Abstract in English:Feeding with high levels of phytochemicals, including curcumin, may be a therapeutic option for diseases such as cancer which is a public health problem. The aim of this study was to systematically review the results of clinical trials investigating the effect of oral curcumin supplementation on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant profiles, reduction of PSA levels and degree of dermatitis in radiotherapy treatment in cancer patients. The review was carried out based on the items of the PRISMA Statement. A bias risk assessment was performed according to Cochrane Collaboration criteria. Six studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review. The results of this study are based on those obtained in the literature on the effect of curcumin on the anti-inflammatory profile, on reducing dermatitis, on PSA alteration and on anti-oxidant profile for a total of 450 individuals, comprising 259 in the intervention group and 191 in the control group. Some studies have reported improvement in biochemical and clinical indicators, with limited adverse effects and good tolerance. It was not possible to determine, with the desired degree of evidence, the effect of curcumin supplementation in the treatment of cancer patients. It is important to consider the great heterogeneity and methodological weaknesses of the studies, and that it was not possible to perform a meta-analysis of the data available in the literature.
Abstract in English:Chronic and multiple diseases are more prevalent in elderly individuals and, epidemiological highlight can be given to cardiovascular conditions requiring multi-drug therapies, which favor the occurrence of drug interactions. This study aims to analyze potential drug interactions and correlate them with adverse events in elderly heart-disease patients in a hospital setting. This is a prospective description of the analysis of medical prescriptions and records of 80 patients, with data collection performed by using validated instruments during a seven-month period. The drug interactions found were indicated by scientifically recognized databases and subsequently treated statistically with adequate software. 1841 potential interactions between drugs were detected, of which 74.1% did not show any therapeutic benefits, with antithrombotic and analgesic drugs accounting for the worst results. The number of potential interactions was proportional to the occurrence of adverse events, classified at 87.3% as moderate to severe. It is concluded from such results that there is a proportionality between the occurrence of potential drug interactions and the detection of adverse events, with therapeutic management being of great importance for safety, quality and affordability of the treatment.
Abstract in English:This paper investigates difficulties related to access to medicines in SUS and factors associated with the inability to obtain medicines in SUS by non-communicable chronic disease (NCCD) patients who used this source for health care. We analyzed data from the National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines. First analysis included individuals aged 20 years and over, diagnosed with at least one NCCD, with indication of medicine treatment and follow up of this disease (s) with a physician from SUS, and who reported having obtained some of the medicines in use from the SUS. The difficulties of obtaining medicines from SUS were investigated based on dimensions of access to medicines. Among 5.155 individuals investigated, 65.4% were women, 40 years old or older and 54.3% residents of the Southeast region of Brazil. Aspects related to availability and waiting time to obtain medicines were the most significant reported barriers to access to medicines. Regional differences were found in basically all dimensions of access and the low availability of medicines in SUS pharmacies was the main reason cited for their search in private pharmacies.
Abstract in English:Fatty liver contains a range of clinical symptoms, including the accumulation of fat in the liver parenchyma and it varies from a simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Using natural therapies has always been a great concern for such health-related diseases. Herein, 6-gingerol, as a natural compound, was applied to treat non-alcoholic fatty liver induced in NMRI mice. The assessment included histological studies of the liver along with measurement of biochemical parameters, including insulin, glucose, adiponectin, leptin, HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), VLDL-C (very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), SOD (superoxide dismutase), and catalase. The results demonstrated that treatment with 6-gingerol (800 mg/kg) modified the fatty liver indices by significantly reducing (p<0.001) the levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-C, and VLDL-C, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, and leptin, whereas this treatment notably increased (p<0.001) the levels of liver antioxidant enzymes, HDL-c, and adiponectin. Therefore, 6-gingerol, in a dose-dependent mode, showed capability of improving non-alcoholic fatty liver and could offer a reliable remedy.
Abstract in English:The purpose of the survey was to determine acute & chronic toxicity; in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of the different extracts of A. fraxinifolius Wight and Arn bark; along with estimation of the phenolic, flavonoidal contents and investigation of phenolic metabolites that may attribute to the activities. LD50 of the total ethanol extract (TEE) was 7.1 g/kg b. wt, the radical scavenging activity of DPPH showed 60.31% inhibition, FRAP ability and ABTS+ activity showed 55.024 and 67.217 µmol Trolox/100 g dry weight, respectively. TEE followed by ethyl acetate extract (EAE) at 100 mg/kg b.w exhibited the highest in vivo antioxidant activity (94.51% and 91.08% potency, respectively) compared with Vit E (100%). The TEE & EAE exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory activity (3.81±0.08 & 3.79±.0.04) respectively in comparison with indomethacin 3.83±0.01 measured as edema diameter after 4 hours of extract administration. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in the total ethanol extract (TEE) estimated as gallic acid and catechin equivalents were 61.06± 0.08 μg eq GA/g, 40.33± 0.20 μg CE/g extract respectively. EAE revealed five phenolic acids and eight flavonoid compounds isolated for the first time from the plant.
Abstract in English:Adverse side effects of drug-drug interactions induced by human cytochrome P450 (CYP450) inhibition is an important consideration in drug discovery. Mulberry leaves are of broad popular use for food or remedy purposes, which is believed to contain substances that are beneficial for preventing and alleviating diabetes. However, there is a paucity of information about the effect of mulberry leaves on rat CYP450 enzymes activities and the mRNA expression levels in vivo. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of mulberry leaves on activities of rat CYP450 enzymes (CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP1A2) through both probe-drug cocktail approach and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The pharmacokinetic results indicated that the aqueous extract of mulberry leaves (AML) exhibited induction effects on CYP3A4 activities, and AML exhibited inhibitory effects on CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP2C8, while no obvious effect was observed on CYP2C19 activity. Additionally, the ethanol extract of mulberry leaves (EML) could induce the activities of CYP3A4. In addition, EML exhibited inhibitory effects on CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP2C19, while no significant change in CYP2C8 activity was observed. Accordingly, the level of mRNA expression of five CYP enzymes were consistent with the result of pharmacokinetic. The results of our study may form a practical strategy for assessing CYP-mediated HDI.
Abstract in English:Medication discrepancies are of great concern in hospitals because they pose risks to patients and increase health care costs. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of inconsistent medication prescriptions to adult patients admitted to a hospital in southern Santa Catarina, Brazil. This was a patient safety study on patients recruited between November 2015 and June 2016. The participants were interviewed and had their medical records reviewed. Discrepant medications were considered those that did not match between the list of medicines taken at home and the prescribed drugs for treatment in a hospital setting. Of the 394 patients included, 98.5% took continuous-use medications at home, with an average of 5.5 medications per patient. Discrepancies totaled 80.2%, The independent variables associated with the discrepancies were systemic arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, vascular disease, number of medications taken at home, and poor documentation of the medications in the medical record. Findings from this study allowed us to conclude there was a high rate of prescription medication misuse. Medication reconciliation is crucial in reducing these errors. Pharmacists can help reduce these medication-related errors and the associated risks and complications.
