During 28 days of field work in rainy season in 2003 and 2008, 39 species of bats were recorded in the Estação Ecológica Serra Geral do Tocantins, northeastern State of Tocantins. This is one of the first studies about bat communities in the State of Tocantins increasing the number of species known to occur in that Federal unit, with 29 species representing the first occurrence for the State. Frugivores P. lineatus and C. perspicillata were the most common species in the community, with 23.5 and 15.4% of total captures. Diversity at the family level also was high with seven families recorded: Phyllostomidae (26 species), Vespertilionidae (5), Molossidae (3), Emballonuridae (2), Mormoopidae (1), Noctilionidae (1), and Thyropteridae (1). Most of mesic and cerrado (s.s.) areas are not included in this Conservation Unit, imposing a problem for the conservation of habitat-restricted species like T. devivoi which was captured only in "veredas" with Heliconiacea until now. Additionally, the region is facing an increase in the tourism, agriculture and pasture activities. Due to the high expected bat diversity for the area, the known ecological functions played by bats, and the several human induced threats, there is urgency concerning the conservation strategies for this group of mammals in the vicinity of the Estação Ecológica Serra Geral do Tocantins. The species with high importance in relation to taxonomy, biogeography and conservation issues are: Lonchophylla dekeyseri, Glyphonycteris behnii, Micronycteris sanborni, Artibeus anderseni, Sturnira tildae and the recently described Thyroptera devivoi.
Chiroptera; faunistic inventory; Jalapão; Tocantins; conservation