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An updated distribution list of Leptophlebiidae Banks, 1900 (Ephemeroptera: Insecta) for Piauí state

Uma lista de distribuição atualizada de Leptophlebiidae Banks, 1900 (Ephemeroptera: Insecta) para o estado do Piauí

Abstract

Leptophlebiidae is the second most diverse family within Ephemeroptera, with species distributed across various States in Brazil, but with gaps in distribution records in others. Currently, nine species of Leptophlebiidae are recorded for the state of Piauí. Based on this information gap, the objective of this study was to present an updated species list of the family Leptophlebiidae new occurrence records and distributional sites for the state of Piauí, Brazil. By analyzing 447 specimens, we have significantly expanded our knowledge about the distribution of Leptophlebiidae species in the state of Piauí, increasing the recorded species from nine to 17. We have also added new occurrence records for six species and, for the first time, documented the presence of four genera. It is important to highlight that there is still an extensive area within the Cerrado and Brazilian semiarid regions where the occurrence of Ephemeroptera is unknown, confirming that the diversity in this area is underestimated and that knowledge of Ephemeroptera species and their distributions can expand with increased sampling efforts in the coming years, reducing the Linnean and Wallacean shortfall regarding this group. Our results also demonstrate the urgent need for inventories in the southern part of the state of Piauí, particularly in the sub-basins of the middle and upper Parnaíba river, which are considered suitable for monoculture expansion in Brazil.

Keywords
Aquatic insect; Freshwater ecosystem; Parnaíba river basin

Resumo

Leptophlebiidae é a segunda família mais diversa de Ephemeroptera, com espécies distribuídas em vários estados do Brasil, mas com lacunas no registro de distribuição em outros. Por exemplo, no estado do Piauí tem registrado apenas nove espécies de Leptophlebiidae. Baseada nessa lacuna de informação, o objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar uma lista atualizada de espécies da família Leptophlebiidae, novos registros de ocorrência e sítios de distribuição para o estado do Piauí, Brasil. Ao analisar 447 exemplares, ampliamos significativamente nosso conhecimento sobre a distribuição das espécies de Leptophlebiidae no estado do Piauí, aumentando o número de espécies registradas de nove para 17. Também adicionamos novos registros de ocorrência para seis espécies e, pela primeira vez, documentamos a presença de quatro gêneros. Destacamos que ainda existe uma extensa área do Cerrado e semiárido brasileiro que se desconhece a ocorrência de Ephemeroptera, confirmando que a diversidade nessa área é subestimada e que o conhecimento sobre as espécies de Ephemeroptera e suas distribuições podem se expandir com o aumento do esforço amostral nos próximos anos, diminuindo as lacunas Lineana e Wallaceana sobre esse grupo. Nossos resultados também demonstram a necessidade emergencial de inventários no sul do Estado do Piauí, principalmente nas sub-bacias do médio e alto rio Parnaíba que é considerado adequado para a expansão da monocultura no Brasil.

Palavras-chave
Inseto aquático; Ecossistema de água doce; Bacia do rio Parnaíba

Introduction

Ephemeroptera Hyatt & Arms, 1890HYATT, A. & ARMS, J.M. 1890. Ephemeroptera. In: Guides for Science-Teaching. Boston Society of Natural History. No.VIII. Insecta: 69–72. is currently represented by approximately 3500 species, 400 genera, and 42 families (Sartori & Brittain 2015SARTORI, M. & BRITTAIN, J.E. 2015. Chapter 34. Order Ephemeroptera. In: Thorp, J. & Rogers, D.C. (Ed.). Ecology and general biology: Thorp and Covich’s freshwater invertebrates. Academic Press: 873–891.; Jacobus et al. 2021JACOBUS, L.M., SALLES, F.F., PRICE, B., PEREIRA-DA-CONCEICOA, L., DOMINGUEZ, E., SUTER, P.J., MOLINERI, C., TIUNOVA, T. & SARTORI, M. 2021. Mayfly taxonomy (Arthropoda: Hexapoda: Ephemeroptera) during the first two decades of the twenty-first century and the concentration of taxonomic publishing. Zootaxa, 4979, 25–30. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4979.1.6
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4979.1....
), occupying nearly all freshwater environments except Antarctica (Barber-James et al. 2013BARBER-JAMES, H., SARTORI, M., GATTOLLIAT, J.L. & WEBB, J. 2013. World checklist of freshwater Ephemeroptera species. http://fada.biodiversity.be/group/show/35 (last access on 07/07/2023).
http://fada.biodiversity.be/group/show/3...
). In Brazil, there are 447 species distributed among 83 genera and 10 families: Caenidae, Euthyplociidae, Leptohyphidae, Melanemerellidae, Oligoneuriidae, Coryphoridae, Ephemeridae, Polymitarcyidae, Baetidae, and Leptophlebiidae (Salles et al. 2023SALLES, F.F., BOLDRINI, R. & LIMA, L.R.C. 2023. Ephemeroptera in Catálogo Taxonômico da Fauna do Brasil. PNUD. http://fauna.jbrj.gov.br/fauna/faunadobrasil/122. (last access on 07/07/2023).
http://fauna.jbrj.gov.br/fauna/faunadobr...
). Leptophlebiidae Banks, 1900 is a cosmopolitan and morphologically diverse family (Raimundi et al. 2017RAIMUNDI, E.A., NASCIMENTO, J.M.C., BARROSO, P.C.S., HAMADA, N. & BOLDRINI, R. 2017. Three new species of Miroculis from the Serra da Mocidade National Park, Roraima State, Brazil, with new records and checklist of the Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera). Zootaxa, 4317(3): 73–583. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4317.3.8
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4317.3....
), ranking as the second most diverse family in the Neotropical region within the order Ephemeroptera (Barber-James et al. 2013BARBER-JAMES, H., SARTORI, M., GATTOLLIAT, J.L. & WEBB, J. 2013. World checklist of freshwater Ephemeroptera species. http://fada.biodiversity.be/group/show/35 (last access on 07/07/2023).
http://fada.biodiversity.be/group/show/3...
, Domínguez & Dos-Santos 2014DOMÍNGUEZ, E., & DOS SANTOS, D.A. 2014. Co-authorship networks (and other contextual factors) behind the growth of taxonomy of South American Ephemeroptera: A scientometric approach. Zootaxa, 3754(1): 59–85. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3754.1.3
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3754.1....
). This family comprises seven subfamilies: Castanophlebiinae, Habrophlebinae, Leptophlebiinae, Terpidinae, Atalophlebiinae, Choroterpinae, and Hagenulinae (Monjardim et al. 2020MONJARDIM, M., PARESQUE, R. & SALLES, F.F. 2020. Phylogeny and classification of Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera) with an emphasis on Neotropical fauna. Systematic Entomology, 45(2): 415–429. https://doi.org/10.1111/syen.12402
https://doi.org/10.1111/syen.12402...
). In Brazil, the family Leptophlebiidae is classified into 30 genera and 146 species, with 95 species being endemic to the country (Salles et al. 2023SALLES, F.F., BOLDRINI, R. & LIMA, L.R.C. 2023. Ephemeroptera in Catálogo Taxonômico da Fauna do Brasil. PNUD. http://fauna.jbrj.gov.br/fauna/faunadobrasil/122. (last access on 07/07/2023).
http://fauna.jbrj.gov.br/fauna/faunadobr...
).

