Accessibility / Report Error

Comparative morphological study and phylogeny of representatives of the superfamily Calyptraeoidea (including Hipponicoidea) (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda)

Abstracts

With the objective of testing the monophyly of the Calyptraeoidea and of searching for its ground plan, a detailed morpho-logical analysis was conducted for the following species: a) Family Calyptraeidae, 1) Bostrycapulus aculeatus (Gmelin) (formerly Crepidula); 2) Crepidula aff. plana Say; 3) C. protea Orbigny (these from Brazil); 4) C. aff. protea (from Argentina) (published elsewhere); 5) C. convexa Say (from Venezuela); 6) C. fornicata (L.) (from Europe); 7) Calyptraea centralis (Conrad) (from Brazil); 8) Crucibulum auricula (Gmelin) (from Venezuela); 9) Cr. quiriquinae (Lesson) (from Chile); 10) Trochita trochiformis (Born) (from Chile); 11) Sigapatella calyptraeformis (Lam.) (from New Zealand, formerly Calyptraea); b) Family Hipponicidae, 12) Hipponix costellatus Carpenter (formerly H. grayanus); 13) H. subrufus (Lam.); 14) H. incurvus (Gmelin) (formerly Capulus incurvatus) (these 3 from NE Brazil); 15) H. grayanus Menke (from Mexico and Ecuador); 16) H. leptus n. sp. (N.E. Brazil); 17) Sabia conica (Schumacher); 18) Malluvium devotus (Hedley) (both Australia); 19) Cheilea equestris (L.) (N.E. Brazil); c) Family Capulidae, 20) Capulus sycophanta Garrard (Australia); d) Family Trichotropidae, 21) Trichotropis cancellata Hinds (W. USA); 22) T. borealis Broderip & Sowerby (N. Atlantic); 23) T. sp. (Alaska); e) Family Vanikoridae, 24) Vanikoro sp. (Australia). A phylogenetic analysis of 112 characters (177 states) from morphology of all systems and organs results in the following single most parsimonious tree: ((Trichotropis cancellata - T. borealis) (Capulus sycophanta (Vanikoro sp ((Cheilea equestris (Sabia conica (Malluvium devotus ((Hipponix grayanus - H. leptus) (H. incurvus (H. costellatus - H. subrufus)))))) (Sigapatella calyptraeformis (Trochita trochiformis (Calyptraea centralis ((Crucibulum auricula - Cr. quiriquinae) (Bostrycapulus aculeatus (Crepidula argentina (C. convexa (C. fornicata (C. aff. plana - C. protea))))))))))))). Length: 267, CI: 67, RI: 88. Outgroups from other caenogastropod superfamilies were used as well as some archaeogastropod groups. The main result is the monophyly of Calyptraeoidea supported by 27 synapomorphies with basal Caenogastropoda used as the outgroup (Cerithioidea, Hydrobioidea), and 21 synapomorphies when Stromboidea and Cypraeoidea were used as outgroups. Calyptraeoidea includes, succes-sively along the tree, the following monophyletic families: Trichotropidae, Capulidae, Vanikoridae, Hipponicidae and Calyptraeidae. The hipponicid affinity of Cheilea is confirmed. Some taxonomic problems found in the sampled representatives (as mentioned above), were partially resolved.

Caenogastropoda; Calyptraeoidea phylogeny; morphology; cladistic analysis; Hipponicoidea; Capuloidea


Com o objetivo de testar a monofilia dos Calyptraeoidea e obter seu "plano básico", um estudo morfológico detalhado é desenvolvido nas seguintes espécies: a) Família Calyptraeidae, 1) Bostrycapulus aculeatus (Gmelin) (previamente Crepidula); 2) Crepidula aff. plana Say; 3) C. protea Orbigny (todos do Brasil); 4) C. aff. protea (da Argentina) (publicada em outro artigo); 5) C. convexa Say (da Venezuela); 6) C. fornicata (L.) (da Europa); 7) Calyptraea centralis (Conrad) (do Brasil); 8) Crucibulum auricula (Gmelin) (da Venezu-ela); 9) Cr. quiriquinae (Lesson) (do Chile); 10) Trochita trochiformis (Born) (do Chile); 11) Sigapatella calyptraeformis (Lam.) (da Nova Zelândia, previamente Calyptraea); b) Família Hipponicidae, 12) Hipponix costellatus Carpenter (previamente H. grayanus); 13) H. subrufus (Lam.); 14) H. incurvus (Gmelin) (previamente Capulus incurvatus) (estes 3 do NE Brasil); 15) H. grayanus Menke (do México e Equador); 16) H. leptus n. sp. (N.E. Brasil); 17) Sabia conica (Schumacher); 18) Malluvium devotus (Hedley) (ambos da Austrália); 19) Cheilea equestris (L.) (N.E. Brasil); c) Família Capulidae, 20) Capulus sycophanta Garrard (Austrália); d) Família Trichotropidae, 21) Trichotropis cancellata Hinds (W. USA); 22) T. borealis Broderip & Sowerby (N. Atlântico); 23) T. sp. (Alaska); e) Família Vanikoridae, 24) Vanikoro sp. (Austrália). Uma análise filogenética fundamentada em 112 caracteres (177 estados) é realizada, baseada na morfologia de todos os órgãos e sistemas. A única árvore obtida é a seguinte: ((Trichotropis cancellata - T. borealis) (Capulus sycophanta (Vanikoro sp ((Cheilea equestris (Sabia conica (Malluvium devotus ((Hipponix grayanus - H. leptus) (H. incurvus (H. costellatus - H. subrufus)))))) (Sigapatella calyptraeformis (Trochita trochiformis (Calyptraea centralis ((Crucibulum auricula - Cr. quiriquinae) (Bostrycapulus aculeatus (Crepidula argentina (C. convexa (C. fornicata (C. aff. plana - C. protea))))))))))))). Passos: 267, IC: 67, IR: 88. como grupos externos são usados representantes de outras superfamílias de Caenogastropoda, assim como de outros grupos de arqueogastrópodes. Como resultados principais destacam-se a monofilia de Calyptraeoidea, suportada por 27 sinapomorfias se os grupos externos forem os Caenogastropoda basais (Cerithioidea, Hydrobioidea) e 21 sinapomorfias com Stromboidea e Cypraeoidea como grupos externos. Calyptraeoidea inclui sucessivamente ao longo da árvore as seguintes famílias monofiléticas: Trichotropidae, Capulidae, Vanikoridae, Hipponicidae e Calyptraeidae. A afinidade com Hipponicidae de Cheilea é confirmada, dentre alguns problemas taxonômicos encontrados nos representantes amostrados (como mencionados acima), foram parcialmente resolvidos.

