding energy to the standard artemisinin (-6.75 and -6.73 respectively) while 4-MB, 3-HB, 2-HB, B, 4-NB displayed better binding energy than curcumin (-5.95, -5.89, -5.68, -5.35, -5.29 and -5.25 respectively). At a dose of 50 µg/mL all the six compounds showed 100% schizont inhibition while at 5µg/ml, five showed more than 75% inhibition and better results than curcumin. 4-FB showed the best activity with 97.8% schizonticidal activity. The in vitro results superimpose the results obtained from the in silico study thereby encouraging development of promising curcumin leads in the battle against malaria.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Solid dosage forms for oral use, particularly tablets, are the most highly used dosage forms in therapy because they are easily administered, have high productivity and relatively low cost and provide a more stable drug to form a semi-solid net. Numerous parameters influence the quality of the final dosage form. In this study, the dissolution profile of 20-mg prednisone tablets bioequivalent to the reference product and three test formulations were evaluated using stability testing. During the study, prednisone tablets and the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) prednisone from two different manufacturers were characterized with respect to their physical and physicochemical properties. The results showed that the dissolution profiles of the test batches and the reference product did not retain pharmaceutical equivalence throughout all the stability study. Notably, both samples of API prednisone were of the same crystal form, and any phase transition that occurred during the study could not be attributed to dissolution variation during stability.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present study was undertaken to verify the hypoglycemic potential of unripe and ripe fruit extracts of Musa sapientum by using various in-vitro techniques, namely glucose adsorption capacity, glucose diffusion, amylolysis kinetics and glucose transport across the yeast cells. The results revealed that the unripe and ripe fruit extracts of Musa sapientum adsorbed glucose and the adsorption of glucose increased remarkably with an increase in glucose concentration. There were no significant (p≤0.05) differences between their adsorption capacities. In the amylolysis kinetic experimental model the rate of glucose diffusion was found to be increased with time from 30 to 180 min and both extracts exhibited significant inhibitory effects on the movement of glucose into external solution across the dialysis membrane as compared to control. The plant extracts also promoted glucose uptake by the yeast cells and enhancement of glucose uptake was dependent on both the sample and glucose concentration. The hypoglycemic effect exhibited by the extracts was observed to be mediated by inhibiting α-amylase, inhibiting glucose diffusion by adsorbing glucose and by increasing glucose transport across the cell membranes as revealed by an in-vitro model of yeast cells.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Meloxicam (MLX) is a non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug that is prescribed in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. MLX is practically insoluble in water and exhibits a slow onset of action. In this study, MLX solid dispersions (MLX SDs) were prepared to improve the water solubility of this poorly water-soluble drug. Then orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) of MLX were developed using MLX SD to decrease the onset of action of this drug. MLX, poloxamer 188, and crospovidone of different ratios were melted in molten poloxamer 188 as a hydrophilic carrier. The optimum SD with the highest saturation solubility in water (13.09±0.34 microgram/mL) consisting of MLX: poloxamer 188: crospovidone in the ratio of 1:2:0 was used for the preparation of MLX ODTs. MLX ODTs were prepared by the direct compression method and optimized by the 23 factorial design. The effect of the superdisintegrant concentration, the mannitol-avicel ratio, and the level of compression force on the disintegration time, hardness, and percent of dissolved MLX from MLX ODTs after 30 min was evaluated. DSC and XRD analysis approved an amorphous form of MLX in SDs. The optimized ODT formulation containing 10% of superdisintegrant, and mannitol and avicel in the ratio of 4:1 respectively was compressed using a high level of compression force. The optimized ODT showed hardness (34.37±2.1 N) and friability (1.26±0.04%). This formulation showed a rapid disintegration in 12.66±2.5 seconds, which 82.66±5.1% of the MLX released within 30 min. MLX ODTs, prepared from MLX SD, could be introduced as a suitable dosage form of MLX with improved solubility and the onset of action.