In recent years, there has been an increase in studies on the Leptophlebiidae family in Brazil, especially in the Northeast region (e.g., Mariano 2010MARIANO, R. 2010. Two new species of Simothraulopsis Traver, 1947 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae: Atalophlebiinae) from northeastern Brazil. Aquatic Insects, 32: 129–134. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650420903393842
https://doi.org/10.1080/0165042090339384...
, Lima et al. 2012aLIMA, L.R.C., NASCIMENTO, J.M.C., MARIANO, R., PINHEIRO, U.S. & SALLES, F.F. 2012a. New species and new records of Hermanella complex (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from Eastern Brazilian Coast. Annales de Limnologie, International Journal of Limnology, 48: 201–213. https://doi.org/10.1051/limn/2012011
https://doi.org/10.1051/limn/2012011...
bLIMA, L.R.C., SALLES, F.F. & PINHEIRO, U. 2012b. Ephemeroptera (Insecta) from Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 56(3): 304–314. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0085-56262012005000043
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0085-5626201200...
, 2013LIMA, L.R.C., MARIANO, R. & PINHEIRO, U. 2013. New species for Thraulodes Ulmer, 1920 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae: Atalophlebiinae) and the first key to adults from Brazil. Zootaxa, 3709(3): 230–242. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3709.3.2
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3709.3....
, 2014LIMA, L.R.C., RAIMUNDI, E.A., PINHEIRO, U. & SALLES, F.F. 2014. A new species of Miroculis Edmunds, 1963 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from Northeastern Brazil. Zootaxa, 3795(4): 441–448. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3795.4.4
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3795.4....
, 2015LIMA, L.R.C., SALLES, F.F. & PINHEIRO, U. 2015. New records of mayflies (Ephemeroptera: Insecta) from Pernanbuco state, Northeastern Brazil. Check List, 11(3): 1652. http://doi.org/10.15560/11.3.1652
https://doi.org/10.15560/11.3.1652...
, 2016LIMA, L., KNAPP, W. & DOCIO, L. 2016. New records of mayflies (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) from Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Entomotropica, 31(25): 212–220., Costa & Mariano 2013COSTA, S.S. & MARIANO, R. 2013. Description of a new species of Miroculis Edmunds, 1963 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from Brazil. Zootaxa, 3599(5): 495–498. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3599.5.7
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3599.5....
, Almeida et al. 2016ALMEIDA, E., COSTA, S. & MARIANO, R. 2016. A new species of the genus Hermanella Needham & Murphy (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from Northeastern Brazil. Zootaxa, 4078(1): 121–126. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4078.1.10
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4078.1....
, Takiya et al. 2016TAKIYA, D.M., SANTOS, A.P.M., PINTO, A.P., HENRIQUES-OLIVEIRA, A.L., CARVALHO, A.L., SAMPAIO, B.H.L., CLARKSON, B., MOREIRA, F.F.F., AVELINO-CAPISTRANO, F., GONÇALVES, I.C., CORDEIRO, I.R.S., CÂMARA, J.T., BARBOSA, J.F., SOUZA, R.M. & RAFAEL, J.A. 2016. Aquatic Insects from the Caatinga: checklists and diversity assessments of Ubajara (Ceará State) and Sete Cidades (Piuaí State) National Parks, Northeastern Brazil. Biodeversity Data Journal, 4: e8354. https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e8354
https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e8354...
, Lima 2018LIMA, L.R.C. 2018. New species of Simothraulopsis Demoulin, 1966 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from Northeastern Region of Brazil. Zootaxa, 4461(2): 253–260. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4461.2.6
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4461.2....
, Nascimento et al. 2019NASCIMENTO, S.R.S., LIMA, L.R.C & AZÊVEDO, C.A.S. 2019. A new species of Traverella Edmunds, 1948 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from Brazil. Zootaxa, 4619(1): 195–199. http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4619.1.12
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4619.1....
, 2020NASCIMENTO, S.R.S., LIMA, L.R.C. & AZEVÊDO, C.A.S. 2020. Leptophlebiidae Banks, 1900 (Insecta, Ephemeroptera) from Maranhão state, Brazil. Check List, 16(3): 579–591. https://doi.org/10.15560/16.3.579
https://doi.org/10.15560/16.3.579...
, Campos et al. 2022CAMPOS, R., RODRIGUES, J.A.O., LIMA, L.R.C., MARIANO, R., COSTA, V., MARULANDA, J. & SALLES, F.F. 2022. Hagenulopsis Ulmer (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae): re-description, morphological notes and a new species from South America, Brazil. Zootaxa, 5100(1):073–088. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5100.1.3
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5100.1....
, Rodrigues et al. 2023RODRIGUES, J.A.O., NASCIMENTO, S.R.S., RAIMUNDI, E.A. & LIMA, L.R.C. 2023. New species and new records of Miroculis Edmunds, 1963 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from Chacoan Domain in northeastern Brazil. Zootaxa, 5230(1): 027–047. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5230.1.2
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5230.1....
). Despite these efforts, there is still an imbalance in the number of distribution records for Leptophlebiidae species among the nine states that make up the Brazilian Northeast region. While Bahia, Maranhão, and Pernambuco have an average distribution of 18 species, the states of Alagoas, Ceará, and Piauí have an average of three species, and there are no recorded species of Leptophlebiidae in Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, and Sergipe (Salles et al. 2023SALLES, F.F., BOLDRINI, R. & LIMA, L.R.C. 2023. Ephemeroptera in Catálogo Taxonômico da Fauna do Brasil. PNUD. http://fauna.jbrj.gov.br/fauna/faunadobrasil/122. (last access on 07/07/2023).
http://fauna.jbrj.gov.br/fauna/faunadobr...
).

Currently, the state of Piauí have recorded nine species of Leptophlebiidae: Farrodes tepuiDomínguez, Molineri & Peters 1996DOMÍNGUEZ, E., MOLINERI, C. & PETERS, W. L. 1996. Ephemeroptera from Central and South America: New species of the Farrodes bimaculatus group with a key for the males. Studies on Neotropical Fauna & Environment, 31: 87–101.; Fittkaulus cururuensisSavage 1986SAVAGE, H.M. 1986. Systematics of the Terpides lineage from the Neotropics: Definition of the Terpides lineage, methods, and revision of Fittkaulus Savage & Peters. Spixiana, 9: 255–270.; Hagenulopsis minutaSpieth, 1943SPIETH, H.T. 1943. Taxonomic studies on the Ephemeroptera III. Some interesting ephemerids from Surinam and other Neotropical localities. American Museum Novitates, 1244: 1–13.; Miroculis botaforaRodrigues, Nascimento, Raimundi & Lima, 2023RODRIGUES, J.A.O., NASCIMENTO, S.R.S., RAIMUNDI, E.A. & LIMA, L.R.C. 2023. New species and new records of Miroculis Edmunds, 1963 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from Chacoan Domain in northeastern Brazil. Zootaxa, 5230(1): 027–047. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5230.1.2
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5230.1....
; Miroculis fittkauiSavage & Peters, 1983SAVAGE, H.M. & PETERS, W.L. 1983. Systematics of Miroculis and related genera from Northern South America (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae). Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 108: 491–600.; Simothraulopsis demerara (Traver, 1947TRAVER, J.R. 1947. Notes on Neotropical mayflies. Part II. Family Baetidae, subfamily Leptophlebiinae. Revista de Entomologia, 18: 149–160.); Simothraulopsis sinuosusLima, 2018LIMA, L.R.C. 2018. New species of Simothraulopsis Demoulin, 1966 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from Northeastern Region of Brazil. Zootaxa, 4461(2): 253–260. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4461.2.6
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4461.2....
; Thraulodes sternimaculatusLima, Mariano & Pinheiro, 2013LIMA, L.R.C., MARIANO, R. & PINHEIRO, U. 2013. New species for Thraulodes Ulmer, 1920 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae: Atalophlebiinae) and the first key to adults from Brazil. Zootaxa, 3709(3): 230–242. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3709.3.2
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3709.3....
; and Ulmeritoides flavopedes (Spieth, 1943SPIETH, H.T. 1943. Taxonomic studies on the Ephemeroptera III. Some interesting ephemerids from Surinam and other Neotropical localities. American Museum Novitates, 1244: 1–13.) (Takiya et al. 2016TAKIYA, D.M., SANTOS, A.P.M., PINTO, A.P., HENRIQUES-OLIVEIRA, A.L., CARVALHO, A.L., SAMPAIO, B.H.L., CLARKSON, B., MOREIRA, F.F.F., AVELINO-CAPISTRANO, F., GONÇALVES, I.C., CORDEIRO, I.R.S., CÂMARA, J.T., BARBOSA, J.F., SOUZA, R.M. & RAFAEL, J.A. 2016. Aquatic Insects from the Caatinga: checklists and diversity assessments of Ubajara (Ceará State) and Sete Cidades (Piuaí State) National Parks, Northeastern Brazil. Biodeversity Data Journal, 4: e8354. https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e8354
https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e8354...
, Nascimento et al. 2017NASCIMENTO, J.M.C., SALLES, F.F. & HAMADA, N. 2017. Systematics of Simothraulopsis Demoulin, 1966 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae). Zootaxa, 4285(1): 001–081. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4285.1.1
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4285.1....
, Boldrini et al. 2018BOLDRINI, R., DANTAS, H.A.T. & LIMA, L.R.C. 2018. New species and new record of Thraulodes Ulmer, 1920 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae: Atalophlebiinae) from Brazil. Zootaxa, 4527(2): 277–280. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4527.2.8
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4527.2....
, Lima 2018LIMA, L.R.C. 2018. New species of Simothraulopsis Demoulin, 1966 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from Northeastern Region of Brazil. Zootaxa, 4461(2): 253–260. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4461.2.6
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4461.2....
, Campos et al. 2022CAMPOS, R., RODRIGUES, J.A.O., LIMA, L.R.C., MARIANO, R., COSTA, V., MARULANDA, J. & SALLES, F.F. 2022. Hagenulopsis Ulmer (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae): re-description, morphological notes and a new species from South America, Brazil. Zootaxa, 5100(1):073–088. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5100.1.3
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5100.1....
, Rodrigues et al. 2023RODRIGUES, J.A.O., NASCIMENTO, S.R.S., RAIMUNDI, E.A. & LIMA, L.R.C. 2023. New species and new records of Miroculis Edmunds, 1963 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from Chacoan Domain in northeastern Brazil. Zootaxa, 5230(1): 027–047. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5230.1.2
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5230.1....
). These records were obtained within a small area of the Parnaíba river basin, underscoring the substantial knowledge gap regarding the distribution of Leptophlebiidae species in the state of Piauí, often referred to as the ‘Wallacean shortfall’ (Hortal et al. 2015HORTAL, J., BELLO, F., DINIZ-FILHO, J.A.F., LEWINSOHN, T.M., LOBO, J.M. & LADLE, R.J. 2015. Seven shortfalls that beset large-scale knowledge on biodiversity. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 46: 523–549. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-112414-054400
https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-...
).