Caenogastropoda; Calyptraeoidea filogenia; morfologia; análise cladística; Hipponicoidea; Capuloidea


TAXONOMIC REVISIONS

Comparative morphological study and phylogeny of representatives of the superfamily Calyptraeoidea (including Hipponicoidea) (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda)

Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo - Cx. Postal 42594 - 04299-970 São Paulo, SP, Brazil - lrsimone@usp.br

ABSTRACT

With the objective of testing the monophyly of the Calyptraeoidea and of searching for its ground plan, a detailed morpho-logical analysis was conducted for the following species: a) Family Calyptraeidae, 1) Bostrycapulus aculeatus (Gmelin) (formerly Crepidula); 2) Crepidula aff. plana Say; 3) C. protea Orbigny (these from Brazil); 4) C. aff. protea (from Argentina) (published elsewhere); 5) C. convexa Say (from Venezuela); 6) C. fornicata (L.) (from Europe); 7) Calyptraea centralis (Conrad) (from Brazil); 8) Crucibulum auricula (Gmelin) (from Venezuela); 9) Cr. quiriquinae (Lesson) (from Chile); 10) Trochita trochiformis (Born) (from Chile); 11) Sigapatella calyptraeformis (Lam.) (from New Zealand, formerly Calyptraea); b) Family Hipponicidae, 12) Hipponix costellatus Carpenter (formerly H. grayanus); 13) H. subrufus (Lam.); 14) H. incurvus (Gmelin) (formerly Capulus incurvatus) (these 3 from NE Brazil); 15) H. grayanus Menke (from Mexico and Ecuador); 16) H. leptus n. sp. (N.E. Brazil); 17) Sabia conica (Schumacher); 18) Malluvium devotus (Hedley) (both Australia); 19) Cheilea equestris (L.) (N.E. Brazil); c) Family Capulidae, 20) Capulus sycophanta Garrard (Australia); d) Family Trichotropidae, 21) Trichotropis cancellata Hinds (W. USA); 22) T. borealis Broderip & Sowerby (N. Atlantic); 23) T. sp. (Alaska); e) Family Vanikoridae, 24) Vanikoro sp. (Australia). A phylogenetic analysis of 112 characters (177 states) from morphology of all systems and organs results in the following single most parsimonious tree: ((Trichotropis cancellata - T. borealis) (Capulus sycophanta (Vanikoro sp ((Cheilea equestris (Sabia conica (Malluvium devotus ((Hipponix grayanus - H. leptus) (H. incurvus (H. costellatus - H. subrufus)))))) (Sigapatella calyptraeformis (Trochita trochiformis (Calyptraea centralis ((Crucibulum auricula - Cr. quiriquinae) (Bostrycapulus aculeatus (Crepidula argentina (C. convexa (C. fornicata (C. aff. plana - C. protea))))))))))))). Length: 267, CI: 67, RI: 88. Outgroups from other caenogastropod superfamilies were used as well as some archaeogastropod groups. The main result is the monophyly of Calyptraeoidea supported by 27 synapomorphies with basal Caenogastropoda used as the outgroup (Cerithioidea, Hydrobioidea), and 21 synapomorphies when Stromboidea and Cypraeoidea were used as outgroups. Calyptraeoidea includes, succes-sively along the tree, the following monophyletic families: Trichotropidae, Capulidae, Vanikoridae, Hipponicidae and Calyptraeidae. The hipponicid affinity of Cheilea is confirmed. Some taxonomic problems found in the sampled representatives (as mentioned above), were partially resolved.

