A case of complete albinism in the catfish Cambeva guareiensis (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae)

Um caso de albinismo completo no bagrinho Cambeva guareiensis (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae)

Valter M. Azevedo-Santos Fernando M. Pelicice Ivan Sazima Raoul Henry About the authors

Abstract:

Albinism has been recorded in Neotropical freshwater fishes, mostly for nocturnal or cryptobiotic species. We report herein a case of albinism in the catfish Cambeva guareiensis (Trichomycteridae) from the Guareí River basin, Upper Paraná River basin, southeastern Brazil. The albino fish was caught with seven individuals with typical color pattern of the species. The features of the albino fish in life and shortly after preservation are described and illustrated.

Keywords:
Albinism; color anomaly; fish; Guareí River basin; Neotropical region; Paranapanema River basin

Resumo:

Albinismo tem sido registrado em peixes de água doce Neotropicais, principalmente em espécies noturnas ou criptobióticas. Relatamos aqui um caso de albinismo no bagrinho Cambeva guareiensis (Trichomycteridae) da bacia do Rio Guareí, bacia do Alto Rio Paraná, sudeste do Brasil. O peixe albino foi capturado juntamente com sete indivíduos com padrão de cor típico da espécie. As caracteristicas do peixe albino em vida e logo após a preservação são descritas e ilustradas.

Palavras-chave:
Albinismo ; anomalia de cor; bacia do Rio Guareí; bacia do Rio Paranapanema; peixe, região Neotropical

Introduction

Like several other vertebrate groups, fishes may display different types of physical abnormalities (e.g., Bhagat & Kumar 2014BHAGAT, N. & KUMAR, R. 2014. Deformities in some fresh water fish of river Tawi Injammu (J&K). The Bioscan, Int. Quart. J. Life Sci. 9(3): 991-996.; Catelani et al. 2017CATELANI, P.A., BAUER, A.B., DI DARIO, F., PELICICE, F.M. & PETRY, A.C. 2017. First record of pughead deformity in Cichla kelberi (Teleostei: Cichlidae), an invasive species in an estuarine system in south‐eastern Brazil. J. Fish Biol. 90(6): 2496-2503. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.13323
https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.13323...
), among them those related to color such as different types of albinism (e.g., Nobile et al. 2016NOBILE, A.B., FREITAS-SOUZA, D., LIMA, F.P., ACOSTA, A.A. & SILVA, R.J. 2016. Partial albinism in Rhinelepis aspera from the Upper Paraná Basin, Brazil, with a review of albinism in South American freshwater fishes. Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 87(2): 531-534. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmb.2016.04.005
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmb.2016.04.00...
). A completely albino individual is characterized by pinkish or yellowish color and pink or red eyes (e.g., Sazima & Pombal-Jr. 1986SAZIMA, I. & POMBAL-JR, J.P. 1986. Um albino de Rhamdella minuta, com notas sobre comportamento (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae). Rev. Bras. Biol. 46(2): 377-381.; Oliveira & Foresti 1996OLIVEIRA, C. & FORESTI, F. 1996. Albinism in the banded knifefish, Gymnotus carapo. Trop. Fish. Hobbyist 44(12): 92-96.; Silva et al. 2013SILVA, T.R.M., ARAÚJO, T.A.T. & BICUDO, A.J.A. 2013. First report of albinism in trahira Hoplias malabaricus from Brazil. Bol. Inst. Pesca 39(4): 457-460.). Currently, a small number of cases of complete albinism is recorded for Neotropical freshwater fishes, mostly in epigeal habitats (e.g., del Barco & Panattieri 1980DEL BARCO, D. & PANATTIERI, A. 1980. Un caso de albinismo en armado chancho (Oxydoras kneri, Bleeker 1862) (Pisces - Doradidae). Com. Mus. Prov. Cienc. Natur. Florentino Ameghino 9: 8-19.; Oliveira & Foresti 1996OLIVEIRA, C. & FORESTI, F. 1996. Albinism in the banded knifefish, Gymnotus carapo. Trop. Fish. Hobbyist 44(12): 92-96.; Brito & Caramaschi 2005BRITO, M.F.G. & CARAMASCHI, E.P. 2005. An albino armored catfish Schizolecis guntheri (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from an Atlantic Forest coastal basin. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 3(1): 123-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1679-62252005000100009
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1679-62252005...
; Silva et al. 2013SILVA, T.R.M., ARAÚJO, T.A.T. & BICUDO, A.J.A. 2013. First report of albinism in trahira Hoplias malabaricus from Brazil. Bol. Inst. Pesca 39(4): 457-460.), although albinism is known in hypogeal habitats as well (Carvalho & de Pinna 1986CARVALHO, A.M. & DE PINNA, M.C.C. 1986. Estudo de uma população hipógea de Trichomycterus (Ostariophysi, Siluroidei, Trichomycteridae) da gruta Olhos d’Água, MG. Espeleo-Tema 15: 53-64.). To date, reports of complete albinos among trichomycterid catfishes remain restricted to the cave-dwelling Trichomycterus itacarambiensis Trajano & de Pinna, 1996 (Carvalho & de Pinna 1986CARVALHO, A.M. & DE PINNA, M.C.C. 1986. Estudo de uma população hipógea de Trichomycterus (Ostariophysi, Siluroidei, Trichomycteridae) da gruta Olhos d’Água, MG. Espeleo-Tema 15: 53-64.; Trajano 1997TRAJANO, E. 1997. Population ecology of Trichomycterus itacarambiensis, a cave catfish from eastern Brazil (Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 50: 357-369. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007366119261
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007366119261...
).