The state of Piauí covers an area of 251,755.485 km² (IBGE 2020IBGE – Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. 2020. Cidades e Estados. https://www.ibge.gov.br/cidades-e-estados/pi/ (last access on 07/07/2023).
https://www.ibge.gov.br/cidades-e-estado...
) and is characterized by a high floristic diversity in the transitional zone (ecotone) between the Cerrado and Caatinga biomes (Souza et al. 2017SOUZA, M.P., COUTINHO, J.M.D. C.P., SILVA, L.S., AMORIM, F.S., & ALVES, A.R. 2017. Composição e estrutura da vegetação de caatinga no sul do Piauí, Brasil. Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável, 12(2): 210–217. https://doi.org/10.18378/rvads.v12i2.4588
https://doi.org/10.18378/rvads.v12i2.458...
). The main basin in the state is the Parnaíba River, which has a drainage area of 343,000 km², with approximately 73.1% of its surface located within the territorial limits of Piauí (JICA 1995JICA, JAPAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGENCY, 1995. The feasibility study on the navigation of the Parnaíba river basin. 52:2 https://openjicareport.jica.go.jp/pdf/11187499_01.pdf (last access on 07/07/2023).
https://openjicareport.jica.go.jp/pdf/11...
). The extensive hydrographic network formed by this basin is being heavily impacted by human activities and the deforestation of natural vegetation. In 2022 alone, there was a cumulative deforestation of 1,188.76 km² and 2,282.04 km² in the states of Piauí and Maranhão, respectively (Assis et al. 2019ASSIS, L.F.F.G., FERREIRA, K.R., VINHAS, L., MAURANO, L., ALMEIDA, C., CARVALHO, A., RODRIGUES, J., MACIEL, A. & CAMARGO, C. 2019. TerraBrasilis: A Spatial Data Analytics Infrastructure for Large-Scale Thematic Mapping. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 8: 513. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8110513
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8110513...
). In this scenario, understanding the distribution of Leptophlebiidae diversity in the state of Piauí becomes essential to comprehend the current threats to biodiversity and proactively prevent damage to the natural ecosystem (Barnosky et al. 2011BARNOSKY, D.A., MATZKE, N., TOMIYA, S., WOGAN, G.O., SWARTZ, B., QUENTAL, T.B., MARSHALL, C., MCGUIRE, J.L., LINDSEY, E.L., MAGUIRE, K.C., MERSEY, B. & FERRER, E.A. 2011. Has the Earth’s sixth mass extinction already arrived?. Nature, 471: 51–57. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09678
https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09678...
, Pimm et al. 2014PIMM, S. L., JENKINS, C.N., ABELL, R., BROOKS, T.M., GITTLEMAN, J.L., JOPPA, L.N., RAVEN, P.H., & SEXTON, J.O. 2014. The biodiversity of species and their rates of extinction, distribution, and protection. Science, 344(6187): 1246752. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1246752
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, Steffen et al. 2015STEFFEN, W., BROADGATE, W., DEUTSCH, L., GAFFNEY, O. & LUDWIG, C. 2015. The trajectory of the Anthropocene: The Great Acceleration. The Anthropocene Review. 2: 81–98. https://doi.org/10.1177/2053019614564785
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, Díaz et al. 2019DÍAZ, S., SETTELE, J., BRONDÍZIO, E. S., NGO, H.T., AGARD, J., ARNETH, A., BALVANER, P., BRAUMAN, K.A., BUTCHART, S.H.M., CHAN, K.M.A., GARIBALDI, L.A., ICHII, K., LIU, J., SUBRAMANIAN, S.M., MIDGLEY, G.F., MILOSLAVICH, P., MOLNÁR, Z., OBURA, D., PFAFF, A., POLASKY, S., PURBIS, A., RAZZAQUE, J., REYERS, B., CHOWDHURY, R.R., SHIN, Y.J.,VISSEREN-HAMAKERS, I., WILLIS, K.J. & ZAYAS, C.N. 2019. Pervasive human-driven decline of life on Earth points to the need for transformative change. Science, 366(6471): eaax3100. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aax3100
https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aax3100...
) and local extinctions of species, particularly in biodiversity hotspots like the Cerrado.

The objective of this study was to present an updated species list of the family Leptophlebiidae Banks 1900 (Ephemeroptera), new occurrence records and distributional sites for the state of Piauí, Brazil.

Materials and Methods

The updated list of Leptophlebiidae for Piauí state was based on individuals collected and deposited in the Entomological Collection of the State University of Piauí, Campus Heróis do Jenipapo (CEHJ), Campo Maior, Piauí, Brazil; and the Invertebrate Collection of the National Institute of Amazonian Research (INPA), Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The collections were carried out between April 2017 and June 2023 at 20 sites distributed within the Parnaíba River basin (Table 1).

Table 1
Sample sites (S) in the Parnaíba river basin, Piauí state, Brazil. Latitude and longitude represent the specific coordinates of each sample site.

The nymphs were collected from random samples of all visible substrates at each site using a D-shaped net (34 cm diameter, 250 µm mesh), with an average scanning time of four hours per site. The observed substrate types at the sites included sand, leaf banks, wood, roots, stones, and macrophytes. Some nymphs with well-developed anterior wing pads were separated to observe the transition from the aquatic form to the winged form. The nymphs were individually placed in plastic containers with water, and the opening was covered with a fine mesh fabric to prevent the individual from flying after emergence (Boldrini & Cruz 2013BOLDRINI, R. & CRUZ, P.V. 2013. Criação e Transporte de Ninfas de Ephemeroptera (Insecta) em Campo. EntomoBrasilis, 6(2): 168–170. https://doi.org/10.12741/ebrasilis.v6i2.281
https://doi.org/10.12741/ebrasilis.v6i2....
). After the subimago stage, the specimen was transferred to a dry vial until the imaginal ecdysis occurred. Once the transition cycle was complete, the specimen was fixed in 96% ethanol.

Some imagos were collected during the daytime, using a sweep net through the vegetation near the water’s edge at the site. During the nighttime, both active and passive collecting methods were employed using a light trap placed near the water. For active collection, a white sheet illuminated with LED lamps was set up perpendicular to the water, capturing all individuals that landed on the sheet between 6:00 pm and 8:00 pm. For passive collection, a Pennsylvania trap was used, which remained deployed for 12 hours.

The identification of adults was performed by removing the wings, which were then mounted dry between a slide and a cover slip, sealed only with colorless enamel. The genitalia were also removed and mounted on permanent or temporary slides. Canada balsam was used to secure the structures on the permanent slides. After mounting the slides, they were placed in an oven with an average temperature of 60 °C for 2 to 3 days to ensure complete drying, following the procedures outlined by Waltz & McCafferty (1987)WALTZ, R.D. & McCAFFERTY, W.P. 1987. Generic revision of Cloeodes and description of two new genera (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 89: 177–184.. The identifications were based on Domínguez et al. (2006)DOMÍNGUEZ, E., MOLINERI, C., PESCADOR, M.L., HUBBARD, M.D. & NIETO, C. 2006. Ephemeroptera of South America. In: Adis, J., Arias, J.R., Rueda-delgado, G. & Wantzen, K.M. (Ed). Aquatic biodiversity of Latin America. Volume 2. Pensoft, Moscow/Sofia, 646. and careful comparisons with the original descriptions (e.g., Lima et al. 2013LIMA, L.R.C., MARIANO, R. & PINHEIRO, U. 2013. New species for Thraulodes Ulmer, 1920 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae: Atalophlebiinae) and the first key to adults from Brazil. Zootaxa, 3709(3): 230–242. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3709.3.2
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3709.3....
, Salles et al. 2016SALLES, F.F., DOMÍNGUEZ, E., MARIANO, R. & PARESQUE, R. 2016. The imagos of some enigmatic members of the Hermanella complex (Ephemeroptera, Leptophlebiidae). ZooKeys, 625: 45–66. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.625.9874
https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.625.9874...
, Nascimento et al. 2017NASCIMENTO, J.M.C., SALLES, F.F. & HAMADA, N. 2017. Systematics of Simothraulopsis Demoulin, 1966 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae). Zootaxa, 4285(1): 001–081. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4285.1.1
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4285.1....
).

Species distribution was consulted using the Taxonomic Catalog of the Fauna of Brazil database (http://fauna.jbrj.gov.br/), and the conservation status of the species was assessed using the Biodiversity Extinction Risk Assessment System (https://salve.icmbio.gov.br/#/) and the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (https://www.iucnredlist.org/).

Results

We collected a total of 447 Leptophlebiidae specimens, distributed across 11 genera and 14 species. The inventory resulted in new records for five genera and eight species for Piauí state (Figure 1A). Seven species with new occurrences, and two species with previously known distribution in the state. Table 1 presents the geographical information of the described sites (S) in the examined material. With the exception of Miroculis botafora, all other recorded Leptophlebiidae species in Piauí are classified as least concern (LC) according to the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBIO).

Figure 1
A, Distribution of sites with new records of Leptophlebiidae species (Ephemeroptera) for the Parnaíba river basin, Piauí, Brazil; B, Cachoeira do Urubu-Rei (site 1); C, Samambaia stream (site 14); D, Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades (site 16); E, Cachoeira da Campeira (site 27). See detailed information in Table 1.

Updated checklist and new geographical records

Farrodes carioca

Domínguez, Molineri & Peters, 1996DOMÍNGUEZ, E., MOLINERI, C. & PETERS, W. L. 1996. Ephemeroptera from Central and South America: New species of the Farrodes bimaculatus group with a key for the males. Studies on Neotropical Fauna & Environment, 31: 87–101.

Figure 2A–B

Figure 2
Male imagos of some Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera) found in Piauí state, Brazil. A, Dorsal habitus of Farrodes carioca; B, Genitalia of Farrodes carioca; C, Dorsal habitus of Hydromastodon sallesi; D, genitalia of Hydromastodon sallesi; E, Dorsal habitus of Hydrosmilodon gilliesae; F, Genitalia of Hydrosmilodon gilliesae; G, Dorsal habitus of Leentvaaria palpalis; H, Genitalia of Leentvaaria palpalis.

Previous distribution. Bahia (Lima et al. 2016LIMA, L., KNAPP, W. & DOCIO, L. 2016. New records of mayflies (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) from Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Entomotropica, 31(25): 212–220.), Goiás (Raimundi 2019RAIMUNDI, E.A. 2019. Contribution to the knowledge of Ephemeroptera (Insecta) from Goiás State, Brazil. Journal of Insect Biodiversity, 12(2): 033–047. https://doi.org/10.12976/jib/2019.2.1
https://doi.org/10.12976/jib/2019.2.1...
), Espírito Santo (Salles et al. 2010SALLES, F.F., NASCIMENTO, J.M.C., MASSORIAL, F.C., ANGELI, K.B., SILVA, P.B.S., RÚDIO, J.A. & BOLDRINI, R. 2010. Primeiro levantamento da fauna de Ephemeroptera (Insecta) do Espírito Santo, Sudeste do Brasil. Biota Neotropica, 10(1): 294–307. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032010000100025 (last access on 07/072023).
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1676-0603201000...
), Rio de Janeiro (Domínguez et al. 1996DOMÍNGUEZ, E., MOLINERI, C. & PETERS, W. L. 1996. Ephemeroptera from Central and South America: New species of the Farrodes bimaculatus group with a key for the males. Studies on Neotropical Fauna & Environment, 31: 87–101.). New record for Piauí state.