Key words: Caenogastropoda, Calyptraeoidea phylogeny, morphology, cladistic analysis, Hipponicoidea, Capuloidea.

RESUMO

Com o objetivo de testar a monofilia dos Calyptraeoidea e obter seu "plano básico", um estudo morfológico detalhado é desenvolvido nas seguintes espécies: a) Família Calyptraeidae, 1) Bostrycapulus aculeatus (Gmelin) (previamente Crepidula); 2) Crepidula aff. plana Say; 3) C. protea Orbigny (todos do Brasil); 4) C. aff. protea (da Argentina) (publicada em outro artigo); 5) C. convexa Say (da Venezuela); 6) C. fornicata (L.) (da Europa); 7) Calyptraea centralis (Conrad) (do Brasil); 8) Crucibulum auricula (Gmelin) (da Venezu-ela); 9) Cr. quiriquinae (Lesson) (do Chile); 10) Trochita trochiformis (Born) (do Chile); 11) Sigapatella calyptraeformis (Lam.) (da Nova Zelândia, previamente Calyptraea); b) Família Hipponicidae, 12) Hipponix costellatus Carpenter (previamente H. grayanus); 13) H. subrufus (Lam.); 14) H. incurvus (Gmelin) (previamente Capulus incurvatus) (estes 3 do NE Brasil); 15) H. grayanus Menke (do México e Equador); 16) H. leptus n. sp. (N.E. Brasil); 17) Sabia conica (Schumacher); 18) Malluvium devotus (Hedley) (ambos da Austrália); 19) Cheilea equestris (L.) (N.E. Brasil); c) Família Capulidae, 20) Capulus sycophanta Garrard (Austrália); d) Família Trichotropidae, 21) Trichotropis cancellata Hinds (W. USA); 22) T. borealis Broderip & Sowerby (N. Atlântico); 23) T. sp. (Alaska); e) Família Vanikoridae, 24) Vanikoro sp. (Austrália). Uma análise filogenética fundamentada em 112 caracteres (177 estados) é realizada, baseada na morfologia de todos os órgãos e sistemas. A única árvore obtida é a seguinte: ((Trichotropis cancellata - T. borealis) (Capulus sycophanta (Vanikoro sp ((Cheilea equestris (Sabia conica (Malluvium devotus ((Hipponix grayanus - H. leptus) (H. incurvus (H. costellatus - H. subrufus)))))) (Sigapatella calyptraeformis (Trochita trochiformis (Calyptraea centralis ((Crucibulum auricula - Cr. quiriquinae) (Bostrycapulus aculeatus (Crepidula argentina (C. convexa (C. fornicata (C. aff. plana - C. protea))))))))))))). Passos: 267, IC: 67, IR: 88. como grupos externos são usados representantes de outras superfamílias de Caenogastropoda, assim como de outros grupos de arqueogastrópodes. Como resultados principais destacam-se a monofilia de Calyptraeoidea, suportada por 27 sinapomorfias se os grupos externos forem os Caenogastropoda basais (Cerithioidea, Hydrobioidea) e 21 sinapomorfias com Stromboidea e Cypraeoidea como grupos externos. Calyptraeoidea inclui sucessivamente ao longo da árvore as seguintes famílias monofiléticas: Trichotropidae, Capulidae, Vanikoridae, Hipponicidae e Calyptraeidae. A afinidade com Hipponicidae de Cheilea é confirmada, dentre alguns problemas taxonômicos encontrados nos representantes amostrados (como mencionados acima), foram parcialmente resolvidos.

Palavras-chave: Caenogastropoda Calyptraeoidea filogenia morfologia análise cladística Hipponicoidea Capuloidea.

Full text available only in PDF format.

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I am especially grateful to the professionals who send specimens from institutional collections, providing additional samples for this study, as: Winton Ponder and Alison Miller, AMS; Fabio Moretzsohn, University of Hawaii; James H. McLean and Lindsey T. Groves, LACM; Eliezer C. Rios and Iara Swoboda, MORG; Ana M. Vanin, IOUSP; John Taylor and Joan Pickering, BMNH; Paul Greenhall, USNM; Anders Warén and Karin Sindemark, SMNH; Guido Pastorino and Pablo Penchaszadeh, Argentina; Paula Mikkelsen and James Cordeiro, AMNH; Gary Rosenberg, ANSP; Henry M. Reiswig, RMM. For Gary Rosenberg, ANSP, for comments on taxonomy and for sending references. For Dr. José L. M. Leme for the guidance. For suggestions on the MS I thank and Paulino J. S. Souza Jr., MZSP. For sent data on the family names I thank P. Bouchet, MNHN, Paris. An special thank goes to Rachel Collins, Smithsonian Institution, by sent specimens and references, by careful corrections in the text, and suggestions of all kinds on the study, including the bootstrap analysis included herein. This study was devel-oped as part of the post-graduation course of the Instituto de Biociências da USP, Zoology Dept., and was supported by governmental grant of FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo), proc. # 96/06756-2.

