In this study we present a database of spiders described and registered from the Neotropical region between 1757 and 2008. Results are focused on the diversity of the group in the State of São Paulo, compared to other Brazilian states. Data was compiled from over 25,000 records, published in scientific papers dealing with Neotropical fauna. These records enabled the evaluation of the current distribution of the species, the definition of collection gaps and priority biomes, and even future areas of endemism for Brazil. A total of 875 species, distributed in 50 families, have been described from the State of São Paulo. A total of 11,280 species have been recorded from the Neotropical region (almost 1/3 of the species described worldwide). Brazil is the Neotropical country with the highest diversity (3,203 spp.), followed by Mexico (1,951 spp.) and Panama (1,325 spp.). Seven thousand five hundred species were recorded from South America and Brazil holds the highest diversity (3,203 spp., in 72 families), followed by Argentina (1,316 spp.), and Peru (1,066 spp.).
spiders; araneae; biodiversity of the State of São Paulo; BIOTA/FAPESP Program