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First record of the camboatá Megalechis picta (Müller & Troschel, 1849) (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae) for the Pantanal, Brazil

Primeiro registro do camboatá Megalechis picta(Müller & Troschel, 1849) (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae) para o Pantanal, Brasil

Luiz Tencatt Francisco Severo-Neto Otávio Froehlich About the authors

Abstracts

Herein we report the first record of Megalechis picta in the Brazilian Pantanal based in a single specimen captured in a tributary to the rio Miranda, municipality of Corumbá, rio Paraguay basin, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Additional discussion about its co-occurrence with M. thoracata is also provided.

Callichtyinae; Introduced species; Neotropical region; rio Paraguay; rio Orinoco


Aqui reportamos o primeiro registro de Megalechis picta no Pantanal brasileiro baseado em um único espécime capturado em um tributário do rio Miranda, município de Corumbá, bacia do rio Paraguai, Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Uma discussão adicional sobre a sua coocorrência com M. thoracata também é fornecida.

Callichtyinae; Espécies introduzidas; região Neotropical; rio Paraguai; rio Orinoco


Introduction

The Callichthyidae are characterized by the presence of two longitudinal series of dermal plates on flanks, and currently comprises about 200 valid species allocated in two subfamilies, Callicthyinae and Corydoradinae (Reis, 2003REIS, R.E. 2003. Family Callichthyidae (armored catfishes). In Check List of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. (Reis, R.E., Kullander, S.O. & Ferraris, C.J.J., eds.). Edipucrs, Porto Alegre, p. 291-309.; Eschmeyer, 2014ESCHMEYER, W.N. 2014. Catalog of Fishes. Available from http://research.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp. (accessed in 25 June 2014)
http://research.calacademy.org/research/...
). Callichthyinae is composed by five valid genus, CallichthysScopolli, 1777, Dianema Cope, 1871, HoplosternumGill, 1858, LepthoplosternumReis, 1997REIS, R.E. 1997. Revision of the Neotropical genus Hoplosternum (Ostariophysi: Siluriformes: Callichthyidae) with the description of two new genera and three new species. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters. 7(4):299-326. and MegalechisReis, 1997REIS, R.E. 1997. Revision of the Neotropical genus Hoplosternum (Ostariophysi: Siluriformes: Callichthyidae) with the description of two new genera and three new species. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters. 7(4):299-326. (Reis 1998, 2003REIS, R.E. 1998. Anatomy and phylogenetic analysis of the neotropical callichthyid catfishes (Ostariophysi, Siluriformes). Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society, 124:105-168, 10.1111/j.1096-3642.1998.tb00571.x.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1998...
) and can be promptly distinguished from the remaining Callichthyidae by the presence of anal-fin spine (vs. absence). Megalechis is distinguished from the other Callichthyinae by the unique combination of features: infraorbital bones exposed (vs.covered by thick layer of skin), caudal fin truncate or convex (vs.forked or concave) and presence of two unbranched rays in dorsal fin (vs. one). The genus currently comprises two valid species, M. picta, from the Amazon, Orinoco and Essequibo river basins, and additionally from coastal rivers of northern Brazil, and M. thoracata, from the Amazon and Orinoco rivers basins, and further coastal drainages of Guianas and northeastern Brazil (Reis et al. 2005REIS, R.E., LE BAIL, P.Y, & MOL, J.H.A. 2005. New arrangement in the synonymy of Megalechis Reis, 1997 (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae). Copeia. 2005(3):678-682, 10.1643/CI-04-353R.
https://doi.org/10.1643/CI-04-353R...
).

After the analysis of all the Megalechis material hosted in the Coleção Zoológica de Referência da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (ZUFMS-PIS), a single specimen of M. picta (Figure 1a) from the southern Pantanal region, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, was identified, consisting in the first record of this species for the Pantanal region, which is stated herein. A map showing the new record, with the addition of the other two available non-native records of M. pictais also provided (Figure 2).

Figure 1
Lateral view of the (a) Megalechis picta specimen, ZUFMS-PIS 30, 100.0 mm SL, collected in the Baía do Quadrado, and (b) Megalechis thoracata, ZUFMS-PIS 54, 66.8 mm SL, from a lagoon tributary to the rio Miranda.
Figure 2
Map showing the new record for Megalechis picta in the southern Pantanal region (red star), and the available records for the rio Araguaia basin (black circle) and upper rio Paraná basin (black diamond).

Material and methods

The Megalechis picta specimen (Figure 1a) was collected by Otávio Froehlich, in October 1990, in the Baía do Quadrado, tributary to the rio Miranda, geographical coordinates 19° 24’ 14” S and 57° 02’ 40” W, municipality of Corumbá, State of Mato Grosso do Sul. The confection of the map was made through the software Quantum GIS, version 1.8.0. The specimen was captured using a trawl net, firstly fixed in 10% formalin, transferred to 70% hydrated ethanol, and posteriorly deposited in the Coleção Zoológica de Referência da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, under voucher ZUFMS-PIS 30. The identification of the species was performed according to Reis et al. (2005)REIS, R.E., LE BAIL, P.Y, & MOL, J.H.A. 2005. New arrangement in the synonymy of Megalechis Reis, 1997 (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae). Copeia. 2005(3):678-682, 10.1643/CI-04-353R.
https://doi.org/10.1643/CI-04-353R...
. In figure legends, SL means standard length and CP means “comprimento padrão”.