Date Received 07/01/2002

Accepted 08/17/2002

  • Abbott, R.T. 1954. American seashells. D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc. Princenton, 541 pp + 32 pls.
  • Abbott, R.T. 1974. American Seashells, second edition. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. New York, 663 pp. + 240pls.
  • Abbott, R.T. & Morris, P.A. 1995. A field guide to shells. Atlantic and Gulf coasts and the West Indies, Fourth edition. The Peterson Field Guide Series. Boston, 350 pp. + 74 pls.
  • Aguirre, M.L. 1993. Type specimens of quartenary marine gastropods from Argentina. Ameghiniana 30(1): 23-38.
  • Bandel, K. 1976. Observations on spawn, embryonic devel-opment and ecology of some Caribbean lower Mesogastropoda. Veliger 18(3): 249-271.
  • Bandel, K. 1991. Character of a microgastropod fauna from a carbonate sand of Cebu (Philippines). Mitteilungen aus dem Geologishes-Paläontologishes Instut der Universität Hamburg 71: 441-485.
  • Bandel, K. & Riedel, F. 1994. Classification of fossil and Re-cent Calyptraeoidea (Caenogastropoda) with a discus-sion on neomesogastropod phylogeny. Berliner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen E 13: 329-367.
  • Beesley, P. L., Ross, G. J. B. & Wells A. 1998. Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Fauna of Australia. CSIRO Publish-ing. Melbourne, 5(B): i-viii + 565-1234.
  • Berg, R. 1896. Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Gattungen Natica und Onustus Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 46: 200-212 + pls. 2-3.
  • Bremer, K. 1990. Combinable component consensus. Cladis-tics 6: 369-372.
  • Brown, D.I. & Olivares, C.A. 1996. A new species of Crepidula (Mollusca: Mesogastropoda: Calyptraeidae) from Chile: additional characters for the identification of eastern Pacific planar Crepidula group. Journal of Natu-ral History 30: 1443-1458.
  • Calvo, I.S. 1987. Rádulas de gastrópodes marinhos brasileiros. Editora da FURG. Rio Grande, 201 pp.
  • Carpenter, P.P. 1856. Notes on the species of Hipponyx in-habiting the American coast, with descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Lon-don 24: 3-5.
  • Cauquoin, M. 1970. Mollusques prosobranches: Hipponicacea, Calyptraeacea, Strombacea et Naticacea. Campagne de la Calypso au large des côtes Atlantiques de l'Amérique du Sud (1961-1962), 1(23). Annales de l'Institut Océanographique de Monaco 47: 137-143.
  • Children, J.G. 1822-1824. Lamarcks genera of shells, trans-lated from French. Quarterly Journal of Sciences 15: 216-258.
  • Coe, W.R. 1936. Sexual phases in Crepidula Journal of Ex-perimental Zoology 72: 455-477.
  • Coe, W.R. 1938a. Influence of association on the sexual phases of gastropods having protandric consecutive sexuality. Biological Bulletin 75: 274-285.
  • Coe, W.R. 1938b. Conditions influencing change of sex in mollusks of the genus Crepidula Journal of Experimen-tal Zoology 77: 401-424.
  • Coe, W. R. 1942. The reproductive organs of the prosobranch mollusk Crepidula onyx and their transformation during the change from male to female phase. Journal of Mor-phology 70: 501-512.
  • Coe, W.R. 1948. Nutrition and sexuality in protandric gastro-pods of the genus Crepidula Biological Bulletin 94(2): 158-160.
  • Collin, R. 1997a. Increasing effective malacological commu-nication: a commentary on descriptions of molluscan development. Veliger 40(3): 276-277.
  • Collin, R. 1997b. Hydrophobic larval shells: another charac-ter for higher level systematics of gastropods. Journal of Molluscan Studies 63: 425-430.
  • Collin, R. 2000. Sex change, reproduction, and development of Crepidula adunca and Crepidula lingulata (Gas-tropoda: Calyptraeidae). Veliger 43(1): 24-33.
  • Collin, R. 2001. The effects of mode of development on phylogeography and population structure of North At-lantic Crepidula (Gastropoda: Calyptraeidae). Molecu-lar Ecology 10: 2249-2262.
  • Collin, R. in press. Another last word on Crepidula convexa with a description of C. ___ (Gastropoda: Calyptraeidae) from the Gulf of Mexico and Southern Florida. Bulletin of Marine Science. (Manuscript sent by the author.
  • Conklin. E.G. 1897. The embryology of Crepidula Journal of Morphology 13(1): 1-226.
  • Farris, J. S. 1988. Hennig86, version 1.5. Distributed by the author (computer program). Port Jeffersen Station, N.Y.
  • Fleming, J. 1822. The philosophy of Zoology. Edinburg, 2 vols.
  • Fretter, V. & Graham, A. 1962. British prosobranch molluscs, their functional anatomy and ecology. Ray Society. Lon-don, i-xvi + 755 pp.