Abstract in English:Cathepsin B, an abundant expressed cysteine peptidase, plays a key role in cancer cell proliferation, tumor metastasis, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion and migration. Therefore, development of cathepsin B inhibitors to treat cancer is of great significance. In this study, dihydronaphthalenone chalconoid derivatives containing different benzyliden moieties were synthesized via an efficient route in microwave condition that resulted in the desired compounds in high yields compared to acid- or base-catalyzed refluxing conditions. Cytotoxicity of the compounds was evaluated against K562, HT-29 and MCF-7 human cancer cell lines by MTT assay. P1, P3 and P9 (containing 4-OCH3, 3-NO2 and 4-CN moieties on phenyl ring, respectively) exhibited good cytotoxic activity with an IC50 range of 7.1-28.9 μM. Molecular docking analysis was carried out to investigate the possible interactions and binding modes of all compounds with cathepsin B. The most promising compounds, P1, P3 and P9 were well accommodated within the active site and had the least estimated free binding energies. It was concluded from both MTT assay and docking studies that some dihydronaphthalenone chalconoid derivatives could be suggested as effective cytotoxic agents and potential cathepsin B inhibitors
Abstract in English:The effective insertion of the pharmacist into primary care is an important goal for health policies. The objective of this study was to describe and analyze pharmacists and Pharmaceutical Care in the primary health centers (UBS) of São Bernardo do Campo. Data were obtained through an interview applied to pharmacists. The instrument has three sections: (1) Pharmacist identification; (2) Pharmacist work; and (3) Pharmaceutical activities. Items in section 3 correspond to the guidelines of agencies that promote Pharmaceutical Care in the primary health system. All 24 pharmacists working in UBS in São Bernardo do Campo were interviewed. Every center dispensing medicines has a responsible pharmacist. These pharmacists are predominantly women and postgraduates. Activities of Pharmaceutical Care reported were: daily prescription analysis (75% of interviewees); monthly participation in patient groups (70.8%); monthly follow-up of pharmacotherapy adherence (58.3%); monthly participation in multiprofessional team meetings (54.2%); monthly home visits (12.5%); health education to the community (83.3%); and pharmacist consultation (37.5%). Frequency of prescription analysis and home visits was weakly associated with aspects of the pharmacist and the facility. This study showed that Pharmaceutical Services are structured in primary care in São Bernardo do Campo and many Pharmaceutical Care activities are offered in its UBS
Abstract in English:This study investigated the mechanism underlying the suppression of estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 cell growth by regorafenib. MCF-7 cells were treated with regorafenib, and the effect of regorafenib on multiple cancer-associated pathways was evaluated. Although regorafenib effectively inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, it had no effect on the proliferation of the normal breast epithelial cell line MCF10A. Regorafenib suppressed MCF-7 cell migration, probably by regulating the homeostatic expression of matrix metalloproteinases and the tissue inhibitor of MMPs. Furthermore, it upregulated p21 expression, downregulated cyclin B1 and cyclin D1 expresssions, and caused cell cycle arrest. In addition, regorafenib induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells by reducing Mcl-1 expression and activating caspase signaling. These results demonstrate that regorafenib has the potential to be an effective drug for treating breast cancer
Abstract in English:The seed oil of Annona salzmannii A. DC. was analyzed by GC-MS and 1H qNMR, revealing a mixture of unsaturated (80.5%) and saturated (18.7%) fatty acids. Linoleic (45.3%) and oleic (33.5%) acid were the major unsaturated fatty acids identified, while palmitic acid (14.3%) was the major saturated fatty acid. The larvicidal effects of A. salzmannii seed oil were evaluated against third-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linn.). The oil exhibited moderate larvicidal activity, with a LC50 of 569.77 ppm (95% CI = 408.11 to 825.88 ppm). However, when the cytotoxic effects of the oil were evaluated, no expressive antiproliferative effects were observed in tumor cell lines B16-F10 (mouse melanoma), HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma), K562 (human chronic myelocytic leukemia), HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia), and non-tumor cell line PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells), with IC50 values > 50 μg·mL-1. This is the first study to evaluate the chemical composition, larvicidal and cytotoxic activity of A. salzmannii seed oil.
Abstract in English:Sclareol (SC) is arousing great interest due to its cytostatic and cytotoxic activities in several cancer cell lines. However, its hydrophobicity is a limiting factor for its in vivo administration. One way to solve this problem is through nanoencapsulation. Therefore, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN-SC) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC-SC) loaded with SC were produced and compared regarding their physicochemical properties. NLC-SC showed better SC encapsulation than SLN-SC and was chosen to be compared with free SC in human cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and HCT-116). Free SC had slightly higher cytotoxicity than NLC-SC and produced subdiploid DNA content in both cell lines. On the other hand, NLC-SC led to subdiploid content in MDA-MB-231 cells and G2/M checkpoint arrest in HCT-116 cells. These findings suggest that SC encapsulation in NLC is a way to allow the in vivo administration of SC and might alter its biological properties
Abstract in English:Plants have been used for centuries as therapeutic resources for various pathological conditions and are occasionally considered as the only resource available to some communities. However, knowledge on the potential of traditional medicinal plants have been lost over the years. Strategies that can guarantee the prospection of popular knowledge regarding medicinal plants to stimulate the spread of information between generations are therefore of enormous value. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the use and knowledge on medicinal plants of students from a public school in Vila Velha (Brazil) and their associated community, including parents. In this urban locality, data were obtained by the application of a semi-structured questionnaire to 206 people from the school community. Although homegrown cultivation seems to be an uncommon practice in urban contexts, the use of medicinal plants by the sampled population was significant (80%), as well as the interviewees’ confidence on its therapeutic action (90%). It is worth mentioning that more than 70% of the respondents presented their parents and/or grandparents as their main source of information, highlighting the importance of popular knowledge valorization.
Abstract in English:Antioxidant, antibacterial and UV protective activities of two pigments extracted from mangrove soil isolates were analysed for their applications as ingredients in sunscreen formulations. Through biochemical characterization, the isolates were tentatively identified as belonging to the Flavobacterium sp. and Brevibacterium sp. UV visible spectral characterization of the pigments indicated presence of carotenoids. The orange pigment exhibited Sun Protection factor (SPF) value of 5.3 while the yellow pigment SPF was found to be 2.60. Both isolates as well as their pigments revealed tolerance to UVA-B radiation and to UVC radiation, to comparatively lesser extent. Yellow pigment exhibited good antibacterial activity with maximum effect on Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium diptheriae and Staphylococcus aureus. Both pigments were capable of reducing DPPH radical with % DPPH inhibition of 52.36% (orange pigment) and 40.1% (yellow pigment). These findings suggest that both pigments show promise of making excellent natural components of cosmetic formulations, especially sunscreens.
Abstract in English:The high prevalence of concomitant chronic illnesses and the resulting higher number of medications in the elderly population increase the risk of adverse drug reactions due to drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with DDIs and PIMs in outpatient geriatrics. In this cross-sectional study, 1512 prescriptions belonging to patients aged ≥65 years from five public pharmacies in Tehran were evaluated. Clinically relevant (C, D, and X) and significant DDIs (D and X) were documented according to the Lexicomp®. Additionally, Zhan criteria were used to detect PIMs. At least one clinically relevant DDI was detected in 61.7% of the prescriptions containing ≥2 medications. The largest percentage of prescriptions with DDIs was prescribed by cardiologists (74.3%). The number of medications in prescriptions and the specialty of the prescriber significantly affected both clinically relevant and significant DDIs in a logistic regression model. At least one PIM was identified in 16.3% of the prescriptions. General practitioners (GPs) were the largest prescribers of PIMs. The mean number of medications was significantly higher in prescriptions with PIMs. In conclusion, clinically relevant DDIs are frequent in the elderly. In terms of PIMs, more attention should be paid to the education of GPs.
