Accessibility / Report Error

Everything is similar, everything is different! TrichorhinaBudde-Lund, 1908BUDDE-LUND, G. 1908. Isopoda von Madagaskar und Ostafrika mit Diagnosen verwandter Arten. In: Voeltzkow, A. (Ed.) Reise in Ostafrika in den Jahren 1903-1905, Vol. 2. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse, Stuttgart, p. 265–308. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.12989
https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.12989...
(Oniscidea, Platyarthridae) from Brazilian caves, with descriptions of 11 new species

Tudo é parecido, tudo é diferente! TrichorhinaBudde-Lund, 1908BUDDE-LUND, G. 1908. Isopoda von Madagaskar und Ostafrika mit Diagnosen verwandter Arten. In: Voeltzkow, A. (Ed.) Reise in Ostafrika in den Jahren 1903-1905, Vol. 2. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse, Stuttgart, p. 265–308. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.12989
https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.12989...
(Oniscidea, Platyarthridae) de cavernas brasileiras, com descrições de 11 novas espécies

Abstract

The present work describes 11 new species of the genus Trichorhina from Brazilian caves in the states of Bahia, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Pará, and São Paulo. Moreover, the distribution of T. tomentosa has been expanded to include the states of Mato Grosso and Minas Gerais. Additionally, a distribution map and a key for all Brazilian species of Trichorhina, including epigean ones, are provided.

Keywords
Terrestrial isopods; cave-dwellers; subterranean environments; Neotropics

Resumo

O presente trabalho descreve 11 novas espécies do gênero Trichorhina de cavernas brasileiras nos estados da Bahia, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Pará e São Paulo. Além disso, a distribuição de T. tomentosa foi ampliada para incluir os estados de Mato Grosso e Minas Gerais. Adicionalmente, são fornecidos um mapa de distribuição e uma chave para todas as espécies brasileiras de Trichorhina, incluindo as epígeas.

Palavras-chave
Isópodes terrestres; habitantes de cavernas; ambientes subterrâneos; Neotrópicos

Introduction

Terrestrial isopods (Oniscidea) comprise about 4,000 species in 38 or 39 families distributed in almost all types of terrestrial habitats (Schmalfuss 2003SCHMALFUSS, H. 2003. World catalog of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea). Stuttg. Beitr. Naturkd., Ser. A 654: 1–341., Javidkar et al. 2015JAVIDKAR, M., COOPER, S.J.B., KING, R.A., HUMPHREYS, W.F. & AUSTIN, A. 2015. Molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal a new southern hemisphere oniscidean family (Crustacea: Isopoda) with a unique water transport system. Invertebr. Syst. 29: 554–577. https://doi.org/10.1071/IS15010
https://doi.org/10.1071/IS15010...
, 2017JAVIDKAR, M., KING, R.A., COOPER, S.J.B., HUMPHREYS, W.F. & AUSTIN, A. 2017. Taxonomy of Paraplatyarthrus Javidkar and King (Isopoda: Oniscidea: Paraplatyarthridae) with description of five new species from Western Australia, and comments on Australian Trichorhina Budde-Lunde, 1908 (Platyarthridae). Zootaxa, 4243(3): 401–431. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4243.3.1
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4243.3....
, Sfenthourakis & Taiti 2015SFENTHOURAKIS, S. & TAITI, S. 2015. Patterns of taxonomic diversity among terrestrial isopods. ZooKeys 515: 13–25. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.515.9332
https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.515.9332...
, Dimitriou et al. 2019DIMITRIOU, A.C., TAITI, S. & SFENTHOURAKIS, S. 2019. Genetic evidence against monophyly of Oniscidea implies a need to revise scenarios for the origin of terrestrial isopods. Sci. Rep. 9: 18508. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-55071-4
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-55071...
, Campos-Filho & Taiti 2021CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. & TAITI, S. 2021. Oniscidea taxonomy: presente and future. Abstract book of the 11th International Symposium on Terrestrial Isopod Biology, “Facets of terrestrial isopod biology”. Ghent: Spinicornis. p. 9. Available at https://spinicornis.be/istib2021/.
https://spinicornis.be/istib2021/...
). The cave-dwelling Oniscidea includes over 400 species, predominantly from northern regions of the globe (e.g., Vandel 1981VANDEL, A. 1981. Les isopodes terrestres et cavernicoles de l’île de Cuba (second mémoire). In: Résultats des Expéditions biospéologiques cubano-roumaines à Cuba, Vol. 3. Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste România, Bucharest, p. 35–76., Taiti 2004TAITI, S. 2004. Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea (woodlice). In: Gunn, J. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of caves and karst science. Fitzroy Dearborn, Taylor and Francis Group, New York, p. 547–551., Taiti & Gruber 2008TAITI, S. & GRUBER, G.A. 2008. Cave-dwelling terrestrial isopods from Southern China (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea), with descriptions of four new species. In: Latella, L., Zorzin, R. (Ed.) Research in South China karsts. Mem. Mus. Civico Storia Nat. Verona, Monografie Naturalistiche 3: 101–123., Taiti & Xue 2012TAITI, S. & XUE, Z. 2012. The cavernicolous genus Trogloniscus nomem novum, with descriptions of four new species from southern China (Crustacea, Oniscidea, Styloniscidae). Trop. Zool. 25(4): 183–209. https://doi.org/10.1080/03946975.2012.751240
https://doi.org/10.1080/03946975.2012.75...
, Tabacaru & Giurginca 2013TABACARU, I. & GIURGINCA, A. 2013. Cavernicolous Oniscidea of Romania. Travaux de l’Institut de Speologie “Emile Racovitza”. t. LII: 3–26., Taiti et al. 2018TAITI, S., ARGANO, R., MARCIA, P., SCARPA, F., SANNA, D. & CASU, M. 2018. The genus Alpioniscus Racovitza, 1908 in Sardinia: taxonomy and natural history (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Trichoniscidae). Zookeys 801: 229–263. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.801.24102
https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.801.2410...
, Bedek et al. 2019aBEDEK, J., GOTTSTEIN, S. & TAITI, S. 2019a. A new species of Alpioniscus (Illyrionethes) from the Dinaric Karst (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Trichoniscidae). Subterr. Biol. 32: 33–42. https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.32.37509
https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.32.3750...
, 2019bBEDEK, J., GOTTSTEIN, S. & TAITI, S. 2019b. Taxonomy of Alpioniscus (Illyrionethes): A. magnus and three new species from the Dinaric Karst (Isopoda: Oniscidea: Trichoniscidae). Zootaxa 4657(3): 483–502. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4657.3.4
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4657.3....
, 2019cBEDEK, J., TAITI, S., ILANDŽIJA, H., RISTORI, E. & BARATTI, M. 2019c. Molecular and taxonomic analyses in troglobiotic Alpioniscus (Illyrionethes) species from the Dinaric Karst (Isopoda: Trichoniscidae). Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 187(3): 539–584. https://doi.org/10.1093/zoolinnean/zlz056
https://doi.org/10.1093/zoolinnean/zlz05...
).

In all of South America, only 2% of the territory has suitable lithology for the development of karst systems, of which Brazil has the highest number of systems and caves, approximately 23,000 caves in 19 karst areas (Auler 2002AULER, A.S. 2002. Karst areas in Brazil and the potential for major caves - an overview. Bol. Soc. Venez. Espeleol. 36: 29–35., 2017AULER, A.S. 2017. Hypogene Caves and Karst of South America. In: Hypogene Karst Regions and Caves of the World. Cave and Karst Systems of the World (A. Klimchouk, A.N. Palmer, J.D. Waele, A.S. Auler & P. Andra, eds). Springer, Cham, p. 817–826. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-53348-3_55
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-53348-...
, CECAV 2018CECAV – Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Conservação de Cavernas. 2018. Base de dados Eoespacializados das cavernas do Brasil. Available at https://www.gov.br/icmbio/pt-br/assuntos/centros-de-pesquisa/cecav. Accessed on 12 May 2023.
https://www.gov.br/icmbio/pt-br/assuntos...
, Rubbioli et al. 2019RUBBIOLI, E., AULER, A., MENIN, D. & BRANDI, R. 2019. Cavernas-Atlas do Brasil Subterrâneo. ICMBio, Brasília, DF, 340p.). In recent years, numerous surveys conducted in these karst systems have revealed a significant potential for the occurrence of Oniscidea (e.g., Gallão & Bichuette 2015GALLÃO, J.E. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2015. Taxonomic distinctness and conservation of a new high biodiversity subterranean area in Brazil. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. 87(1): 209–217. https://doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201520140312
https://doi.org/10.1590/0001-37652015201...
, 2018GALLÃO, J.E. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2018. Brazilian obligatory subterranean fauna and threats to the hypogean environment. Zookeys 746: 1–23. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.746.15140
https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.746.1514...
, Silva & Ferreira 2015SILVA, M.S. & FERREIRA, R.L. 2015. Cave invertebrates in Espírito Santo state, Brazil: a primary analysis of endemism, threats and conservation priorities. Subterr. Biol. 16: 79–102. https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.16.5227
https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.16.5227...
, Pellegrini & Ferreira 2016PELLEGRINI, T.G. & FERRERIA, R.L. 2016. Are inner cave communities more stable than entrance communities in Lapa Nova show cave? Subterr. Biol. 20: 15–37. https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.20.9334
https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.20.9334...
, Fernandes et al. 2019FERNANDES, C.S., CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2019. Synopsis of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves, with emphasis on new records from north, midwest, northeast and southeast regions. J. Nat. Hist. 53(17–18): 1095–1129. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.1634225
https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.16...
), and a high diversity of obligatory species has been described (Campos-Filho et al. 2011CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. & ARAUJO, P.B. 2011. Two new troglobitic species of Scleropactidae (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Pará, Brazil. Nauplius 19: 27–39., 2014CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B., BICHUETTE, M.E., TRAJANO, E. & TAITI, S. 2014. Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 172(2): 360–425. https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172
https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172...
, 2015aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., MISE, K.M. & SESSEGOLO, G.C. 2015a. A new species of Trichorhina Budde-Lund, 1908 (Isopoda: Oniscidea: Platyarthridae) from Paraná caves, southern Brazil. Nauplius 23: 112–119. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-64972015002324
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-6497201500...
, 2016CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., BICHUETTE, M.E. & TAITI, S. 2016. Three new species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Nauplius 24: e2016001. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2016001
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201600...
, 2017aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., BICHUETTE, M.E., ARAUJO, P.B. & TAITI, S. 2017a. Description of a new species of Cylindroniscus Arcangeli, 1929 (Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazil, with considerations on the family placement of the genus. North-West J. Zool. 13(2): 227–233., 2017bCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., BICHUETTE, M.E., MONTESANTO, G., ARAUJO P.B. & TAITI, S. 2017b. The first troglobiotic species of the family Pudeoniscidae (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea), with descriptions of a new genus and two new species. Subterr. Biol. 23: 69–84. https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.23.20963
https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.23.2096...
, 2019CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., FERNANDES, C.M., CARDOSO, G.M., BICHUETTE, M.E., AGUIAR, J.O. & TAITI, S. 2019. Two new species and new records of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zootaxa 4564(2): 422–448. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4564.2.6
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4564.2....
, 2020CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., FERNANDES, C.M., CARDOSO, G.M., BICHUETTE, M.E., AGUIAR, J.O. & TAITI, S. 2020. New species and new records of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) of the families Philosciidae and Scleropactidae from Brazilian caves. Eur. J. Taxon. 606: 1–38. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2020.606
https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2020.606...
, 2022aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., GALLO, J.S., GALLÃO, J.E., TORRES, D.F., CARPIO-DÍAZ, Y.M., LÓPEZ-OROZCO, C.M., BORJA-ARRIETA, R., TAITI, S. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2022a. Expanding the knowledge on the diversity of the cavernicolous Styloniscidae Vandel, 1952 (Oniscidea, Synocheta) from Brazil, with descriptions of two new species from the semiarid karst regions. ZooKeys 1101: 35–55. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1101.79043
https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1101.790...
, 2022bCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., GALLO, J.S., GALLÃO, J.E., TORRES, D.F., HORTA, L., CARPIO-DÍAZ, Y.M., LÓPEZ-OROZCO, C.M., BORJA-ARRIETA, R., AGUIAR, J.O. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2022b. Unique and fragile diversity emerges from Brazilian caves – two new amphibious species of Xangoniscus Campos-Filho, Araujo & Taiti, 2014 (Oniscidea, Styloniscidae) from Serra do Ramalho karst area, state of Bahia, Brazil. Subterranean Biology 42: 1–22. https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.42.75725
https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.42.7572...
, 2023aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., CHAGAS JR, A., SFENTHOURAKIS, S. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2023a. A new species of Metaprosekia Leistikow, 2000 (Oniscidea, Philosciidae) from caves of the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ. 58(3): 679–688. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650521.2023.2188009
https://doi.org/10.1080/01650521.2023.21...
, 2023bCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., SFENTHOURAKIS, S., GALLÃO, J.E., SENNA-HORTA, L. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2023b. The first troglobitic terrestrial isopod (Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Peru. Nauplius 31: e2023003. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2023003
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e202300...
, 2023cCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., SFENTHOURAKIS, S., GALLO, J.S., GALLÃO, J.E., TORRES, D.F., CHAGAS-JR, A., SENNA-HORTA, L., CARPIO-DÍAZ, Y.M., LÓPEZ-OROZCO, C.M., BORJA-ARRIETA, R., ARAUJO, P.B., TAITI, S. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2023c. Shedding light into Brazilian subterranean isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea): expanding distribution data and describing new taxa. Zoosytema 45(19): 531–599. https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v45a19
https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v4...
, Souza et al. 2006SOUZA, L.A., BEZERRA, A.V. & ARAÚJO, J.P. 2006. The first troglobitic species of Scleropactidae from Brazil (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea). Subterr. Biol. 4: 37–43., 2010SOUZA, L.A., SENNA, A.R. & KURY, A.B. 2010. A new species and first record of Gabunillo Schmalfuss & Ferrara, 1983 (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Armadillidae) from the Neotropics. Zootaxa 2677: 1–14. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2677.1.1
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2677.1....
, 2015SOUZA, L.A., FERREIRA, R.L. & SENNA, A.R. 2015. Amphibious shelter-builder Oniscidea species from the New World with description of a new subfamily, a new genus and a new species from Brazilian Cave (Isopoda, Synocheta, Styloniscidae). PLoS ONE 10(5): e0115021. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115021
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.011...
, Bastos-Pereira et al. 2017BASTOS-PEREIRA, R., SOUZA, L.A. & FERREIRA, R.L. 2017. A new amphibious troglobitic styloniscid from Brazil (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Synocheta). Zootaxa 4294(2): 292–300. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4294.2.11
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4294.2....
, 2022, Fernandes et al. 2018FERNANDES, C.S., CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2018. Cylindroniscus platoi (Isopoda: Oniscidea: Styloniscidae), a new cave-dwelling species from Lagoa Santa Karst, Southeasthern Brazil. Zootaxa 4461: 411–420. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4464.3.6
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4464.3....
, Cardoso et al. 2020aCARDOSO, G.M., BASTOS-PEREIRA, R., SOUZA, L.A. & FERREIRA, R.L. 2020a. New troglobitic species of Xangoniscus (Isopoda: Styloniscidae) from Brazil, with notes on their habitats and threats. Zootaxa 4819(1): 084–108. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4819.1.4
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4819.1....
, 2020bCARDOSO, G.M., BASTOS-PEREIRA, R., SOUZA, L.A. & FERREIRA, R.L. 2020b. New cave species of Pectenoniscus Andersson, 1960 (Isopoda: Oniscidea: Styloniscidae) and an identification key for the genus. Nauplius 28: e2020039. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2020039
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e202003...
, 2021CARDOSO, G.M., BASTOS-PEREIRA, R., SOUZA, L.A. & FERREIRA, R.L. 2021. Chaimowiczia: a new Iuiuniscinae genus from Brazil (Oniscidea, Synocheta, Styloniscidae) with the description of two new troglobitic species. Subterr. Biol. 39: 45–62. https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.39.65305
https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.39.6530...
, 2022aCARDOSO, G.M., BASTOS-PEREIRA, R. & FERREIRA, R.L. 2022a. A new species of Chaimowiczia from the karstic Serra do Ramalho plateau, Brazil (Oniscidea, Synocheta, Styloniscidae). Subterr. Biol. 42: 139–149. https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.42.80274
https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.42.8027...
, 2022b, 2023CARDOSO, G.M. & FERREIRA, R.L. 2023. New troglobitic species of Pectenoniscus Andersson, 1960 (Isopoda: Oniscidea: Styloniscidae) from Bahia state, Brazil. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650521.2023.2230735
https://doi.org/10.1080/01650521.2023.22...
, Cardoso & Ferreira 2023CARDOSO, G.M. & FERREIRA, R.L. 2023. New troglobitic species of Benthana from iron-ore caves and its important record in the Amazon biome (Isopoda: Philosciidae). Zootaxa5319(4): 548–562. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5319.4.5
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5319.4....
).