During a field work (Azevedo-Santos et al. 2020AZEVEDO-SANTOS, V.M., PELICICE, F.M. & HENRY, R. 2020. Knowing biodiversity: Fishes from the Guareí River basin, a tributary of the Jurumirim reservoir, Paranapanema River, Brazil. Biota Neotrop. 20(3): e20201031. https://doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611-bn-2020-1031
https://doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611-bn-202...
) at the Guareí River basin, an important tributary of the Upper Paranapanema River, Brazil, a complete albino specimen of the catfish Cambeva guareiensisKatz & Costa 2020KATZ, A.M. & COSTA, W.J.E.M. 2020. A new species of the catfish genus Cambeva from the Paranapanema river drainage, southeastern Brazil (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae). Trop. Zool. 33(1): 2-13. (Trichomycteridae) was caught together with normal individuals. Herein we describe and illustrate the case.

Material and Methods

Cambeva guareiensis individuals were collected on 20 September 2017 in the Corrente stream (-23.434932°-48.388694°), in the Guareí River basin, Upper Paranapanema River, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil (Azevedo-Santos et al. 2020AZEVEDO-SANTOS, V.M., PELICICE, F.M. & HENRY, R. 2020. Knowing biodiversity: Fishes from the Guareí River basin, a tributary of the Jurumirim reservoir, Paranapanema River, Brazil. Biota Neotrop. 20(3): e20201031. https://doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611-bn-2020-1031
https://doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611-bn-202...
). The Corrente stream presents clear waters along its course. In the sampled site the substrate is composed mostly of rocks; the riparian vegetation is relatively well preserved, especially if compared to other streams in the Guareí River basin. Specimens of this trichomycterid catfish were collected in a stretch above a waterfall, with rapid waters and rocky substrate. Collection methods (hand net), euthanasia, fixation and preservation of the specimens are fully described in Azevedo-Santos et al. (2020)AZEVEDO-SANTOS, V.M., PELICICE, F.M. & HENRY, R. 2020. Knowing biodiversity: Fishes from the Guareí River basin, a tributary of the Jurumirim reservoir, Paranapanema River, Brazil. Biota Neotrop. 20(3): e20201031. https://doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611-bn-2020-1031
https://doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611-bn-202...
.

The eight specimens caught in the same stretch had their standard length (SL, 0.1 mm) measured under stereomicroscope and were deposited in the collection of the Departamento de Zoologia e Botânica, UNESP, São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil (DZSJRP 23090). Names for the varied forms of albinism followed mostly Henle et al. (2017)HENLE, K., DUBOIS, A. & VERSHININ, V. 2017. Commented glossary, terminology and synonymies of anomalies in natural populations of amphibians. Mertensiella 25: 9-48. for amphibians, as we found no comparable definitions and descriptions for fishes.