  • Gallardo, C. 1977. Crepidula philippiana n. sp., nuevo gastropodo Calyptraeidae de Chile con especial referencia al patron de desarrollo. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 12(3): 177-185.
  • Garrard, T. 1961. Mollusca collected by M.V. "Challange" off the East Coast of Australia. Journal of Malacological Society of Australia 1(5): 2-38.
  • Gatliff, J.H. & Gabriel, C.J. 1913. Additions to the Catalogue of Marine Shells of Victoria. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 26(1): 71-87.
  • Giese. M. 1915. Der Genitalapparat vom Calyptraea sinensis Lin., Crepidula unguiformis Lam. und Capulus hyngaricus Lam. Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Zoologie 114: 196-231 + pls. 5-8.
  • Gmelin, J.F. 1791. Vermes mollusca et vermes testacea. IN Linné, C. Systema Naturae, ed. 13, vol 1(6): 3099-3752.
  • Gould, H.N. 1917. Studies on sex in the hermaphrodite mol-lusc Crepidula plana Journal of Experimental Zoology 23(1): 1-69.
  • Graham, A. 1939. On the structure of the alimentary canal of style-bearing prosobranchs. Proceedings of the Zoologi-cal Society of London (B) 109: 75-112.
  • Graham, A. 1954. The anatomy of the prosobranch Trichotropis borealis Broderip & Sowerby, and the sys-tematic position of the Capulidae. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 33: 129-144.
  • Gray, G. B. 1835. IN Sowerby, G. B. The conchological illus-trations. London, i-iv + 200 pls.
  • Haller, B. 1892. Die morphologie der Prosobranchie. Morphologisches Jahrbuch 19: 553-591.
  • Heath, H. 1916. The nervous system of Crepidula adunca and its development. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 68: 479-485.
  • Hedley, C. 1902. Studies on Australian Mollusca. Part VII. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 27: 596-619.
  • Hedley, C. 1904. Studies on Australian Mollusca. Part VIII. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 28: 182-211.
  • Hedley, C. 1905. Mollusca from One Hundred and Eleven Fathoms, East of Cape Byron, New South Wales. Records of the Australian Museum 6: 41-54.
  • Hedley, C. 1907. The Results of Deep Sea Investigation in the Tasman Sea. Mollusca from Eighty Fathoms off Narrabeen. Records of the Australian Museum. 6: 283-304.
  • Hedley, C. 1913. Studies on Australian Mollusca. Pt 11. Pro-ceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 38: 258-339.
  • Hedley, C. 1918. A checklist of the marine fauna of New South Wales. Part 1. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 51: M1-M120.
  • Hedley, C. & May, W.L. 1908. Mollusca from one hundred fathoms, seven miles of Cape Pillar, Tasmania. Records of the Australian Museum 7: 108-125.
  • Hedley, C. & Petterd, W.P. 1906. Mollusca from Three Hun-dred Fathoms, off Sydney. Records of the Australian Museum 6: 211-225.
  • Hoagland, K.E. 1977. Systematic review of fossil and recent Crepidula and discussion of evolution of the Calyptraeidae. Malacologia 16(2): 353-420.
  • Hoagland, K.E. 1983a. Ecology and larval development of Crepidula protea (Prosobranchia: Calyptraeidae) from southern Brazil: a new type of egg capsule for the genus. Nautilus 97(3): 105-109.
  • Hoagland, K.E. 1983b. Notes on type specimens of Crepidula (Prosobranchia: Calyptraeidae) in the Muséum Nationa d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. Proceed-ings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 135: 1-8.
  • Hoagland, K.E. 1984. Use of molecular genetics to distin-guish species of the gastropod genus Crepidula (Prosobranchia: Calyptraeidae). Malacologia 25(2): 607-628.
  • Hoagland, K.E. 1986. Patterns of encapsulation and brood-ing in the Calyptraeidae (Prosobranchia: Mesogastropoda). American Malacological Bulletin 4(2): 173-183.
  • Hoagland, K.E. & Coe, W.R. 1982. Larval development in Crepidula maculosa (Prosobranchia: Crepidulidae) from Florida. Nautilus 96(3): 122.
  • Ishiki, H. 1939. Histological studies on the sexual organs during sex changes of Crepidula aculeata and Crepidula walshi Journal of Science, Hiroshima Uni-versity ser. B-1, 6: 103-113.
  • Jong, K.M. & Coomans, H.E. 1988. Marine gastropods from Curaçao, Aruba and Bonaire. Studies on the Fauna of Curaçao and other Caribbean islands 69: 1-261.
  • Keen, A.M. 1971. Sea shells of tropical West America, sec-ond edition. Stanford University press. Stanford, 1064 pp. + 22 pls.
  • Kleinsteuber, H. 1913. Die anatomie von Trochita, Calyptraea und Janacus Zoolisches Jahrbuch Suppl. 13(4): 385-476 + pls. 20-21.