To date, more than 230 species of terrestrial isopods have been identified in Brazil (Campos-Filho et al. 2018aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., CARDOSO, G.M. & AGUIAR, J.O. 2018a. Catalogue of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazil: an update with some considerations. Nauplius 26: e2018038. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2018038
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201803...
, 2018bCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., CARDOSO, G.M. & AGUIAR, J.O. 2018b. New species and first record of Alloniscus Dana, 1854 (Isopoda: Oniscidae: Alloniscidae) from Brazil. Nauplius 26: e20188014. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2018014
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201801...
, 2019CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., FERNANDES, C.M., CARDOSO, G.M., BICHUETTE, M.E., AGUIAR, J.O. & TAITI, S. 2019. Two new species and new records of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zootaxa 4564(2): 422–448. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4564.2.6
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4564.2....
, 2020CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., FERNANDES, C.M., CARDOSO, G.M., BICHUETTE, M.E., AGUIAR, J.O. & TAITI, S. 2020. New species and new records of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) of the families Philosciidae and Scleropactidae from Brazilian caves. Eur. J. Taxon. 606: 1–38. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2020.606
https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2020.606...
, Cardoso et al. 2020aCARDOSO, G.M., BASTOS-PEREIRA, R., SOUZA, L.A. & FERREIRA, R.L. 2020a. New troglobitic species of Xangoniscus (Isopoda: Styloniscidae) from Brazil, with notes on their habitats and threats. Zootaxa 4819(1): 084–108. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4819.1.4
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4819.1....
, 2020bCARDOSO, G.M., BASTOS-PEREIRA, R., SOUZA, L.A. & FERREIRA, R.L. 2020b. New cave species of Pectenoniscus Andersson, 1960 (Isopoda: Oniscidea: Styloniscidae) and an identification key for the genus. Nauplius 28: e2020039. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2020039
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e202003...
, 2021CARDOSO, G.M., BASTOS-PEREIRA, R., SOUZA, L.A. & FERREIRA, R.L. 2021. Chaimowiczia: a new Iuiuniscinae genus from Brazil (Oniscidea, Synocheta, Styloniscidae) with the description of two new troglobitic species. Subterr. Biol. 39: 45–62. https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.39.65305
https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.39.6530...
, Cardoso & Ferreira 2023CARDOSO, G.M. & FERREIRA, R.L. 2023. New troglobitic species of Benthana from iron-ore caves and its important record in the Amazon biome (Isopoda: Philosciidae). Zootaxa5319(4): 548–562. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5319.4.5
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5319.4....
), of which 93 have been recorded in subterranean environments (see Campos-Filho et al. 2022cCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., CARDOSO, G.M. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2022c. Isopoda, Oniscidea. In: Zampaulo, R.A. & Prous, X. (eds.) Fauna cavernícola do Brasil: 363–387. Editora Rupestre, Belo Horizonte, Brazil., 2023cCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., SFENTHOURAKIS, S., GALLO, J.S., GALLÃO, J.E., TORRES, D.F., CHAGAS-JR, A., SENNA-HORTA, L., CARPIO-DÍAZ, Y.M., LÓPEZ-OROZCO, C.M., BORJA-ARRIETA, R., ARAUJO, P.B., TAITI, S. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2023c. Shedding light into Brazilian subterranean isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea): expanding distribution data and describing new taxa. Zoosytema 45(19): 531–599. https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v45a19
https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v4...
, Cardoso & Ferreira 2023CARDOSO, G.M. & FERREIRA, R.L. 2023. New troglobitic species of Benthana from iron-ore caves and its important record in the Amazon biome (Isopoda: Philosciidae). Zootaxa5319(4): 548–562. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5319.4.5
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5319.4....
).

The family Platyarthridae comprises 130 species in the genera CephaloniscusFerrara & Taiti, 1989FERRARA, F. & TAITI, S. 1989. A new genus and species of terrestrial isopod from Malaysia. J. Nat. Hist. 23(5): 1033–1039. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222938900770941
https://doi.org/10.1080/0022293890077094...
, EchinochaetusFerrara & Schmalfuss, 1983FERRARA, F. & SCHMALFUSS, H. 1983. New isopod material from Southwest Cameroon, with description of 13 new species. Stuttg. Beitr. Naturk., Ser. A 360: 1–43. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/33441412
https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page...
, GerufaBudde-Lund, 1909BUDDE-LUND, G. 1909. Zoologische und anthropologische Ergebnisse im westlichen und zentralen Südafrika, Vol. 2, IX. Isopoden (I), Land-Isopoden. Denkschr. med.-naturwiss. Ges. 14: 53–70, pl. 5–7., LanceochaetusSchmalfuss & Ferrara, 1978SCHMALFUSS, H. & FERRARA, F. 1978. Terrestrial isopods from West Africa, Part 2: Families Tylidae, Ligiidae, Styloniscidae, Philosciidae, Platyarthridae, Rhyscotidae, Porcellionidae, Trachelipidae. Monitore Zool. Ital. (N.S.), Suppl. 11: 15–97. https://doi.org/10.1080/03749444.1978.10736575
https://doi.org/10.1080/03749444.1978.10...
, ManibiaBarnard, 1932BARNARD, K.H. 1932. Contributions to the Crustacean fauna of South Africa, No. 11, Terrestrial Isopoda. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 30(2): 179–388., NiambiaBudde-Lund, 1908BUDDE-LUND, G. 1908. Isopoda von Madagaskar und Ostafrika mit Diagnosen verwandter Arten. In: Voeltzkow, A. (Ed.) Reise in Ostafrika in den Jahren 1903-1905, Vol. 2. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse, Stuttgart, p. 265–308. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.12989
https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.12989...
, PapuasoniscusVandel, 1973VANDEL, A. 1973. Les isopodes terrestres de la Mélanésie. Zool. Verh. 125: 1–160., PlatyarthrusBrandt, 1833BRANDT, J.F. 1833. Conspectus Monographiae Crustaceorum Oniscodorum Latreillii. Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispŷt. Prir. 6: 171–193, pl. 4., and TrichorhinaBudde-Lund, 1908BUDDE-LUND, G. 1908. Isopoda von Madagaskar und Ostafrika mit Diagnosen verwandter Arten. In: Voeltzkow, A. (Ed.) Reise in Ostafrika in den Jahren 1903-1905, Vol. 2. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse, Stuttgart, p. 265–308. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.12989
https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.12989...
(Schmalfuss 2003SCHMALFUSS, H. 2003. World catalog of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea). Stuttg. Beitr. Naturkd., Ser. A 654: 1–341., Taiti & Ferrara 2004TAITI, S. & FERRARA, F. 2004. The terrestrial Isopoda (Crustacea: Oniscidea) of the Socotra Archipelago. Fauna of Arabia 20: 211–325., Boyko et al. 2008BOYKO, C.B., BRUCE, N.L., HADFIELD, K.A., MERRIN, K.L., OTA, Y., POORE, G.C.B., TAITI, S., SCHOTTE, M. & WILSON, G.D.F. 2008 (onwards). World Marine, Freshwater and Terrestrial Isopod Crustaceans database. Trichorhina Budde-Lund, 1908. Available at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=249422.
http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p...
, Taiti & Checcucci 2009TAITI, S. & CHECCUCCI, I. 2009. New species and records of terrestrial Isopoda (Crustacea, Oniscidea) from Socotra Island, Yemen. ZooKeys 31: 73–103. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.31.140
https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.31.140...
, Souza et al. 2011SOUZA, L.A., ARAÚJO, J.P. & CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. 2011. The genus Trichorhina Budde-Lund in Brazil, with description of seven new species (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Platyarthridae). Iheringia, Sér. Zool. 101: 239–261., Campos-Filho et al. 2018aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., CARDOSO, G.M. & AGUIAR, J.O. 2018a. Catalogue of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazil: an update with some considerations. Nauplius 26: e2018038. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2018038
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201803...
, Taiti et al. 2018TAITI, S., ARGANO, R., MARCIA, P., SCARPA, F., SANNA, D. & CASU, M. 2018. The genus Alpioniscus Racovitza, 1908 in Sardinia: taxonomy and natural history (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Trichoniscidae). Zookeys 801: 229–263. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.801.24102
https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.801.2410...
, Carpio-Díaz et al. 2021CARPIO-DÍAZ, Y.M., LÓPEZ-OROZCO C.M., BORJA-ARRIETA R. & CAMPOS-FILHO I.S. 2021. A new species and first record of Trichorhina Budde-Lund, 1908 (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Platyarthridae) from the Department of Norte de Santander, Colombia. Nauplius 29: e2021028. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2021028
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e202102...
). Currently, the family is primarily found in tropical areas and is considered paraphyletic (Schmidt 2002SCHMIDT, C. 2002. Contribution to the phylogenetic system of the Crinocheta (Crustacea, Isopoda). Part 1. (Olibrinidae to Scyphaidae s. str.). Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berl., Zoosyst. Evol. 78: 275–352. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mmnz.20020780207
https://doi.org/10.1002/mmnz.20020780207...
, 2003SCHMIDT, C. 2003. Contribution to the phylogenetic system of the Crinocheta (Crustacea, Isopoda). Part 2 (Oniscoidea to Armadillidiidae). Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berl., Zoosyst. Evol. 79: 3–179. https://doi.org/10.1002/mmnz.20030790102
https://doi.org/10.1002/mmnz.20030790102...
, Javidkar et al. 2015JAVIDKAR, M., COOPER, S.J.B., KING, R.A., HUMPHREYS, W.F. & AUSTIN, A. 2015. Molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal a new southern hemisphere oniscidean family (Crustacea: Isopoda) with a unique water transport system. Invertebr. Syst. 29: 554–577. https://doi.org/10.1071/IS15010
https://doi.org/10.1071/IS15010...
, Dimitriou et al. 2019DIMITRIOU, A.C., TAITI, S. & SFENTHOURAKIS, S. 2019. Genetic evidence against monophyly of Oniscidea implies a need to revise scenarios for the origin of terrestrial isopods. Sci. Rep. 9: 18508. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-55071-4
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-55071...
).

After examining a large collection of terrestrial isopods from several caves in the Brazilian states of Bahia, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Pará, and São Paulo, 12 species of Trichorhina were recognized, 11 of which are considered new to science: T. acrux Campos-Filho, Sfenthourakis & Bichuette sp. nov., T. jurai Campos-Filho, Gallão & Bichuette sp. nov., T. quadriocellata Campos-Filho, Borja-Arrieta & Bichuette sp. nov., and T. yakupyrang Campos-Filho, Carpio-Díaz & Bichuette sp. nov. from the state of São Paulo, T. alphard Campos-Filho, Sfenthourakis & Taiti sp. nov. from Mato Grosso do Sul, T. araguaia Campos-Filho, López-Orozco & Taiti sp. nov. from the state of Pará, T. baiana Campos-Filho, Gallão & Bichuette sp. nov. from the state of Bahia, T. bessiae Campos-Filho, Carpio-Díaz & Bichuette sp. nov., T. crucis Campos-Filho, López-Orozco & Sfenthourakis sp. nov., T. mineira Campos-Filho, Carpio-Díaz & Taiti sp. nov., and T. marianae Campos-Filho, Gallão & Bichuette sp. nov. from the state of Minas Gerais. Additionally, the distribution of T. tomentosa has been expanded to include caves in the states of Mato Grosso and Minas Gerais. Lastly, a distribution map of the subterranean representatives of the genus is given, as well as an identification key for all Brazilian species, including epigean species.

Material and Methods

Specimens have been collected manually and preserved in 70% ethanol. Descriptions are based on morphological characters, utilizing micropreparations in Hoyer’s medium (Anderson 1954ANDERSON, L.E. 1954. Hoyer’s Solution as a Rapid Permanent Mounting Medium for Bryophytes. The Bryologist 57: 242. https://doi.org/10.2307/3240091
https://doi.org/10.2307/3240091...
). For each new species, the type material, description, etymology, and remarks are provided. Distribution and additional remarks for already known species are given as necessary. The synonym list includes the original publication, along with citations limited to records from Brazil. Complete references are available in Schmalfuss (2003)SCHMALFUSS, H. 2003. World catalog of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea). Stuttg. Beitr. Naturkd., Ser. A 654: 1–341. and Campos-Filho et al. (2018a)CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., CARDOSO, G.M. & AGUIAR, J.O. 2018a. Catalogue of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazil: an update with some considerations. Nauplius 26: e2018038. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2018038
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201803...
. The taxa were illustrated with the aid of a camera lucida mounted to a CH2 Olympus microscope. The final illustrations were prepared using GIMP software (v. 2.8) following the method proposed by Montesanto (2015MONTESANTO, G. 2015. A fast GNU method to draw accurate scientific illustrations for taxonomy. ZooKeys 515: 191–206. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.515.9459
https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.515.9459...
, 2016MONTESANTO, G. 2016. Drawing setae: a GNU way for digital scientific illustrations. Nauplius 24: e2016017. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2016017
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201601...
). The collected material is deposited in the Brazilian scientific collections of the Laboratório de Estudos Subterrâneos (LES), Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, São Paulo, and Museu de História Natural de Capão da Imbuia (MHNCI), Paraná.

1.

Study area

The specimens were collected across a vast area of Brazilian territory (Fig 1). Some notable aspects of the regional climate, vegetation, geomorphology, and potential threats to the hypogean environments are provided.