Material examined. Two ♂ imagos (light trap), S8, 28.x.2017, L.R.C. Lima and J.A.O. Rodrigues cols. (CEHJ); same data as preceding except four ♂ imagos, 15.xii.2018, L.R.C. Lima col.; same data as preceding except 16 ♂ imagos, 01.vi.2019, L.R.C. Lima col. 29 ♂ imagos (light trap), S11, 29.vi.2019, L.R.C. Lima col. (CEHJ). Two ♂ imagos (light trap), S14, 29.vi.2019, L.R.C. Lima col. (CEHJ). Two ♂ imagos (light trap), S15, 29.vi.2019, L.R.C. Lima col. (CEHJ). Four ♂ imagos (light trap), S19, 09.vi.2023, L.R.C. Lima, A.S. Carvalho, A.P.J. Faria cols. (CEHJ).

Farrodes tepui

Domínguez, Molineri & Peters, 1996DOMÍNGUEZ, E., MOLINERI, C. & PETERS, W. L. 1996. Ephemeroptera from Central and South America: New species of the Farrodes bimaculatus group with a key for the males. Studies on Neotropical Fauna & Environment, 31: 87–101.

Previous distribution. Ceará (Takiya et al. 2016TAKIYA, D.M., SANTOS, A.P.M., PINTO, A.P., HENRIQUES-OLIVEIRA, A.L., CARVALHO, A.L., SAMPAIO, B.H.L., CLARKSON, B., MOREIRA, F.F.F., AVELINO-CAPISTRANO, F., GONÇALVES, I.C., CORDEIRO, I.R.S., CÂMARA, J.T., BARBOSA, J.F., SOUZA, R.M. & RAFAEL, J.A. 2016. Aquatic Insects from the Caatinga: checklists and diversity assessments of Ubajara (Ceará State) and Sete Cidades (Piuaí State) National Parks, Northeastern Brazil. Biodeversity Data Journal, 4: e8354. https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e8354
https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e8354...
), Bahia (Lima et al. 2016LIMA, L., KNAPP, W. & DOCIO, L. 2016. New records of mayflies (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) from Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Entomotropica, 31(25): 212–220.), Pernambuco (Lima et al. 2012bLIMA, L.R.C., SALLES, F.F. & PINHEIRO, U. 2012b. Ephemeroptera (Insecta) from Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 56(3): 304–314. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0085-56262012005000043
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0085-5626201200...
) and Piauí (Takiya et al. 2016TAKIYA, D.M., SANTOS, A.P.M., PINTO, A.P., HENRIQUES-OLIVEIRA, A.L., CARVALHO, A.L., SAMPAIO, B.H.L., CLARKSON, B., MOREIRA, F.F.F., AVELINO-CAPISTRANO, F., GONÇALVES, I.C., CORDEIRO, I.R.S., CÂMARA, J.T., BARBOSA, J.F., SOUZA, R.M. & RAFAEL, J.A. 2016. Aquatic Insects from the Caatinga: checklists and diversity assessments of Ubajara (Ceará State) and Sete Cidades (Piuaí State) National Parks, Northeastern Brazil. Biodeversity Data Journal, 4: e8354. https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e8354
https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e8354...
).

Fittkaulus cururuensis

Savage, 1986SAVAGE, H.M. 1986. Systematics of the Terpides lineage from the Neotropics: Definition of the Terpides lineage, methods, and revision of Fittkaulus Savage & Peters. Spixiana, 9: 255–270.

Previous distribution. Pará (Savage 1986SAVAGE, H.M. 1986. Systematics of the Terpides lineage from the Neotropics: Definition of the Terpides lineage, methods, and revision of Fittkaulus Savage & Peters. Spixiana, 9: 255–270.), Roraima (Gama-Neto et al. 2018GAMA-NETO, J.L., PASSOS, M.A.B., CRUZ, J.A. & SOUZA, N.T. 2018. New records of Ephemeroptera (Insecta) from Roraima State, Northern Brazil. EntomoBrasilis, 11(1): 33–40. https://doi.org/10.12741/ebrasilis.v11i1.748
https://doi.org/10.12741/ebrasilis.v11i1...
), Bahia (Costa et al. 2018COSTA, S.S., SOUZA, F.N., NOGUEIRA, M.A., SANTOS, E.P., SOUSA, M.M.L., SILVA, V.A., ALMEIDA, R. & MARIANO, R. 2018. Leptophlebiidae (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) from state of Bahia, Brazil. Biota Neotropica, 18(1): e20170386. https://doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611-BN-2017-0386 (last access on 07/072023).
https://doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611-BN-201...
), Piauí (Takiya et al. 2016TAKIYA, D.M., SANTOS, A.P.M., PINTO, A.P., HENRIQUES-OLIVEIRA, A.L., CARVALHO, A.L., SAMPAIO, B.H.L., CLARKSON, B., MOREIRA, F.F.F., AVELINO-CAPISTRANO, F., GONÇALVES, I.C., CORDEIRO, I.R.S., CÂMARA, J.T., BARBOSA, J.F., SOUZA, R.M. & RAFAEL, J.A. 2016. Aquatic Insects from the Caatinga: checklists and diversity assessments of Ubajara (Ceará State) and Sete Cidades (Piuaí State) National Parks, Northeastern Brazil. Biodeversity Data Journal, 4: e8354. https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e8354
https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e8354...
), Pernambuco (Lima et al. 2012bLIMA, L.R.C., SALLES, F.F. & PINHEIRO, U. 2012b. Ephemeroptera (Insecta) from Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 56(3): 304–314. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0085-56262012005000043
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0085-5626201200...
), Maranhão (Nascimento et al. 2020NASCIMENTO, S.R.S., LIMA, L.R.C. & AZEVÊDO, C.A.S. 2020. Leptophlebiidae Banks, 1900 (Insecta, Ephemeroptera) from Maranhão state, Brazil. Check List, 16(3): 579–591. https://doi.org/10.15560/16.3.579
https://doi.org/10.15560/16.3.579...
), Mato Grosso (Boldrini et al. 2009BOLDRINI, R., SALLES, F.F. & CABETTE, H.R.S. 2009. Contribution to the taxonomy of the Terpides lineage (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae). Annalles de Limnologie, 45(4): 219–229. https://doi.org/10.1051/limn/2009029
https://doi.org/10.1051/limn/2009029...
) and Espírito Santo (Boldrini et al. 2009BOLDRINI, R., SALLES, F.F. & CABETTE, H.R.S. 2009. Contribution to the taxonomy of the Terpides lineage (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae). Annalles de Limnologie, 45(4): 219–229. https://doi.org/10.1051/limn/2009029
https://doi.org/10.1051/limn/2009029...
).

Material examined. One ♀ imago (light trap), S8, 15.xii.2018, L.R.C. Lima col. (CEHJ); same data as preceding except one nymph (D-shaped net), 05.ix.2022. Three nymphs (D-shaped net), S16, 15.viii.2022, L.R.C. Lima col. (CEHJ).

Hagenulopsis minuta

Spieth, 1943SPIETH, H.T. 1943. Taxonomic studies on the Ephemeroptera III. Some interesting ephemerids from Surinam and other Neotropical localities. American Museum Novitates, 1244: 1–13.

Previous distribution. Amazonas (Peters & Domínguez 2001PETERS, W.L. & DOMÍNGUEZ, E. 2001. The identity of Hagenulopsis minuta Spieth (Leptophlebiidae: Atalophlebiinae). In: Domínguez, E. (Ed.). Trends in research in Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, 353–358.), Pará (Peters & Domínguez 2001PETERS, W.L. & DOMÍNGUEZ, E. 2001. The identity of Hagenulopsis minuta Spieth (Leptophlebiidae: Atalophlebiinae). In: Domínguez, E. (Ed.). Trends in research in Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, 353–358.), Roraima (Gama-Neto & Hamada 2014GAMA-NETO, J.L. & HAMADA, N. 2014. Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera) of the Serra do Tepequém, Roraima State, Brazil: new records and description of two new species. Zootaxa, 3900(2): 279–286. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3900.2.8
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3900.2....
), Bahia (Lima et al. 2016LIMA, L., KNAPP, W. & DOCIO, L. 2016. New records of mayflies (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) from Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Entomotropica, 31(25): 212–220.), Piauí (Campos et al. 2022CAMPOS, R., RODRIGUES, J.A.O., LIMA, L.R.C., MARIANO, R., COSTA, V., MARULANDA, J. & SALLES, F.F. 2022. Hagenulopsis Ulmer (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae): re-description, morphological notes and a new species from South America, Brazil. Zootaxa, 5100(1):073–088. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5100.1.3
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5100.1....
), Mato Grosso (Campos et al. 2022CAMPOS, R., RODRIGUES, J.A.O., LIMA, L.R.C., MARIANO, R., COSTA, V., MARULANDA, J. & SALLES, F.F. 2022. Hagenulopsis Ulmer (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae): re-description, morphological notes and a new species from South America, Brazil. Zootaxa, 5100(1):073–088. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5100.1.3
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5100.1....
), Espírito Santo (Campos et al. 2022CAMPOS, R., RODRIGUES, J.A.O., LIMA, L.R.C., MARIANO, R., COSTA, V., MARULANDA, J. & SALLES, F.F. 2022. Hagenulopsis Ulmer (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae): re-description, morphological notes and a new species from South America, Brazil. Zootaxa, 5100(1):073–088. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5100.1.3
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5100.1....
) and Minas Gerais (Campos et al. 2022CAMPOS, R., RODRIGUES, J.A.O., LIMA, L.R.C., MARIANO, R., COSTA, V., MARULANDA, J. & SALLES, F.F. 2022. Hagenulopsis Ulmer (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae): re-description, morphological notes and a new species from South America, Brazil. Zootaxa, 5100(1):073–088. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5100.1.3
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5100.1....
).

Material examined. One ♂ imago (sweep net), S8, 28.x.2017, L.R.C. Lima and J.A.O. Rodrigues cols. (CEHJ); same data as preceding except two ♂ imagos, 10.ii.2018, L.R.C. Lima col.; same data as preceding except one ♂ imago (light trap), 15.xii.2018. One ♂ imago (light trap), S14, 18.vi.2022, L.R.C. Lima col. (CEHJ).