  • Knudsen, J. 1991. Observations on Hipponix australis (Lamarck, 1819) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Prosobranchia) from the Albany area, Western Australia. IN Wells, F.E.; Walker, D.I.; Kirkman, H. & Lethbridge, R. [eds.]. Pro-ceedings of the Third International Marine Biological Workshop: The marine flora and fauna of Albany, West-ern Australia. Australian Marine Science Association. Western Australia Museum. Perth, 2: 641-660.
  • Lamarck, J.B.P.A. 1809: Philosophie Zoologique. Paris, vol. 1, i-xxv + 428 pp.
  • Lamarck, J.B.P.A. 1819. Histoire Naturelle des Animaux sans Vertèbres (2nd edn). Paris, vol. 6(1): 343 pp.
  • Lamarck, M. C. 1822. Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertebres. Paris, vol. 7: 1-440.
  • Laws, H.M. 1970. Reproductive biology and shell site pref-erence in Hipponix conicus (Schumacher). Veliger 13(2): 115-121.
  • Leal, J.H. 1991. Marine prosobranch gastropods from Oce-anic Islands off Brazil, species composition and bioge-ography. Universal Book Services, Dr. W. Backhuys. Oegstgeest, 419 pp.
  • Lopes, H.S. & Alvarenga, M. 1955. Contribuição ao conhecimento dos moluscos da Ilha Fernando de Noronha - Brasil. Boletim do Instituto Oceanográfico 6(1-2): 157-190.
  • Ludbrook, N.H. 1957. The molluscan fauna of the Pliocene strata underlying the Adelaide Plains. IV - Gastropoda (Turritellidae to Struthiolariidae). Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 80: 17-58 + pls 1-4.
  • Mackintosh, N.A. 1925. The crystalline style in gastropods. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science 69: 317-342.
  • Macpherson, J.H. & Gabriel C.J. 1962. Marine Molluscs of Victoria. Melbourne University Press and National Mu-seum of Victoria. Melbourne, i-xv, 475 pp.
  • Matthews, H.R. & Kempf, M., 1970. Moluscos marinhos do norte e nordeste do Brasil. II. Moluscos do Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha (com algumas referências ao Atol das Rocas). Arquivos de Ciências do Mar 10(1): 1-53.
  • May, W. L. 1921. A checklist of the Mollusca of Tasmania. Government Printer. Hobart, pp. 1-114.
  • May, W.L. 1923. An Illustrated Index of Tasmanian Shells: with 47 plates and 1052 species. John Vail. Government Printer. Hobart, 99 pp.
  • McLean, J.H. & Andrade V., H. 1982. Large archibenthal gas-tropods of central Chile: collections from an expedition of the R/V Anton Bruun and the Chilean Shrimp Fishery. Contributions in Science 342: 1-20.
  • McMichael, D.F. 1960. Shells of the Australian Sea-Shore. Jacaranda Press. Brisbane, 127 pp., 287 figs.
  • Menke, K.T. 1853. Kritische Anzeige. Zeitschrift für Malakozoologie 10: 113-117.
  • Merlano, J.M.D. & Hegedus, M.P. 1994. Moluscos del Car-ibe colombiano. Colciencias, Fundacion Natura Colom-bia. Bogota, 291 pp + 74 pls.
  • Moritz, C. E. 1938. The anatomy of the Gasteropod Crepidula adunca Sowerby. University of California Publications in Zoology 43: 83-91.
  • Moritz, C. E. 1939. Organogenesis in the gasteropod Crepidula adunca Sowerby. University of California Publications in Zoology 43: 217-248.
  • Morris, P.A. 1952. A field guide to shells of the Pacific coast and Hawaii. Houghton Mifflin Company. Boston, 220 pp.
  • Oliveira, M.P., Rezende, G.J.R. & Castro, G.A. 1981. Catálogo dos moluscos da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora. MEC, UFJF. Juiz de Fora, 520 pp.
  • Olsson, A.A. & Harbison, A. 1953. Pliocene Mollusca of Southern Florida. Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila-delphia, Monographs 8: 1-457 + 65 pls.
  • Orbigny, A. 1834-1847. Voyage dans l'Amérique Méridionale, 5(3): mollusqués. Paris, 758 pp + 85 pls.
  • Orton, J.H. 1912. The mode of feeding in Crepidula, with an account of the current-producing mechanism in the mantle cavity. Journal of the Marine Biological Associa-tion 9: 444-478.
  • Orton, J.H. 1922. Occurrence of a crystalline style in the American limpet (Crepidula fornicata) and its allies. Nature 110: 149.
  • Owen, R. 1835. On the anatomy of the Calyptraeidae. Trans-actions of the Zoological Society of London 1: 207-212 + pl. 30.
  • Penchaszadeh, P.E. 1985 (1984). Direct development in Crucibulum marense Weisbord, 1962. (Gastropoda; Calyptraeidae) from Golfo Trieste, Venezuela. Journal of Molluscan Studies 50(3): 237-238.
  • Pernet, B. & Kohn, A.J. 1998. Size-related obligate and facul-tative parasitism in the marine gastropod Trichotropis cancellata Biological Bulletin 195: 349-356.
  • Pinna, M.C.C. 1996. A phylogenetic analysis of the Asian catfish families Sisoridae, Akysidae, and Amblycipitidae, with a hypothesis on the relationships of the Neotropi-cal Aspredinidae (Teleostei, Ostariophysi). Fielci Zool-ogy (new series) 84: 1-83.