Figure 1.
Distribution map of Trichorhina from Brazil. 1, T. acutaAraujo & Buckup, 1994ARAUJO, P.B. & BUCKUP, L. 1994. Nova espécie de Trichorhina do sul do Brasil. Iheringia, Ser. Zool. 77: 129–134. https://biostor.org/reference/80018
https://biostor.org/reference/80018...
, 2, T. amazonicaSouza-Kury, 1997SOUZA-KURY, L.A. 1997. Two new species of Trichorhina from Brazilian Amazonia. Crustaceana 70: 180–190. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20105849
https://www.jstor.org/stable/20105849...
, 3, T. amplitelson Campos-Filho, Carpio-Díaz & Borja-Arrieta, 2023, 4, T. anhangueraCampos-Filho, Araujo & Taiti, 2014CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B., BICHUETTE, M.E., TRAJANO, E. & TAITI, S. 2014. Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 172(2): 360–425. https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172
https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172...
, 5, T. argentinaVandel, 1963VANDEL, A. 1963. Isopodes terrestres recueillis en Amerique du Sud par Claude Delamare Deboutteville. In: Deboutteville, C.D. (Ed.) Biologie de l’Amerique australe. Éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, p. 63–100., 6, T. bicolorAraujo & Buckup, 1996ARAUJO, P.B. & BUCKUP, L. 1996. Novos registros e uma espécie nova de Trichorhina do sul do Brasil. Revista Brasil. Zool. 13(3): 799–810. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-81751996000300028
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-8175199600...
, 7, T. biumbonataSouza, Araújo & Campos-Filho, 2011SOUZA, L.A., ARAÚJO, J.P. & CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. 2011. The genus Trichorhina Budde-Lund in Brazil, with description of seven new species (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Platyarthridae). Iheringia, Sér. Zool. 101: 239–261., 8, T. brasilensisAndersson, 1960ANDERSSON, Å. 1960. South American terrestrial isopods in the collection of the Swedish State Museum of Natural History. Ark. Zool. 12: 537–570., 9, T. cipoensisCampos-Filho, Bichuette & Taiti, 2016CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., BICHUETTE, M.E. & TAITI, S. 2016. Three new species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Nauplius 24: e2016001. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2016001
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201600...
, 10, T. crassisetaeSouza, Araújo & Campos-Filho, 2011SOUZA, L.A., ARAÚJO, J.P. & CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. 2011. The genus Trichorhina Budde-Lund in Brazil, with description of seven new species (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Platyarthridae). Iheringia, Sér. Zool. 101: 239–261., 11, T. curupiraCampos-Filho, Araujo & Taiti, 2014CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B., BICHUETTE, M.E., TRAJANO, E. & TAITI, S. 2014. Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 172(2): 360–425. https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172
https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172...
, 12, T. guanophilaSouza-Kury, 1993SOUZA-KURY, L.A. 1993. Notes on Trichorhina I. Two new species from northeastern Brazil. Revue Suisse Zool. 100: 157–210. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.82507
https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.82507...
, 13, T. heterophthalma Lemos de Castro, 1964, 14, T. kaingangi Campos-Filho, 2015, 15, T. lenkoiSouza, Araújo & Campos-Filho, 2011SOUZA, L.A., ARAÚJO, J.P. & CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. 2011. The genus Trichorhina Budde-Lund in Brazil, with description of seven new species (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Platyarthridae). Iheringia, Sér. Zool. 101: 239–261., 16, T. macropsSouza-Kury, 1993SOUZA-KURY, L.A. 1993. Notes on Trichorhina I. Two new species from northeastern Brazil. Revue Suisse Zool. 100: 157–210. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.82507
https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.82507...
, 17, T. myrmecophilaSouza, Araújo & Campos-Filho, 2011SOUZA, L.A., ARAÚJO, J.P. & CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. 2011. The genus Trichorhina Budde-Lund in Brazil, with description of seven new species (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Platyarthridae). Iheringia, Sér. Zool. 101: 239–261., 18, T. orensisSouza, Araújo & Campos-Filho, 2011SOUZA, L.A., ARAÚJO, J.P. & CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. 2011. The genus Trichorhina Budde-Lund in Brazil, with description of seven new species (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Platyarthridae). Iheringia, Sér. Zool. 101: 239–261., 19, T. paraensisSouza-Kury, 1997SOUZA-KURY, L.A. 1997. Two new species of Trichorhina from Brazilian Amazonia. Crustaceana 70: 180–190. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20105849
https://www.jstor.org/stable/20105849...
, 20, T. pataxosiCampos-Filho, Bichuette & Taiti, 2016CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., BICHUETTE, M.E. & TAITI, S. 2016. Three new species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Nauplius 24: e2016001. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2016001
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201600...
, 21, T. pittieri (Pearse, 1921PEARSE, A. 1921. Crustacea from Lake Valencia, Venezuela. Proc. U. S. Natn. Mus. 59: 459–462. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.59-2381.459
https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.59-2...
), 22, T. sexdensSouza, Araújo & Campos-Filho, 2011SOUZA, L.A., ARAÚJO, J.P. & CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. 2011. The genus Trichorhina Budde-Lund in Brazil, with description of seven new species (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Platyarthridae). Iheringia, Sér. Zool. 101: 239–261., 23, T. tatianaeAraujo & Almerao, 2007ARAUJO, P.B. & ALMERÃO, M.P. 2007. Nova espécie de Trichorhina (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Plathyarthridae) do Brasil. Iheringia, Ser. Zool. 97(2): 219–222. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0073-47212007000200012
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0073-4721200700...
, 24, T. tomentosa, 25, T. tropidocerataSouza, Araújo & Campos-Filho, 2011SOUZA, L.A., ARAÚJO, J.P. & CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. 2011. The genus Trichorhina Budde-Lund in Brazil, with description of seven new species (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Platyarthridae). Iheringia, Sér. Zool. 101: 239–261., 26, T. yiaraCampos-Filho, Araujo & Taiti, 2014CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B., BICHUETTE, M.E., TRAJANO, E. & TAITI, S. 2014. Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 172(2): 360–425. https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172
https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172...
, 27, T. araguaia Campos-Filho, Montesanto & Taiti sp. nov., 28, T. yakupyrang sp. nov., 29, T. quadriocellata sp. nov., 30, T. alphard sp. nov., 31, T. acrux sp. nov., 32, T. baiana sp. nov., 33, T. crucis sp. nov., 34, T. mineira sp. nov., 35, T. marianae sp. nov., 36, T. bessiae sp. nov., 37, T. jurai sp. nov. Legend: AM, Amazônia, AL, Alagoas, BA, Bahia, CE, Ceará, DF, Distrito Federal, ES, Espírito Santo, GO, Goiás, MA, Maranhão, MG, Minas Gerais, MT, Mato Grosso, MS, Mato Grosso do Sul, PA, Pará, PB, Paraíba, PE, Pernambuco, PI, Piauí, PR, Paraná, RJ, Rio de Janeiro, RN, Rio Grande do Norte, RS, Rio Grande do Sul, SC, Santa Catarina, SE, Sergipe, SP, São Paulo, TO, Tocantíns.
1.1.

Alto Ribeira karst area, state of São Paulo

The Alto do Ribeira karst area is located in the southern part of São Paulo state. This region encompasses one of the largest and best-preserved fragments of continuous Atlantic Forest within the boundaries of Conservation Units (SEMA 1997SEMA – Secretaria do Meio Ambiente do Estado de São Paulo. 1997. Macrozoneamento do Vale do Ribeira. Proposta preliminar para Discussão pública. São Paulo., Ab’Saber 1977AB’SABER, AN. 1977. Os domínios morfoclimáticos na América do Sul. Primeira aproximação. Geomorfologia 52: 1–22.). According to Köppen’s criteria, the region exhibits a humid subtropical climate with no dry season. Lowlands experience hot summers (Cfa), while highlands have temperate summers (Cfb) (Alvares et al. 2013ALVARES, C.A., STAPE, J.L., SENTELHAS, P.C., GONÇALVES, J.L.M. & SPAROVEK, G. 2013. Köppen’s climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorol. Z. 22(6): 711–728. https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0507
https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0...
, Bedek et al. 2018BEDEK, H.E., ZIMMERMANN, N.E., MCVICAR, T.R., VERGOPOLAN, N., BERG, A. & WOOD, E.F. 2018. Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution. Sci. Data 5: e180214. https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.214
https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.214...
, 2020BEDEK, H.E., ZIMMERMANN, N.E., MCVICAR, T.R., VERGOPOLAN, N., BERG, A. & WOOD, E.F. 2020. Publisher Correction: Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution. Sci. Data 7: e274. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-00616-w
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-00616...
). Sampling was conducted within the boundaries of two Conservation Units of Integral Protection: Parque Estadual Intervales (PEI) and Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR). These parks encompass multiple municipalities, resulting in a vast area. The region’s exceptional biodiversity is attributed to its lush vegetation, primarily the Atlantic Forest, and the hydrographic basins that traverse the entire territory (SEMA 1997SEMA – Secretaria do Meio Ambiente do Estado de São Paulo. 1997. Macrozoneamento do Vale do Ribeira. Proposta preliminar para Discussão pública. São Paulo.). This diverse habitat supports numerous endangered and endemic subterranean and epigean species. The region features several magnificent cave systems formed in Precambrian metasedimentary limestone outcrops, intercalated with insoluble rocks discontinuously (Fig. 2A) (Karmann & Sánchez 1979KARMANN, I. & SÁNCHEZ, L.E. 1979. Distribuição das rochas carbonáticas e províncias espeleológicas do Brasil. Espeleo-Tema 13: 105–167.).

Figure 2.
A, Ressurgência das Areias de Água Quente (PETAR), entrance, B, Gruta do Capão, São Desidério, entrance, C, Trichorhina alphard Campo-Filho, Sfenthourakis & Taiti sp. nov., D, Trichorhina baiana Campos-Filho, Gallão & Bichuette sp. nov.

While the Atlantic Forest’s epigean biodiversity is typically high, the Alto Ribeira karst area stands out due to unique isolation processes, resulting in one of Brazil’s richest subterranean fauna (Trajano et al. 2016TRAJANO, E., GALLÃO, J.E. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2016. Spots of high diversity of troglobites in Brazil: the challenge of measuring subterranean diversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 25(10): 1805–1828. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-016-1151-5
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-016-1151-...
). Since the establishment of Conservation Units in both regions, the main socio-conservation challenges have been land conflicts and pollution of subterranean water sources due to illegal mining and agriculture. Furthermore, unregulated tourism has exacerbated these conflicts (Gallão & Bichuette 2018GALLÃO, J.E. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2018. Brazilian obligatory subterranean fauna and threats to the hypogean environment. Zookeys 746: 1–23. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.746.15140
https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.746.1514...
). A plan for private concessions and entrepreneurial ventures has been under discussion for the region, with the primary aim of increasing tourism rates. However, if this scenario becomes a reality, it will inevitably lead to greater impacts on cave systems, posing a serious threat to the subterranean fauna.

1.2.

Parque Estadual do Rio Turvo (PERT), state of São Paulo

The Parque Estadual do Rio Turvo (PERT) is a Conservation Unit of Integral Protection, established by law following the fragmentation of the former Parque Estadual do Jacupiranga. This expansion incorporated new territories, resulting in the dissolution of the Jacupiranga Mosaic (state law 12.810 of 21 February 2008) as a response to land and social demands (Bim & Furlan 2013BIM, O.J.B. & FURLAN, S.A. 2013. Mosaic of Jacupiranga – Ribeira Valley, SP: conservation, environmental conflicts and solutions. Agrária 18: 4–36.). The mosaic encompassed various ecosystems within the Atlantic Forest domain, including mangroves, sandbanks, highlands, subterranean environments, and the forest itself. The PERT is part of this mosaic, situated in the Ribeira Valley and encompassing the boundaries of Barra do Turvo, Cajati, and Jacupiranga municipalities (Ab’Saber 1977AB’SABER, AN. 1977. Os domínios morfoclimáticos na América do Sul. Primeira aproximação. Geomorfologia 52: 1–22., Bim & Furlan 2013BIM, O.J.B. & FURLAN, S.A. 2013. Mosaic of Jacupiranga – Ribeira Valley, SP: conservation, environmental conflicts and solutions. Agrária 18: 4–36.). According to Köppen’s criteria, the PERT exhibits a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) with no dry seasons and hot summers (Alvares et al. 2013ALVARES, C.A., STAPE, J.L., SENTELHAS, P.C., GONÇALVES, J.L.M. & SPAROVEK, G. 2013. Köppen’s climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorol. Z. 22(6): 711–728. https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0507
https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0...
, Bedek et al. 2018BEDEK, H.E., ZIMMERMANN, N.E., MCVICAR, T.R., VERGOPOLAN, N., BERG, A. & WOOD, E.F. 2018. Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution. Sci. Data 5: e180214. https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.214
https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.214...
, 2020BEDEK, H.E., ZIMMERMANN, N.E., MCVICAR, T.R., VERGOPOLAN, N., BERG, A. & WOOD, E.F. 2020. Publisher Correction: Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution. Sci. Data 7: e274. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-00616-w
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-00616...
).

The Oniscidea specimens were collected from Capelinha Cave, which has an approximate length of 174 meters and is composed of calcite marble with few karst features. The cave is traversed by a stream, and guano is abundant. Presently, industrial and agricultural activities, including aerial spraying on banana plantations, pose concerns in the PERT. However, these activities are not in close proximity to the river beds. Furthermore, unregulated tourism could potentially become a threat to the cave systems, although no studies have been conducted to assess the consequences of this practice thus far (SEMA 2007SEMA – Secretaria do Meio Ambiente do Estado de São Paulo. 2007. Plano de manejo espeleológico da Gruta da Capelinha. São Paulo.).

1.3.

Pains, state of Minas Gerais

The municipality of Pains is located in the central-western region of the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, approximately 330 km from its capital, Belo Horizonte. According to Köppen’s criteria, the region exhibits a humid subtropical climate (Cwa) (Alvares et al. 2013ALVARES, C.A., STAPE, J.L., SENTELHAS, P.C., GONÇALVES, J.L.M. & SPAROVEK, G. 2013. Köppen’s climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorol. Z. 22(6): 711–728. https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0507
https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0...
, Bedek et al. 2018BEDEK, H.E., ZIMMERMANN, N.E., MCVICAR, T.R., VERGOPOLAN, N., BERG, A. & WOOD, E.F. 2018. Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution. Sci. Data 5: e180214. https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.214
https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.214...
, 2020BEDEK, H.E., ZIMMERMANN, N.E., MCVICAR, T.R., VERGOPOLAN, N., BERG, A. & WOOD, E.F. 2020. Publisher Correction: Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution. Sci. Data 7: e274. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-00616-w
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-00616...
). The primary vegetative cover in the area is the Cerrado domain with transitional patches of Atlantic Forest (Ab’Saber 1977AB’SABER, AN. 1977. Os domínios morfoclimáticos na América do Sul. Primeira aproximação. Geomorfologia 52: 1–22.). The karst landscape in Pains is formed within isolated massifs of the Bambuí geomorphological group, characterized by uniform limestone formations and an eroded karst relief. This geological configuration has given rise to numerous caves with significant geological, paleontological, archaeological, and faunal value (Teixeira & Dias 2003TEIXEIRA P.S.D. & DIAS M.S. 2003. Levantamento espeleológico da região cárstica de Arcos, Pains, Doresópolis, Córrego Fundo e Iguatama, frente às atividades degradadoras. Anais XVIII Congresso Brasileiro de Espeleologia (Vol. 1, pp. 193–199).).

Mining activities, conducted on a large scale, predominantly drive the local economy. However, these activities have had a significant impact on the subterranean environment, which is one of the most affected ecosystems in the region (Teixeira & Dias 2003TEIXEIRA P.S.D. & DIAS M.S. 2003. Levantamento espeleológico da região cárstica de Arcos, Pains, Doresópolis, Córrego Fundo e Iguatama, frente às atividades degradadoras. Anais XVIII Congresso Brasileiro de Espeleologia (Vol. 1, pp. 193–199)., Gallão & Bichuette 2018GALLÃO, J.E. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2018. Brazilian obligatory subterranean fauna and threats to the hypogean environment. Zookeys 746: 1–23. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.746.15140
https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.746.1514...
).

1.4.

Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Conceição Speleological Unit, state of Minas Gerais

The Quadrilátero Ferrífero is situated in the center of the state of Minas Gerais, and its name derives from the quadrangular shape delineated by the distribution of metasedimentary rocks from the Minas Supergroup, predominantly composed of iron ore deposits (Oliveira et al. 2011OLIVEIRA, O.A.B., OLIVITO, J.P.R. & RODRIGUES-SILVA, D. 2011. Caracterização da Unidade Espeleológica e das Unidades Geomorfológicas da região do Quadrilátero Ferrífero – MG. Espeleo-Tema 22(1): 61–80.). It is the largest iron ore producer in Brazil, attracting the interest of numerous transnational mining companies (Bichuette et al. 2015BICHUETTE, M.E., FONSECA-FERREIRA, R. & GALLÃO, J.E. 2015. Biota associada às cavernas em formações ferríferas. In: Ruchkys, U.A., Travassos, L.E.P., Rasteiro, M.A., Faria, L.E. (Ed.) Patrimônio espeleológico em Rochas ferruginosas – Propostas para sua Conservação no Quadrilátero ferrífero, Minas Gerais. Sociedade Brasileira de Espeleologia, Campinas, p. 174–191.). Based on temporal correlation, the region of Conceição do Mato Dentro is considered part of the same Speleological Unit. The caves in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, specifically the Conceição Speleological Unit, are formed in three types of rocks: lateritic rocks of iron ore (comprising approximately 15% of their composition), siliciclastic rocks including quartzite, and limestone (Oliveira et al. 2011OLIVEIRA, O.A.B., OLIVITO, J.P.R. & RODRIGUES-SILVA, D. 2011. Caracterização da Unidade Espeleológica e das Unidades Geomorfológicas da região do Quadrilátero Ferrífero – MG. Espeleo-Tema 22(1): 61–80.).

Sampling was conducted in three subregions of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero: Caeté, Conceição do Mato Dentro, and Morro do Pilar, which will be described in detail ahead.

1.5.

Caeté, state of Minas Gerais

Caeté is part of the metropolitan sprawl of Belo Horizonte. According to Köppen’s criteria, the region exhibits a humid subtropical climate (Cwb), characterized by temperate summers with hot and humid conditions, and cold and dry winters (Alvares et al. 2013ALVARES, C.A., STAPE, J.L., SENTELHAS, P.C., GONÇALVES, J.L.M. & SPAROVEK, G. 2013. Köppen’s climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorol. Z. 22(6): 711–728. https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0507
https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0...
, Bedek et al. 2018BEDEK, H.E., ZIMMERMANN, N.E., MCVICAR, T.R., VERGOPOLAN, N., BERG, A. & WOOD, E.F. 2018. Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution. Sci. Data 5: e180214. https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.214
https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.214...
, 2020BEDEK, H.E., ZIMMERMANN, N.E., MCVICAR, T.R., VERGOPOLAN, N., BERG, A. & WOOD, E.F. 2020. Publisher Correction: Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution. Sci. Data 7: e274. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-00616-w
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-00616...
). The landscape is a combination of the Cerrado Domain with transitional areas of the Atlantic Forest (Ab’Saber 1977AB’SABER, AN. 1977. Os domínios morfoclimáticos na América do Sul. Primeira aproximação. Geomorfologia 52: 1–22.).