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Different solid forms of an active pharmaceutical ingredient can have distinct chemical and physical characteristics. In this work, we studied the solubility and dissolution properties of the described tibolone polymorphic forms (I and II). Both forms were successively recrystallized and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. Equilibrium solubility and dissolution profiles were performed for both forms. Solubility studies demonstrated that form II is statistically more soluble in water, 0.01 mol L-1 HCl and pH 4.5 acetate buffer. The solubility of forms I and II were explained in terms of crystal packing. Dissolution tests of tablets showed a lower release of polymorphic form II than form I from tablets. The results showed an impact of polymorphism on the quality of tibolone tablets and suggest that tibolone forms I and II can show distinct interactions with pharmaceutical excipients used in tablets. Therefore, only form I is acceptable for the preparation of tablet forms. Based on our results, we propose the quality control on tibolone raw materials using X-ray diffraction analysis and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT We aim to validate a European-Portuguese version of the Hypertension Knowledge Test (HKT) questionnaire and examine its factorial structure with a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A process of translation and back-translation was performed. A cross-sectional study was developed in which all adult patients taking at least one antihypertensive drug were invited to participate. Data on personal and family history were collected, and the HKT, Strelec, and the Batalla questionnaires were administered. We enrolled 304 patients with a mean age of 68.12±10.83 years. The mean score of HKT was 15.33±2.79. CFA indicated that the construct being tested was unidimensional, and Cronbach’s alpha (α=0.65) showed that the instrument had an acceptable internal consistency. When evaluating concurrent validity, HKT was significantly correlated with the Batalla and Strelec scores. Thus, the Portuguese version of HKT (HKT-pt-PT) can be used either in research or in clinical practice. With this version, a potential standard exists to evaluate knowledge about hypertension, which could avoid the practice of using non-validated questionnaires in Portugal and allow the cross-sectional and longitudinal comparability of studies.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to formulate and prepare compression-coated tablets for colonic release (CR-tablets), and to evaluate the bioavailability of ketoprofen following the administration of a single dose from mini-tablets with immediate release (IR-tablets) compared to CR-tablets. CR-tablets were prepared based on time-controlled hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K100M inner compression-coating and pH-sensitive Eudragit® L 30D-55 outer film-coating. The clinical bioavailability study consisted of two periods, in which two formulations were administered to 6 volunteers, according to a randomized cross-over design. The apparent cumulative absorption amount of ketoprofen was estimated by plasma profile deconvolution. CR-tablets were able to delay ketoprofen’s release. Compared to IR-tablets used as reference, for the CR-tablets the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was lower (4920.33±1626.71 ng/mL vs. 9549.50±2156.12 ng/mL for IR-tablets) and the time needed to reach Cmax (tmax) was 5.33±1.63 h for CR-tablets vs. 1.33±0.88 h for IR-tablets. In vitro-in vivo comparison of the apparent cumulative absorption amount of ketoprofen showed similar values for the two formulations. Therefore, the obtained pharmacokinetic parameters and the in vitro-in vivo comparison demonstrated the reliability of the developed pharmaceutical system and the fact that it is able to avoid the release of ketoprofen in the first part of the digestive tract.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Interactions between herbs and drugs may increase or decrease the pharmacological or toxicological effects of either component. Experimental data on the pharmacokinetic interactions between herbal products and drugs are limited. This study attempted to investigate the effect of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi) formulation on the pharmacokinetics of amitriptyline in rats. In this study, rats were randomly divided into two groups (n = 6 each) which were served as a control (amitriptyline alone) and treatment group (amitriptyline with B. monnieri), respectively. Rats in the treatment group received B. monnieri (31 mg/kg/day) whereas the control group received normal saline by oral gavage for seven days before a single intragastric administration of 25 mg/kg amitriptyline. Plasma concentrations of amitriptyline were measured up to 24 h after its administration by a developed and validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. Pretreatment with B. monnieri produced a significant increase in the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), area under the curve (AUC0-t) and elimination half-life (t1/2) of amitriptyline by 16.8%, 26.5%, and 15.5%, respectively, compared to amitriptyline alone. Moreover, oral clearance and volume of distribution (Vss) were decreased by 26.2% and 15.5% respectively. This study concluded that B.monnieri significantly enhanced the oral bioavailability of amitriptyline in rats.