Hermanellopsis arsia

Savage & Peters, 1983SAVAGE, H.M. & PETERS, W.L. 1983. Systematics of Miroculis and related genera from Northern South America (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae). Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 108: 491–600.

Figure 3G–H

Figure 3
Male imagos and nymph of some Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera) found in Piauí state, Brazil. A–F) Male imagos: A, dorsal habitus of Paramaka convexa; B, genitalia of Paramaka convexa; C, dorsal habitus of Paramaka pearljam; D, genitalia of Paramaka pearljam; E, dorsal habitus of Simothraulopsis janae; F, genitalia of Simothraulopsis janae. G–H) Nymph of Hermanellopsis arsia: G, dorsal habitus of Hermanellopsis arsia; H, gill IV of Hermanellopsis arsia.

Previous distribution. Amazonas (Savage & Peters 1983SAVAGE, H.M. & PETERS, W.L. 1983. Systematics of Miroculis and related genera from Northern South America (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae). Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 108: 491–600.), Roraima (Raimundi et al. 2017RAIMUNDI, E.A., NASCIMENTO, J.M.C., BARROSO, P.C.S., HAMADA, N. & BOLDRINI, R. 2017. Three new species of Miroculis from the Serra da Mocidade National Park, Roraima State, Brazil, with new records and checklist of the Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera). Zootaxa, 4317(3): 73–583. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4317.3.8
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4317.3....
), Maranhão (Nascimento et al. 2020NASCIMENTO, S.R.S., LIMA, L.R.C. & AZEVÊDO, C.A.S. 2020. Leptophlebiidae Banks, 1900 (Insecta, Ephemeroptera) from Maranhão state, Brazil. Check List, 16(3): 579–591. https://doi.org/10.15560/16.3.579
https://doi.org/10.15560/16.3.579...
) and Pará (Oliveira et al. 2023OLIVEIRA, L.A., COUCEIRO, S.R.M. & NASCIMENTO, J.M.C. 2023. Ephemeroptera (Insecta) from the metropolitan region of Santarém, Pará, Brazil. Biota Neotropica, 23(1): e20221437. https://doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611-BN-2022-1437 (last access on 07/072023).
https://doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611-BN-202...
). New record for genus and specie for Piauí state.

Material examined. 12 nymphs (D-shaped net), S16, 15.viii.2022, L.R.C. Lima col. (09 – CEHJ, 03 – INPA).

Hydromastodon sallesi

Polegatto & Batista, 2007POLEGATTO, C. M., & BATISTA, J. D. 2007. Hydromastodon sallesi, new genus and new species of Atalophlebiinae (Insecta: Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from West and North of Brazil, and notes on systematics of Hermanella group. Zootaxa, 1619(1): 53–60. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1619.1.3
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1619.1....

Figure 2C–D

Previous distribution. Roraima (Polegatto & Batista 2007POLEGATTO, C. M., & BATISTA, J. D. 2007. Hydromastodon sallesi, new genus and new species of Atalophlebiinae (Insecta: Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from West and North of Brazil, and notes on systematics of Hermanella group. Zootaxa, 1619(1): 53–60. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1619.1.3
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1619.1....
), Rondônia (Salles et al. 2016SALLES, F.F., DOMÍNGUEZ, E., MARIANO, R. & PARESQUE, R. 2016. The imagos of some enigmatic members of the Hermanella complex (Ephemeroptera, Leptophlebiidae). ZooKeys, 625: 45–66. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.625.9874
https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.625.9874...
), Tocantins (Orlando et al. 2021ORLANDO, T.Y., SALLES, F.F., BOLDRINI, R. & KROLOW, T.K. 2021. Updated records for Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera) and a new species of Thraulodes Ulmer, 1920 from Tocantins State, Northern Brazil. Zootaxa, 5076(1): 039–055. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5076.1.6
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5076.1....
), Maranhão (Nascimento et al. 2020NASCIMENTO, S.R.S., LIMA, L.R.C. & AZEVÊDO, C.A.S. 2020. Leptophlebiidae Banks, 1900 (Insecta, Ephemeroptera) from Maranhão state, Brazil. Check List, 16(3): 579–591. https://doi.org/10.15560/16.3.579
https://doi.org/10.15560/16.3.579...
), Mato Grosso (Polegatto & Batista 2007POLEGATTO, C. M., & BATISTA, J. D. 2007. Hydromastodon sallesi, new genus and new species of Atalophlebiinae (Insecta: Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from West and North of Brazil, and notes on systematics of Hermanella group. Zootaxa, 1619(1): 53–60. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1619.1.3
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1619.1....
) and Mato Grosso do Sul (Silva & Salles 2017SILVA, F.H.D. & SALLES, F.F. 2017. Checklist de Ephemeroptera do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Iheringia. Série Zoologia, 107: e2017116. https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-4766e2017116
https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-4766e201711...
). New record for genus and specie for Piauí state.

Material examined. Four ♂ imagos (light trap), S8, 14.x.2017, L.R.C. Lima and J.A.O. Rodrigues cols. (CEHJ); same data as preceding except one ♂ imago, 10.ii.2018, L.R.C. Lima col. One ♂ imago (sweep net), S18, 11.iv.2023, L.R.C. Lima col. (CEHJ).

Hydrosmilodon gilliesae

Thomas & Perú, 2004THOMAS, A., BOUTONNET, J., PERU, N. & HOREAU, V. 2004. Les éphémères de la Guyane Française. 9. Descriptions d’Hydrosmilodon gilliesae n.sp. et d’H. mikei n.sp. (Ephemeroptera, Leptophlebiidae). Ephemera (2002), 4(2): 65–80.

Figure 2E–F

Previous distribution. Pará (Oliveira et al. 2023OLIVEIRA, L.A., COUCEIRO, S.R.M. & NASCIMENTO, J.M.C. 2023. Ephemeroptera (Insecta) from the metropolitan region of Santarém, Pará, Brazil. Biota Neotropica, 23(1): e20221437. https://doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611-BN-2022-1437 (last access on 07/072023).
https://doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611-BN-202...
), Roraima (Salles et al. 2016SALLES, F.F., DOMÍNGUEZ, E., MARIANO, R. & PARESQUE, R. 2016. The imagos of some enigmatic members of the Hermanella complex (Ephemeroptera, Leptophlebiidae). ZooKeys, 625: 45–66. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.625.9874
https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.625.9874...
), Tocantins (Orlando et al. 2021ORLANDO, T.Y., SALLES, F.F., BOLDRINI, R. & KROLOW, T.K. 2021. Updated records for Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera) and a new species of Thraulodes Ulmer, 1920 from Tocantins State, Northern Brazil. Zootaxa, 5076(1): 039–055. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5076.1.6
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5076.1....
), Bahia (Lima et al. 2012aLIMA, L.R.C., NASCIMENTO, J.M.C., MARIANO, R., PINHEIRO, U.S. & SALLES, F.F. 2012a. New species and new records of Hermanella complex (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from Eastern Brazilian Coast. Annales de Limnologie, International Journal of Limnology, 48: 201–213. https://doi.org/10.1051/limn/2012011
https://doi.org/10.1051/limn/2012011...
), Maranhão (Nascimento et al. 2020NASCIMENTO, S.R.S., LIMA, L.R.C. & AZEVÊDO, C.A.S. 2020. Leptophlebiidae Banks, 1900 (Insecta, Ephemeroptera) from Maranhão state, Brazil. Check List, 16(3): 579–591. https://doi.org/10.15560/16.3.579
https://doi.org/10.15560/16.3.579...
), Pernambuco (Lima et al. 2012bLIMA, L.R.C., SALLES, F.F. & PINHEIRO, U. 2012b. Ephemeroptera (Insecta) from Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 56(3): 304–314. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0085-56262012005000043
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0085-5626201200...
), Mato Grosso (Shimano et al. 2011SHIMANO, Y., SALLES, F.F. & CABETTE, H.S.R. 2011. Ephemeroptera (Insecta) from east of Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Biota Neotropica. 11(4): 239–253. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032011000400021 (last access on 07/072023).
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1676-0603201100...
), Espírito Santo (Salles et al. 2010SALLES, F.F., NASCIMENTO, J.M.C., MASSORIAL, F.C., ANGELI, K.B., SILVA, P.B.S., RÚDIO, J.A. & BOLDRINI, R. 2010. Primeiro levantamento da fauna de Ephemeroptera (Insecta) do Espírito Santo, Sudeste do Brasil. Biota Neotropica, 10(1): 294–307. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032010000100025 (last access on 07/072023).
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1676-0603201000...
) and São Paulo (Salles et al. 2016SALLES, F.F., DOMÍNGUEZ, E., MARIANO, R. & PARESQUE, R. 2016. The imagos of some enigmatic members of the Hermanella complex (Ephemeroptera, Leptophlebiidae). ZooKeys, 625: 45–66. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.625.9874
https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.625.9874...
). New record for genus and specie for Piauí state.

Material examined. Four ♂ imagos (light trap), S1, 22.ii.2018, L.R.C. Lima col. (INPA). One nymph (D-shaped net), S2, 18.iv.2017, L.R.C. Lima and J.A.O. Rodrigues cols. (CEHJ, 03). 18 ♂ imagos (light trap), S8, 01.vi.2019, L.R.C. Lima col. (CEHJ); same data as preceding except one ♂ imago (rearing), 15.xii.2018; same data as preceding except 36 nymphs (D-shaped net), 05.ix.2022. One ♂ imago (light trap), S9, 29.iii.2018, L.R.C. Lima col. (CEHJ). One nymph (D-shaped net), S12, 27.ii.2021, L.R.C. Lima col. (CEHJ). One nymph (D-shaped net), S14, 06.ix.2022, L.R.C. Lima col. (CEHJ). 13 ♂ imagos (light trap), S19, 09.vi.2023, L.R.C. Lima, A.S. Carvalho, A.P.J. Faria cols. (CEHJ). One ♂ imago (light trap), S20, 08.vi.2023, L.R.C. Lima, A.S. Carvalho, A.P.J. Faria cols. (CEHJ).