In iron-rich landscapes like Caeté, there is often a covering of “canga,” an erosion-resistant conglomerate that protects the underlying soft bedrock from weathering. This canga layer may be among the longest exposed surfaces on the planet. Canga is highly porous, with interconnected voids that facilitate the movement of subterranean fauna between the surface soil and the caves (Auler et al. 2019AULER, A.S. & PARKER, C.W., BARTON, H.A. & SOARES, G.A. 2019. Iron formation caves: Genesis and ecology. In: White, B., Culver, D.C., Pipan, T. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of caves. Third Edition. Academic Press (Elsevier), Amsterdam, p. 559–566. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814124-3.00067-4
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814124...
). Consequently, remarkable subterranean fauna has been discovered in these environments in recent years, although only a few taxa have been taxonomically described (Bichuette et al. 2015BICHUETTE, M.E., FONSECA-FERREIRA, R. & GALLÃO, J.E. 2015. Biota associada às cavernas em formações ferríferas. In: Ruchkys, U.A., Travassos, L.E.P., Rasteiro, M.A., Faria, L.E. (Ed.) Patrimônio espeleológico em Rochas ferruginosas – Propostas para sua Conservação no Quadrilátero ferrífero, Minas Gerais. Sociedade Brasileira de Espeleologia, Campinas, p. 174–191., Ferreira et al. 2015FERREIRA, R.L., OLIVEIRA, M.P.A. & SILVA, M.S. 2015. Biodiversidade subterrânea em geossistemas ferruginosos. In: Carmo, F.F.C., Kamino, L.H.Y. (Ed.) Geossistemas ferruginosos do Brasil: Áreas prioritárias para Conservação da Diversidade geológica e biológica, Patrimônio cultural e Serviços ambientais. 3i Editora, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.).

Currently, in Caeté, iron ore mining poses a significant threat to the subterranean fauna and its habitats (Gallão & Bichuette 2018GALLÃO, J.E. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2018. Brazilian obligatory subterranean fauna and threats to the hypogean environment. Zookeys 746: 1–23. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.746.15140
https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.746.1514...
).

1.6.

Conceição do Mato Dentro and Morro do Pilar, state of Minas Gerais

Conceição do Mato Dentro and Morro do Pilar are situated in the southeastern region of the state of Minas Gerais. Both locations are approximately 150 kilometers away from the state capital, Belo Horizonte. According to Köppen’s criteria, the region exhibits a humid subtropical climate with hot summers (Cwa) prevailing (Alvares et al. 2013ALVARES, C.A., STAPE, J.L., SENTELHAS, P.C., GONÇALVES, J.L.M. & SPAROVEK, G. 2013. Köppen’s climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorol. Z. 22(6): 711–728. https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0507
https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0...
, Bedek et al. 2018BEDEK, H.E., ZIMMERMANN, N.E., MCVICAR, T.R., VERGOPOLAN, N., BERG, A. & WOOD, E.F. 2018. Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution. Sci. Data 5: e180214. https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.214
https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.214...
, 2020BEDEK, H.E., ZIMMERMANN, N.E., MCVICAR, T.R., VERGOPOLAN, N., BERG, A. & WOOD, E.F. 2020. Publisher Correction: Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution. Sci. Data 7: e274. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-00616-w
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-00616...
). The landscape consists of the Cerrado Domain with transitional areas of the Atlantic Forest (Ab’Saber 1977AB’SABER, AN. 1977. Os domínios morfoclimáticos na América do Sul. Primeira aproximação. Geomorfologia 52: 1–22.).

In both regions, the caves were formed within Proterozoic quartzite or hematite rocks from the Serra da Serpentina and Serra da Ferrugem Formations. Iron ore and quartzite caves tend to be of limited size, but the iron caves are more susceptible to epigean influences in terms of food sources and fauna movement, as previously discussed (Bichuette et al. 2015BICHUETTE, M.E., FONSECA-FERREIRA, R. & GALLÃO, J.E. 2015. Biota associada às cavernas em formações ferríferas. In: Ruchkys, U.A., Travassos, L.E.P., Rasteiro, M.A., Faria, L.E. (Ed.) Patrimônio espeleológico em Rochas ferruginosas – Propostas para sua Conservação no Quadrilátero ferrífero, Minas Gerais. Sociedade Brasileira de Espeleologia, Campinas, p. 174–191., Auler et al. 2019a, Auler & Sauro 2019AULER, A.S. & SAURO, F. 2019. Quartzite and quartz sandstone caves of South America. White, B., Culver, D.C., Pipan, T. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of caves. Third Edition. Academic Press (Elsevier), Amsterdam, p. 850–860. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814124-3.00102-3
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814124...
). Similar to Caeté, mining activities have also had an impact on the subterranean fauna and habitats in these regions.

1.7.

São Desidério, state of Bahia

The municipality of São Desidério is located in the western part of the state of Bahia. According to Köppen’s criteria, the region exhibits a tropical humid climate (AW) (Alvares et al. 2013ALVARES, C.A., STAPE, J.L., SENTELHAS, P.C., GONÇALVES, J.L.M. & SPAROVEK, G. 2013. Köppen’s climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorol. Z. 22(6): 711–728. https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0507
https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0...
, Bedek et al. 2018BEDEK, H.E., ZIMMERMANN, N.E., MCVICAR, T.R., VERGOPOLAN, N., BERG, A. & WOOD, E.F. 2018. Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution. Sci. Data 5: e180214. https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.214
https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.214...
, 2020BEDEK, H.E., ZIMMERMANN, N.E., MCVICAR, T.R., VERGOPOLAN, N., BERG, A. & WOOD, E.F. 2020. Publisher Correction: Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution. Sci. Data 7: e274. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-00616-w
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-00616...
). The primary vegetative cover is the Cerrado (Ab’Saber 1977AB’SABER, AN. 1977. Os domínios morfoclimáticos na América do Sul. Primeira aproximação. Geomorfologia 52: 1–22.).

The cave systems in São Desidério are nationally renowned due to their extensive drainage by the João Rodrigues River and its tributaries, resulting in large subterranean lakes and karst aquifers (Fig. 2B). These unique geological features include rare spelaeothems, cyclic variations in water levels, unusual sinking streams and springs, and siphons (Galvão et al. 2012GALVÃO, A., FERREIRA, C.F., ROSSATO, R.M., REINO, J.C.R., JANSEN, D.C. & VILELA, C.V. 2012. Breve descrição do patrimônio espeleológico do município de São Desidério BA. Revista Brasileira de Espeleologia 2(1): 13–28.). São Desidério has also been found to possess high subterranean biodiversity (Bichuette et al. 2013BICHUETTE, M.E., MONTEIRO-NETO, D., FERNANDES, C.S. & GALLÃO, J.E. 2013. Estudo espeleobiológico do sistema cárstico João Rodrigues, São Desidério, Bahia. Anais do 32 º Congresso Brasileiro de Espeleologia 32(1): 95–98. http://www.cavernas.org.br/anais32cbe/32cbe_095-098.pdf
http://www.cavernas.org.br/anais32cbe/32...
).

Despite its national significance, São Desidério has been inadequately protected by conservation efforts. In terms of Brazilian legislation, the region falls within the boundaries of a Conservation Unit of Sustainable Use (SNUC, Law No. 9985/2000), known as Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA) de São Desidério. However, in practice, the region and its subterranean environments face multiple threats, including the excessive use of groundwater for domestic purposes, intensive agriculture, mining activities on the outskirts of the APA, and the potential construction of roads and pollution of subterranean water sources (Gallão and Bichuette 2018GALLÃO, J.E. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2018. Brazilian obligatory subterranean fauna and threats to the hypogean environment. Zookeys 746: 1–23. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.746.15140
https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.746.1514...
, Dantas 2019DANTAS, R.B. 2019. Estudo de fatores de degradação ambiental na APA de São Desidério. Revista de Gestão & Sustentabilidade Ambiental 8(3): 673–687. https://doi.org/10.19177/rgsa.v8e32019673-687
https://doi.org/10.19177/rgsa.v8e3201967...
).

1.8.

São Geraldo do Araguaia, state of Pará

São Geraldo do Araguaia is a small town located in southeastern Pará, near the border of the state of Tocantins, on the western bank of the Araguaia River. The local economy primarily relies on extensive livestock breeding and agriculture (SECTAM 2006SECTAM – Secretaria Executiva de Ciência, Tecnologia e Meio Ambiente. 2006. Plano de Manejo do PE da Serra dos Martírios/Andorinhas – PESAM/PA. Pará.). According to Köppen’s criteria, the climate of the region can be classified as Tropical with Dry Winters (Aw) (Alvares et al. 2013ALVARES, C.A., STAPE, J.L., SENTELHAS, P.C., GONÇALVES, J.L.M. & SPAROVEK, G. 2013. Köppen’s climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorol. Z. 22(6): 711–728. https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0507
https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0...
, Bedek et al. 2018BEDEK, H.E., ZIMMERMANN, N.E., MCVICAR, T.R., VERGOPOLAN, N., BERG, A. & WOOD, E.F. 2018. Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution. Sci. Data 5: e180214. https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.214
https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.214...
, 2020BEDEK, H.E., ZIMMERMANN, N.E., MCVICAR, T.R., VERGOPOLAN, N., BERG, A. & WOOD, E.F. 2020. Publisher Correction: Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution. Sci. Data 7: e274. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-00616-w
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-00616...
). The vegetative cover is typical of the Equatorial Amazonian Domain, with transitional areas of Cerrado (Ab’Saber 1977AB’SABER, AN. 1977. Os domínios morfoclimáticos na América do Sul. Primeira aproximação. Geomorfologia 52: 1–22., SECTAM 2006SECTAM – Secretaria Executiva de Ciência, Tecnologia e Meio Ambiente. 2006. Plano de Manejo do PE da Serra dos Martírios/Andorinhas – PESAM/PA. Pará.).

In the context of speleology, the caves in the state of Pará are notable for their lithology, as most of them are formed in insoluble rocks, particularly iron ore and sandstone caves or their weathering derivatives. These formations are favored by the humid tropical climate of northwestern Brazil. The São Geraldo do Araguaia caves are formed in quartzites from Serra dos Martírios, part of the Speleological Province of Serra dos Martírios-Andorinhas (Pinheiro et al. 2015PINHEIRO, R.V.L., MAURITY, C.W. & PEREIRA, E. 2015. Cavernas em arenito da Província Espeleológica Altamira-Itaituba: dados espeleogenéticos com base no exemplo da Gruta das Mãos (PA), Amazônia, Brasil. Espeleo-Tema 26(1): 5–18.). Although no study has evaluated the threats to subterranean environments in the area, activities related to illegal deforestation for pasture, illegal tourism, and vandalism have been reported in the region (SECTAM 2006SECTAM – Secretaria Executiva de Ciência, Tecnologia e Meio Ambiente. 2006. Plano de Manejo do PE da Serra dos Martírios/Andorinhas – PESAM/PA. Pará.).

1.9.

Corumbá, Forte Coimbra, state of Mato Grosso

Forte Coimbra is a district within the municipality of Corumbá, located in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. It shares borders with Porto Suarez, Bolivia. This region is part of the world’s largest tropical floodplain, known as the Pantanal. The Pantanal is internationally recognized as one of the most significant regions in terms of biodiversity, encompassing lowlands that are part of the Equatorial Amazonian, Cerrado, Bolivian, and Peruvian Chaco Domains (Ab’Saber 1977AB’SABER, AN. 1977. Os domínios morfoclimáticos na América do Sul. Primeira aproximação. Geomorfologia 52: 1–22., IBAMA 2003IBAMA – Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis. 2003. Plano de Manejo do Parque Nacional do Pantanal Matogrossense. Brasília., Alho 2011ALHO, C.J.R. 2011. Biodiversity of the Pantanal: its magnitude, human occupation, environmental threats and challenges for conservation. Braz. J. Biol. 71(1, suppl 1): 229–232. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842011000200001
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-6984201100...
, Pott et al. 2011POTT, A., OLIVEIRA, A.K.M., DAMASCENO-JUNIOR, G.A. & SILVA, J.S.V. 2011. Plant diversity of the Pantanal wetland. Braz. J. Biol. 71(1, suppl. 1): 265–273. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842011000200005
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-6984201100...
). According to Köppen’s criteria, the Pantanal has a Tropical Climate with dry winters (Aw), with annual rainfall ranging from 1,800 to 2,300 mm (Alvares et al. 2013ALVARES, C.A., STAPE, J.L., SENTELHAS, P.C., GONÇALVES, J.L.M. & SPAROVEK, G. 2013. Köppen’s climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorol. Z. 22(6): 711–728. https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0507
https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0...
, Bedek et al. 2018BEDEK, H.E., ZIMMERMANN, N.E., MCVICAR, T.R., VERGOPOLAN, N., BERG, A. & WOOD, E.F. 2018. Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution. Sci. Data 5: e180214. https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.214
https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.214...
, 2020BEDEK, H.E., ZIMMERMANN, N.E., MCVICAR, T.R., VERGOPOLAN, N., BERG, A. & WOOD, E.F. 2020. Publisher Correction: Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution. Sci. Data 7: e274. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-00616-w
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-00616...
).

The limestone and dolomites from the Corumbá Group, dating back to the Upper Proterozoic Age, are highly favorable for karst development. They are exposed as extensive outcrops and influenced by a humid climate (Auler & Farrant 1996AULER, A. & FARRANT, A.R. 1996. A brief introduction to karst and caves from Brazil. Proc. Univ. Bristol Spelaeol. Soc. 20(3): 187–200.). The evolution of the landscape in this region has been relatively slower due to the predominance of dolomites interspersed with insoluble rocks (Karmann & Sanchez 1979KARMANN, I. & SÁNCHEZ, L.E. 1979. Distribuição das rochas carbonáticas e províncias espeleológicas do Brasil. Espeleo-Tema 13: 105–167.). The Oniscidea specimens were collected in Gruta Ricardo Franco cave, which holds historical significance and has undergone human interventions. Despite the presence of well-preserved vegetation outside the cave, there were observations of hematophagous bat-guano deposits, likely due to increased availability of prey resulting from the presence of domestic animals, indicating that the cave’s pristine condition has been altered (Cordeiro et al. 2014CORDEIRO, L.M., BORGHEZAN, R. & TRAJANO, E. 2014. Subterranean biodiversity in the Serra da Bodoquena karst area, Paraguay river basin, Mato Grosso do Sul, Southwestern Brazil. Biota Neotrop. 14(3): e20140114. https://doi.org/10.1590/1676-06032014011414
https://doi.org/10.1590/1676-06032014011...
).

Results

Suborder OniscideaLatreille, 1802LATREILLE, A. 1802. Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insects. Tome III. Famille Seconde. Cloportides. L’Imprimeria de F. Dufart, Paris, p. 42–43. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.15764
https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.15764...

Family PlatyarthridaeVerhoeff, 1949VERHOEFF, K.W. 1949. Über Land-Isopoden aus der Türkei. III. Istanbul Univ. Fen Fak. Mecm., Seri B 14: 21–48.

Genus TrichorhinaBudde-Lund, 1908BUDDE-LUND, G. 1908. Isopoda von Madagaskar und Ostafrika mit Diagnosen verwandter Arten. In: Voeltzkow, A. (Ed.) Reise in Ostafrika in den Jahren 1903-1905, Vol. 2. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse, Stuttgart, p. 265–308. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.12989
https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.12989...

Type species: Bathytropa thermophilaDollfus, 1896DOLLFUS, M.A. 1896. On West Indian terrestrial isopod crustaceans. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1896: 388–400. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1896.tb03049.x
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1896...
[= Trichorhina tomentosa (Budde-Lund, 1893BUDDE-LUND, G. 1893. Landisopoder fra Venezuela, indsamlede af Dr. Fr. Meinert. Entomol. Medd. 4: 111–129.)] by original designation (see Schmidt & Leistikow 2004SCHMIDT, C. & LEISTIKOW, A. 2004. Catalogue of genera of the terrestrial Isopoda (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea). Steenstrupia 28(1): 1–118.).

Diagnosis

See Carpio-Díaz et al. (2018)CARPIO-DÍAZ, Y.M., LÓPEZ-OROZCO, C.M., CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. & NAVAS S., G.R. 2018. Terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea) of the Botanical Garden of Cartagena “Guillermo Piñeres”, Colombia, with the description of three new species. Arthropoda Sel. 27(4): 301–318..