Results

The complete albino individual of Cambeva guareiensis has 28.3 mm SL and the normally pigmented individuals measure between 30.1 and 56.0 mm SL. The body proportions of the albino are similar to those of the normal specimens. In addition, meristics are within the range expected for normal specimens. In life, the albino had pink eyes, a yellowish color dorsally and pink laterally, and the opercle and the region immediately after pectoral fins were red (Figure 1a-b). Due to its small size and the photographic perspective, the eyes are best viewed on the right side of the albino in dorsal view (Figure 1b). Shortly after fixed in formalin, the specimen showed a yellowish color dorsally and laterally. The ventral region was slightly yellow to white. The eyes and the operculum were whitish, the rays of all fins were light yellow (Figure 2a). Pigmented individuals had brown spots dorsally and laterally, with a midline composed of larger spots. The ventral region was yellowish to white (Figure 2b).

Figure 1
Cambeva guareiensis complete albino in life: (a) left side and (b) dorsal view (DZSJRP 23090).
Figure 2
Cambeva guareiensis individuals shortly after preservation: (a) complete albino (28.3 mm SL) and (b) normal color pattern (30.1 mm SL) (DZSJRP 23090).

Discussion

The lack of pigmentation and pink eyes qualify the atypical Cambeva guareiensis individual as a complete albino (sensuHenle et al. 2017HENLE, K., DUBOIS, A. & VERSHININ, V. 2017. Commented glossary, terminology and synonymies of anomalies in natural populations of amphibians. Mertensiella 25: 9-48.). The yellowish tinge and red eyes are typical traits of complete albinos (Sazima & Pombal-Jr. 1986SAZIMA, I. & POMBAL-JR, J.P. 1986. Um albino de Rhamdella minuta, com notas sobre comportamento (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae). Rev. Bras. Biol. 46(2): 377-381.; Oliveira & Foresti 1996OLIVEIRA, C. & FORESTI, F. 1996. Albinism in the banded knifefish, Gymnotus carapo. Trop. Fish. Hobbyist 44(12): 92-96.; Silva et al. 2013SILVA, T.R.M., ARAÚJO, T.A.T. & BICUDO, A.J.A. 2013. First report of albinism in trahira Hoplias malabaricus from Brazil. Bol. Inst. Pesca 39(4): 457-460.). Therefore, the color of our specimen should not be confused with xanthism or flavism (sensu Henle et al. 2017HENLE, K., DUBOIS, A. & VERSHININ, V. 2017. Commented glossary, terminology and synonymies of anomalies in natural populations of amphibians. Mertensiella 25: 9-48.), since xanthic individuals have pigmented eyes.

Cambeva guareiensis, a recently described species (Katz & Costa 2020KATZ, A.M. & COSTA, W.J.E.M. 2020. A new species of the catfish genus Cambeva from the Paranapanema river drainage, southeastern Brazil (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae). Trop. Zool. 33(1): 2-13.), seems to be the second complete albino trichomycterid recorded to date. In a population of the cave-dwelling Trichomycterus itacarambiensis studied by Trajano (1997)TRAJANO, E. 1997. Population ecology of Trichomycterus itacarambiensis, a cave catfish from eastern Brazil (Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 50: 357-369. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007366119261
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007366119261...
, there are depigmented individuals with red eyes (Carvalho & de Pinna 1986CARVALHO, A.M. & DE PINNA, M.C.C. 1986. Estudo de uma população hipógea de Trichomycterus (Ostariophysi, Siluroidei, Trichomycteridae) da gruta Olhos d’Água, MG. Espeleo-Tema 15: 53-64.), which qualify them as complete or true albinos. However, it is difficult to qualify complete albinism in species that lack eyes, a typical trait in troglobiont organisms. This is the case of eyeless fish dwellling in caves and other types of hypogeal waters (Shibatta et al. 2007SHIBATTA, O.A., MURIEL-CUNHA, J. & DE PINNA, M.C.C. 2007. A new subterranean species of Phreatobius Goeldi, 1905 (Siluriformes, Incertae sedis) from the Southwestern Amazon basin. Pap. Avul. Zool. 47(17): 191-201.; Felice et al. 2008FELICE, V., VISCONTI, M.A. & TRAJANO, E. 2008. Mechanisms of pigmentation loss in subterranean fishes. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 6(4): 657-662.).