Abstract in English:Direct-acting antivirals used in the treatment of hepatitis C have demonstrated high rates of efficacy, are well tolerated and considered safe. However, they are not free of drug interactions. To describe the effectiveness of hepatitis C treatment and the incidence and severity of potential drug interactions between drugs used during this treatment. A cross-sectional study with 148 patients who began treatment for hepatitis C between April and June 2016 in a specialized center in Brazil. Drug interactions were identified in the Truven Health Analytic/DynaMed Plus and Hep-C Interactions databases. Regarding treatment outcome, 93.9% of patients achieved SVR, 2.7% relapsed and 3.4% did not return after the end of the follow-up period. A total of 328 chronic diseases were identified (71 different diseases), and 88.5% of the patients had at least one chronic disease. The patients reported the use of 474 drugs (121 different drugs), with 3.2 drugs per patient on average. We identified 265 potential drug interactions, classified as important (6.0%), with clinical significance (20.7%) and without clinical significance or with insufficient data (69.4%). Cirrhotic patients had a higher average number of potential drug interactions than non-cirrhotic patients (2.51 x 0.79, p = 0.000). Hepatitis C treatment with direct-acting antivirals are effective and safe for most of patients.
Abstract in English:Antioxidants are commonly used for maturation, fertilization and early development of embryos. Melatonin as an antioxidant have been recently proven to be useful for the assisted reproductive technology. In the present study, we evaluated the roles of melatonin in the in vitro maturation, fertilization, development and also the gene expression of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in the blastocysts. The immature oocytes of BDF1 mice were transferred to the media containing different doses of melatonin (10-6, 10-9, 10-12 M). The blastocysts that developed under in vitro fertilization from each group were stained to determine the cell number of embryos and analyzed to determine the expression level of HMGB1 by real-time PCR. The most effective doses of melatonin for maturation of oocytes were 10-6 and 10-12M (P<0.05). Fertilization rate, early development and the cell number of blastocysts were significantly higher in the group that treated with 10-12 M of melatonin comparing to the other groups. The HMGB1 expression decreased in groups that treated with 10-6M and 10-9M of melatonin and increased in the group that treated with 10-12 M of melatonin, but did not show a significant difference (p˃0.05). From the results, it may be concluded that the melatonin could be effective when the embryos undergo maturation, fertilization and early developmental processes. The HMGB1 expression, as a marker of early development in mice embryos, increased in the groups that treated with low doses of melatonin
Abstract in English:Tizanidine hydrochloride is a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant, used in the management of spasticity. This drug is commercially available only as tablets, which highlights the need to develop oral liquid formulations. In the hospital environment, this aspect is circumvented by the preparation of suspensions, to allow administration to children and adults with impaired swallowing, but there are no data regarding their stability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical andmicrobiological stability of liquid dosage forms prepared in the hospital environment from tizanidine hydrochloride tablets, applying high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and microbiological analysis. A simple and stability-indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for specificity, linearity, limits of detection and quantification, precision, accuracy and robustness. The liquid formulations were placed in amber PET and glass bottles, which were stored under three different conditions: at room temperature, under refrigeration and at 40 ºC. The liquid formulations were analyzed and demonstrated chemical stability for 56 days, allowing their use for long periods. However, the determination of microbiological stability showed that these formulations are prone to microbial contamination, which has dramatically reduced its stability to 7 days, in both bottles and at all evaluated temperatures
Abstract in English:Microbiological quality of pharmaceuticals is fundamental in ensuring efficacy and safety of medicines. Conventional methods for microbial identification in non-sterile drugs are widely used; however they can be time-consuming and laborious. The aim of this paper was to develop a chemometric-based rapid microbiological method (RMM) for identifying contaminants in pharmaceutical products using Fourier transform infrared with attenuated total reflectance spectrometry (FTIR-ATR). Principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to obtain a predictive model capable of distinguishing Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 8459), Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739), Micrococcus luteus (ATCC 10240), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027), Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 14028), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228) microbial growth. FTIR-ATR spectra provide data on proteins, DNA/RNA, lipids, and carbohydrates constitution of microbial growth. Microbial identification provided by PCA/LDA based on FTIR-ATR method were compatible with those obtained using traditional microbiological methods. The chemometric-based FTIR-ATR method for rapid identification of microbial contaminants in pharmaceutical products was validated by assessing the sensitivity (93.5%), specificity (83.3%), and limit of detection (17-23 CFU/mL of sample). Therefore, we propose that FTIR-ATR spectroscopy may be used for rapid identification of microbial contaminants in pharmaceutical products and taking into account the samples studied
Abstract in English:The first method by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) for the determination of empagliflozin in tablets was developed and validated following the ICH guidelines. The separation was achieved in a fused silica capillary with 50 µm x 40 cm (inner diameter x effective length) at 28 ºC, +28 kV voltage, hydrodynamic injection 4s (50 mBar), detection at 225 nm and paracetamol was the internal standard. The running electrolyte was a mixture of 20 mM tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (pH 10) and 100 mM sodium dodecyl sulphate (1:1). Specificity was evaluated by the stress testing and the method was specific, with no interference of the degradation product. Linearity was observed in the range of 50 to 150 μg/mL (r=0.9999). The method showed adequate accuracy (recovery value=100.60±0.60%), precision (RSD values <2%) and robustness, which was evaluated by a full factorial design 23. Drug degradation kinetics was evaluated in alkaline and acidic conditions and first-order kinetic was observed in both conditions. The cytotoxicity of sample solutions degraded by UVA and UVC radiation, alkaline and acid media were studied as well. A similar cellular viability profile was observed with a slight decrease only in samples degraded by UVC radiation and basic medium
Abstract in English:Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is an issue, which usually occurs in cancer patient. Despite high bioavailability of oral and intravenous administration, these have some drawbacks. The oral route causes hepatic first pass metabolism and intravenous route is invasive in nature. Hence, antiemetic drug by means of transdermal route is necessary to administer in such cases. The aim of the present investigation is to develop suitable Transdermal Therapeutic System (TTS) with an objective to enhance solubility and skin permeability properties of metoclopramide base. Preformulation study begins with an approach to enhance solubility of 40 metoclopramide base by solid dispersion technique. transdermal films were prepared with 41 the solid dispersion as well as with pure drug. Phase solubility study at various temperatures reveals binding constants (Ka, 95-350 M-1 for PVP K30; 56-81 M-1 for HPβCD). Spontaneity of solubilization was justified by AL type linear profiles. The films showed satisfactory diffusion (%), permeation rate and flux after 8 h study. The transdermal patches as prepared were analyzed under FTIR, DSC and SEM. Both solubility and permeability rate in this investigation have been enhanced. So, it can be affirmed that this route would effectively enhance bioavailability
Abstract in English:The ethanolic extract of resinous sediment (EERS) of Etlingera elatior young inflorescence was examined for its anticancer effect and potential antioxidant activity. The anticancer effect of the EERS was evaluated on four human cancer cell lines, HCT 116, HT-29, Hela, and MCF-7, using the MTT assay. GC-MS analysis showed that the main components found in the EERS were nonyl cyclopropane (4.44%), 1-tetradecane (3.66%), cyclotetradecane (2.41%), cyclododecane (1.92%), and 1-decene (1.72%). The antioxidant activity was determined through different methods. High amounts of TPC and TFC in the EERS were found. Moderate antioxidant capacity of the EERS was detected by DPPH and ABTS assays, with EC50 values of 44.19 and 56.61 μg/mL and a high FRAP value of 281.79 nmol Fe+2 equivalent/mg extract. In the MTT assay, the EERS showed potent anticancer activity, with IC50 values of 19.82, 37.001, 50.49, and 53.29 μg/mL against HT-29, HCT 116, Hela, and MCF-7 tumour cell lines, respectively. Moreover, the results were comparable to or less potent than the standard reference drug, 5-fluorouracil. The results showed that the EERS of Etlingera elatior inflorescence contained a high amount of polyphenols and flavonoids, which may to the selective antiproliferative effects towards colon cancer in vitro