Remarks

To date, the genus Trichorhina comprises 72 species and three subgenera: BurmarhinaVerhoeff, 1946VERHOEFF, K.W. 1946. Über Landisopoden der Seychellen und aus Burma. Ark. Zool. 73A(6): 1–18. from Burma, CubarhinaVerhoeff, 1937VERHOEFF, K.W. 1937. Ueber einige neue und bekannte Isopoda terrestria. 61. Isopoden-Aufsatz. Sber. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berl. 1936: 411–430. from Cuba, and TrichorhinellaVerhoeff, 1937VERHOEFF, K.W. 1937. Ueber einige neue und bekannte Isopoda terrestria. 61. Isopoden-Aufsatz. Sber. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berl. 1936: 411–430. from Venezuela (Boyko et al. 2008BOYKO, C.B., BRUCE, N.L., HADFIELD, K.A., MERRIN, K.L., OTA, Y., POORE, G.C.B., TAITI, S., SCHOTTE, M. & WILSON, G.D.F. 2008 (onwards). World Marine, Freshwater and Terrestrial Isopod Crustaceans database. Trichorhina Budde-Lund, 1908. Available at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=249422.
http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p...
, Schmidt & Leistikow 2004SCHMIDT, C. & LEISTIKOW, A. 2004. Catalogue of genera of the terrestrial Isopoda (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea). Steenstrupia 28(1): 1–118., Carpio-Díaz et al. 2021CARPIO-DÍAZ, Y.M., LÓPEZ-OROZCO C.M., BORJA-ARRIETA R. & CAMPOS-FILHO I.S. 2021. A new species and first record of Trichorhina Budde-Lund, 1908 (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Platyarthridae) from the Department of Norte de Santander, Colombia. Nauplius 29: e2021028. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2021028
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e202102...
). In Brazil, the genus includes 36 species, with nine recorded from subterranean environments (Campos-Filho et al. 2018aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., CARDOSO, G.M. & AGUIAR, J.O. 2018a. Catalogue of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazil: an update with some considerations. Nauplius 26: e2018038. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2018038
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201803...
, 2023cCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., SFENTHOURAKIS, S., GALLO, J.S., GALLÃO, J.E., TORRES, D.F., CHAGAS-JR, A., SENNA-HORTA, L., CARPIO-DÍAZ, Y.M., LÓPEZ-OROZCO, C.M., BORJA-ARRIETA, R., ARAUJO, P.B., TAITI, S. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2023c. Shedding light into Brazilian subterranean isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea): expanding distribution data and describing new taxa. Zoosytema 45(19): 531–599. https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v45a19
https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v4...
, Fernandes et al. 2019FERNANDES, C.S., CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2019. Synopsis of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves, with emphasis on new records from north, midwest, northeast and southeast regions. J. Nat. Hist. 53(17–18): 1095–1129. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.1634225
https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.16...
). The genus was morphologically re-defined by Carpio-Díaz et al. (2018)CARPIO-DÍAZ, Y.M., LÓPEZ-OROZCO, C.M., CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. & NAVAS S., G.R. 2018. Terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea) of the Botanical Garden of Cartagena “Guillermo Piñeres”, Colombia, with the description of three new species. Arthropoda Sel. 27(4): 301–318.. However, molecular data show that the genus is paraphyletic (Javidkar et al. 2015JAVIDKAR, M., COOPER, S.J.B., KING, R.A., HUMPHREYS, W.F. & AUSTIN, A. 2015. Molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal a new southern hemisphere oniscidean family (Crustacea: Isopoda) with a unique water transport system. Invertebr. Syst. 29: 554–577. https://doi.org/10.1071/IS15010
https://doi.org/10.1071/IS15010...
, Dimitriou et al. 2019DIMITRIOU, A.C., TAITI, S. & SFENTHOURAKIS, S. 2019. Genetic evidence against monophyly of Oniscidea implies a need to revise scenarios for the origin of terrestrial isopods. Sci. Rep. 9: 18508. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-55071-4
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-55071...
).

As noted by Campos-Filho et al. (2023c)CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., SFENTHOURAKIS, S., GALLO, J.S., GALLÃO, J.E., TORRES, D.F., CHAGAS-JR, A., SENNA-HORTA, L., CARPIO-DÍAZ, Y.M., LÓPEZ-OROZCO, C.M., BORJA-ARRIETA, R., ARAUJO, P.B., TAITI, S. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2023c. Shedding light into Brazilian subterranean isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea): expanding distribution data and describing new taxa. Zoosytema 45(19): 531–599. https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v45a19
https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v4...
, Trichorhina micros and T. minutissima, described by Budd-Lund (1913) from Mauritius and Cargados Carajos Shoals, respectively, exhibit pectinate teeth on the outer endite of the maxillula. The authors mentioned that the shape of buccal pieces is consistent within congeneric species and suggested that both species should be reexamined to clarify their taxonomy. Consequently, morphological comparisons with these taxa will be avoided from now on.

Trichorhina acuta

Araujo & Buckup, 1994ARAUJO, P.B. & BUCKUP, L. 1994. Nova espécie de Trichorhina do sul do Brasil. Iheringia, Ser. Zool. 77: 129–134. https://biostor.org/reference/80018
https://biostor.org/reference/80018...

Fig. 1

Trichorhina acutaAraujo & Buckup 1994ARAUJO, P.B. & BUCKUP, L. 1994. Nova espécie de Trichorhina do sul do Brasil. Iheringia, Ser. Zool. 77: 129–134. https://biostor.org/reference/80018
https://biostor.org/reference/80018...
: 130, figs 112, Souza et al. 2011SOUZA, L.A., ARAÚJO, J.P. & CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. 2011. The genus Trichorhina Budde-Lund in Brazil, with description of seven new species (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Platyarthridae). Iheringia, Sér. Zool. 101: 239–261.: 255, Tab. 1, Campos-Filho et al. 2018aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., CARDOSO, G.M. & AGUIAR, J.O. 2018a. Catalogue of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazil: an update with some considerations. Nauplius 26: e2018038. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2018038
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201803...
: 21, Campos-Filho et al., 2023cCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., SFENTHOURAKIS, S., GALLO, J.S., GALLÃO, J.E., TORRES, D.F., CHAGAS-JR, A., SENNA-HORTA, L., CARPIO-DÍAZ, Y.M., LÓPEZ-OROZCO, C.M., BORJA-ARRIETA, R., ARAUJO, P.B., TAITI, S. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2023c. Shedding light into Brazilian subterranean isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea): expanding distribution data and describing new taxa. Zoosytema 45(19): 531–599. https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v45a19
https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v4...
: 560.

Distribution

Epigean species recorded from the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina (Campos-Filho et al. 2018aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., CARDOSO, G.M. & AGUIAR, J.O. 2018a. Catalogue of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazil: an update with some considerations. Nauplius 26: e2018038. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2018038
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201803...
). In the subterranean environment, it has been recorded from Toca do Tamanduá in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (Souza et al. 2011SOUZA, L.A., ARAÚJO, J.P. & CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. 2011. The genus Trichorhina Budde-Lund in Brazil, with description of seven new species (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Platyarthridae). Iheringia, Sér. Zool. 101: 239–261.).

Trichorhina amplitelson

Campos-Filho, Carpio-Díaz & Borja-Arrieta, 2023

Trichorhina amplitelsonCampos-Filho, Carpio-Díaz & Borja-Arrieta, in Campos-Filho et al., 2023cCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., SFENTHOURAKIS, S., GALLO, J.S., GALLÃO, J.E., TORRES, D.F., CHAGAS-JR, A., SENNA-HORTA, L., CARPIO-DÍAZ, Y.M., LÓPEZ-OROZCO, C.M., BORJA-ARRIETA, R., ARAUJO, P.B., TAITI, S. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2023c. Shedding light into Brazilian subterranean isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea): expanding distribution data and describing new taxa. Zoosytema 45(19): 531–599. https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v45a19
https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v4...
: 555, figs 2D, 1921B.

Distribution

Troglophilic species recorded from Caverna do Jabuti, Curvelandia, and Gruta do Isopoda and Caverna Labirinto in Mirassol do Oeste, all located in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (Campos-Filho et al. 2023).

Trichorhina anhanguera

Campos-Filho, Araujo & Taiti, 2014CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B., BICHUETTE, M.E., TRAJANO, E. & TAITI, S. 2014. Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 172(2): 360–425. https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172
https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172...

Fig. 1

Trichorhina anhangueraCampos-Filho, Araujo & Taiti, in Campos-Filho et al. 2014CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B., BICHUETTE, M.E., TRAJANO, E. & TAITI, S. 2014. Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 172(2): 360–425. https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172
https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172...
: 408, figs 34–36, 40, Campos-Filho et al. 2015aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., MISE, K.M. & SESSEGOLO, G.C. 2015a. A new species of Trichorhina Budde-Lund, 1908 (Isopoda: Oniscidea: Platyarthridae) from Paraná caves, southern Brazil. Nauplius 23: 112–119. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-64972015002324
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-6497201500...
: 112, Campos-Filho et al. 2016CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., BICHUETTE, M.E. & TAITI, S. 2016. Three new species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Nauplius 24: e2016001. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2016001
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201600...
: 12, Campos-Filho et al. 2018aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., CARDOSO, G.M. & AGUIAR, J.O. 2018a. Catalogue of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazil: an update with some considerations. Nauplius 26: e2018038. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2018038
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201803...
: 21, Fernandes et al. 2019FERNANDES, C.S., CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2019. Synopsis of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves, with emphasis on new records from north, midwest, northeast and southeast regions. J. Nat. Hist. 53(17–18): 1095–1129. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.1634225
https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.16...
: 1114, Tab. 1, Campos-Filho et al. 2023cCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., SFENTHOURAKIS, S., GALLO, J.S., GALLÃO, J.E., TORRES, D.F., CHAGAS-JR, A., SENNA-HORTA, L., CARPIO-DÍAZ, Y.M., LÓPEZ-OROZCO, C.M., BORJA-ARRIETA, R., ARAUJO, P.B., TAITI, S. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2023c. Shedding light into Brazilian subterranean isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea): expanding distribution data and describing new taxa. Zoosytema 45(19): 531–599. https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v45a19
https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v4...
: 560.

Distribution

Troglophilic species recorded only from Gruta MP-10 cave in Morro do Pilar, state of Minas Gerais (Campos-Filho et al. 2014CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B., BICHUETTE, M.E., TRAJANO, E. & TAITI, S. 2014. Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 172(2): 360–425. https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172
https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172...
, Fernandes et al. 2019FERNANDES, C.S., CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2019. Synopsis of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves, with emphasis on new records from north, midwest, northeast and southeast regions. J. Nat. Hist. 53(17–18): 1095–1129. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.1634225
https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.16...
).

Trichorhina cipoensis

Campos-Filho, Bichuette & Taiti, 2016CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., BICHUETTE, M.E. & TAITI, S. 2016. Three new species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Nauplius 24: e2016001. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2016001
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201600...

Fig. 1

Trichorhina cipoensisCampos-Filho, Bichuette &Taiti 2016CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., BICHUETTE, M.E. & TAITI, S. 2016. Three new species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Nauplius 24: e2016001. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2016001
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201600...
: 7, figs 810, 14, Campos-Filho et al. 2018aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., CARDOSO, G.M. & AGUIAR, J.O. 2018a. Catalogue of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazil: an update with some considerations. Nauplius 26: e2018038. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2018038
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201803...
: 22, Fernandes et al. 2019FERNANDES, C.S., CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2019. Synopsis of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves, with emphasis on new records from north, midwest, northeast and southeast regions. J. Nat. Hist. 53(17–18): 1095–1129. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.1634225
https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.16...
: 1114, Tab. 1, Campos-Filho et al. 2023cCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., SFENTHOURAKIS, S., GALLO, J.S., GALLÃO, J.E., TORRES, D.F., CHAGAS-JR, A., SENNA-HORTA, L., CARPIO-DÍAZ, Y.M., LÓPEZ-OROZCO, C.M., BORJA-ARRIETA, R., ARAUJO, P.B., TAITI, S. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2023c. Shedding light into Brazilian subterranean isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea): expanding distribution data and describing new taxa. Zoosytema 45(19): 531–599. https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v45a19
https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v4...
: 560.

Distribution

Trogophilic species recorded only from Lapa do Cipó cave, state of Minas Gerais (Campos-Filho et al. 2016CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., BICHUETTE, M.E. & TAITI, S. 2016. Three new species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Nauplius 24: e2016001. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2016001
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201600...
, Fernandes et al. 2019FERNANDES, C.S., CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2019. Synopsis of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves, with emphasis on new records from north, midwest, northeast and southeast regions. J. Nat. Hist. 53(17–18): 1095–1129. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.1634225
https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.16...
).

Trichorhina curupira

Campos-Filho, Araujo & Taiti, 2014CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B., BICHUETTE, M.E., TRAJANO, E. & TAITI, S. 2014. Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 172(2): 360–425. https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172
https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172...

Fig. 1

Trichorhina curupiraCampos-Filho, Araujo & Taiti, in 2014CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B., BICHUETTE, M.E., TRAJANO, E. & TAITI, S. 2014. Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 172(2): 360–425. https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172
https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172...
: 405, figs. 32, 33, 40, Campos-Filho et al. 2015aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., MISE, K.M. & SESSEGOLO, G.C. 2015a. A new species of Trichorhina Budde-Lund, 1908 (Isopoda: Oniscidea: Platyarthridae) from Paraná caves, southern Brazil. Nauplius 23: 112–119. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-64972015002324
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-6497201500...
: 112, Campos-Filho et al. 2016CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., BICHUETTE, M.E. & TAITI, S. 2016. Three new species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Nauplius 24: e2016001. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2016001
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201600...
: 12, Campos-Filho et al. 2018aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., CARDOSO, G.M. & AGUIAR, J.O. 2018a. Catalogue of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazil: an update with some considerations. Nauplius 26: e2018038. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2018038
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201803...
: 22, Fernandes et al. 2019FERNANDES, C.S., CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2019. Synopsis of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves, with emphasis on new records from north, midwest, northeast and southeast regions. J. Nat. Hist. 53(17–18): 1095–1129. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.1634225
https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.16...
: 1114, Tab. 1, Campos-Filho et al. 2023cCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., SFENTHOURAKIS, S., GALLO, J.S., GALLÃO, J.E., TORRES, D.F., CHAGAS-JR, A., SENNA-HORTA, L., CARPIO-DÍAZ, Y.M., LÓPEZ-OROZCO, C.M., BORJA-ARRIETA, R., ARAUJO, P.B., TAITI, S. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2023c. Shedding light into Brazilian subterranean isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea): expanding distribution data and describing new taxa. Zoosytema 45(19): 531–599. https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v45a19
https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v4...
: 560.

Distribution

Troglophilic species recorded only from Pedra da Cachoeira cave in Altamira region, state of Pará (Campos-Filho et al. 2014CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B., BICHUETTE, M.E., TRAJANO, E. & TAITI, S. 2014. Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 172(2): 360–425. https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172
https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172...
, Fernandes et al. 2019FERNANDES, C.S., CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2019. Synopsis of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves, with emphasis on new records from north, midwest, northeast and southeast regions. J. Nat. Hist. 53(17–18): 1095–1129. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.1634225
https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.16...
).

Trichorhina guanophila

Souza-Kury, 1993SOUZA-KURY, L.A. 1993. Notes on Trichorhina I. Two new species from northeastern Brazil. Revue Suisse Zool. 100: 157–210. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.82507
https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.82507...