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Heparin-SOD conjugate (Hep-SOD) was prepared by modifying Cu,Zn-SOD with heparin. An acute radiation-induced mouse injury model was constructed to study the radiation protection effects of Hep-SOD conjugate. Fifty-six mice were randomly divided into seven groups: (I) normal control group; (II) irradiated control group; (III) positive control group (amifostine group, 300 mg/kg); (IV) SOD group (35000 U/kg); (V) high dosage of Hep-SOD group (70000 U/kg); (VI) medium dosage of Hep-SOD group (35000 U/kg); (VII) low dosage of Hep-SOD group (17500 U/kg). Drugs were intraperitoneally injected into each mouse 1 h before radiation except for the normal control group. All the irradiated groups were irradiated with 6 Gy. Organ indices, haematopoietic function indices, peripheral blood cells, liver function test, oxidative stress state and pathological observation were detected to study the effects of Hep-SOD on irradiated mice. Results showed that bone marrow suppression of irradiated mice could be reduced when treated by Hep-SOD before radiation. Oxidative stress detection and pathological observation of the liver and intestine showed that the damage caused by radiation was relieved when mice were treated with Hep-SOD before radiation. This study shows a new direction to prevent organisms from the damage caused by radiation.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Alcohol is the most commonly consumed substance in the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of alcoholic beverages on male reproduction and possible alterations in their offspring. The mice were divided into 4 groups: beer, wine, cachaça (a type of sugarcane rum), with ethanol concentrations of 1.9 g/kg, and control group treated with PBS. The treatment period was 35 days. The animals which received cachaça, demonstrated significant weight loss in the testes and epididymis. The alcoholic beverages promoted significant testosterone level and fertilization index diminution, and morphological alterations in the spermatozoa. The beer group presented decreased implantation sites and a high frequency of dominant lethal. The number of reabsorptions in the wine group was increased. The fermented beverages presented higher potential to induce visceral malformations, while the cachaça caused fetal skeletal malformations. The cachaça treated group presented a negative impact on semen quality and fertilization potential. The treatment with different alcoholic beverages, during spermatogenesis, demonstrated contrasting degrees of induction of toxic effects, interfering in a general aspect in male reproductive performance, fetal viability during intrauterine life, and birth defects. From the data, it is possible to infer that the distillated beverage caused more harmful effects to reproduction in this study.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Diabetic complications, comorbidities, and cost of treatment affect the quality of life (QoL) of an individual. The QoL assessment is considered an important measure of outcome in chronic disease management. The objective of our study was to assess the quality of life in Type II diabetes mellitus patients with and without complications using the modified diabetes quality of life (MDQoL)-17. A prospective descriptive study was conducted over 6 months, after taking ethical committee approval. As per the inclusion criteria from medicine wards of tertiary care hospital, 250 patients were selected. Demographic characteristics were documented in the data collection form and the patients were administered with the MDQoL questionnaire in different languages. The data was analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20. Majority of the patients were male (64.4%). The average age of the study population was 60.34±12.04 years. Most of the patients had a diabetes history of more than 10 years and HbA1c > 8%. The average QoL score was 65.47±15.07. Majority of the diabetic patients had the QoL score between 70 and 50. Patients without complication had a better QoL. As the number of complications increased, there was a decrease in the QoL. The presence of comorbidity also decreased the QoL. There was a statistically significant correlation with various parameters such as age, duration of diabetes history, HbA1c, number of complications and type of complication verses QoL of diabetic patients (p<0.05). The overall QoL in diabetic patients is reduced. Thus, proper management and strict glycemic control is necessary to prevent progression and occurrence of complications to maintain a better QoL in diabetes patients.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A novel, accurate, precise and economical stability indicating Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) method, was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of ubidecarenone (UDC) in bulk drug, UDC marketed formulation and UDC loaded cubosomes (CBMs) nanocarriers through Response surface methodology (RSM) design with three factors and three levels was performed to optimize the chromatographic variables followed by forced degradation studies of UDC were performed to detect degradation peak. RP-HPLC separation was achieved using mobile phase consisting of Acetonitrile:Tetrahydrofuran:Deionised water in the ratio 55:42:3 and a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min was optimized with a standard retention time (Rt) of 2.15 min, through experiment. The method was found linear in the concentration range of 5-100 µg/mL with a regression coefficient of 0.999. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be 3.04 µg/mL and 9.11 µg/mL, respectively.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The essential oil composition of the Ocotea bicolor, native plant of Brazil, was studied for the first time. The essential oil of the leaf was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The analytical procedure revealed a predominance of sesquiterpenes, δ-cadinene (7.39%), β-sesquiphellandrene (6.67%), β-elemene (5.41%) and α-cadinol (5,23%). The essential oil was submitted to brine shrimp toxicity evaluation, antioxidant and antibacterial tests. The antioxidant activity by the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex method presented positive results. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were higher than 1000 μg/mL for the microorganisms tested. Toxicity activity revealed LC50 results of 40.10 (μg/mL), being toxic to the organisms in this study.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to investigate the bone mineral density (BMD) of patients with type 1 Diabetes mellitus (T1DM). We also assessed the association between osteoprotegerin (OPG) genetic polymorphisms and BMD. Genotyping was performed for 1181G>C and 163A>G OPG polymorphisms by allelic discrimination in 119 patients with T1DM and 161 normoglycemic (NG) individuals, aged 6 to 20 years old. Glycemic control, serum parameters of bone metabolism and BMD were evaluated. T1DM patients showed low BMD, poor glycemic control and decreased total calcium values when compared to controls (p < 0.05). For all the polymorphisms studied, the genotype and allele frequencies in patients with T1DM were not significantly different from the controls. In patients with T1DM, carriers of OPG 1181CC showed higher concentrations of ionized calcium compared to patients with GG+GC genotypes. These results suggest that low BMD is associated with poor glycemic control in T1DM. Despite the lack of a detected association between OPG polymorphisms and BMD in these patients, the increased ionized calcium in those carrying OPG 1181CC suggests a possible increase in osteoclastogenesis, a conclusion that may be supported by the lower BMD observed in these subjects.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The enhancement of anti-leukemia therapy and the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens are major challenges in healthcare. Although a large arsenal of drugs is available, many of these become ineffective, and as a result, the discovery of new active substances occurs. Notably, triazenes (TZCs) have been consolidated as a promising class of compounds, characterized by significant biological activity, especially antiproliferative and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study is the synthesis and characterization of a new triazenide complex of gold (I), as well as the in vitro assessment of its antiproliferative activity against the K562 cell line (Chronic Myeloid Leukemia), and antibacterial activity against bacterial isolates of biofilm-producing coagulase-negative staphylococci. The combination of TZC with gold metal tends to have a synergistic effect against all biofilm-producing isolates, with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration values (MIC) between 32 and 64 µg mL-1. It has also shown activity against K562 cell line, getting an IC50=4.96 µM. Imatinib mesylate (Glivec) was used as reference, with IC50=3.86 µM. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first report of the activity of a TZC complexed with gold ion in the oxidation state (I) against microorganisms that produce biofilm and K562 cells.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Statins are the most prescribed lowering-cholesterol drugs. They are well tolerated, however, some patients present muscular adverse symptoms. Clinical and laboratory data from 120 dyslipidemic patients prescribed with statins were obtained from January to December/2013 at a University Hospital in Sao Paulo city, Brazil, to study factors associated with statin-related adverse muscular events (AME). Pharmacotherapy and statin-related AME data (serum CK elevation and any degree of myopathy, myalgia, myositis or rhabdomyolysis) of the dyslipidemic patients were recorded. The study was approved by local Ethics Committees. Simvastatin (70%) and atorvastatin (25%) were the most prescribed statins. AME related to statin treatment were found in 17% of the patients. Mean age and use of simvastatin were lower in AME group than non-AME group (p<0.05). Simvastatin users were less likely to develop AME than atorvastatin users (OR=0.21; 95%CI=0.07-0.57; p<0.01). The use of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) efflux pump inhibitors was associated with high risk for AME (OR=5.26; 95%CI=1.55-17.79; p<0.01). Serum liver enzymes were increased up to three-fold in 2.5% of the statin-treated patients. The results are suggestive that the type of statin prescribed and the concomitant use of ABCB1 inhibitors increase the susceptibility to adverse muscular events during statin therapy in dyslipidemic outpatients.