Complete or true albinos are rarely reported for the Neotropics, and most of them are catfishes (Siluriformes) belonging to several families including Callichthyidae, Doradidae, Heptapteridae, Loricariidae, and Trichomycteridae (del Barco & Panattieri 1980; Carvalho & de Pinna 1986CARVALHO, A.M. & DE PINNA, M.C.C. 1986. Estudo de uma população hipógea de Trichomycterus (Ostariophysi, Siluroidei, Trichomycteridae) da gruta Olhos d’Água, MG. Espeleo-Tema 15: 53-64.; Sazima & Pombal-Jr. 1986SAZIMA, I. & POMBAL-JR, J.P. 1986. Um albino de Rhamdella minuta, com notas sobre comportamento (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae). Rev. Bras. Biol. 46(2): 377-381.; Burgess 1989BURGESS, W.E. 1989. An atlas of freshwater and marine catfishes: a preliminary survey of the Siluriformes. New Jersey: TFH Publications, 784 pp.; Brito & Caramaschi 2005BRITO, M.F.G. & CARAMASCHI, E.P. 2005. An albino armored catfish Schizolecis guntheri (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from an Atlantic Forest coastal basin. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 3(1): 123-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1679-62252005000100009
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1679-62252005...
; Manoel et al. 2017MANOEL, P.S., ONO, E.R. & ALVES, M.I.B. 2017. First report of albinism in the South American catfish Imparfinis mirini (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae). Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 88(2): 471-473. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmb .2017.01.030
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmb .2017.01.0...
). There are two records of complete albinos in Gymnotidae (Campos-da-Paz & Caramaschi 1994CAMPOS-DA-PAZ, R. & CARAMASCHI, E.P. 1994. First record of albinism in a gymnotiform fish (Teleostei: Ostariophysi). Ichthyol. Explor. Fres. 5(1): 1-4.; Oliveira & Foresti 1996OLIVEIRA, C. & FORESTI, F. 1996. Albinism in the banded knifefish, Gymnotus carapo. Trop. Fish. Hobbyist 44(12): 92-96.) and one in Erythrinidae (Silva et al. 2013SILVA, T.R.M., ARAÚJO, T.A.T. & BICUDO, A.J.A. 2013. First report of albinism in trahira Hoplias malabaricus from Brazil. Bol. Inst. Pesca 39(4): 457-460.). The gymnotid and erythrinid fishes have nocturnal behavior, as is the case of most catfishes, a trait that may favor the survival of albino individuals in a natural environment (Sazima & Pombal-Jr. 1986SAZIMA, I. & POMBAL-JR, J.P. 1986. Um albino de Rhamdella minuta, com notas sobre comportamento (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae). Rev. Bras. Biol. 46(2): 377-381.). Cambeva guareiensis, like most trichomycterid species (Arratia & Huaquín 1995ARRATIA, G. & HUAQÍN, L. 1995. Morphology of the lateral system and of the skin of diplomystid and certain primitive loricarioid catfishes and systematic and ecological considerations. Bonn. Zool. Monogr. 36: 1-109.; de Pinna & Wosiacki 2003DE PINNA, M.C.C. & WOSIACKI W.B. 2003. Family Trichomycteridae (pencil or parasitic catfishes). In Check list of the freshwater fishes of South and Central America. (L.M. Reis, S. O. Kullander, org.). Porto Alegre: Edipucrs, p. 270-290.) is mostly nocturnal and cryptic, which favors its survival face to diurnal, visually hunting predators, as previously suggested for small albino catfishes in general (Sazima & Pombal-Jr. 1986SAZIMA, I. & POMBAL-JR, J.P. 1986. Um albino de Rhamdella minuta, com notas sobre comportamento (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae). Rev. Bras. Biol. 46(2): 377-381.; Brito & Caramaschi 2005BRITO, M.F.G. & CARAMASCHI, E.P. 2005. An albino armored catfish Schizolecis guntheri (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from an Atlantic Forest coastal basin. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 3(1): 123-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1679-62252005000100009
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1679-62252005...
; Manoel et al. 2017MANOEL, P.S., ONO, E.R. & ALVES, M.I.B. 2017. First report of albinism in the South American catfish Imparfinis mirini (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae). Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 88(2): 471-473. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmb .2017.01.030
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmb .2017.01.0...
).