Fig. 1

Trichorhina guanophilaSouza-Kury 1993SOUZA-KURY, L.A. 1993. Notes on Trichorhina I. Two new species from northeastern Brazil. Revue Suisse Zool. 100: 157–210. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.82507
https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.82507...
: 198, figs. 11–27, Pinto-da-Rocha 1995PINTO-DA-ROCHA, R. 1995. Sinopse da fauna cavernícola do Brasil (1907–1994). Pap. Avulsos Zool. 39: 61–173.: 98, Campos-Filho et al. 2014CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B., BICHUETTE, M.E., TRAJANO, E. & TAITI, S. 2014. Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 172(2): 360–425. https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172
https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172...
: 408, fig. 40, Campos- Flho et al. 2015aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., MISE, K.M. & SESSEGOLO, G.C. 2015a. A new species of Trichorhina Budde-Lund, 1908 (Isopoda: Oniscidea: Platyarthridae) from Paraná caves, southern Brazil. Nauplius 23: 112–119. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-64972015002324
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-6497201500...
: 112, Campos-Filho et al. 2016CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., BICHUETTE, M.E. & TAITI, S. 2016. Three new species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Nauplius 24: e2016001. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2016001
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201600...
: 2, Trajano et al. 2016TRAJANO, E., GALLÃO, J.E. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2016. Spots of high diversity of troglobites in Brazil: the challenge of measuring subterranean diversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 25(10): 1805–1828. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-016-1151-5
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-016-1151-...
: 1815, Angarten et al. 2017ANGARTEN, N.B.O., RAMOS, A.M., ANASTÁCIO, E.M.F. & TAGLIARI, P.D. 2017. Caracterização da fauna de invertebrados em cavidades naturais no âmbito do licenciamento ambiental da ferrovia de integração oeste-leste. In Anais do 34º Congresso Brasileiro de Espeleologia (M.A. Rasteiro, C.M. Teixeira-Silva & S.G. Lacerda, eds). Campinas, SBE. p. 9–21. Available at: http://www.cavernas.org.br/anais34cbe/34cbe_009-021.pdf.
http://www.cavernas.org.br/anais34cbe/34...
: 17, Bastos-Pereira et al. 2017BASTOS-PEREIRA, R., SOUZA, L.A. & FERREIRA, R.L. 2017. A new amphibious troglobitic styloniscid from Brazil (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Synocheta). Zootaxa 4294(2): 292–300. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4294.2.11
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4294.2....
: 292, Campos-Filho et al. 2017bCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., BICHUETTE, M.E., MONTESANTO, G., ARAUJO P.B. & TAITI, S. 2017b. The first troglobiotic species of the family Pudeoniscidae (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea), with descriptions of a new genus and two new species. Subterr. Biol. 23: 69–84. https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.23.20963
https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.23.2096...
: 70, Campos-Filho et al. 2018aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., CARDOSO, G.M. & AGUIAR, J.O. 2018a. Catalogue of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazil: an update with some considerations. Nauplius 26: e2018038. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2018038
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201803...
: 22, Cavalcanti 2017CAVALCANTI, L.F. 2017. Dados secundários de espécies classificadas como troglóbias e troglomórficas para o projeto áreas prioritárias para a conservação do patrimônio espeleológico brasileiro. In Anais do 34º Congresso Brasileiro de Espeleologia (M.A. Rasteiro, C.M. Teixeira-Silva & S.G. Lacerda, eds). Campinas: SBE. p. 43–66. Available at: http://www.cavernas.org.br/anais34cbe/34cbe_043-066.pdf.
http://www.cavernas.org.br/anais34cbe/34...
: 49, Tab. 2, Fernandes et al. 2019FERNANDES, C.S., CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2019. Synopsis of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves, with emphasis on new records from north, midwest, northeast and southeast regions. J. Nat. Hist. 53(17–18): 1095–1129. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.1634225
https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.16...
: 1114, Tab. 1, Campos-Filho et al. 2023cCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., SFENTHOURAKIS, S., GALLO, J.S., GALLÃO, J.E., TORRES, D.F., CHAGAS-JR, A., SENNA-HORTA, L., CARPIO-DÍAZ, Y.M., LÓPEZ-OROZCO, C.M., BORJA-ARRIETA, R., ARAUJO, P.B., TAITI, S. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2023c. Shedding light into Brazilian subterranean isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea): expanding distribution data and describing new taxa. Zoosytema 45(19): 531–599. https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v45a19
https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v4...
: 560.

Distribution

Troglophilic species recorded only from Lapa do Convento cave in Campo Formoso, state of Bahia (Souza-Kury 1993SOUZA-KURY, L.A. 1993. Notes on Trichorhina I. Two new species from northeastern Brazil. Revue Suisse Zool. 100: 157–210. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.82507
https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.82507...
).

Trichorhina kaingangi

Campos-Filho, 2015

Fig. 1

Trichorhina kaingangiCampos-Filho, in Campos-Filho et al. 2015aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., MISE, K.M. & SESSEGOLO, G.C. 2015a. A new species of Trichorhina Budde-Lund, 1908 (Isopoda: Oniscidea: Platyarthridae) from Paraná caves, southern Brazil. Nauplius 23: 112–119. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-64972015002324
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-6497201500...
: 114, figs. 24, Campos-Filho et al. 2016CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., BICHUETTE, M.E. & TAITI, S. 2016. Three new species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Nauplius 24: e2016001. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2016001
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201600...
: 12, Campos-Filho et al. 2017cCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., MONTESANTO, G., ARAUJO, P.B. & TAITI, S. 2017c. New species and new records of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazil. Iheringia, Sér. Zool. 107: e2017034. https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-4766e2017034
https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-4766e201703...
: 18, Campos-Filho et al. 2018aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., CARDOSO, G.M. & AGUIAR, J.O. 2018a. Catalogue of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazil: an update with some considerations. Nauplius 26: e2018038. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2018038
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201803...
: 22, Campos-Filho et al. 2023cCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., SFENTHOURAKIS, S., GALLO, J.S., GALLÃO, J.E., TORRES, D.F., CHAGAS-JR, A., SENNA-HORTA, L., CARPIO-DÍAZ, Y.M., LÓPEZ-OROZCO, C.M., BORJA-ARRIETA, R., ARAUJO, P.B., TAITI, S. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2023c. Shedding light into Brazilian subterranean isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea): expanding distribution data and describing new taxa. Zoosytema 45(19): 531–599. https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v45a19
https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v4...
: 560.

Distribution

Troglophilic species recorded from Ermida Paiol do Alto and Água Boa caves, state of Paraná (Campos-Filho et al. 2017cCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., MONTESANTO, G., ARAUJO, P.B. & TAITI, S. 2017c. New species and new records of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazil. Iheringia, Sér. Zool. 107: e2017034. https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-4766e2017034
https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-4766e201703...
).

Trichorhina pataxosi

Campos-Filho, Bichuette & Taiti, 2016CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., BICHUETTE, M.E. & TAITI, S. 2016. Three new species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Nauplius 24: e2016001. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2016001
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201600...

Fig. 1

Trichorhina pataxosiCampos-Filho, Bichuette & Taiti, in Campos-Filho et al. 2016CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., BICHUETTE, M.E. & TAITI, S. 2016. Three new species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Nauplius 24: e2016001. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2016001
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201600...
: 13, figs 1114, Campos-Filho et al. 2018aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., CARDOSO, G.M. & AGUIAR, J.O. 2018a. Catalogue of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazil: an update with some considerations. Nauplius 26: e2018038. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2018038
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201803...
: 23, Fernandes et al. 2019FERNANDES, C.S., CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2019. Synopsis of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves, with emphasis on new records from north, midwest, northeast and southeast regions. J. Nat. Hist. 53(17–18): 1095–1129. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.1634225
https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.16...
: 1115, Tab. 1, Campos-Filho et al. 2023cCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., SFENTHOURAKIS, S., GALLO, J.S., GALLÃO, J.E., TORRES, D.F., CHAGAS-JR, A., SENNA-HORTA, L., CARPIO-DÍAZ, Y.M., LÓPEZ-OROZCO, C.M., BORJA-ARRIETA, R., ARAUJO, P.B., TAITI, S. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2023c. Shedding light into Brazilian subterranean isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea): expanding distribution data and describing new taxa. Zoosytema 45(19): 531–599. https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v45a19
https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v4...
: 560.

Distribution

Troglophilic species recorded from Gruta do Sufoco and Gruta do Nei caves in Lagoa Santa, and BM cave system in Matozinhos, all located in the Bambuí karst region, state of Minas Gerais (Campos-Filho et al. 2016CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., BICHUETTE, M.E. & TAITI, S. 2016. Three new species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Nauplius 24: e2016001. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2016001
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201600...
, Fernandes et al. 2019FERNANDES, C.S., CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2019. Synopsis of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves, with emphasis on new records from north, midwest, northeast and southeast regions. J. Nat. Hist. 53(17–18): 1095–1129. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.1634225
https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.16...
).

Trichorhina tomentosa

(Budde-Lund, 1893BUDDE-LUND, G. 1893. Landisopoder fra Venezuela, indsamlede af Dr. Fr. Meinert. Entomol. Medd. 4: 111–129.)

Fig. 1

Alloniscus tomentosaBudde-Lund, 1893BUDDE-LUND, G. 1893. Landisopoder fra Venezuela, indsamlede af Dr. Fr. Meinert. Entomol. Medd. 4: 111–129.: 126.

Trichorhina tomentosa, Campos-Filho et al. 2018aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., CARDOSO, G.M. & AGUIAR, J.O. 2018a. Catalogue of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazil: an update with some considerations. Nauplius 26: e2018038. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2018038
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201803...
: 23, Fernandes et al. 2019FERNANDES, C.S., CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2019. Synopsis of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves, with emphasis on new records from north, midwest, northeast and southeast regions. J. Nat. Hist. 53(17–18): 1095–1129. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.1634225
https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.16...
: 1115, Tab. 1.

Material examined

Minas Gerais, Pains: 2♀ (LES 5467), S2-AM-004 cave, 21 February 2014, leg. M. Souza. Goiás, Mambaí: 3♂♀ (LES 10290), 1♀ (LES 10291), Gruta da Judite cave, 14º24’26.16”S 46º11’43.78”W, 01 May 2013, leg. M.E Bichuette, J.E. Gallão, D.M von Schimonsky, P.P. Rizzato & R. Borghezan. São Paulo, Jacupiranga/Eldoraldo: 1♀ (LES 3056), PECD, Gruta da Tapagem (Caverna do Diabo), 24º38’17”S 48º24’04”W, 16-20 September 2009, leg. F. Pellegatti-Franco. Mato Grosso, Primavera do Leste: 1♀ (LES 5441), 1♀ (LES 5444), PEA0433, 20-24 March 2014, leg. Spelayon team.

Distribution

Pantropical species (Schmalfuss 2003SCHMALFUSS, H. 2003. World catalog of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea). Stuttg. Beitr. Naturkd., Ser. A 654: 1–341.). In Brazil, it has been recorded in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Rio Grande do Sul outside caves (Campos-Filho et al. 2018aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., CARDOSO, G.M. & AGUIAR, J.O. 2018a. Catalogue of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazil: an update with some considerations. Nauplius 26: e2018038. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2018038
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201803...
). Within caves, it has been recorded from Gruta da Tapagem (Caverna do Diabo) in Eldorado, state of São Paulo (Fernandes et al. 2019FERNANDES, C.S., CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2019. Synopsis of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves, with emphasis on new records from north, midwest, northeast and southeast regions. J. Nat. Hist. 53(17–18): 1095–1129. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.1634225
https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.16...
). The present work expands the knowledge of its distribution.

Trichorhina yiara

Campos-Filho, Araujo & Taiti, 2014CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B., BICHUETTE, M.E., TRAJANO, E. & TAITI, S. 2014. Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 172(2): 360–425. https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172
https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172...

Fig. 1

Trichorhina yiaraCampos-Filho, Araujo & Taiti, in Campos-Filho et al. 2014CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B., BICHUETTE, M.E., TRAJANO, E. & TAITI, S. 2014. Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 172(2): 360–425. https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172
https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172...
: 401, figs. 29–31, 40, Campos-Filho et al. 2015aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., MISE, K.M. & SESSEGOLO, G.C. 2015a. A new species of Trichorhina Budde-Lund, 1908 (Isopoda: Oniscidea: Platyarthridae) from Paraná caves, southern Brazil. Nauplius 23: 112–119. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-64972015002324
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-6497201500...
: 112. – Campos-Filho et al. 2016CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., BICHUETTE, M.E. & TAITI, S. 2016. Three new species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Nauplius 24: e2016001. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2016001
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201600...
: 12, Campos-Filho et al. 2018aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., CARDOSO, G.M. & AGUIAR, J.O. 2018a. Catalogue of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazil: an update with some considerations. Nauplius 26: e2018038. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2018038
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201803...
: 24, Fernandes et al. 2019FERNANDES, C.S., CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2019. Synopsis of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves, with emphasis on new records from north, midwest, northeast and southeast regions. J. Nat. Hist. 53(17–18): 1095–1129. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.1634225
https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.16...
: 1115, Tab. 1, Campos-Filho et al. 2023cCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., SFENTHOURAKIS, S., GALLO, J.S., GALLÃO, J.E., TORRES, D.F., CHAGAS-JR, A., SENNA-HORTA, L., CARPIO-DÍAZ, Y.M., LÓPEZ-OROZCO, C.M., BORJA-ARRIETA, R., ARAUJO, P.B., TAITI, S. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2023c. Shedding light into Brazilian subterranean isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea): expanding distribution data and describing new taxa. Zoosytema 45(19): 531–599. https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v45a19
https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v4...
: 560.

Distribution

Troglophilic species recorded only from Abrigo do Sismógrafo and Abrigo do Abutre caves, state of Pará (Campos-Filho et al. 2014CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B., BICHUETTE, M.E., TRAJANO, E. & TAITI, S. 2014. Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 172(2): 360–425. https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172
https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172...
, Fernandes et a. 2019FERNANDES, C.S., CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2019. Synopsis of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves, with emphasis on new records from north, midwest, northeast and southeast regions. J. Nat. Hist. 53(17–18): 1095–1129. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.1634225
https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.16...
).

Trichorhina araguaia

Campos-Filho, López-Orozco & Taiti sp. nov.

Figs 1, 3, and 4

Figure 3.
Trichorhina araguaia Campos-Filho, López-Orozco & Taiti sp. nov., ♂ holotype, LES 28729: A, habitus, dorsal view.: B, pereonite 1, dorsal view, C, cephalon, frontal view, D, pleonite 5 and telson, E, antennula, F, antenna, G, left mandible, H, right mandible, I, maxillula, J, maxilla, K, maxilliped.
Figure 4.
Trichorhina araguaia Campos-Filho, López-Orozco & Taiti sp. nov., ♂ holotype, LES 28729: A, uropod, B, pereopod 1, C, pereopod 7, D, genital papilla and pleopod 1, E, pleopod 2, F, pleopod 3 exopod, G, pleopod 4 exopod, H, pleopod 5 exopod.

Zoobank

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:724D7699-C14D-4D9A-88AC-DE83833D8493

Type material

Holotype Pará, São Geraldo do Araguaia: 1♂ (parts in micropreparations) (LES 28729), Gruta SI 07, 06º22’03”S 48º23’40”W, 22 February – 2 March 2011, leg. F. Franco. Paratypes 1♂ juvenile (LES 28730), same data as holotype.

Description

Maximum body length: 2.5 mm. Colorless body, pale yellowish spots on typical muscle insertions. Body (Fig. 3A) robust, pereonite 1 epimera slightly directed frontwards, 2–7 gradually directed backwards. Dorsum covered with fan-shaped scale-setae (Fig. 3B). One line of noduli laterales inserted near posterior margins of pereonites and more or less at same distance from lateral margins (Fig. 3B). Cephalon (Fig. 3C) with lateral lobes not well developed, suprantennal line slightly bent downwards in middle, eyes composed of three small ommatidia. Pleon (Fig. 3A, D) outline continuous with that of pereonite 7, pleonites 3–5 epimera well developed and directed backwards. Telson (Fig. 3D) triangular, lateral sides concave, right-angled apex with pointed appearance. Antennula (Fig. 3E) with proximal and distal articles subequal in length, distal article bearing apical tip and eight apically and sub-apically aesthetascs. Antenna (Fig. 3F) when extended posteriorly surpassing posterior margin of pereonite 1, flagellum as long as fifth article of peduncle, second article about three times as long as first, apical organ short with long free sensilla. Mandibles with molar penicil dichotomized, bearing at least four branches, left mandible (Fig. 3G) with 2 + 1 penicils, right mandible (Fig. 3H) with 1 + 1 penicils. Maxillula (Fig. 3I) inner endite with two setose penicils, outer endite with 4 + 4 teeth, three of them clef at apex. Maxilla (Fig. 3J) with setose and bilobate apex, outer lobe about three times as wide as inner lobe, subquadrate and distal margin slightly rounded. Maxilliped (Fig. 3K) basis rectangular bearing sparse scale-setae, palp with two distinct setae on basal article, endite subrectangular, medial seta surpassing distal margin, distal margin bearing two hook-like setae. Uropod (Fig. 4A) protopod and exopod with outer margin grooved bearing glandular pores, exopod twice as long as endopod, endopod inserted almost at same level as exopod. Pereopod 1 (Fig. 4B) merus and carpus bearing brushes of setae apically cleft on sternal margin, carpus bearing transverse antennal grooming brush, and distal seta with double-fringed apex, pereopod 7 (Fig. 4C) merus and carpus bearing sparse setae on sternal margin. Dactylus (Fig. 4B) with short inner claw, ungual seta simple not surpassing outer claw, dactylar seta simple slightly surpassing outer claw basis. Genital papilla (Fig. 4D) with triangular ventral shield and subapical orifices. Pleopod 1 (Fig. 4D) exopod subquadrangular, outer margin straight, endopod about twice as long as exopod, distal portion tapering and bearing small setae on medial margin. Pleopod 2 (Fig. 4E) exopod triangular, outer margin concave bearing six setae, endopod longer than exopod. Pleopod 3 and 4 exopods as in Fig. 4F, G, respectively. Pleopod 5 exopod (Fig. 4H) triangular, outer margin slightly convex bearing six setae.