  • Poppe, G.T. & Goto, Y. 1991. European Seashells. Verlag Christa Hemmen. Wiesbaden, Vol 1, 352 pp.
  • Pritchard, G. B. & Gatliff, J. H. 1900. Catalogue of the Marine Shells of Victoria. Part III. Proceedings of the Royal Soci-ety of Victoria 12(2): 170-205.
  • Quoy, J. M. C. & Gaimard, J. P. 1835. Voyage de découvertes de l'Astrolabe, exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826-1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Paris, pp. 367-954, atlas, 107 pls.
  • Ramos, T. C. 1997. Tree Gardner, version 2.2. Distributed by the author (computer program). São Paulo.
  • Récluz, M.C.A. 1845. Monographie du genre Natica Magazin de Zoologie, ser.2, 7: 1-72 + pls. 117-135.
  • Rehder, H.A. 1943. The molluscan genus Trochita Schumacher with a note on Bicatillus Swainson. Pro-ceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 56: 41-46.
  • Rios, E.C. 1970. Coastal Brazilian seashells. Fundação Cidade do Rio Grande. Rio Grande, 255 pp. + 4 maps + 60 pls.
  • Rios, E.C. 1975. Brazilian marine mollusks iconography. Fundação Cidade do Rio Grande. Rio Grande, 331 pp. + 91 pls.
  • Rios, E.C. 1985. Seashells of Brazil. Fundação Cidade do Rio Grande. Rio Grande, 328 pp. + 102 pls.
  • Rios, E.C. 1994. Seashells of Brazil, second edition. Fundação Universidade do Rio Grande. Rio Grande, 368 pp. + 113 pls.
  • Rosenberg, G. 1996. Malacolog 2.01. <gopher:// erato.acnatsci.org: 70/11/.wasp>. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia.
  • Schumacher, H. C. F. 1817. Essai d'une nouveau système des habitations des vers testacés. Schultz. Copenhagen, i-iv + 287 pp + 22 pls.
  • Simone, L.R.L. 1995a. Anatomical study on Tonna galea (Linné, 1758) and Tonna maculosa (Dillwin, 1817) (Mesogastropoda, Tonnoidea, Tonnidae) from Brazilian region. Malacologia 37(11): 23-32.
  • Simone, L.R.L. 1995b. Thala crassa new species of Costellariidae (Gastropoda, Muricoidea) from the South-ern Coast of Brazil. Bulletin of Marine Science 56(3): 805-812.
  • Simone, L.R.L. 1995c. A new Amphithalamus Carpenter,1864 species (Gastropoda, Rissoidea, Barleeidae) from the Brazilian coast. Journal of Conchology 35: 329-333.
  • Simone, L.R.L. 1996a. Anatomy and systematics of Buccinanops gradatus (Deshayes, 1844) and Buccinanops moniliferus (Kiener, 1834) (Neogastropoda, Muricoidea) from the Southeastern coast of Brazil. Malacologia 38(1-2): 87-102.
  • Simone, L.R.L. 1996b. Addisonia enodis, a new species of Addisoniidae (Mollusca, Archaeogastropoda) from the Southern Brazilian coast. Bulletin of Marine Science 58(3): 775-785.
  • Simone, L.R.L. 1997. Morphology of the Western Atlantic Haliotidae (Gastropoda, Vetigastropoda) with descrip-tion of a new species from Brazil. Malacologia 39(1-2): 59-75.
  • Simone, L.R.L. 1998. Morphological study on Littorina flava (King & Broderip) from Brazil (Caenogastropoda, Littorinidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 15(4): 875-887.
  • Simone, L.R.L. 1999. Comparative morphology and system-atics of Brazilian Terebridae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Conoidea), with descriptions of three new species. Zoosystema 21(2): 199-248.
  • Simone, L.R.L. 2001. Phylogenetic analyses of Cerithioidea (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda) based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia (São Paulo) 36(2): 147-263.
  • Simone, L.R.L. in press. Morphological comparative study of representatives of the three families of Stromboidea and the Xenophoroidea (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda), with accounts on their phylogeny. Arquivos de Zoologia.
  • Simone, L.R.L. submitted. Morphology and phylogeny of the Cypraeoidea (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda). Fapesp book.
  • Simone, L.R.L & Moracchioli, N. 1994. Hydrobiidade (Gas-tropoda: Hydrobioidea) from the Ribeira valley, S.E. Bra-zil, with descriptions of two new caverniculous species. Journal of Molluscan Studies 60 (4): 445-459.
  • Simone, L.R.L., Pastorino, G. & Penchaszadeh, P. E. 2000. Crepidula argentina (Gastropoda: Calyptraeidae), a new species from the littoral of Argentina. Nautilus 114(4): 127-141.
  • Smith, E.A. 1915. British Antarctic ("Terra Nova") Expedi-tion, 1910; Natural History Report, Mollusca Part 1 - Gas-tropoda Prosobranchia, Scaphopoda and Pelecypoda. Zoology 2(4): 61-112, pls 1, 2.