  • Addendum
    We refrained here from labelling our report on Cambeva guareiensis as a first case of albinism within the genus, even if it seems to be the only record of an albino of this species, and the second case of complete albinism within Trichomycteridae (Carvalho & de Pinna 1986CARVALHO, A.M. & DE PINNA, M.C.C. 1986. Estudo de uma população hipógea de Trichomycterus (Ostariophysi, Siluroidei, Trichomycteridae) da gruta Olhos d’Água, MG. Espeleo-Tema 15: 53-64.; Trajano 1997TRAJANO, E. 1997. Population ecology of Trichomycterus itacarambiensis, a cave catfish from eastern Brazil (Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 50: 357-369. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007366119261
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007366119261...
    ). To illustrate our point, an albino described by Sazima & Pombal Jr (1986)SAZIMA, I. & POMBAL-JR, J.P. 1986. Um albino de Rhamdella minuta, com notas sobre comportamento (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae). Rev. Bras. Biol. 46(2): 377-381. was identified as Rhamdella minuta Lütken, 1874, according to the taxonomic knowledge of this group at the time of publication (H. A. Britski pers. comm.). However, I.S. later recognized the specimen as Imparfinis mirini Haseman, 1911 (Figure 3). Unaware of this situation, Manoel et al. (2017)MANOEL, P.S., ONO, E.R. & ALVES, M.I.B. 2017. First report of albinism in the South American catfish Imparfinis mirini (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae). Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 88(2): 471-473. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmb .2017.01.030
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmb .2017.01.0...
    reported on a first case of albinism in I. mirini, when the supposed R. minuta was, indeed, the first record of albinism the former species. We take the opportunity to clear the facts about I. mirini albinos (Sazima & Pombal Jr. 1986SAZIMA, I. & POMBAL-JR, J.P. 1986. Um albino de Rhamdella minuta, com notas sobre comportamento (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae). Rev. Bras. Biol. 46(2): 377-381.; Manoel et al. 2017MANOEL, P.S., ONO, E.R. & ALVES, M.I.B. 2017. First report of albinism in the South American catfish Imparfinis mirini (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae). Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 88(2): 471-473. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmb .2017.01.030
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmb .2017.01.0...
    ), and recommend that the word “first” should be used with care whatever the case or occurrence reported.
    Figure 3
    Imparfinis mirini complete albino, identified as Rhamdella minuta in Sazima & Pombal (1986)SAZIMA, I. & POMBAL-JR, J.P. 1986. Um albino de Rhamdella minuta, com notas sobre comportamento (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae). Rev. Bras. Biol. 46(2): 377-381.. Adult specimen 46.4 mm SL (ZUEC 1438).

Acknowledgements

We thank Hamilton A. Rodrigues (UNESP), for constant assistance provided; Ricardo R. Benine (UNESP), for help with Figure 2. André B. Nobile (UNESP), Andréa Bialetzki (UEM), Ângelo A. Agostinho (UEM), and Reinaldo J. Castro (UFSCar), for revision of a previous version (in the thesis of the first author) of this manuscript.