Etymology

The new species is named after the Araguaia River, which runs near the municipality of São Geraldo do Araguaia. The word “Araguaia” has its origin in the general Amazon language and means ‘maracanã’, a typical parrot bird of the family Psittacidae that occurs in the region.

Remarks

In having the eyes composed of three ommatidia, Trichorhina araguaia sp. nov. resembles T. curupiraCampos-Filho, Araujo & Taiti, 2014CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B., BICHUETTE, M.E., TRAJANO, E. & TAITI, S. 2014. Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 172(2): 360–425. https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172
https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172...
(Brazil: state of Pará), T. mulaikiSchmalfuss, 2003SCHMALFUSS, H. 2003. World catalog of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea). Stuttg. Beitr. Naturkd., Ser. A 654: 1–341. (Mexico: province of Chiapas), T. triocellataFerrara & Taiti, 1985FERRARA, F. & TAITI, S. 1985. The terrestrial isopods of Aldabra. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 85(3): 291–315. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1985.tb01508.x
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1985...
(Aldabra Is.), and T. triocisMulaik & Mulaik, 1943MULAIK, S. & MULAIK, D. 1943. New Texas terrestrial isopods with notes on other species. Bull. Univ. Utah 34: 1–15. https://collections.lib.utah.edu/ark:/87278/s6349454
https://collections.lib.utah.edu/ark:/87...
(USA: Texas) (Schmalfuss 2003SCHMALFUSS, H. 2003. World catalog of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea). Stuttg. Beitr. Naturkd., Ser. A 654: 1–341., Campos-Filho et al. 2014CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B., BICHUETTE, M.E., TRAJANO, E. & TAITI, S. 2014. Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 172(2): 360–425. https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172
https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172...
). The new species differs from all these species in the different shape of the male pleopod 1 exopod. Moreover, it differs from T. curupira in having the maxilliped endite with two hooks on the distal margin (vs. absent), the male pleopod 4 exopod with an outer margin that is distinctily concave (vs. slightly convex), and the shape of the male pleopod 5 exopod with a proximal inner margin that is right-angled (vs. rounded). It differs from T. mulaiki in the telson with concave lateral sides (vs. straight), the distal article of the antennula bearing eight aesthetascs (vs. two), and the uropod branches inserted almost at the same level (vs. endopod distinctly inserted proximally). In comparison to T. triocellata, it differs in the telson with concave lateral sides and a pointed apex (vs. slightly concave sides and a rounded apex), the maxillula outer endite bearing the outer set of teeth apically entire and cleft (vs. simple), and the dactylar seta simple (vs. plumose). Lastly, it differs from T. triocis in the telson being twice as wide as long (vs. longer than wide), the uropod branches inserted almost at the same level (vs. endopod distinctly inserted proximally), and the male pleopod 2 exopod triangular (vs. sub-rectangular) (Budde-Lund 1913BUDDE-LUND, G. 1913. Terrestrial Isopoda, particularly considered in relation to the distribution of the southern Indo-Pacific species. Trans. Linn. Soc. London (2. Ser., Zool.) 15: 367–394. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1912.tb00107.x
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1912...
, Mulaik & Mulaik 1943MULAIK, S. & MULAIK, D. 1943. New Texas terrestrial isopods with notes on other species. Bull. Univ. Utah 34: 1–15. https://collections.lib.utah.edu/ark:/87278/s6349454
https://collections.lib.utah.edu/ark:/87...
, Mulaik 1960MULAIK, S. 1960. Contribución al conocimiento de los isópodos terrestres de Mexico. Revista Soc. Mex. Hist. Nat. 21: 79–292., Ferrara & Taiti 1985FERRARA, F. & TAITI, S. 1985. The terrestrial isopods of Aldabra. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 85(3): 291–315. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1985.tb01508.x
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1985...
, Campos-Filho et al. 2014CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B., BICHUETTE, M.E., TRAJANO, E. & TAITI, S. 2014. Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 172(2): 360–425. https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172
https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172...
).

Trichorhina yakupyrang

Campos-Filho, Carpio-Díaz & Bichuette sp. nov.

Figs 1, 5, 6, and 25A

Figure 5.
Trichorhina yakupyrang Campos-Filho, Carpio-Díaz & Bichuette sp. nov., ♀ paratype, LES 0648: A, habitus, dorsal view, B, pereonite 1, dorsal view, C, b/c coordinates, D, d/c coordinates, E, cephalon, frontal view, F, pleonite 5 and telson, G, antennula, H, antenna, I, left mandible, J, right mandible, K, maxillula, L, maxilla, M, maxilliped.
Figure 6.
Trichorhina yakupyrang Campos-Filho, Carpio-Díaz & Bichuette sp. nov., ♀ paratype, LES 0648: A, uropod. ♂ paratype, LES 0648: B, pereopod 1, C, pereopod 7, D, genital papilla, E, pleopod 1, F, pleopod 2, G, pleopod 3 exopod, H, pleopod 4 exopod, I, pleopod 5 exopod.

Zoobank

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:6E857EB5-4005-4858-8887-32BEB9E99CC2

Type material

Holotype São Paulo, Jacupiranga: ١♂ (LES 28731), Gruta Capelinha, Parque Estadual do Rio Turvo (PERT), 24º51’06”S 48º14’34”W, 13-20 April 2009, leg. F. Pellegatti-Franco. Paratypes 4♀ (LES 0632), 1♂ (parts in micropreparations), 3♀ (one in micropreparations) (LES 0648), same data as holotype.

Description

Maximum body length: male 3 mm, female 3.5 mm. Color pale yellow, some specimens without body pigments. Body (Fig. 5A) robust, pereonites 1 and 2 epimera slightly directed frontwards, 3–7 gradually backwards. Dorsum covered with fan-shaped scale-setae (Fig. 5B). One line of noduli laterales inserted close to posterior margins and more or less at same distance from lateral margins of pereonites (Fig. 5B), b/c and d/c coordinates as in Fig. 5C, D, respectively. Cephalon (Fig. 5E) with well-developed lateral lobes, suprantennal line bent downwards in middle, eyes composed of four small ommatidia arranged in two rows. Pleon (Fig. 5A) outline continuous with that of pereonite 7, pleonites 3–5 epimera well developed and directed backwards. Telson (Fig. 5F) triangular, lateral margins concave and acute apex. Antennula (Fig. 5G) with proximal and distal articles subequal in length, distal article bearing 17 apical and sub-apical aesthetascs. Antenna (Fig. 5H) when extended posteriorly surpasses posterior margin of pereonite 1, flagellum as long as fifth article of peduncle, second article about three times as long as first with two sets of lateral aesthetascs on distal portion, apical organ short with long free sensilla. Buccal pieces (Fig. 5IM) as in T. araguaia sp. nov.: mandibles with molar penicil of six branches, maxillula outer endite with outer set of teeth apically entire, maxilla outer lobe about twice as wide as inner lobe, maxilliped endite bearing one hook-like seta on distal margin. Uropod (Fig. 6A) protopod and exopod outer margin grooved bearing glandular pores, exopod slightly longer than endopod, endopod inserted proximally. Pereopods 1–7 merus and carpus bearing sparse setae cleft at apex on sternal margin, carpus 1 bearing transverse antennal grooming brush, dactylus with short inner claw, ungual and dactylar setae simple not surpassing outer claw.

Male: Pereopods 1 and 7 without sexual dimorphism (Fig. 6B, C). Genital papilla (Fig. 6D) with triangular ventral shield and subapical orifices. Pleopod 1 (Fig. 6E) exopod sub-rectangular, twice as broad as long, distal margin straight, medial margin rounded, endopod about three times as long as exopod, distal portion tapering and slightly bent outwards. Pleopod 2 (Fig. 6F) exopod triangular, outer margin concave bearing four setae, endopod stout, slightly longer than exopod. Pleopod 3 and 4 exopods as in Fig. 6G and H, respectively. Pleopod 5 exopod (Fig. 6I) rhomboid, outer margin sinuous bearing four setae.

Etymology

Tupi language: “yaku” means jacu and “pyrang” means red. In Tupi, the toponym “Jacupiranga” refers to a turkey-like species of the genus Penelope (Cracidae) that inhabit forests in Central and South Americas.

Remarks

In having the eyes composed of four ommatidia Trichorhina yacupyrang sp. nov. resembles T. acutaAraujo & Buckup, 1994ARAUJO, P.B. & BUCKUP, L. 1994. Nova espécie de Trichorhina do sul do Brasil. Iheringia, Ser. Zool. 77: 129–134. https://biostor.org/reference/80018
https://biostor.org/reference/80018...
(Brazil: states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina), T. aethiopicaArcangeli, 1941ARCANGELI, A. 1941. Crustacea, Isopoda. In: Missione biologica Sagan-Omo, Vol. 12. Zoologia VI. Myriapoda, Arachinda, Tardigrada, Crustacea, Mollusca. Reale Accademia D’Italia, Roma, p. 5–18. (Ethiopia), T. giannelliiArcangeli, 1929ARCANGELI, A. 1929. Isopodi terrestri raccolti in Cuba dal Prof. F. Silvestri. Boll. Lab. Zool. Gen. Agr. R. Scuola Agric. Portici 23: 129–148. (Cuba and ?Costa Rica), T. hospesSilvestri, 1918SILVESTRI, F. 1918. Contribuzione alla conoscenza dei termitidi e termitofili dell’Africa occidentale. II. Termitofili. Parte prima. Arthropoda. Crustacea. Isopoda. Boll. Lab. Zool. Gen. Agr. R. Scuola Agric. Portici 12: 290–294. (Nigeria and ?São Tomé Island), T. minimaSchmalfuss & Ferrara, 1978SCHMALFUSS, H. & FERRARA, F. 1978. Terrestrial isopods from West Africa, Part 2: Families Tylidae, Ligiidae, Styloniscidae, Philosciidae, Platyarthridae, Rhyscotidae, Porcellionidae, Trachelipidae. Monitore Zool. Ital. (N.S.), Suppl. 11: 15–97. https://doi.org/10.1080/03749444.1978.10736575
https://doi.org/10.1080/03749444.1978.10...
(Togo), T. paraensisSouza-Kury, 1997SOUZA-KURY, L.A. 1997. Two new species of Trichorhina from Brazilian Amazonia. Crustaceana 70: 180–190. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20105849
https://www.jstor.org/stable/20105849...
(Brazil: state of Pará), T. sexdensSouza, Araújo & Campos-Filho, 2011SOUZA, L.A., ARAÚJO, J.P. & CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. 2011. The genus Trichorhina Budde-Lund in Brazil, with description of seven new species (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Platyarthridae). Iheringia, Sér. Zool. 101: 239–261. (Brazil: state of São Paulo), T. silvestri Arcangeli, 1936 (Spain), and T. vandeliRioja, 1955RIOJA, E. 1955. Estudios carcinológicos. XXXIII. Observaciones acerca de dos nuevas espécies de isópodos cavernícolas de Chiapas. An. Inst. Biol. Univ. México 26: 199–209. (Mexico) (Schmalfuss 2003SCHMALFUSS, H. 2003. World catalog of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea). Stuttg. Beitr. Naturkd., Ser. A 654: 1–341., Campos-Filho et al. 2018a). The new species differs from all these species in the different shape of the male pleopod 1 exopod. Additionally, it differs from T. acuta in the distal article of the antennula bearing the aesthetascs inserted apically and sub-apically and the maxillula outer endite bearing the outer set of teeth apically entire (vs. aesthetascs inserted apically and outer set with two teeth apically cleft). It also differs from T. aethiopica and T. giannellii in the telson with concave lateral sides (vs. almost straight on both species). From T. hospes and T. paraensis, it differs in the molar penicil of mandibles being dichotomized, the maxillula outer endite bearing the outer set of teeth apically entire, and the male pleopod 5 exopod being rhomboid (vs. molar penicil simple and outer set with two teeth apically cleft on both species, and pleopod 5 exopod triangular in T. paraensis). It differs from T. minima in the cephalon lacking a bulbous frons (vs. frons strongly bulbous). From T. sexdens, it differs in the molar penicil of mandibles being dichotomized, the male pereopod 1 merus and carpus bearing sparse setae on the sternal margin, the male pleopod 1 endopod having a straight apex, and the male pleopod 2 endopod having a thick distal portion (vs. molar penicil simple, male pereopod 1 merus and carpus bearing a brush of setae on the sternal margin, male pleopod 1 endopod with the apex slightly bent outwards, and male pleopod 2 endopod with a slender distal portion). It differs from T. silvestri in the molar penicil of mandibles having six branches and the maxillula outer endite bearing the outer set of teeth apically entire (vs. molar penicil of three branches and outer set with two teeth apically cleft). Lastly, it differs from T. vandeli in the telson with concave lateral sides, mandibles with a molar penicil of six branches, and the male pereopod 1 merus and carpus bearing sparse setae on the sternal margin (vs. telson with slightly concave lateral sides, molar penicil of several branches, and male pereopod 1 merus and carpus bearing brushes of setae) (Budde-Lund 1913BUDDE-LUND, G. 1913. Terrestrial Isopoda, particularly considered in relation to the distribution of the southern Indo-Pacific species. Trans. Linn. Soc. London (2. Ser., Zool.) 15: 367–394. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1912.tb00107.x
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1912...
, Silvestri 1918SILVESTRI, F. 1918. Contribuzione alla conoscenza dei termitidi e termitofili dell’Africa occidentale. II. Termitofili. Parte prima. Arthropoda. Crustacea. Isopoda. Boll. Lab. Zool. Gen. Agr. R. Scuola Agric. Portici 12: 290–294., Arcangeli 1936aARCANGELI, A. 1936a. Specie nuove di isopodi terrestri della Spagna raccolti dal Prof. F. Silvestri. Boll. Lab. Zool. Gen. Agr. R. Scuola Agric. Portici 29: 40–46., 1941ARCANGELI, A. 1941. Crustacea, Isopoda. In: Missione biologica Sagan-Omo, Vol. 12. Zoologia VI. Myriapoda, Arachinda, Tardigrada, Crustacea, Mollusca. Reale Accademia D’Italia, Roma, p. 5–18., Van Name 1936VAN NAME, W.G. 1936. The American land and freshwater isopod Crustacea. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 71: 1–535. http://hdl.handle.net/2246/1185
http://hdl.handle.net/2246/1185...
, Mulaik 1960MULAIK, S. 1960. Contribución al conocimiento de los isópodos terrestres de Mexico. Revista Soc. Mex. Hist. Nat. 21: 79–292., Araujo & Buckup 1994ARAUJO, P.B. & BUCKUP, L. 1994. Nova espécie de Trichorhina do sul do Brasil. Iheringia, Ser. Zool. 77: 129–134. https://biostor.org/reference/80018
https://biostor.org/reference/80018...
, Souza-Kury 1997SOUZA-KURY, L.A. 1997. Two new species of Trichorhina from Brazilian Amazonia. Crustaceana 70: 180–190. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20105849
https://www.jstor.org/stable/20105849...
).

Trichorhina quadriocellata

Campos-Filho, Borja-Arrieta & Bichuette sp. nov.

Figs 1, 7, 8, and 25B

Figure 7.
Trichorhina quadriocellata Campos-Filho, Borja-Arrieta & Bichuette sp. nov., ♀ paratype, LES 0643: A, habitus, dorsal view, B, pereonite 1, dorsal view, C, d/c coordinates, D, b/c coordinates, E, cephalon, frontal view, F, pleonites 3–5 and telson, G, antennula, H, antenna, I, left mandible, J, right mandible, K, maxillula, L, maxilla, M, maxilliped.
Figure 8.
Trichorhina quadriocellata Campos-Filho, Borja-Arrieta & Bichuette sp. nov., ♀ paratype, LES 0643: A, uropod. ♂ holotype, LES 1897: B, pereopod 1, C, pereopod 7, D, genital papilla, E, pleopod 1, F, pleopod 2, G, pleopod 3 exopod, H, pleopod 4 exopod, I, pleopod 5 exopod.