Abstract in English:Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5Is) exert positive effects on bone healing and mineralization by activation the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate/protein kinase-G (NO/cGMP/PKG) signaling pathway. In this study, the effects of zaprinast and avanafil, two PDE-5Is, on the NO signaling pathway, estrogen levels, selected bone formation and destruction marker levels, whole-body bone mineral density (WB-BMD), right femur trabecular bone thickness (RF-TBT) and epiphyseal bone width, angiogenesis in the bone-marrow, and selected oxidative stress parameter levels were investigated in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. Twenty four adult rats (8 months old) were equally divided into four groups. The first group was the sham operated group. Groups 2, 3 and 4 included ovariectomized rats. At six months after ovariectomy, the 3rd and 4th groups were administered 10 mg/kg zaprinast and avanafil daily as a single dose for 60 days, respectively. Increases in the activity of the NO/cGMP/PKG signalling-pathway, C-terminal collagen peptide levels, angiogenesis in the bone marrow, RF-TBT, epiphyseal bone width and WB-BMD were observed compared to the ovariectomized positive control group (OVX), while the pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline levels were decreased in the OVX+zaprinast and OVX+avanafil groups (p<0.05). The malondialdehyde, ubiquinone10/ubiquinol10 and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine/106deoxyguanosine levels were also increased in the ovariectomized groups compared to the sham group (p<0.05). Based on these results, the levels of bone atrophy and some markers of oxidative stress were increased due to acute estrogen deficiency induced by ovariectomy, but zaprinast and avanafil administration significantly prevented these changes
Abstract in English:Hospital infections (HI) are a serious public health problem in many countries. Several studies have identified strains correlating to surgical site infections, many with multi-resistance. The goals of this study was to quantify, to identify and to verify the resistance profile of microorganisms collected at two hospitals settings, and to alert health professionals how environmental contamination can influence hospital infection rates. For air sampling in operating rooms, intensive care unit and materials sterilization center, the impaction method (Spin Air, IUL®) and passive sedimentation were used. For the isolation of bacteria on surfaces and uniforms contact plates (RODAC®) were used. Identification of the microorganisms was performed using Vitek® 2 Systems. The antibiograms were conducted according to the disk diffusion method recommended by CLSI. The surgical center of hospital B presented more than 500 CFU/m3 in aerial microbial load. In the aerial microbiota of the sampled areas of both hospitals, M. luteus, S. haemolyticus and S. hominis spp hominis were the prevalent microorganisms, with a percentage greater than 30%. On the surfaces and uniforms there was a prevalence of M. luteus (40%) and S. hominis spp hominis (20%) among others, and some of the resistant strains were isolated from environments with microbial load within the recommended limits.
Abstract in English:In the present study a series of 34 synthetic ligustrazine-containing α, β-Unsaturated carbonyl-based compounds and oximes, recognized as anticancer compounds were assessed against protozoa of the Trypanosoma and Leishmania species. Ligustrazine, chemically known as tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), was selected as the core moiety for the synthesis of α, β-Unsaturated carbonyl-based compounds and these compounds were selected as precursors for the synthesis of new oximes. Some derivates, including 5f and 6i, showed multiple activities against all tested strains. In particular compounds 5f and 8o are the most potent and they are, therefore, potential candidates for trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis
Abstract in English:The study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the Urdu version of Patient Satisfaction with Pharmacist Services Questionnaire (PSPSQ 2.0). We applied the forward-backward procedure to translate the PSPSQ 2.0 in the Urdu language. The test-retest reliability was assessed through Cronbach’s alpha reliability analysis. The validity of the translated PSPSQ 2.0 was constructed by using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) through principal axis factoring extraction and Oblique rotation with Kaiser Normalization onto 2 predetermined factors. The Quality of Care (QOC) construct exhibited Cronbach’s alpha values of 0.900 (Test) and α = 0.871 (Retest) at two-time points. The Interpersonal Relationship (IPR) Construct had alpha values of 0.845 (Test) and α = 0.819 (Retest). The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy for the factor analysis was 0.899. Barlett’s Test of Sphericity was significant (Chi-square = 1192.72; p < 0.05) revealing relationships of the data and suitability of CFA. Two factors explaining the total variance of 40% were extracted whereby loading values were acceptable (> 0.50) for all items of the translated version of PSPSQ 2.0. Results of this study conclude that the translated version of PSPSQ 2.0 is a valid instrument in regions where Urdu is a prime language of communication
Abstract in English:The methanolic extract of Buchholzia coriacea seeds (MEBC) has been reported to induce male reproductive toxicity by decreasing sperm parameters and fertility index. To elucidate the possible mechanism(s), the effects of graded doses of MEBC on sex hormones and sperm profile were investigated in this study. The MEBC (e.g., 50, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) was administered daily (p.o.) to male Wistar rats for 6 weeks, while a concurrent control group received distilled water (vehicle). Then, the animals were sacrificed under sodium pentobarbital anaesthesia. Weights of organs were recorded, and the sperm profile was determined microscopically. Testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were assayed from the obtained serum using the ELISA technique. Sperm motility was significantly reduced by MEBC (i.e., 50 and 200 mg/kg), and sperm count reduced in all treated groups in a dose-dependent manner compared with that of the control. Serum testosterone, LH, and FSH decreased in treated rats. A histopathological examination of testes showed a considerable depletion and necrosis of the epithelium of seminiferous tubules. The result suggests that Buchholzia coriacea seeds induce male reproductive toxicity by suppressing the pituitary-gonadal axis.
Abstract in English:The ascorbyl methylsilanol pectinate (AMP) presents the same functional properties of ascorbic acid (AA). Besides antioxidant and depigmentant activity, the AMP presents silanol in its chemical structure. The aim of this work was to characterize and indentify the AMP alone and in cosmetic formulations. The following techniques were employed: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry, particle size distributions, in vitro antioxidant activity with 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Oxigen Radical Absorbance Capacity Assay and High Performace Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) (developed and validated method) for the active ingredient; Microscopy, HPLC and Normal Stability Assay (NSA) for the emulsions. Particle size distributions results showed that the average size of AMP was 1.0 µm and polydispersity index was 0.1. In DPPH assay AA and AMP were statistically the same. The value of ORAC obtained for AMP was 0.74 and for AA in the literature was 0.95. In the NSA the formulations were stable in conditions of 5.0 and 45.0 ± 2.0 ºC for 90 days. Adequate stability at ambient temperature out of reach of light was also observed. Thus, this works presented an acceptable method for quantification of AMP alone and in cosmetic formulations. AMP was an adequate choice for the incorporation in emulsions with antioxidant efficacy.
Abstract in English:Previously, we evaluated the effect of trichostatin A (TSA) on the expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). Fragile histidine triad (FHIT) and WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) are two of the most common down-regulated genes in many cancers located on chromosome 3p14.2 and 16q23.3-24.1 respectively. The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of TSA on these genes expression, cell growth, and apoptosis in HCC WCH 17 cell. The cells were seeded and treated with TSA at different times. Then, MTT assay, flow cytometry, and qRT-PCR were achieved to determine viability, apoptosis and gene expression respectively. Cell growth was significantly inhibited, 92 to 36% after 24 h, 86 to 28% after 48 h, and 78 to 24% after 72 h. The results of flow cytometry confirmed that TSA increased apoptosis compared to the control group, the apoptosis percentage increased to 12%, 16%, and 18% in comparison to control groups (2%). Significant up-regulation of the genes was observed in all treated groups. We concluded that re-expression of silenced WWOX and FHIT genes could be achieved by TSA resulting in cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in WCH 17 cell.