  • Sowerby, G.B. 1835. [Characters of and observations on new genera and species of Mollusca and Conchifera collected by Mr. Cuming] Genus Hipponyx Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 3: 4-5.
  • Tate, R. & May, W. L. 1901. A revised census of the marine Mollusca of Tasmania. Proceedings of the Linnean Soci-ety of New South Wales 26(3): 344-471.
  • Taylor, J.D. & Miller, J.A. 1989. The morphology of the osphradium in relation to feeding habits in meso- and neogastropods. Journal of Molluscan Studies 55: 227-237.
  • Taylor, J.D. & Smythe, K. 1985. A new species of Trochita (Gastropoda: Calyptraeidae) from Oman: a relict distri-bution and association with upwelling areas. Journal of Conchology 32: 39-48.
  • Tenison-Woods, J.E. 1879. Census; with brief descriptions of the marine shells of Tasmania and the adjacent is-lands. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 1877: 26-57.
  • Thiele, J. 1925. Gastropoden der Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedi-tion II. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition 17(2): 36-282.
  • Thiele, J. 1930. Die Fauna Südest Australiens. Gastropoda und Bivalvia. Fauna Südwest-Australie 9(8): 580-589.
  • Troschel, F.H. 1861. Bericht über die Leistungen in der Naturgeschichte der Mollusken während des Jahres 1860. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 27(2): 159-214.
  • Vaught, K.C. 1989. A classification of the living Mollusca. Abbott, R.T. & Boss, K.J. [eds.]. American Malacolo-gists, Inc. Melbourne, 189 pp.
  • Vermeij, E.G. 1972. Endemism and environment: some shore molluscs of the tropical Atlantic. The American Natural-ist 106(947): 89-101.
  • Véliz, D., Guisado, C. & Winkler, F.M. 2001. Morphological, reproductive, and genetic variability among three popu-lations of Crucibulum quiriquinae (Gastropoda: Calyptraeidae) in northern Chile. Marine Biology 139: 527-534.
  • Warén, A. & Bouchet, P. 1988. A new species of Vanikoridae from the Western Mediterranean, with remarks of the Northeast Atlantic species of the family. Bolletino Malacologico 24(5-8): 73-100.
  • Warmke, G.L. & Abbott, R.T. 1961. Caribbean seashells. Dover Publication, Inc. New York, 348pp.
  • Wells, F.E. & Bryce, C.W. 1985. Seashells of Western Aus-tralia. Western Australian., Western Australia Museum. Perth, 207 pp.
  • Werner, B. 1951. Über die Bedeutung der Wasserstromerzeugung und Wasserstromfiltrabunden für die Nahrungsaufnahme de Ortsgebunden Meeresschnecke Crepidula fornicata L. (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Zoologischer Anzeiger 146: 97-113.
  • Werner, B. 1953. Über den Nahrungserwerb der Calyptraeidae (Gastropoda Prosobranchia) Morphologie, Histologie and Funktion der am Nahrungserwerb beteiligten Organe. Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchunger 4(3): 260-315.
  • Werner, B. 1955. Über die Anatomie, die Entwicklung und Biologie des Veliger und der Veliconcha von Crepidula fornicata L. (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia). Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchunger 5(2): 169-217.
  • Werner, B. & Grell, K. G. 1950. Die amerikanishe Pantoffelschnecke, Crepidula fornicata L. Fisher, Jena, 24 pp.
  • Wilson, B. 1993. Australian Marine Shells. Prosobranch Gas-tropods (1st edn). Odyssey Publishing. Kallaroo (WA), vol. 1 pp. 1-408.
  • Yipp. M.W. 1983. The anatomy of the organs of reproduc-tion of Crepidula walshi (Mollusca: Gastropoda). IN Morton, B. & Dudgeon, D. [eds.]. Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on the Malacofauna of Hong Kong and Southern China. Hong Kong Univer-sity Press. Hong Kong, pp. 243-256.
  • Yeates, D. 1992. Why remove autapomorphies? Cladistics 8: 387-389.
  • Yonge, C.M. 1953. Observations on Hipponix antiquatus (Linnaeus). Proceedings of the California Academy of Science 28(1): 1-24.
  • Yonge, C.M. 1960. Further observations on Hipponix antiquatus with notes on North Pacific pulmonate lim-pets. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 31(5): 111-119.
  • Yonge, C.M. 1962. On the biology of the mesogastropod Trichotropis cancellata Hinds, a benthic indicator spe-cies. Biological Bulletin 122(1): 160-181.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    11 June 2013
  • Date of issue
    2002

History

  • Received
    01 July 2002
  • Accepted
    17 Aug 2002
Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP Departamento de Biologia Vegetal - Instituto de Biologia, UNICAMP CP 6109, 13083-970 - Campinas/SP, Tel.: (+55 19) 3521-6166, Fax: (+55 19) 3521-6168 - Campinas - SP - Brazil
E-mail: contato@biotaneotropica.org.br