References

  • ARRATIA, G. & HUAQÍN, L. 1995. Morphology of the lateral system and of the skin of diplomystid and certain primitive loricarioid catfishes and systematic and ecological considerations. Bonn. Zool. Monogr. 36: 1-109.
  • AZEVEDO-SANTOS, V.M., PELICICE, F.M. & HENRY, R. 2020. Knowing biodiversity: Fishes from the Guareí River basin, a tributary of the Jurumirim reservoir, Paranapanema River, Brazil. Biota Neotrop. 20(3): e20201031. https://doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611-bn-2020-1031
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611-bn-2020-1031
  • BHAGAT, N. & KUMAR, R. 2014. Deformities in some fresh water fish of river Tawi Injammu (J&K). The Bioscan, Int. Quart. J. Life Sci. 9(3): 991-996.
  • BRITO, M.F.G. & CARAMASCHI, E.P. 2005. An albino armored catfish Schizolecis guntheri (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from an Atlantic Forest coastal basin. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 3(1): 123-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1679-62252005000100009
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1679-62252005000100009
  • BURGESS, W.E. 1989. An atlas of freshwater and marine catfishes: a preliminary survey of the Siluriformes. New Jersey: TFH Publications, 784 pp.
  • CAMPOS-DA-PAZ, R. & CARAMASCHI, E.P. 1994. First record of albinism in a gymnotiform fish (Teleostei: Ostariophysi). Ichthyol. Explor. Fres. 5(1): 1-4.
  • CARVALHO, A.M. & DE PINNA, M.C.C. 1986. Estudo de uma população hipógea de Trichomycterus (Ostariophysi, Siluroidei, Trichomycteridae) da gruta Olhos d’Água, MG. Espeleo-Tema 15: 53-64.
  • CATELANI, P.A., BAUER, A.B., DI DARIO, F., PELICICE, F.M. & PETRY, A.C. 2017. First record of pughead deformity in Cichla kelberi (Teleostei: Cichlidae), an invasive species in an estuarine system in south‐eastern Brazil. J. Fish Biol. 90(6): 2496-2503. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.13323
    » https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.13323
  • DEL BARCO, D. & PANATTIERI, A. 1980. Un caso de albinismo en armado chancho (Oxydoras kneri, Bleeker 1862) (Pisces - Doradidae). Com. Mus. Prov. Cienc. Natur. Florentino Ameghino 9: 8-19.
  • FELICE, V., VISCONTI, M.A. & TRAJANO, E. 2008. Mechanisms of pigmentation loss in subterranean fishes. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 6(4): 657-662.
  • HENLE, K., DUBOIS, A. & VERSHININ, V. 2017. Commented glossary, terminology and synonymies of anomalies in natural populations of amphibians. Mertensiella 25: 9-48.
  • KATZ, A.M. & COSTA, W.J.E.M. 2020. A new species of the catfish genus Cambeva from the Paranapanema river drainage, southeastern Brazil (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae). Trop. Zool. 33(1): 2-13.
  • MANOEL, P.S., ONO, E.R. & ALVES, M.I.B. 2017. First report of albinism in the South American catfish Imparfinis mirini (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae). Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 88(2): 471-473. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmb .2017.01.030
    » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmb .2017.01.030
  • NOBILE, A.B., FREITAS-SOUZA, D., LIMA, F.P., ACOSTA, A.A. & SILVA, R.J. 2016. Partial albinism in Rhinelepis aspera from the Upper Paraná Basin, Brazil, with a review of albinism in South American freshwater fishes. Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 87(2): 531-534. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmb.2016.04.005
    » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmb.2016.04.005
  • OLIVEIRA, C. & FORESTI, F. 1996. Albinism in the banded knifefish, Gymnotus carapo Trop. Fish. Hobbyist 44(12): 92-96.
  • DE PINNA, M.C.C. & WOSIACKI W.B. 2003. Family Trichomycteridae (pencil or parasitic catfishes). In Check list of the freshwater fishes of South and Central America. (L.M. Reis, S. O. Kullander, org.). Porto Alegre: Edipucrs, p. 270-290.
  • SAZIMA, I. & POMBAL-JR, J.P. 1986. Um albino de Rhamdella minuta, com notas sobre comportamento (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae). Rev. Bras. Biol. 46(2): 377-381.
  • SHIBATTA, O.A., MURIEL-CUNHA, J. & DE PINNA, M.C.C. 2007. A new subterranean species of Phreatobius Goeldi, 1905 (Siluriformes, Incertae sedis) from the Southwestern Amazon basin. Pap. Avul. Zool. 47(17): 191-201.
  • SILVA, T.R.M., ARAÚJO, T.A.T. & BICUDO, A.J.A. 2013. First report of albinism in trahira Hoplias malabaricus from Brazil. Bol. Inst. Pesca 39(4): 457-460.
  • TRAJANO, E. 1997. Population ecology of Trichomycterus itacarambiensis, a cave catfish from eastern Brazil (Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 50: 357-369. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007366119261
    » https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007366119261

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    25 Sept 2020
  • Date of issue
    2020

History

  • Received
    17 June 2020
  • Reviewed
    06 Aug 2020
  • Accepted
    17 Aug 2020
Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP Departamento de Biologia Vegetal - Instituto de Biologia, UNICAMP CP 6109, 13083-970 - Campinas/SP, Tel.: (+55 19) 3521-6166, Fax: (+55 19) 3521-6168 - Campinas - SP - Brazil
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