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Etodolac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and approved by USFDA as a COX2 inhibitor. Although etodolac therapy provides clinical benefits, it is associated with upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract complications also. Etodolac loaded gum Katira microsphere (ELGKM) was prepared by W1/O/W2 emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The gastric irritation properties of orally administered pure etodolac, ELGKM and blank microspheres (without etodolac) were evaluated in experimental rats treated for 6 days. The stomach examination and biochemical investigation of stomach tissue of treated rats indicated that ELGKM formulation remarkably reduced ulcerogenecity as compared to pure etodolac. The anti-inflammatory activities of pure etodolac and ELGKMs were ascertained by the implantation of cotton pellets in rats for 6 days. Based on the results, ELGKMs showed significant anti-inflammatory activities (P<0.01) as compared to control group. The cotton pellets test suggested that ELGKM formulation retained more anti-inflammatory properties among the groups. The hematological changes, biochemical analysis and histopathological studies of subacute toxicity in rats revealed that ELGKM were the effective sustained release formulation in the treatment of chronic pain and inflammation. In conclusion, the physicochemical characterization, pharmacological and toxicological studies suggest that ELGKMs may represent as a potential candidate for sustained drug delivery (10-12 hours) in chronic joint pain related diseases with remarkably diminished gastrointestinal side effects.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT To study what kind of role uric acid play on the relationship between oxidative Stress and inflammation in peripheral and cerebral system of oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rats. Twenty-six eight male Wistar rats were divided into two groups randomly. Potassium oxonate was used to establish hyperuricemic model for four weeks. In 2nd and 4th week, uric acid (UA) level, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), Gu,Zn-SOD activity and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) concentration in serum were determined respectively. In 4th week, one hour after last PO treatment, five rats of every group were given Evans Blue to test blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Other brains were obtained to analysis T-SOD, Gu,Zn-SOD activity and IL-1β concentration in cerebral system. Meanwhile, brain and kidney were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) to observe pathological change. In 2nd week, both of T-SOD and Gu,Zn-SOD activity in serum increased obviously (P<0.05) in hyperuricemia rats. However, IL-1β content didn’t change remarkably. In the 4th week, T-SOD activity in model group had become similar with control group, and at the same time IL-1β content in serum increased significantly (P<0.05). Pathological section showed the structural and functional unit of the kidney had been damaged. On the contrary, both of T-SOD and Gu,Zn-SOD activity in brain increased obviously (P<0.05), but IL-1β concentration was no significant difference between two groups. In addition, the results of Evans Blue and H&E suggested the integrity of BBB and structure of brain were not changed after PO treatment. The permeability of BBB and form of UA would be potential factors to decide what kind role UA play on keeping balance between anti-oxidative stress and induction of inflammatory response.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Flurbiprofen (FLB), a NSAID, widely used for preventing pain generally for arthritis or dental problems. In this study, FLB loaded chitosan microspheres were prepared by ionotropic gelation method. In this method, microspheres were formed by dropping chitosan solutions containing FLB into sodium alginate solutions including sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). A variety of formulation parameters like drug:polymer ratio, drug concentration, polymer’s molecular weight, polymer concentration, pH and the concentration of TPP solutions, drying method and stirring time were analyzed. The dissolution studies were performed in a shaking water bath in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at 37 °C. Laser diffractometer was used for particle size analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used for morphological properties. Drug loading and loading efficiency were calculated by using UV spectrophotometer. The particles obtained were spherical with 0.7-1.3 mm size range, and the loading efficiency was approximately 21-79%. The dissolution studies conducted revealed that drug:polimer ratio and the polymer type and concentration affected the drug release from microspheres. It was observed that increasing the polymer concentration, polymer’s molecular weight and TPP concentration decreased the FLB release from microspheres, which was according to Higuchi kinetics.