Leentvaaria palpalis

Demoulin, 1966DEMOULIN, G. 1966. Contribution à l’étude des ephéméroptères du Suriname. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, 37: 1–22.

Figure 2G–H

Previous distribution. Roraima (Salles et al. 2016SALLES, F.F., DOMÍNGUEZ, E., MARIANO, R. & PARESQUE, R. 2016. The imagos of some enigmatic members of the Hermanella complex (Ephemeroptera, Leptophlebiidae). ZooKeys, 625: 45–66. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.625.9874
https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.625.9874...
), Pernambuco (Lima et al. 2012bLIMA, L.R.C., SALLES, F.F. & PINHEIRO, U. 2012b. Ephemeroptera (Insecta) from Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 56(3): 304–314. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0085-56262012005000043
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0085-5626201200...
), Maranhão (Nascimento et al. 2020NASCIMENTO, S.R.S., LIMA, L.R.C. & AZEVÊDO, C.A.S. 2020. Leptophlebiidae Banks, 1900 (Insecta, Ephemeroptera) from Maranhão state, Brazil. Check List, 16(3): 579–591. https://doi.org/10.15560/16.3.579
https://doi.org/10.15560/16.3.579...
), Mato Grosso (Salles et al. 2016SALLES, F.F., DOMÍNGUEZ, E., MARIANO, R. & PARESQUE, R. 2016. The imagos of some enigmatic members of the Hermanella complex (Ephemeroptera, Leptophlebiidae). ZooKeys, 625: 45–66. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.625.9874
https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.625.9874...
) and Espírito Santo (Lima et al. 2012aLIMA, L.R.C., NASCIMENTO, J.M.C., MARIANO, R., PINHEIRO, U.S. & SALLES, F.F. 2012a. New species and new records of Hermanella complex (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from Eastern Brazilian Coast. Annales de Limnologie, International Journal of Limnology, 48: 201–213. https://doi.org/10.1051/limn/2012011
https://doi.org/10.1051/limn/2012011...
). New record for genus and specie for Piauí state.

Material examined. 10 ♂ imagos (light trap), S7, 22.ii.2018, L.R.C. Lima col. (CEHJ); same data as preceding except five nymphs (D-shaped net), 21.v.2022. 10 ♂ imagos (light trap), S8, 10.ii.2018, L.R.C. Lima col. (CEHJ); same data as preceding except one nymph (D-shaped net), 14.x.2017, L.R.C. Lima and J.A.O. Rodrigues cols. 32 ♂ imagos (light trap), S19, 09.vi.2023, L.R.C. Lima, A.S. Carvalho, A.P.J. Faria cols. (CEHJ).

Miroculis botafora

Rodrigues, Nascimento, Raimundi & Lima, 2023RODRIGUES, J.A.O., NASCIMENTO, S.R.S., RAIMUNDI, E.A. & LIMA, L.R.C. 2023. New species and new records of Miroculis Edmunds, 1963 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from Chacoan Domain in northeastern Brazil. Zootaxa, 5230(1): 027–047. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5230.1.2
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5230.1....

Previous distribution. Piauí (Rodrigues et al. 2023RODRIGUES, J.A.O., NASCIMENTO, S.R.S., RAIMUNDI, E.A. & LIMA, L.R.C. 2023. New species and new records of Miroculis Edmunds, 1963 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from Chacoan Domain in northeastern Brazil. Zootaxa, 5230(1): 027–047. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5230.1.2
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5230.1....
).

Miroculis fittkaui

Savage & Peters, 1983SAVAGE, H.M. & PETERS, W.L. 1983. Systematics of Miroculis and related genera from Northern South America (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae). Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 108: 491–600.

Previous distribution. Pará (Savage & Peters 1983SAVAGE, H.M. & PETERS, W.L. 1983. Systematics of Miroculis and related genera from Northern South America (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae). Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 108: 491–600.), Roraima (Gama-Neto et al. 2018GAMA-NETO, J.L., PASSOS, M.A.B., CRUZ, J.A. & SOUZA, N.T. 2018. New records of Ephemeroptera (Insecta) from Roraima State, Northern Brazil. EntomoBrasilis, 11(1): 33–40. https://doi.org/10.12741/ebrasilis.v11i1.748
https://doi.org/10.12741/ebrasilis.v11i1...
), Bahia (Campos et al. 2016CAMPOS, R., MARIANO, R. & CALOR, A. 2016. Mayflies (Ephemeroptera) from Reserva Ecológica Michelin, Bahia, Brazil. Aquatic Insects, 37(4): 303–315. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650424.2016.1267769
https://doi.org/10.1080/01650424.2016.12...
), Piauí (Rodrigues et al. 2023RODRIGUES, J.A.O., NASCIMENTO, S.R.S., RAIMUNDI, E.A. & LIMA, L.R.C. 2023. New species and new records of Miroculis Edmunds, 1963 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from Chacoan Domain in northeastern Brazil. Zootaxa, 5230(1): 027–047. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5230.1.2
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5230.1....
), Pernambuco (Lima et al. 2012bLIMA, L.R.C., SALLES, F.F. & PINHEIRO, U. 2012b. Ephemeroptera (Insecta) from Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 56(3): 304–314. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0085-56262012005000043
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0085-5626201200...
) and Espírito Santo (Salles et al. 2010SALLES, F.F., NASCIMENTO, J.M.C., MASSORIAL, F.C., ANGELI, K.B., SILVA, P.B.S., RÚDIO, J.A. & BOLDRINI, R. 2010. Primeiro levantamento da fauna de Ephemeroptera (Insecta) do Espírito Santo, Sudeste do Brasil. Biota Neotropica, 10(1): 294–307. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032010000100025 (last access on 07/072023).
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1676-0603201000...
).

Paramaka convexa

(Spieth, 1943SPIETH, H.T. 1943. Taxonomic studies on the Ephemeroptera III. Some interesting ephemerids from Surinam and other Neotropical localities. American Museum Novitates, 1244: 1–13.)

Figure 3A–B

Previous distribution. Pará (Savage & Domínguez 1992SAVAGE, H.M. & DOMÍNGUEZ, E. 1992. A new genus of Atalophlebiinae (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from Northern South America. Aquatic Insects, 14(4): 243–248. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650429209361489
https://doi.org/10.1080/0165042920936148...
), Roraima (Raimundi et al. 2017RAIMUNDI, E.A., NASCIMENTO, J.M.C., BARROSO, P.C.S., HAMADA, N. & BOLDRINI, R. 2017. Three new species of Miroculis from the Serra da Mocidade National Park, Roraima State, Brazil, with new records and checklist of the Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera). Zootaxa, 4317(3): 73–583. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4317.3.8
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4317.3....
), Maranhão (Nascimento et al. 2020NASCIMENTO, S.R.S., LIMA, L.R.C. & AZEVÊDO, C.A.S. 2020. Leptophlebiidae Banks, 1900 (Insecta, Ephemeroptera) from Maranhão state, Brazil. Check List, 16(3): 579–591. https://doi.org/10.15560/16.3.579
https://doi.org/10.15560/16.3.579...
), Bahia (Mariano 2011MARIANO, R. 2011. A new species of Paramaka Savage & Domínguez, 1992 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae: Atalophlebiinae) from Brazil. Zootaxa, 3038: 45–50. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3038.1.3
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3038.1....
) and Mato Grosso (Shimano et al. 2011SHIMANO, Y., SALLES, F.F. & CABETTE, H.S.R. 2011. Ephemeroptera (Insecta) from east of Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Biota Neotropica. 11(4): 239–253. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032011000400021 (last access on 07/072023).
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1676-0603201100...
). New record for genus and specie for Piauí state.

Material examined. One nymph (D-shaped net), S2, 18.iv.2017, L.R.C. Lima and J.A.O. Rodrigues cols. (CEHJ). One ♂ imago (light trap), S5, 12.iii.2016, L.R.C. Lima col. (CEHJ). Five ♂ imagos (light trap), S6, 04.iii.2017, L.R.C. Lima and J.A.O. Rodrigues cols. (3 – CEHJ, 2 – INPA). 13 ♂ imagos (light trap), S19, 09.vi.2023, L.R.C. Lima, A.S. Carvalho, A.P.J. Faria cols. (CEHJ).

Paramaka pearljam

Mariano, 2011MARIANO, R. 2011. A new species of Paramaka Savage & Domínguez, 1992 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae: Atalophlebiinae) from Brazil. Zootaxa, 3038: 45–50. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3038.1.3
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3038.1....

Figure 3C–D

Previous distribution. Mato Grosso (Mariano 2011MARIANO, R. 2011. A new species of Paramaka Savage & Domínguez, 1992 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae: Atalophlebiinae) from Brazil. Zootaxa, 3038: 45–50. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3038.1.3
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3038.1....
). New record for Piauí state.

Material examined. 20 ♂ imagos (light trap), S19, 09.vi.2023, L.R.C. Lima, A.S. Carvalho, A.P.J. Faria cols. (CEHJ).

Simothraulopsis demerara

(Traver, 1947TRAVER, J.R. 1947. Notes on Neotropical mayflies. Part II. Family Baetidae, subfamily Leptophlebiinae. Revista de Entomologia, 18: 149–160.)