Results and discussion

Recently, Tencatt et al. (2013TENCATT, L.F.C., GRAÇA, W.J. & PAVANELLI, C.S. 2013 First record of Megalechis picta (Müller & Troschel, 1849) (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae) in the upper Rio Paraná basin, Brazil. Check List. 9(5):1081-1083.) reported the first occurrence record of Megalechis picta in the upper rio Paraná basin, region of the Corumbá IV Reservoir, and commented on the taxonomic rearrangements that resulted in the revalidation of Megalechis picta and the synonymy of M. personata under M. thoracata (for more details see Reis et al. 2005REIS, R.E., LE BAIL, P.Y, & MOL, J.H.A. 2005. New arrangement in the synonymy of Megalechis Reis, 1997 (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae). Copeia. 2005(3):678-682, 10.1643/CI-04-353R.
https://doi.org/10.1643/CI-04-353R...
). The occurrence of Megalechis thoracata (Figure 1b) is already reported for the Pantanal region (see Britski et al. 2007BRITSKI, H.A., SILIMON, K.Z.S. & LOPES, B.S. 2007. Peixes do Pantanal: Manual de Identificação. 2 ed. Embrapa Informação Tecnológica, Brasília.: 153). Megalechis picta is native in the Amazon, Orinoco and Essequibo river basins and can be clearly distinguished from M. thoracata mainly by the color pattern of caudal fin (proximal and distal margins of caudal-fin blackened, with a conspicuous transversal black bar in its middle portion, the regions between the blackened bands are clearly whitish yellow vs. proximal margin of caudal-fin whitish, the remaining portion is dusky or black spotted).

In addition to the syntopic occurrence of Megalechis thoracata and M. picta in the rio Paraguay basin, other records also stated the presence of M. thoracata (Castro et al. 2004CASTRO, R.M.C., CASATTI, L., SANTOS, H.F., MELO, A.L.A., MARTINS, L.S.F., FERREIRA, K.M., GIBRAN, F.Z., BENINE, R.C., CARVALHO, M., RIBEIRO, A.C., ABREU, T.X., BOCKMANN, F.A., DARDIS, G.Z.P., STOPIGLIA, R. & LANGEANI, F. 2004. Estrutura e composição da ictiofauna de riachos da bacia do Rio Grande, no Estado de São Paulo, Sudeste do Brasil. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v4n1/pt/abstract?article+BN0170402004(last acess 02/07/2014)
http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v4n1/p...
; Langeani et al. 2007LANGEANI, F., CASTRO, R.M.C., OYAKAWA, O.T., SHIBATTA, O.A., PAVANELLI, C.S. & CASATTI, L. 2007. Diversidade da ictiofauna do alto Rio Paraná: composição atual e perspectivas futuras. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n3/pt/abstract?article+bn03407032007(last acess 02/07/2014)
http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n3/p...
; Perez-Júnior and Garavello 2007PEREZ-JÚNIOR, O.R. & GARAVELLO, J.C. 2007. Ictiofauna do Ribeirão do Pântano, afluente do Rio Mogi-Guaçu, Bacia do Alto Rio Paraná, São Paulo, Brasil. Iheringia Zool. 97(3):328-335, 10.1590/S0073-47212007000300018.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0073-4721200700...
; Apone et al. 2008APONE, F., OLIVEIRA, A.K. & GARAVELLO, J.C. 2008. Composição da ictiofauna do rio Quilombo, tributário do rio Mogi-Guaçu, bacia do alto rio Paraná, sudeste do Brasil. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v8n1/pt/abstract?article+bn02208012008(last acess 02/07/2014).
http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v8n1/p...
; Oliveira et al. 2009OLIVEIRA, A.K., APONE, F., BIRINDELLI, J.L.O. & PEREZ-JUNIOR, O.R. 2009. Fish, tributaries of middle Rio Mogi Guaçu, upper rio Paraná basin, São Paulo state, Southeastern Brazil. Check List. 5(3):488-494.) and of M. picta (Tencatt et al. 2013TENCATT, L.F.C., GRAÇA, W.J. & PAVANELLI, C.S. 2013 First record of Megalechis picta (Müller & Troschel, 1849) (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae) in the upper Rio Paraná basin, Brazil. Check List. 9(5):1081-1083.) co-occurring in the upper rio Paraná basin. Despite this new record, the species was never captured again in the rio Paraguay basin. The Núcleo de Pesquisas em Ictiologia, Limnologia e Aquicultura (Nupélia) staff have colleted in the region of Manso Reservoir, State of Mato Grosso, for four years and no specimen of M. picta was captured. Additionally, other surveys efforts conducted by ZUFMS-PIS staff in the same region of the captured specimen and in the Bodoquena Plateau region also have not resulted in its capture. As mentioned by Tencatt et al. (2013TENCATT, L.F.C., GRAÇA, W.J. & PAVANELLI, C.S. 2013 First record of Megalechis picta (Müller & Troschel, 1849) (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae) in the upper Rio Paraná basin, Brazil. Check List. 9(5):1081-1083.) the introduction of M. picta in the upper rio Paraná basin is probably due to its use as a live bait, which can be a plausible explanation to its occurrence in the rio Paraguay basin. The possibility that both species were introduced together in these basins is also plausible due to their difficult distinction by non-experts, thus, can be easily mistaken and sold as a single species by sellers of live baits and in aquarium shops.