Abstract in English:A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with ultraviolet detection was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of antiretroviral drugs lamivudine (3TC), stavudine (d4T), and zidovudine (AZT) in perfusate samples obtained from the Single-Pass Intestinal Perfusion studies. The chromatographic analysis was performed using a Gemini C18 column and didanosine as internal standard (IS). The following parameters were considered for the validation procedure: system suitability, accuracy, precision, linearity and selectivity. The limits of detection were 0.32 µg/mL for 3TC, 0.11 µg/mL for d4T and 0.45 µg/mL for AZT and the limits of quantification were 1.06 µg/mL for 3TC, 0.38 µg/mL for d4T and 1.51 µg/mL for AZT. Repeatability and intermediate precision ranged from 1.05 to 1.31 and 1.50 to 1.87, respectively, and are expressed as percent of relative standard deviation (RSD). Based on these results, the developed and validated RP-HPLC method can be used for simultaneous determination of 3TC, d4T, and AZT in perfusate samples. Furthermore, this method is simple and adequate for measurements of the antiretroviral drugs in the same sample, since those compounds are mostly co-administered. Besides, this work can be used as an initial base for the development of similar methods in the same conditions presented in our study.
Abstract in English:1,5-Anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) is a non-fasting glycemic marker that responds to hyperglycemia excursions. The reduction in serum levels of 1,5-AG is associated with an increase in postprandial glycemia and glycosuria, phenomena that increase the risk and severity of diabetic complications. The objective is to assess the ability of 1,5-AG to discriminate type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients without overt kidney disease, for screening or diagnostic purposes. The Human Research Ethics Committee of Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR) approved the project. Serum samples from 567 individuals classified as healthy subjects (n = 291) and T2D (n = 276) with moderate glycemic control (HbA1c of 7-8%), matched by gender, were analyzed. Serum 1,5-AG levels were measured using an automated enzymatic method (GlycoMark, Inc.). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for 1,5-AG showed sensibility of 65.3% and specificity of 91.1% to detect T2D at cut-off point of 92 µmol/L. The results were similar to the groups’ discrimination by glycemia (sensibility/specificity, 62.2%; 89.0%) at cut-off point of 6.3 mmol/L. HbA1c was the best discriminator (sensibility/specificity, 87.4%; 94.2%) at a cut-off point of 5.8% (40 mmol/mol). The serum 1,5-AG concentration was not able to discriminate T2D in the presence of moderate glycemic control with no overt nephropathy.
Abstract in English:This study aims to analyze the new drugs registered in Brazil from 2003 to 2013 from the perspective of childcare needs, drug safety and considering the disease burden of the country. This is a retrospective cohort study including new drugs registered in Brazil between 2003 and 2013. Drug indications were related to the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) of the 2015 Global Burden of Disease Study. Association between the number of new drugs and DALY was determined by Spearman’s coefficient. Post-marketing safety alerts specific to the pediatric population have been identified in the WHO Drug Information Bulletin and on websites of drug regulatory agencies. A total of 134 new drugs were included in the cohort and 46 (34.3%) had a pediatric indication. There was no evidence of an association between the disease burden in children in Brazil and the number of pediatric drugs. The safety alert data associated with the pediatric population published after registration of the new drugs were scarce. The number of new drugs launched in Brazil with a pediatric indication was small, reflecting the international challenges of developing effective and safe medicines for children. No association was found between the number of new drugs and the disease burden.
Abstract in English:Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disrupter, can migrate from packaging material into food stuff. This research was designed to measure BPA levels in makdous, a traditional Syrian food. Forty three samples of makdous stored in different plastic containers (polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and unspecified plastic containers) were analyzed every 3 months for one year beginning July 2017. Quantification of BPA was carried out by an RP-HPLC system equipped with fluorescence detector after solid phase extraction. Migration was found in PE and PP plastic containers with slight differences. Statistically significant differences in BPA levels were observed between samples assayed after two weeks of preparation and samples assayed after 12 months (mean 16.32 vs. 38.26 μg/kg, p value=0.003). According to these amounts, BPA levels were all under the specific migration limit of 0.05 mg/kg as newly referred in Regulation (EU) No 2018/213. These levels of exposure would only contribute to 2.15% and 2.75% of the EFSA t-TDI in both men and women respectively based on mean dietary exposure estimates derived from a 24-h dietary information study from 875 participants. Hence there are no concerns about potential health risks from makdous consumption.
Abstract in English:Sub-therapeutic doses, shorter duration of therapy, female gender, bacteremia, and renal impairment were among independent predictors of polymyxin B treatment failure. In this study, we found an association between inappropriate doses of polymyxin B (<15000 or >25000 unit/kg/day) and renal impairment. Inappropriate doses of polymyxin B were significantly associated with CrCl 20-50 mL/min (p = 0.021, ORadj 6.660, 95% CI 1.326, 33.453) and CrCl <20 mL/min (p = 0.001, ORadj 22.200, 95% CI 3.481, 141.592). By conducting sub-group analysis only using subjects with appropriate dosage, renal impairment was not associated with polymyxin B treatment failure, thus indicating that treatment failure was due to an inappropriate dose of polymyxin B, rather than renal impairment. In conclusion, renal impairment was not directly associated with treatment failure but was due to an inappropriate dosage of polymyxin B after renal adjustment
Abstract in English:This study aimed to identify variables associated with the appropriate recall of indications and the drug classes that represented the most unmatching medications (i.e., when the individual who used it had not reported any illness that matched its indications). Community-dwelling individuals aged ≥60 years using ≥1 medication, from Santa Cruz da Esperança-SP, Brazil, were home-interviewed. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between the appropriate recall of the indications for all medications in use and the following: gender, age, education, individual income, living arrangement, self-perceived health, and medication number, administration, payment, and identification. Medications whose indications were inappropriately recalled were classified as matching or unmatching. One hundred seventeen individuals used an average of 5.1 (standard deviation, 3.3) medications. Sixty-one (52.1%) appropriately recalled all indications. The appropriate recall of all indications was negatively associated with the number of medications in use (e.g., individuals taking 5-6 medications were 25 times less likely to appropriately recall all indications than those taking 1-2). Antithrombotic, acid-related disorder and psychoanaleptic classes showed greater frequencies of unmatching than matching medications. Therefore, counseling the elderly about drug indications should focus on those using ≥3 medications and/or antithrombotic, acid-related disorder, and psychoanaleptic agents.
Abstract in English:Drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is a frightening reality. The aim of this study is to examine the expression profiles of blaOXA-51 gene in carbapenemases producing A. baumannii treated with imipenem/sulbactam combination. Carbapenemases producing A. baumannii was identified among clinical isolates of A. baumannii obtained from patients at Shahid Rajaee hospital, Gachsaran, Iran, from January to June 2018. Synergism testing of imipenem/sulbactam on carbapenemases producing A. baumannii was carried out by broth microdilution method. Eventually, the expression of blaOXA-51 gene was carried out to investigate the inhibitory properties of imipenem/sulbactam combination against carbapenemases producing A. baumannii using quantitative real time RT-PCR. Among A. baumannii isolates, 24% were carbapenemases producing A. baumannii. Imipenem/sulbactam combination revealed synergistic and partial synergistic effect for all tested isolates (FIC= 0.313-0.75). Finally, imipenem/sulbactam combination displayed significant down-regulation of blaOXA-51 gene in carbapenemases producing A. baumannii. Imipenem synergizes with sulbactam against carbapenemases producing A. baumannii by targeting of the blaOXA-51 gene.
Abstract in English:Malt is the mature fruit of Hordeum vulgare L. after germination and drying and has been applied for treatment female abnormal galactorrhea. Previous studies have showed total alkaloids in malt have anti-HPRL effect. However, total alkaloids of malt change with the growth cycle, and the specified levels of total alkaloids in different bud length of malt have not been decided. To determine the definitive level of total alkaloids in different buds of malt and the most suitable bud length for clinical application by comparing effects on hyperprolactinemia rat. During the budding of malt, the content of total alkaloids first increased and then decreased, and it peaked at a bud length of 0.75 cm. Treated the HPRL model rats with different buds of malt, the PRL level was decreased, the number of PRLpositive cells and the mRNA expression level in the pituitary were significantly declined, and the number of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the hypothalamus was increased. The above changes were most significant in 0.75 cm bud. These results suggest that in terms of the content of effective substance and the effects on HPRL model rats, a malt bud length of 0.75 cm is optimal for clinical application.