Previous distribution. Pará (Domínguez et al. 1997DOMÍNGUEZ, E., PETERS, W.L., PETERS, J.G. & SAVAGE, H.M. 1997. The imago of Simothraulopsis Demoulin with a redescription of the nymph (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae: Atalophlebiinae). Aquatic Insects, 19: 141–150. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650429709361648
https://doi.org/10.1080/0165042970936164...
), Amazonas (Domínguez et al. 1997DOMÍNGUEZ, E., PETERS, W.L., PETERS, J.G. & SAVAGE, H.M. 1997. The imago of Simothraulopsis Demoulin with a redescription of the nymph (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae: Atalophlebiinae). Aquatic Insects, 19: 141–150. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650429709361648
https://doi.org/10.1080/0165042970936164...
), Roraima (Nascimento et al. 2017NASCIMENTO, J.M.C., SALLES, F.F. & HAMADA, N. 2017. Systematics of Simothraulopsis Demoulin, 1966 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae). Zootaxa, 4285(1): 001–081. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4285.1.1
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4285.1....
), Amapá (Nascimento et al. 2017NASCIMENTO, J.M.C., SALLES, F.F. & HAMADA, N. 2017. Systematics of Simothraulopsis Demoulin, 1966 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae). Zootaxa, 4285(1): 001–081. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4285.1.1
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4285.1....
), Rondônia (Nascimento et al. 2017NASCIMENTO, J.M.C., SALLES, F.F. & HAMADA, N. 2017. Systematics of Simothraulopsis Demoulin, 1966 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae). Zootaxa, 4285(1): 001–081. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4285.1.1
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4285.1....
), Tocantins (Boldrini & Krolow 2017BOLDRINI, R. & KROLOW, T.K. 2017. New records of Ephemeroptera (Insecta) from Tocantins state, northern Brazil. Check List, 13(2): 2067. https://doi.org/10.15560/13.2.2067
https://doi.org/10.15560/13.2.2067...
), Ceará (Nascimento et al. 2017NASCIMENTO, J.M.C., SALLES, F.F. & HAMADA, N. 2017. Systematics of Simothraulopsis Demoulin, 1966 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae). Zootaxa, 4285(1): 001–081. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4285.1.1
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4285.1....
), Piauí (Takiya et al. 2016TAKIYA, D.M., SANTOS, A.P.M., PINTO, A.P., HENRIQUES-OLIVEIRA, A.L., CARVALHO, A.L., SAMPAIO, B.H.L., CLARKSON, B., MOREIRA, F.F.F., AVELINO-CAPISTRANO, F., GONÇALVES, I.C., CORDEIRO, I.R.S., CÂMARA, J.T., BARBOSA, J.F., SOUZA, R.M. & RAFAEL, J.A. 2016. Aquatic Insects from the Caatinga: checklists and diversity assessments of Ubajara (Ceará State) and Sete Cidades (Piuaí State) National Parks, Northeastern Brazil. Biodeversity Data Journal, 4: e8354. https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e8354
https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e8354...
), Bahia (Lima et al. 2016LIMA, L., KNAPP, W. & DOCIO, L. 2016. New records of mayflies (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) from Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Entomotropica, 31(25): 212–220.), Pernambuco (Lima et al. 2012bLIMA, L.R.C., SALLES, F.F. & PINHEIRO, U. 2012b. Ephemeroptera (Insecta) from Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 56(3): 304–314. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0085-56262012005000043
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0085-5626201200...
), Maranhão (Nascimento et al. 2020NASCIMENTO, S.R.S., LIMA, L.R.C. & AZEVÊDO, C.A.S. 2020. Leptophlebiidae Banks, 1900 (Insecta, Ephemeroptera) from Maranhão state, Brazil. Check List, 16(3): 579–591. https://doi.org/10.15560/16.3.579
https://doi.org/10.15560/16.3.579...
), Mato Grosso (Nascimento et al. 2017NASCIMENTO, J.M.C., SALLES, F.F. & HAMADA, N. 2017. Systematics of Simothraulopsis Demoulin, 1966 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae). Zootaxa, 4285(1): 001–081. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4285.1.1
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4285.1....
), Goiás (Raimundi 2019RAIMUNDI, E.A. 2019. Contribution to the knowledge of Ephemeroptera (Insecta) from Goiás State, Brazil. Journal of Insect Biodiversity, 12(2): 033–047. https://doi.org/10.12976/jib/2019.2.1
https://doi.org/10.12976/jib/2019.2.1...
), Espírito Santo (Salles et al. 2010SALLES, F.F., NASCIMENTO, J.M.C., MASSORIAL, F.C., ANGELI, K.B., SILVA, P.B.S., RÚDIO, J.A. & BOLDRINI, R. 2010. Primeiro levantamento da fauna de Ephemeroptera (Insecta) do Espírito Santo, Sudeste do Brasil. Biota Neotropica, 10(1): 294–307. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032010000100025 (last access on 07/072023).
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1676-0603201000...
) and Paraná (Faria & Salles 2019FARIA, L.R.R. & SALLES, F.F. 2019. An unexpected record of Simothraulopsis Demoulin, 1966 (Ephemeroptera, Leptophlebiidae) in the Paraná Basin, Brazil. Check List, 15(3): 375–378. https://doi.org/10.15560/15.3.375
https://doi.org/10.15560/15.3.375...
).

Material examined. Four ♂ imagos (light trap), S2, 18.iv.2017, L.R.C. Lima and J.A.O. Rodrigues cols. (CEHJ). 15 ♂ imagos (light trap), S7, 17.iv.2017, L.R.C. Lima and J.A.O. Rodrigues cols. (CEHJ). Nine ♂ imagos (light trap), S8, 14.x.2017, L.R.C. Lima and J.A.O. Rodrigues cols. (CEHJ); same data as preceding except five ♂ imagos, 10.ii.2018, L.R.C. Lima col.; same data as preceding except one ♂ imago (rearing), 15.xii.2018; same data as preceding except three ♂ imagos, 15.xii.2018; same data as preceding except four ♂ imagos, 01.vi.2019. 15 ♂ imagos (light trap), S11, 29.vi.2019, L.R.C. Lima col. (CEHJ). Seven ♂ imagos (light trap), S14, 18.vi.2022, L.R.C. Lima col. (CEHJ). One ♂ imago (rearing), S17, 16.viii.2022, L.R.C. Lima col. (CEHJ). Seven ♂ imagos (light trap), S19, 09.vi.2023, L.R.C. Lima, A.S. Carvalho, A.P.J. Faria cols. (CEHJ). 38 ♂ imagos (light trap), S20, 08.vi.2023, L.R.C. Lima, A.S. Carvalho, A.P.J. Faria cols. (CEHJ).

Simothraulopsis janae

Mariano, 2010MARIANO, R. 2010. Two new species of Simothraulopsis Traver, 1947 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae: Atalophlebiinae) from northeastern Brazil. Aquatic Insects, 32: 129–134. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650420903393842
https://doi.org/10.1080/0165042090339384...

Figure 3E–F

Previous distribution. Bahia (Mariano 2010MARIANO, R. 2010. Two new species of Simothraulopsis Traver, 1947 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae: Atalophlebiinae) from northeastern Brazil. Aquatic Insects, 32: 129–134. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650420903393842
https://doi.org/10.1080/0165042090339384...
), Mato Grosso (Nascimento et al. 2017NASCIMENTO, J.M.C., SALLES, F.F. & HAMADA, N. 2017. Systematics of Simothraulopsis Demoulin, 1966 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae). Zootaxa, 4285(1): 001–081. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4285.1.1
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4285.1....
), Maranhão (Nascimento et al. 2020NASCIMENTO, S.R.S., LIMA, L.R.C. & AZEVÊDO, C.A.S. 2020. Leptophlebiidae Banks, 1900 (Insecta, Ephemeroptera) from Maranhão state, Brazil. Check List, 16(3): 579–591. https://doi.org/10.15560/16.3.579
https://doi.org/10.15560/16.3.579...
), Minas Gerais (Nascimento et al. 2017NASCIMENTO, J.M.C., SALLES, F.F. & HAMADA, N. 2017. Systematics of Simothraulopsis Demoulin, 1966 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae). Zootaxa, 4285(1): 001–081. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4285.1.1
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4285.1....
), Pará (Nascimento et al. 2017NASCIMENTO, J.M.C., SALLES, F.F. & HAMADA, N. 2017. Systematics of Simothraulopsis Demoulin, 1966 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae). Zootaxa, 4285(1): 001–081. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4285.1.1
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4285.1....
), Pernambuco (Lima et al. 2012bLIMA, L.R.C., SALLES, F.F. & PINHEIRO, U. 2012b. Ephemeroptera (Insecta) from Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 56(3): 304–314. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0085-56262012005000043
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0085-5626201200...
), Rondônia (Nascimento et al. 2017NASCIMENTO, J.M.C., SALLES, F.F. & HAMADA, N. 2017. Systematics of Simothraulopsis Demoulin, 1966 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae). Zootaxa, 4285(1): 001–081. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4285.1.1
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4285.1....
), and Roraima (Gama-Neto & Hamada 2014GAMA-NETO, J.L. & HAMADA, N. 2014. Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera) of the Serra do Tepequém, Roraima State, Brazil: new records and description of two new species. Zootaxa, 3900(2): 279–286. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3900.2.8
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3900.2....
). New record for Piauí state.

Material examined. Two ♂ imagos (light trap), S19, 09.vi.2023, L.R.C. Lima, A.S. Carvalho, A.P.J. Faria cols. (CEHJ).

Simothraulopsis sinuosus

Lima, 2018LIMA, L.R.C. 2018. New species of Simothraulopsis Demoulin, 1966 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from Northeastern Region of Brazil. Zootaxa, 4461(2): 253–260. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4461.2.6
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4461.2....

Previous distribution. Maranhão (Nascimento et al. 2020NASCIMENTO, S.R.S., LIMA, L.R.C. & AZEVÊDO, C.A.S. 2020. Leptophlebiidae Banks, 1900 (Insecta, Ephemeroptera) from Maranhão state, Brazil. Check List, 16(3): 579–591. https://doi.org/10.15560/16.3.579
https://doi.org/10.15560/16.3.579...
) and Piauí (Lima 2018LIMA, L.R.C. 2018. New species of Simothraulopsis Demoulin, 1966 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from Northeastern Region of Brazil. Zootaxa, 4461(2): 253–260. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4461.2.6
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4461.2....
).

Material examined. Two ♂ imagos (light trap), S7, 18.iv.2017, L.R.C. Lima and J.A.O. Rodrigues cols. (CEHJ); same data as preceding except one ♂ imago, 07.ix.2018, L.R.C. Lima col.