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the Núcleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia, Ictiologia e Aquicultura (Nupélia) and the Laboratório de Zoologia da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul for providing logistical support. The Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) provided fellowships to LFCT.

Literature cited

  • APONE, F., OLIVEIRA, A.K. & GARAVELLO, J.C. 2008. Composição da ictiofauna do rio Quilombo, tributário do rio Mogi-Guaçu, bacia do alto rio Paraná, sudeste do Brasil. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v8n1/pt/abstract?article+bn02208012008(last acess 02/07/2014).
    » http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v8n1/pt/abstract?article+bn02208012008
  • BRITSKI, H.A., SILIMON, K.Z.S. & LOPES, B.S. 2007. Peixes do Pantanal: Manual de Identificação. 2 ed. Embrapa Informação Tecnológica, Brasília.
  • CASTRO, R.M.C., CASATTI, L., SANTOS, H.F., MELO, A.L.A., MARTINS, L.S.F., FERREIRA, K.M., GIBRAN, F.Z., BENINE, R.C., CARVALHO, M., RIBEIRO, A.C., ABREU, T.X., BOCKMANN, F.A., DARDIS, G.Z.P., STOPIGLIA, R. & LANGEANI, F. 2004. Estrutura e composição da ictiofauna de riachos da bacia do Rio Grande, no Estado de São Paulo, Sudeste do Brasil. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v4n1/pt/abstract?article+BN0170402004(last acess 02/07/2014)
    » http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v4n1/pt/abstract?article+BN0170402004
  • ESCHMEYER, W.N. 2014. Catalog of Fishes. Available from http://research.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp (accessed in 25 June 2014)
    » http://research.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp
  • LANGEANI, F., CASTRO, R.M.C., OYAKAWA, O.T., SHIBATTA, O.A., PAVANELLI, C.S. & CASATTI, L. 2007. Diversidade da ictiofauna do alto Rio Paraná: composição atual e perspectivas futuras. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n3/pt/abstract?article+bn03407032007(last acess 02/07/2014)
    » http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n3/pt/abstract?article+bn03407032007
  • OLIVEIRA, A.K., APONE, F., BIRINDELLI, J.L.O. & PEREZ-JUNIOR, O.R. 2009. Fish, tributaries of middle Rio Mogi Guaçu, upper rio Paraná basin, São Paulo state, Southeastern Brazil. Check List. 5(3):488-494.
  • PEREZ-JÚNIOR, O.R. & GARAVELLO, J.C. 2007. Ictiofauna do Ribeirão do Pântano, afluente do Rio Mogi-Guaçu, Bacia do Alto Rio Paraná, São Paulo, Brasil. Iheringia Zool. 97(3):328-335, 10.1590/S0073-47212007000300018.
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/S0073-47212007000300018
  • REIS, R.E. 1997. Revision of the Neotropical genus Hoplosternum (Ostariophysi: Siluriformes: Callichthyidae) with the description of two new genera and three new species. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters. 7(4):299-326.
  • REIS, R.E. 1998. Anatomy and phylogenetic analysis of the neotropical callichthyid catfishes (Ostariophysi, Siluriformes). Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society, 124:105-168, 10.1111/j.1096-3642.1998.tb00571.x.
    » https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1998.tb00571.x
  • REIS, R.E. 2003. Family Callichthyidae (armored catfishes). In Check List of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. (Reis, R.E., Kullander, S.O. & Ferraris, C.J.J., eds.). Edipucrs, Porto Alegre, p. 291-309.
  • REIS, R.E., LE BAIL, P.Y, & MOL, J.H.A. 2005. New arrangement in the synonymy of Megalechis Reis, 1997 (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae). Copeia. 2005(3):678-682, 10.1643/CI-04-353R.
    » https://doi.org/10.1643/CI-04-353R
  • TENCATT, L.F.C., GRAÇA, W.J. & PAVANELLI, C.S. 2013 First record of Megalechis picta (Müller & Troschel, 1849) (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae) in the upper Rio Paraná basin, Brazil. Check List. 9(5):1081-1083.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Mar 2015

History

  • Received
    02 July 2014
  • Reviewed
    07 Oct 2014
  • Accepted
    05 Jan 2015
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