Abstract in English:This study aimed to evaluate the anticholinesterase activities of extracts and fractions of Ocotea daphnifolia in vitro and characterize its constituents. The effects of hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanolic extracts on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity were determined with a spectrophotometry assay. All extracts inhibited cholinesterase activity, and the ethanolic extract (2 mg/mL) exhibited the highest inhibition of both enzymes (99.7% for BuChE and 82.4% for AChE). The ethanolic extract was fractionated by column chromatography resulting in 14 fractions that were also screened for their anticholinesterase effects. Fraction 9 (2 mg/mL) showed the highest activity, inhibiting AChE and BuChE by 71.8% and 90.2%, respectively. This fraction was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry which allowed the characterization of seven glycosylated flavonoids (containing kaempferol and quercetin nucleus) and one alkaloid (reticuline). In order to better understand the enzyme-inhibitor interaction of the reticuline toward cholinesterase, molecular modeling studies were performed. Reticuline targeted the catalytic activity site of the enzymes. Ocotea daphnifolia exhibits a dual cholinesterase inhibitory activity and displays the same pattern of intermolecular interactions as described in the literature. The alkaloid reticuline can be considered as an important bioactive constituent of this plant.
Abstract in English:In the present study, antidepressant-like activity of ethanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima was evaluated in Swiss young male albino mice. Stress was induced in mice by subjecting them to unpredictable mild stress for 21 successive days. Ethanol extract of the leaves (100, 200 and 400 mg/ kg, p.o.) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered for 21 consecutive days to separate groups of unstressed and stressed mice. Ethanol extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) and fluoxetine significantly decreased immobility period of unstressed as well as stressed mice in tail suspension test (TST). However, the lowest dose (100 mg/kg) of the extract also significantly decreased immobility period of stressed mice in TST. The extract significantly restored reduced sucrose preference in stressed mice. There was no significant effect on locomotor activity of mice. Ethanol extract of the leaves significantly decreased plasma nitrite and corticosterone levels; brain MAO-A activity and MDA level; and increased brain reduced glutathione and catalase activity in unstressed as well as stressed mice as compared to their respective vehicle treated controls. Thus, ethanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima showed significant antidepressant-like activity in unstressed and stressed mice probably through inhibition of brain MAO-Aactivity, reduction of oxidative stress and plasma corticosterone levels.
Abstract in English:The plant, Malva neglecta wallr., is widely consumed for medicinal and nutritional purposes. The current study was carried out to assess the hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic potential of aqueous methanolic extract of M. neglecta. Chemical evaluation of the extract was performed by high pressure liquid chromatography. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was done in diabetic rats pre-exposed to 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg plant extract via the oral route. For hypoglycemic and biochemical study, the same therapy was administered to alloxan induced diabetic rats for 14 days. The standard control group received Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). Ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and other phenolic acids were detected and estimated in the extract. Administration of the plant extract significantly reduced blood glucose level in diabetic rats subjected to OGTT. The plant extract lowered the fasting blood glucose and alpha amylase, and prevented the damage to pancreas. It also corrected dyslipidemia in diabetic animals following 14 days therapy. Hence, this experimental study establishes the fact that M. neglecta exhibited significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities in alloxan induced diabetic rats.
Abstract in English:We investigated the effect of Punica granatum peel aqueous extract (PGE), on pulmonary inflammation and alveolar degradation induced by intratracheal administration of Elastase in Sprague Dawley rats. Lung inflammation was induced in rats by intratracheal instillation of Elastase. On day 1 and 2, animals received an intraperitoneal injection of PGE (200 mg/mL), three hours later, they were intratracheally instilled with 25U/kg pancreatic porcine Elastase. Animals were sacrificed 7 days later. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were collected and cellularity, histology and mRNA expression of Monocyte chemotactic protein 1(MCP-1), Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin 6 (IL-6), and Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were studied. In addition, activity of TNF- α, IL-6 and MCP-1 on BAL were also analyzed by ELISA Kit. Elastase administration increased: BAL cellularity, neutrophils recruitment and BAL MCP1, IL-6 expressions. It also increased lung TNF-α, MCP-1, MMP-2 expressions, platelets recruitment, histological parameters at 7th day of elastase treatment. Intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg of PGE reduced, significantly, BAL cellularity, and neutrophils recruitment. However, in animal treated with PGE, MCP-1, MMP-2 and IL-6 on day 7, were similar to the Sham group. Treatment with PGE (200 mg/ kg) also significantly reduced lung TNF-α, and MCP-1 expression. This study reveals that PGE Punica granatum protects against elastase lung inflammation and alveolar degradation induced in rats.
Abstract in English:Diabetes and its complications represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes patients. This review is aimed to find the potential of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to act as therapeutic agents for diabetes and its complications. Here, we outline the literature related to the self-therapeutic effects of AuNPs. The first goal of this review is to highlight and summarize some of the existing studies (10 years ago) in terms of several parameters such as the size of AuNPs, dose, administration route, experimental model, experimental analysis, and findings. The second goal is to describe the self-therapeutic effects of AuNPs against the pathogenesis determinants of diabetic complications. AuNPs have been found to have inhibitory effects on transforming growth factor-β, antiglycation, antiangiogenic, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. AuNPs treatment effectively disrupts multiple pathogenesis determinants in an animal model of diabetes and diabetic complications. The present review provides insight into the potential applications of AuNPs, which may help reduce the incidence of diabetes and its complications.
Abstract in English:Proteins and peptides are the most diverse biomolecules found in nature and make our interest due to their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) plays a major role in controlling blood pressure. The inhibition of ACE with peptides is a main target in the regulation of hypertension. The objective of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of soy bean. This was accomplished by isolation of ACE inhibitory peptides using response surface methodology (RSM) and characterization of these bioactive peptides by mass spectrometry. 31 hydrolyzed fractions were isolated and evaluated for their ACE inhibition potential. Hydrolyzed fraction having highest ACE inhibitory activity was characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technique. RSM results showed maximum ACE inhibition potential (64%) by hydrolyzate was obtained at 45 ºC temperature, pH 8.0, E/S 0.2 in 2 hours hydrolysis time. Results of LC-MS analysis revealed Ser-Gly, Ser-Pro, Met-Ala, His-Ala, Lys-Pro, Phe-Thr, Met-Leu, Pro-Arg, Ala-Pro-Val, Pro-Ala-Leu, Val-Met-Gly, Pro-Leu-Val, Pro-Pro-Gln, His-Arg-Gly, Ser-Phe-Val-Leu, Ala-Val-His-Try, Arg-Thr-Val-Arg, His-His-Tyr-Leu-Val, Asp-Gly-Ala-Cys-Ser-Ala-Asn and MetVal-Thr-Gly-Pro-Gly-Cys-His bioactive peptides in hydrolyzed fraction of soy bean. Our data provide evidence that response surface methodology is a good approach for isolation of antihypertensive bioactive peptides with more potent activity as nutraceuticals or pharmaceuticals. Therefore soy bean can be use for industrial production of pharmaceutical grade natural medicines for handling high blood pressure.