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective was to investigate the total saponin and protodioscin concentrations and the cytotoxicity in vitro, of five samples of the plant Tribulus terrestris, commercially available in the metropolitan region of Vitória - Espirito Santo, Brazil, and to compare them with the aqueous extract of the plant. The chromatographic profile and quantification of protodioscin in commercial samples and plant extract were evaluated by LC-MS/MS. The percentage of total saponins were determined by the colorimetric method. Extracts and protodioscin cytotoxicity were analyzed by the MTT assay in three cell lineages: fibroblasts (L929), ovarian cancer (Ovcar3) and murine hepatoma (Hepa1c1c7). All extracts displayed high levels of total saponins (207.2 to 780.3 mg g-1 of dry extract). The chromatographic profile revealed a wide diversity of compounds, and the saponin protodioscin was detected in only two extracts. One extract displayed high cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 157.0, 38.2 and 7.4 µg mL-1 for the Ovcar3, Hepa1c1c7 and L929 cell lines, respectively. The other extracts displayed cytotoxic effects only at concentrations equal to or greater than 125.0 µg mL-1. Surprisingly, the most cytotoxic extract displayed the highest protodioscin concentration. Therefore, it is suggested that these products be marketed with caution, and followed-up by a certified healthcare professional.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Dioscorea pentaphylla L., a wild tuber is used both as food and medicines among different ethnic groups of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, India. Tubers are used against skin infections. In order to establish and confirm tribal claims, methanol extract was subjected to fractionation. The active fraction (DP1) was subsequently used for further purification and NMR (Nuclear magnetic resonance) characterization. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponin groups. The antibacterial activity of DP1 was done against selected bacterial strains (Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus mutans and Vibrio cholerae) using DD (disc diffusion), AWD (agar well diffusion) and broth dilution assay. The activity was compared with antibiotics Penicillin and Kanamycin. It was observed that DP1 showed significant inhibitory activity against the tested bacteria. The characterization of DP1 through NMR analysis and presence of proton in carbon position at C-3, C-19, C-18, C-21 and C-27 was same as the known compound “Diosgenin”. Therefore, isolated compound was confirmed to be Diosgenin. The study for the first time showed that, diosgenin present in D. pentaphylla tuber was responsible for antibacterial and antioxidant potential. Present study highlights the importance of Dioscorea species as sources of diverse secondary metabolites for the isolation of active compound(s).
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Scientific innovations in diagnostic methods are important drivers of cancer control and prevention. Noninvasive imaging of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in head-and-neck squamous, cell carcinoma and colorectal cancer could be valuable to select patients for EGFR-targeted therapy, as well as to monitor the efficacy and occurrence of resistance to immunotherapy. In order to develop the first Brazilian radioimmunoconjugate for diagnosis, Cetuximab has been conjugated to p-SCN-Bn-DTPA chelator and radiolabeled with Indium-111. The conjugation methodology was optimized using different mAb:DTPA molar ratios, time was then reduced for immunoconjugate preparation, besides the protein recovery’ percentage increased after purification (m = 83.8 ± 0.91 %). The stability of Cetuximab-DTPA at - 20 oC was evaluated for six months, and its integrity was greater than 90% (m =93.9 ± 1.5%, N = 24). The radioimmunoconjugate with specific activity of 185 MBq/mg showed radiochemical purity above 95% (m=96.8 ± 1.31 %, N = 15). We conclude that the radioimmunoconjugate 111In-DTPA-cetuximab is stable and may be applied to the diagnosis of EGFR-positive tumors.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The intent of the current work is to study the effect of polyethylene glycol 8000 and polyethylene glycol 10000 as hydrophilic carriers on dissolution behaviour of flurbiprofen. In the present study, solvent evaporation method was used to prepare flurbiprofen solid dispersions and evaluated for physico-chemical properties, drug-carrier compatibility studies and dissolution behaviour of drug. Solubility studies showed more solubility in higher pH values and formulations SD4 and SD8 were selected to prepare the fast dissolving tablets. FTIR and DSC study showed no interaction and drug was dispersed molecularly in hydrophilic carrier. XRD studies revealed that there was change in the crystallinity of the drug. The results of In vitro studies showed SD8 formulation confer significant improvement (p<0.05) in drug release, Q20 was 99.08±1.35% compared to conventional and marketed tablets (47.31±0.74% and 56.86±1.91%). The mean dissolution time (MDT) was reduced to 8.79 min compared to conventional and marketed tablets (25.76 and 22.22 min.) indicating faster drug release. The DE (% dissolution efficiency) was increased by 2.5 folds (61.63%) compared to conventional tablets (23.71%). From the results, it is evident that polyethylene glycol solid dispersions in less carrier ratio may enhance the solubility and there by improve the dissolution rate of flurbiprofen.