São Paulo harbors 231 mammal species until now. This is an estimate of its real diversity since many regions of the State continue poorly surveyed, and also reflects the lack of taxonomic work for certain mammal taxa. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the São Paulo mammals has increased in 20% in the last 12 years, especially in relation to bats and rodents. These new data are based in mammal inventories and also in the analysis of specimens housed in scientific collections associated with taxonomic revisions. We also know better about the mammal distribution in the distinct vegetation units present in the State, permitting us to divide the mammals in three distinct components: the most important one is the generalists, represented by species occurring in every landscape in the State, while the second one concentrates species inhabiting the open formations, and the third component the species associated with the forest formations. Besides, the number of studies dealing with the effect of fragmentation and the permeability of mammals in altered areas also has increased. Occurrence, abundance and vulnerability data were essential to raise strategies in order to choose priority areas and to indicate priority actions to conserve the mammals of the State, as well as to classify the species in the different proposed threaten categories, culminating in the List of the Threaten Species of the São Paulo State. However, there are many points yet poorly developed or poorly known, such as the limited number of zoological samples, and the lack of information about the ecology and natural history of many species, respectively. It's extremely important that we increase our samples in the scientific collections, especially in areas of Dense Ombrofilous Forests, in the Cerrado fragments, as well as in central and western areas of the State that continue poorly surveyed. The objective is to produce more taxonomic work in several mammalian groups, and also studies focusing in the phylogeography and in the population genetics in order to effectively diagnose the mammal richness of the State, as well as the evolutionary processes responsible for this diversification. Additionally, ecological data accompanying this information is needed in order to evaluate the conservation status of the São Paulo mammals to decide about the better strategies to manage and conserve these mammals.
mammals; biodiversity of the State of São Paulo; BIOTA/FAPESP Program