Abstract in English:Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder affecting a great part of population around the world. It is the fifth leading death causing disease in the world and its cases are increasing day by day. Traditional medicine is thought to have promising future in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. In contrast to synthetic drugs phytochemicals are considered to be free from side effects. As one of the main class of natural products, alkaloids and their derivatives have been widely used as sources of pharmacological agents against a variety of medical problems. Many studies confirmed the role of alkaloids in the management of diabetes and numerous alkaloids isolated from different medicinal plants were found active against diabetes. Like other natural products, alkaloids regulate glucose metabolism either by inhibiting or inducing multiple candidate proteins including AMP-activated protein kinase, glucose transporters, glycogen synthase kinase-3, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1, glucokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase among the others. A comprehensive review of alkaloids reported in the literature with anti-diabetic activities and their target enzymes is conducted, with the aim to help in exploring the use of alkaloids as anti-diabetic agents. Future work should focus on rigorous clinical studies of the alkaloids, their development and relevant drug targets.
Abstract in English:Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal glands, gonads and brain. It is a precursor to sex hormones and also is known to have immune modulatory activity. However, little is known about the relationship between DHEA and neutrophils and thus our study evaluates the influence of DHEA in the effector functions of neutrophils. Human neutrophils were treated in vitro with DHEA and further infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The treatment of neutrophils with 0.01 μM of DHEA increased the phagocytosis of Salmonella independent of TLR4 as the treatment did not modulate the TLR4 expression. Additionally, DHEA caused a decrease in ROS (reactive oxygen species) production and did not influence the formation of the neutrophil extracellular trap (NET). Steroid treated neutrophils, infected or stimulated with LPS (lipopolysaccharide), showed reduced production of IL-8, compared to untreated cells. Also, the protein levels of p-NFκB were decreased in neutrophils treated with DHEA, and this reduction could explain the reduced levels of IL-8. These results led us to conclude that the steroid hormone DHEA has important modulatory functions in neutrophils.
Abstract in English:Vildagliptin is an oral hypoglycemic agent used in the management of diabetes. Some oral antidiabetic drugs have been implicated in reproductive toxicity.The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of daily administration of vildagliptin at different dosages (0.35 mg/kg B.W., 0.70 mg/kg B.W. and 1.40 mg/kg B.W.) to male Wistar rats for 8 weeks. Sperm parameters, serum concentrations of testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone and the histology of the testis of the rats were assessed. Another set of rats were also treated for 8 weeks and allowed to recover and the same parameters were assessed in them. Fertility study was conducted by determining their litter size. The results showed that vildagliptin administration significantly reduced sperm count and motility of the treated rats. It also significantly increased the number of abnormal sperms. Serum level of testosterone was significantly decreased while luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone levels showed no significant change. The histoarchitecture of the testis of the treated rats appeared visibly normal. The litter size was also significantly reduced. Most of the changes observed were dose dependent. However, these parameters were restored towards normal in the recovery group. Our results suggest that vildagliptin adversely affected sperm parameters, affected litter size and disrupted the pituitary - gonadal axis. These changes were however reversed upon cessation of drug administration.
Abstract in English:Methotrexate (MTX) is famous for its therapeutic potential against different cancers including colorectal cancer. Goal of the present investigation was to formulate MTX loaded mucoadhesive microparticles for colon targeting. The optimized formulation (MTX-MS2) was composed of mucoadhesive polymers (sodium alginate, guar gum and carbopol 940) in an appropriate ratio. MTXMS2 was developed by ionic-gelation method. The suitable particle size and zeta potential were found to be 21.10 ± 0.18 μm and 3.01 ± 0.16 mV for MTX-MS2 respectively. The % yield (98.60 ± 2.12), % entrapment efficiency (97.98 ± 1.22) and % drug loading (1.04 ± 0.03) were estimated for MTXMS2. The swelling index (0.99 ± 0.04 θ) and mucoadhesion (97.29 ± 4.61%) were significantly (***P ˂ 0.01) achieved with MTX-MS2 as compared to other formulations. The optimum drug release (96.07 ± 4.52%) was significantly achieved with MTX-MS2 at simulated gastric fluid (pH 7.4) for 36 h in a sustained manner. This profile may be attributed towards excellent mucoadhesivness of the polymers used in the formulation. Therefore, the current investigation suggests that mucoadhesive carrier system could be promising approach for colon delivery. Thus, the proposed work would be helpful for the treatment of colorectal cancer.
Abstract in English:Hippeastrum puniceum is a species that belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family. A particular characteristic of this family is the consistent and very specific presence of isoquinoline alkaloids, which have demonstrated a wide range of biological activities such as antioxidant, antiviral, antifungal, antiparasitic, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, among others. In the present work, fifteen alkaloids were identified from the bulbs of Hippeastrum puniceum (Lam.) Kuntz using a GC-MS approach. The alkaloids 9-O-demethyllycoramine, 9-demethyl-2α-hydroxyhomolycorine, lycorine and tazettine were isolated through chromatographic techniques. The typical Amaryllidaceae alkaloids lycorine and tazettine, along with the crude and ethyl acetate extract from bulbs of the species were evaluated for their inhibitory potential on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, tyrosinase and acetylcholinesterase activity. Although no significant inhibition activity was observed against α-amylase, α-glucosidase and tyrosinase from the tested samples, the crude and ethyl acetate extracts showed remarkable acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The biological activity results that correlated to the alkaloid chemical profile by GC-MS are discussed herein. Therefore, this study contributed to the knowledge of the chemical and biological properties of Hippeastrum puniceum (Lam.) and can subsidize future studies of this species.
Abstract in English:Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune inflammatory joint disease with global prevalence of 0.4% to 1.0%. Extra-articular manifestations increase its morbidity and severity, and cardiovascular diseases present the greatest risk. Therapeutic approaches have been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, often involving the use of multiple classes of drugs with different mechanisms and forms of action. Corticosteroid therapy is widely used in this therapeutic combination; however, its use has been widely questioned because of its high toxicity and some negative effects, including the possibility of increased cardiovascular risk, depending on the dosage. Some studies have provided important insights into how glucocorticoids have an impact on cardiac complications in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Most of these studies have concluded that exposure to these drugs at high or cumulative doses is associated with increased risk of death, as well as possibly being associated with the presence of a positive rheumatoid factor.
Abstract in English:In Nigeria, drug financing by the public has been challenged by financial constraints through public fund due to a limited fund available to the government to meet all its demands. The objectives of this study were to determine the variability of the hospital patient prices of same drugs under the PublicPrivate Partnership (PPP) and in Private Retail Community Pharmacy (PRCP), and to investigate the perceived efficiency and effectiveness of the PPP by comparing it with the Drug Revolving Fund (DRF) model in drug supply financing. This study was conducted in Nigeria utilizing a mixed method. Mann-Whitney U test analysis was used to compare the median drug price of the two facilities. The majority (76.19%) of the drugs were sold at a cheaper rate in the hospital than what was obtained in the PRCP with no significance difference (p > 0.05). Dominant responses from the focused group discussions supported the PPP model. This study shows that the median patient price of the basket of matched pairs of same drugs in the hospital under the PPP and in the PRCP was identical. Overall, the participants were of the opinion that the PPP model was more efficient and effective than DRFin the financing drug supply.