Thraulodes sternimaculatus

Lima, Mariano & Pinheiro, 2013LIMA, L.R.C., MARIANO, R. & PINHEIRO, U. 2013. New species for Thraulodes Ulmer, 1920 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae: Atalophlebiinae) and the first key to adults from Brazil. Zootaxa, 3709(3): 230–242. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3709.3.2
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3709.3....

Previous distribution. Maranhão (Nascimento et al. 2020NASCIMENTO, S.R.S., LIMA, L.R.C. & AZEVÊDO, C.A.S. 2020. Leptophlebiidae Banks, 1900 (Insecta, Ephemeroptera) from Maranhão state, Brazil. Check List, 16(3): 579–591. https://doi.org/10.15560/16.3.579
https://doi.org/10.15560/16.3.579...
), Piauí (Boldrini et al. 2018BOLDRINI, R., DANTAS, H.A.T. & LIMA, L.R.C. 2018. New species and new record of Thraulodes Ulmer, 1920 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae: Atalophlebiinae) from Brazil. Zootaxa, 4527(2): 277–280. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4527.2.8
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4527.2....
) and Pernambuco (Lima et al. 2013LIMA, L.R.C., MARIANO, R. & PINHEIRO, U. 2013. New species for Thraulodes Ulmer, 1920 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae: Atalophlebiinae) and the first key to adults from Brazil. Zootaxa, 3709(3): 230–242. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3709.3.2
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3709.3....
).

Material examined. One ♂ imago (light trap), S7, 17.iv.2017, L.R.C. Lima and J.A.O. Rodrigues cols. (CEHJ). 11 ♂ imagos (light trap), S8, 10.ii.2018, L.R.C. Lima col. (CEHJ). 56 ♂ imagos (light trap), S19, 09.viii.2023, L.R.C. Lima, A.S. Carvalho, A.P.J. Faria cols. (CEHJ).

Ulmeritoides flavopedes

(Spieth, 1943SPIETH, H.T. 1943. Taxonomic studies on the Ephemeroptera III. Some interesting ephemerids from Surinam and other Neotropical localities. American Museum Novitates, 1244: 1–13.)

Previous distribution. Roraima (Lopes et al. 2003LOPES, M.J.N., DA-SILVA, E.R. & PY-DANIEL, V. 2003. A new species of Ulmeritoides from Brazil (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae). Revista de Biologia Tropical, 51(1): 195–200.), Tocantins (Boldrini & Krolow 2017BOLDRINI, R. & KROLOW, T.K. 2017. New records of Ephemeroptera (Insecta) from Tocantins state, northern Brazil. Check List, 13(2): 2067. https://doi.org/10.15560/13.2.2067
https://doi.org/10.15560/13.2.2067...
), Bahia (Lima et al. 2016LIMA, L., KNAPP, W. & DOCIO, L. 2016. New records of mayflies (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) from Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Entomotropica, 31(25): 212–220.), Maranhão (Nascimento et al. 2020NASCIMENTO, S.R.S., LIMA, L.R.C. & AZEVÊDO, C.A.S. 2020. Leptophlebiidae Banks, 1900 (Insecta, Ephemeroptera) from Maranhão state, Brazil. Check List, 16(3): 579–591. https://doi.org/10.15560/16.3.579
https://doi.org/10.15560/16.3.579...
), Piauí (Takiya et al. 2016TAKIYA, D.M., SANTOS, A.P.M., PINTO, A.P., HENRIQUES-OLIVEIRA, A.L., CARVALHO, A.L., SAMPAIO, B.H.L., CLARKSON, B., MOREIRA, F.F.F., AVELINO-CAPISTRANO, F., GONÇALVES, I.C., CORDEIRO, I.R.S., CÂMARA, J.T., BARBOSA, J.F., SOUZA, R.M. & RAFAEL, J.A. 2016. Aquatic Insects from the Caatinga: checklists and diversity assessments of Ubajara (Ceará State) and Sete Cidades (Piuaí State) National Parks, Northeastern Brazil. Biodeversity Data Journal, 4: e8354. https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e8354
https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e8354...
), Pernambuco (Lima et al. 2015LIMA, L.R.C., SALLES, F.F. & PINHEIRO, U. 2015. New records of mayflies (Ephemeroptera: Insecta) from Pernanbuco state, Northeastern Brazil. Check List, 11(3): 1652. http://doi.org/10.15560/11.3.1652
https://doi.org/10.15560/11.3.1652...
) and Mato Grosso (Shimano et al. 2011SHIMANO, Y., SALLES, F.F. & CABETTE, H.S.R. 2011. Ephemeroptera (Insecta) from east of Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Biota Neotropica. 11(4): 239–253. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032011000400021 (last access on 07/072023).
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1676-0603201100...
).

Material examined. Two ♂ imagos (rearing), S8, 15.xii.2018, L.R.C. Lima col. (CEHJ). One ♂ imago (rearing), S16, 15.vii.2022, L.R.C. Lima col. (CEHJ).

Discussion

Our study provides new information about the distribution of Leptophlebiidae species in the state of Piauí, northeastern Brazil. This represents an increase from nine to 17 species with valid occurrences in the state, and five genera reported for the first time. Although the species recorded in this study are also found in other Brazilian states and in other South American countries, this study provides a significant contribution to the knowledge of Ephemeroptera in the Northeast region of Brazil, particularly in semi-arid environments.

Leptophlebiidae inventories have been conducted in only a few areas of the Cerrado biome. The state of Piauí follows a similar pattern, with studies concentrated in the northern part of the state, specifically in the lower and middle sub-basins of the Parnaíba river (Figure 1A). This concentration is primarily due to the location of our research group, which faces resource constraints in conducting field expeditions to more distant regions. Despite notable efforts between the first record of Leptophlebiidae species distribution in Piauí (Takiya et al. 2016TAKIYA, D.M., SANTOS, A.P.M., PINTO, A.P., HENRIQUES-OLIVEIRA, A.L., CARVALHO, A.L., SAMPAIO, B.H.L., CLARKSON, B., MOREIRA, F.F.F., AVELINO-CAPISTRANO, F., GONÇALVES, I.C., CORDEIRO, I.R.S., CÂMARA, J.T., BARBOSA, J.F., SOUZA, R.M. & RAFAEL, J.A. 2016. Aquatic Insects from the Caatinga: checklists and diversity assessments of Ubajara (Ceará State) and Sete Cidades (Piuaí State) National Parks, Northeastern Brazil. Biodeversity Data Journal, 4: e8354. https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e8354
https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e8354...
) and the findings presented in this study, there is still a vast unknown area in Piauí, particularly in the middle and upper sub-basins of the Parnaíba River. This knowledge gap limits our ability to understand the effects of multiple human-caused stressors on biodiversity or to utilize this information to create local conservation strategies (e.g., Baranzelli et al. 2023BARANZELLI, M.C., VILLALOBOS, F., CORDIER, J.M. & NORI, J. 2023. Knowledge shortfalls’ interactions shadow our perception of species’ exposure to human threats. Biological Conservation, 282: 110069. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2023.110069
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2023.11...
). This becomes even more relevant considering that to the west of the upper and middle sub-basins of the Parnaíba river lies the region known as MATOPIBA. This name refers to the area encompassing the states of Maranhão (MA), Tocantins (TO), Piauí (PI), and Bahia (BA), which is considered suitable for monoculture expansion in Brazil (Miranda et al. 2014MIRANDA, E.E., MAGALHÃES, L.A. & CARVALHO, C.A. 2014. Proposta de delimitação territorial do MATOPIBA. Nota Técnica 1. Grupo de Inteligência Territorial Estratégia (GITE). Embrapa. Campinas. São Paulo, 1–18. https://ainfo.cnptia.embrapa.br/digital/bitstream/item/139202/1/NT1-DelimitacaoMatopiba.pdf (last access on 07/072023).
https://ainfo.cnptia.embrapa.br/digital/...
, Polizel et al. 2021POLIZEL, S.P., VIEIRA, R.M.D.S.P., POMPEU, J., FERREIRA, Y.C., SOUSA-NETO, E.R., BARBOSA, A.A. & OMETTO, J.P.H.B. 2021. Analysing the dynamics of land use in the context of current conservation policies and land tenure in the Cerrado–MATOPIBA region (Brazil). Land use policy, 109: 105713. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2021.105713
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.202...
). Consequently, the transformation of this area can incur significant environmental costs, including fragmentation, water pollution, and loss of Ephemeroptera specimens unknown to science.

The new records and additional occurrence points presented in this study significantly contribute to our knowledge of Leptophlebiidae species distribution in Brazil, reducing the Wallacean shortfall of the Ephemeroptera in the Cerrado biome. We highlight that there is still a vast area in the Cerrado and Brazilian semiarid regions where the occurrence of Ephemeroptera is unknown, confirming that the diversity in this area is underestimated and that knowledge of Ephemeroptera species and their distributions can expand with increased sampling efforts in the coming years. This effort has the potential to reduce the Linnean and Wallacean shortfall about the Leptophlebiidae species. Our results also highlight the urgency of inventory efforts in the southern region of the state of Piauí, particularly in the middle and upper sub-basins of the Parnaíba river, as they are heavily influenced by MATOPIBA.

Acknowledgments

We are thankful to the staff of the Laboratório de Zoologia (Universidade Estadual do Piauí - UESPI, Campus Heróis do Jenipapo) and the research group NUPEIA (Núcleo de Pesquisa em Insetos Aquáticos) for encouragement and logistical support. Partial financial support was received from Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for productivity grant to LRCL (process number: 310205/2021–2) and for the postdoctoral scholarship to APJF (process number: 306103/2022-2); and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Piauí (FAPEPI) for funding the scientific Project (Process nº. 00110.000138/2022-85). We are thankful to Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade/ICMBio collecting permits (75174-1, 75174-2, 75174-3 and 49860-7).

Data availability

The data used in our analysis is available at Biota Neotropica Dataverse https://doi.org/10.48331/scielodata.JTYTUS

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Edited by

Associate Editor
José Mermudes

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    08 Jan 2024
  • Date of issue
    2023

History

  • Received
    13 July 2023
  • Accepted
    30 Nov 2023
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