Abstract in English:Probiotic consumption promotes numerous health benefits. The aim of this study is 1) to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of kefir in a hypertension rat model caused by the administration of the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, L-NAME, and 2) to evaluate the acute angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of the soluble nonbacterial fraction (SNBF) of kefir. To develop the first aim, male rats were separated into three groups: control group (C) treated with 0.3 mL/100 g of milk; L-NAME group (LN) received 10 mg/kg of said inhibitor; and Kefir group (K) treated with 0.3 mL/100 g of kefir plus L-NAME (10 mg/kg of said inhibitor). The treatments were given by oral gavage twice a day for four weeks. For the second aim”instead additionally, male rats received angiotensin I (in bolus) in three doses (Ang I: 0.03, 3 and 300 µg/kg) and were separated into two groups: a) received captopril (30 mg/kg i.v.) and b)received SNBF of kefir (5 mL/kg i.v.). Blood pressure were evaluated before and after Ang I. After treatment, hemodynamic parameters were evaluated, heart weight was recorded, and body weight gain was calculated. SNBF of kefir did not decrease the blood pressure for L-NAMEtreated animals, and no changes were observed in the cardiac parameters. However, the SNBF of kefir demonstrated acute inhibition of ACE in vivo similar to that of captopril. Thus, our results suggest that kefir may improve human cardiovascular systems by using mechanisms independent of nitric oxide syntheses. Additionally, the renin angiotensin system is probably the most important system involved in kefir effect regarding hypertension.
Abstract in English:Propolis from stingless bees (Heterotrigona itama) is a resinous compound that exhibits antihyperglycaemia, free radical scavenging, and cardioprotective properties. The effect of propolis on diabetic vessels has not been investigated. Thus, this research aimed to determine the effect of propolis supplementation on the level of antioxidants and its mechanism of action in the aorta of diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups (n=8/group): healthy (control), untreated diabetes (DM), metformin-treated diabetes (DM+M, 300 mg/kg/day metformin), propolis-treated diabetes (DM+P, 300 mg/kg/day propolis extract) and diabetes with combined treatment (DM+M+P, dosage as former). Oral supplementation was conducted for four weeks immediately upon successful induction of diabetes by streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection). At the end of the study, the rats were euthanised, and thoracic aorta was processed into tissue homogenates to determine the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE). Aorta segments were harvested to examine their relaxation response towards graded concentration of acetylcholine (Ach; 10-8-10-4) M following precontraction with phenylephrine (PE; 10-6 M). Vasorelaxation towards a cumulative dose of propolis (0.01-1.00%) using PE-precontracted healthy aorta (n=6/experiments) was investigated under various simulated conditions: physiological buffer, L-NAME (10-4 M), methylene blue (10-5 M), indomethacin (10-5 M) and elevated glucose (25 mM). Propolis maintained antioxidative enzymes and sRAGE decoy molecules in the aortic tissue of the diabetic rats. The amelioration of diabetes-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation by propolis was mediated through the nitric oxide(NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway. This non-clinical study reports vasoprotective property of propolis in diabetes mellitus.
Abstract in English:The purpose of this study is to describe the frequency of potential drug prescribing omissions (PPOs) for elderly patients at the time of hospital discharge and to compare the frequency PPOs among different medical specialities. This cross-sectional study examined data from elderly patients when they were admitted for >24 h to a northeastern Brazil teaching hospital during June-December 2016. Were included in the study 227 patients, of whom 36.9% had at least one PPO. The highest number of PPOs was identified among those with at least 5 prescribed drugs. In total, 153 PPOs were identified at hospital discharge. In most cases (78.4%), patients were not evaluated by the specialist physician.The most commonly identified PPOs on discharge were: the omission of statin therapy in cases of diabetes mellitus plus one or more cardiovascular-associated factor; calcium and vitamin D supplements in patients with known osteoporosis; and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in cases of chronic heart failure. The results of this study suggest that the frequency of prescribing omissions PPOs during patient discharge was high. This can be avoided by the careful evaluation by prescribers with experience in certain specialties where several prescribed omissions would be common.
Abstract in English:The aim of the current study was to explore the correlation between physical properties of wet masses and pellet quality by using powdered herbal slices as model drugs. Wet masses with 100 formulations were prepared by taking 20 kinds of powdered herbal slices as model drugs, microcrystalline cellulose as pelletization aid and five levels of added water as liquid binder. Physical properties of the wet masses such as hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and resilience were measured by a texture analyzer. Meanwhile, the moisture retention capacities (MRC) of powdered herbal slices and wet masses were determined. Particles were classified after they were produced during spheronization. Principal component analysis, factor analysis and classification analysis were performed on the data. Wet masses could be classified into three groups by taking Ha as the first classification index and Ha/Sp as the second classification index. The correct rate of the classification was 91.00%. If Ha value of wet masses was greater than 15610 g, pellets of type ① would form, otherwise, pellets of type ② or type ③ would form based on Ha/Sp value. Then a classification plot of wet masses was developed to predict pellet formation of powdered herbal slices. Meanwhile, the probable mechanism of pellets formation during spheronisation was concluded in this study, which provided useful information to improve pellet quality.
Abstract in English:Among the methods described for determining the solubility, shake-flask is suitable to evaluate the equilibrium solubility according to the BCS. Nevertheless, experimental conditions related to the shake-flask method are not well described. Evaluating the effects of experimental conditions on solubility measurements by shake-flask method is important and contributes in biowaiver decision. For this work, propranolol hydrochloride and nimesulide were used as model compound of high and low solubility, respectively. Equilibrium solubility was evaluated at 37 ºC, 100 rpm during 48 hours in buffer media. Effects of the rotation speed, temperature, substance in excess and aliquot withdrawn were evaluated. Small variations of temperature caused significant differences in the solubility and then this parameter must be controlled. Excess of raw material influenced the results of the nimesulide, then, little excess is recommended. Rotation speed did not cause differences in the equilibrium solubilities, but at 150 rpm the equilibrium was reached faster. Aliquot did not present significant differences, but excessive withdrawn should be avoided. Therefore, the evaluation of equilibrium solubility using shake-flask method must be performed in physiological pH conditions, 37 ± 1 ºC, substance in excess 10% above saturation, 50, 100 or 150 rpm and aliquot withdrawn not more than 10% of the media volume.
Abstract in English:Some antioxidant compounds have a pro-oxidant effect in the presence of transition metal ions, due to the reduction of Mn+ to M(n-1)+ with simultaneous formation of free radicals, which then promote DNA damage. In the present study, we evaluated the pUC19 DNA damage in a solution containing Cu(II) and ascorbic acid (AA) or S(IV) saturated with air by agarose gel electrophoresis. Our results showed that this damage decreases if AA and S(IV) are simultaneously added. This study also illustrates the importance of Cu(II) in this process, as no DNA damage was observed when AA or S(IV) were present in the absence of this metallic ion. Our data showed that DNA preservation depends on the concentration of AA and S(IV) and occurs when the [S(IV)]:[AA] ratio ranges from 1:1 to 20:1. Absorbance measurements and thermodynamic data show that no reaction occurs between AA and S(IV) when this mixture (pH 5.5) is added to pUC-19 DNA. The presence of dissolved oxygen may be the cause of AA consumption in the mixture of these two antioxidants, which subsequently decreases DNA damage.
Abstract in English:Malaria is nowadays one of the most serious health concerns in a global scale and, although there is an evident increase in research studies in this area, pointed by the vast number of hits and leads, it still appears as a recurrent topic every year due to the drug resistance shown by the parasite exposing the urgent need to develop new antimalarial medications. In this work, 38 molecules were synthesized via copper(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) or “click” chemistry, following different routes to produce 2 different organic azides, obtained from a 4,7 dicholoquinoline, reacted with 19 different commercially available terminal alkynes. All those new compounds were evaluated for their in vitro activity against the chloroquine resistant malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (W2). The cytotoxicity evaluation was accomplished using Hep G2 cells and SI index was calculated for every molecule. Some of the quinoline derivatives have shown high antimalarial activity, with IC50 values in the range of 1.72-8.66 µM, low cytotoxicity, with CC50>1000 µM and selectivity index (SI) in the range of 20-100, with some compounds showing SI>800. Therefore, the quinolinotriazole hybrids could be considered a very important step on the development of new antimalarial drugs.