Zoobank

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:21099689-3C27-4006-81DF-A9155114E1D1

Type material

Holotype São Paulo, Iporanga: 1♂ (parts in micropreparations) (LES 1897), near Gruta Chapéu (outside cave), Parque Estadual Turístico Alto do Ribeira (PETAR), Caboclos 1, 24º26’06”S 48º35’25”W, 15 Jun 2008, leg. M.E. Bichuette. Paratypes 1♀ (in micropraparations) (LES 0643), same locality as holotype (inside cave), 26-30 March 2009, leg. F. Pellegatti-Franco, 1♀ (LES 28732), Caverna Alambari de Baixo, PETAR, 2 October 2012, leg. M.E. Bichuette.

Description

Maximum body length: male 2 mm, female 4 mm. Colorless body. Body (Fig. 7A) slender, pereonite 1 epimera slightly directed frontwards, 3–7 gradually directed backwards. Dorsum covered with fan-shaped scale-setae (Fig. 7B). One line of distinct noduli laterales inserted more or less at same distance from lateral margins of pereonites, epimera 1 with noduli slightly shifted from posterior margin, 2–7 close to posterior margin (Fig. 7B), b/c and d/c coordinates as in Fig. 7C, D, respectively. Cephalon (Fig. 7A, E) with lateral lobes not well-developed, suprantennal line bent downwards in middle, eyes composed of four ommatidia. Pleon (Fig. 7A, F) slightly narrower than pereonite 7, pleonites 3–5 epimera directed backwards, epimera 3 short, 4 and 5 epimera appressed to pleon. Telson (Fig. 7F) triangular, lateral margins almost straight, right-angled apex. Antennula (Fig. 7G) with proximal article longest, distal article bearing seven apical and sub-apical aesthetascs. Antenna (Fig. 7H) when extended posteriorly reaching posterior margin of pereonite 1, flagellum as long as fifth article of peduncle, second article about three times as long as first with two set of aesthetascs on distal portion, apical organ short with long free sensillae. Mandibles with molar penicil simple, left mandible (Fig. 7I) with 2 + 1 penicils, right mandible (Fig. 7J) with 1 + 1 penicils. Maxillula (Fig. 7K) inner endite with two penicils; outer endite with 4 + 4 teeth apically entire. Maxilla (Fig. 7L) inner lobe rounded, covered with thick and thin setae; outer lobe three times as wide as inner lobe covered with thin setae. Maxilliped (Fig. 7M) endite subrectangular, medial seta surpassing distal margin, distal margin bearing two hook-like setae, ventral longitudinal ridge bearing dense setae ending with one short triangular seta. Uropod (Fig. 8A) protopod grooved on outer margin bearing glandular pores, endopod inserted proximally, exopod lacking in all specimens. Pereopods 1–7 merus and carpus bearing sparse setae apically cleft on sternal margin, carpus 1 bearing transverse antennal grooming brush, dactylus with short inner claw, ungual and dactylar setae simple not surpassing outer claw (Fig. 8B).

Male: Pereopd 1 without sexual dimorphism (Fig. 8B). Pereopod 7 (Fig. 8C) merus bearing proximal rounded lobe on sternal margin. Genital papilla (Fig. 8D) with triangular ventral shield and subapical orifices. Pleopod 1 (Fig. 8E) exopod sub-ovoid, almost as long as wide, distal margin straight, endopod about three times as long as exopod, distal portion stout, bent outwards and bearing small setae on median margin. Pleopod 2 (Fig. 8F) exopod triangular, outer margin concave bearing two setae, endopod stout, slightly longer than exopod. Pleopod 3 and 4 exopods as in Fig. 8G and H, respectively. Pleopod 5 exopod (Fig. 8I) triangular, outer margin straight bearing five setae.

Etymology

Latin: quadri = four + ocellata = having eyes. The name refers to the eye consisting of four ommatidia.

Remarks

Trichorhina quadriocellata sp. nov. differs from all previously mentioned species in having a sternal tooth-shaped lobe on the male pereopod 7 merus. Moreover, it differs from T. yakupyrang sp. nov. in the slender dorsal habitus (vs. robust), telson with the lateral sides almost straight (vs. concave), distal article of the antennula bearing seven aesthetascs (vs. 17 aesthetascs), simple molar penicil of the mandibles (vs. dichotomized), presence of a triangular seta at the end of the ventral longitudinal ridge on the maxilliped endite (vs. absent), sub-ovoid male pleopod 1 exopod (vs. sub-rectangular), stout distal portion of the male pleopod 1 endopod (vs. tapering), and triangular male pleopod 5 exopod (vs. rhomboid).

Trichorhina alphard

Campo-Filho, Sfenthourakis & Taiti sp. nov.

Figs 1, 2C, 9, 10, and 25C

Figure 9.
Trichorhina alphard Campos-Filho, Sfenthourakis & Taiti sp. nov., ♂ paratype, LES 0085: A, habitus, dorsal view, B, pereonite 7, dorsal view, C, b/c coordinates, D, d/c coordinates, E, cephalon, frontal view, F, pleonites 4, 5 and telson, G, antenna, H, uropod, I, pereopod 1, J, pereopod 7.
Figure 10.
Trichorhina alphard Campos-Filho, Sfenthourakis & Taiti sp. nov., ♂ paratype, LES 0085: A, genital papilla, B, pleopod 1, C, pleopod 2, D, pleopod 3 exopod, E, pleopod 4 exopod, F, pleopod 5 exopod.

Zoobank

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:E00F17F0-80F5-4A67-A123-EEFAADA25892

Type material

Holotype Mato Grosso do Sul, Corumbá: 1♂ (LES 28733), Gruta Ricardo Franco, Região Forte Coimbra, 19º53’14”S 57º47’31”W, 4 April 2000, leg. E. Trajano and N. Moracchioli. Paratypes 5♂ (one in micropreparations), 3♀, 2 juveniles (LES 0085), same data as holotype.

Description

Maximum body length: male and female 3.5 mm. Colorless body. Body (Fig. 9A) slightly robust, pereonite 1 epimera slightly directed frontwards, 2–7 gradually directed backwards. Dorsum covered with fan-shaped scale-setae (Fig. 9B). One line of distinct noduli laterales inserted more or less at same distance from lateral margins of pereonites, and close to posterior margins (Fig. 9B), b/c and d/c coordinates as in Fig. 9C and D, respectively. Cephalon (Fig. 9A, E) with lateral lobes well-developed, suprantennal line bent downwards in middle, eyes reduced composed of four ommatidia arranged in two rows. Pleon (Fig. 9A, F) outline continuous with that of pereonite 7, pleonites 3–5 epimera well-developed and directed backwards. Telson (Fig. 9F) triangular, lateral sides concave, apex rounded. Antenna (Fig. 9G) when extended posteriorly reaching posterior margin of pereonite 1, flagellum as long as fifth article of peduncle, second article about twice as long as first with two set of lateral aesthetascs on distal portion, apical organ short with long free sensilla. Buccal pieces as in T. araguaia sp. nov.: mandibles with molar penicil of at least five branches, maxillula outer endite with 3 + 3 teeth, two of them clef at apex, maxilliped endite without hook-like seta on distal margin. Uropod (Fig. 9H) protopod and exopod grooved on outer margin bearing glandular pores, endopod inserted proximally, exopod longer than endopod. Pereopods 1 carpus 1 bearing transverse antennal grooming brush, dactylus with long inner claw, ungual and dactylar setae simple not surpassing outer claw.

Male: Pereopods 1–4 merus and carpus with brushes of setae on sternal margin (Fig. 9I). Pereopod 7 without any sexual dimorphism (Fig. 9J). Genital papilla (Fig. 10A) with triangular ventral shield and two subapical orifices. Pleopod 1 (Fig. 10B) exopod ovoid, twice as long as wide, distal margin bearing one seta, endopod about three times as long as exopod, distal portion tapering. Pleopod 2 (Fig. 10C) exopod triangular, outer margin concave bearing five setae, endopod about twice as long as exopod. Pleopod 3 and 4 exopods as in Fig. 10D and E, respectively. Pleopod 5 exopod (Fig. 10F) triangular, outer margin sinuous bearing five setae.

Etymology

The new species is named after the Alpha Hydrae star, also known as Alphard. The Alphard star is the brightest star of the Hydra constellation and it represents the state of Mato Grosso do Sul in the Brazilian flag.

Remarks

Trichorhina alphard sp. nov. differs from all previously mentioned species with four ommatidia in the different shape of the male pleopod 1. Moreover, it differs from T. yakupyrang sp. nov. and T. quadriocellata sp. nov. in having the telson with concave lateral sides (vs. straight in T. quadriocellata sp. nov.), mandibles with a molar penicil of five branches (vs. simple in T. quadriocellata sp. nov.), maxillula outer endite composed of 3 + 3 teeth with two of them cleft at the apex (vs. 4 + 4 simple teeth in both species), maxilliped endite without any ornamental setae (vs. distal hook-like setae in both species), male pereopod 1–4 merus and carpus bearing brushes of setae on the sternal margin (vs. sparsed on both species), male pleopod 2 endopod flagelliform and elongated (vs. stout and shorter in both species), and male pleopod 5 exopod triangular (vs. rhomboid in T. yakupyrang sp. nov.).

Trichorhina acrux

Campos-Filho, Sfenthourakis & Bichuette sp. nov.

Figs 1, 11, and 12

Figure 11.
Trichorhina acrux Campos-Filho, Sfenthourakis & Bichuette sp. nov., ♀ paratype, LES 1781: A, habitus, dorsal view, B, pereonite 1, dorsal view, C, b/c coordinates, D, d/c coordinates, E, cephalon, frontal view, F, pleonite 5 and telson, G, antennula, H, antenna, I, left mandible, J, maxilla, K, maxillula.
Figure 12.
Trichorhina acrux Campos-Filho, Sfenthourakis & Bichuette sp. nov., ♀ paratype, LES 1781: A, uropod. ♂ holotype, LES 1776: B, pereopod 1, C, pereopod 7, D, genital papilla, E, pleopod 1, F, pleopod 2, G, pleopod 3 exopod, H, pleopod 4 exopod, I, pleopod 5 exopod.

Zoobank

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:9E918AAD-1B06-4524-BA47-6584D6FD5C70

Type material

Holotype São Paulo, Iporanga: 1♂ (parts in micropreparations) (LES 1776), Gruta Água Sumida, Parque Estadual Turístico Alto do Ribeira (PETAR), 24º27’42”S 48º36’44”W, 8-13 November 2009, leg. F. Pellegatti-Franco. Paratypes São Paulo, Iporanga: 1♀ (LES 28763), Gruta Colorida, Parque Estadual Intervales (PEI), 24º16’25”S 48º25’11”W, 26-30 March 2009, leg. F. Pellegatti-Franco, 2♀ (one in micropreparations) (LES 1781), Gruta Minotauro, PEI, 24º16’34”S 48º27’22”W, 26-30 March 2009, leg. F. Pellegatti-Franco, 1♀ (LES 1790), Gruta do Chapéu, PETAR, Caboclos 1, 24º26’06”S 48º35’25”W, 8-13 November 2009, leg. F. Pellegatti-Franco.

Description

Maximum body length: male 2 mm, female 2.5 mm. Colorless body. Body (Fig. 11A) robust, pereonites 1 and 2 epimera slightly directed frontwards, 3–7 gradually directed backwards. Dorsum covered with fan-shaped scale-setae (Fig. 11B). One line of noduli laterales inserted close to posterior margins and more or less at same distance from lateral margins of pereonites (Fig. 10B), b/c and d/c coordinates as in Fig. 11C and D, respectively. Cephalon (Fig. 11A, E) with lateral lobes slightly developed, suprantennal line slightly bent downwards in middle, eyes composed of five ommatidia. Pleon (Fig. 11A, F) outline continuous with that of pereonite 7, epimera of pleonites 3–5 well-developed and directed backwards. Telson (Fig. 11F) triangular, lateral sides concave, obtuse apex. Antennula (Fig. 10G) with proximal and distal articles subequal in length, distal article bearing seven subapical aesthetascs. Antenna (Fig. 10H) when extended posteriorly surpassing posterior margin of pereonite 1, flagellum as long as fifth article of peduncle, second article about three times as long as first with two aesthetascs on distal portion, apical organ short with long free sensilla. Buccal pieces (Fig. 11IK) as in T. quadriocellata sp. nov.: maxillula outer endite of 3 + 4 teeth, maxilliped endite without distal ventral seta on longitudinal ridge. Uropod (Fig. 12A) protopod and exopod with outer margin grooved bearing glandular pores, exopod twice as long as endopod, endopod inserted proximally. Pereopod 1 carpus with transverse antennal grooming brush reaching median portion, distal seta with apex double-fringed, dactylus with short inner claw, ungual and dactylar setae simple reaching distal portion of outer claw (Fig. 12B).

Male: Pereopods 1 and 7 (Fig 12B, C) without sexual dimorphism. Genital papilla (Fig. 12D) with triangular ventral shield and subapical orifices. Pleopod 1 (Fig. 12E) exopod subrectangular, distal margin bearing three small setae, endopod about three times as long as exopod, distal portion slightly bent outwards and bearing small setae on median margin. Pleopod 2 (Fig. 12F) exopod subrectangular, outer margin slightly sinuous bearing six setae, endopod slender, distal portion elongated. Pleopod 3 and 4 exopods as in Fig. 12G and H, respectively. Pleopod 5 exopod (Fig. 12I) subrectangular, distal margin slightly convex bearing six setae.

Etymology

The new species is named after the Alpha Crucis star, also known as Acrux, the brightest star of the Crux constellation. This star represents the state of São Paulo in the Brazilian flag.

Remarks

In having the eyes composed of five ommatidia Trichorhina acrux sp. nov. resembles T. albidaBudde-Lund, 1908BUDDE-LUND, G. 1908. Isopoda von Madagaskar und Ostafrika mit Diagnosen verwandter Arten. In: Voeltzkow, A. (Ed.) Reise in Ostafrika in den Jahren 1903-1905, Vol. 2. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse, Stuttgart, p. 265–308. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.12989
https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.12989...
(Madagascar), T. argentinaVandel, 1963VANDEL, A. 1963. Isopodes terrestres recueillis en Amerique du Sud par Claude Delamare Deboutteville. In: Deboutteville, C.D. (Ed.) Biologie de l’Amerique australe. Éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, p. 63–100. (Brazil: states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, Argentina: La Plata), T. biumbonataSouza, Araújo & Campos-Filho, 2011SOUZA, L.A., ARAÚJO, J.P. & CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. 2011. The genus Trichorhina Budde-Lund in Brazil, with description of seven new species (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Platyarthridae). Iheringia, Sér. Zool. 101: 239–261. (Brazil: state of São Paulo), T. dobrogicaRadu, 1960RADU, V.G. 1960. Un nou gen de izopode terestre în fauna Republicii Populare Romîne, genul Trichorhina. Studia Univ. Babes˘-Bolyai (Ser. 2, Biol.) 1960: 105–109. (Romania), T. giannellii, T. guanophilaSouza-Kury, 1993SOUZA-KURY, L.A. 1993. Notes on Trichorhina I. Two new species from northeastern Brazil. Revue Suisse Zool. 100: 157–210. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.82507
https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.82507...
(Brazil: state of Bahia), T. lenkoiSouza, Araújo & Campos-Filho, 2011SOUZA, L.A., ARAÚJO, J.P. & CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. 2011. The genus Trichorhina Budde-Lund in Brazil, with description of seven new species (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Platyarthridae). Iheringia, Sér. Zool. 101: 239–261. (Brazil: state of São Paulo), T. lobataVerhoeff, 1946VERHOEFF, K.W. 1946. Über Landisopoden der Seychellen und aus Burma. Ark. Zool. 73A(6): 1–18. (Burma), T. myrmecophilaSouza, Araújo & Campos-Filho, 2011SOUZA, L.A., ARAÚJO, J.P. & CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. 2011. The genus Trichorhina Budde-Lund in Brazil, with description of seven new species (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Platyarthridae). Iheringia, Sér. Zool. 101: 239–261. (Brazil: state of São Paulo), T. orensisSouza, Araújo & Campos-Filho, 2011SOUZA, L.A., ARAÚJO, J.P. & CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. 2011. The genus Trichorhina Budde-Lund in Brazil, with description of seven new species (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Platyarthridae). Iheringia, Sér. Zool. 101: 239–261. (Brazil: state of Rio de Janeiro), T. pallidaBarnard, 1960BARNARD, K.H. 1960. A collection of terrestrial Isopoda from Mt. Gorongoza, Portuguese E. Africa. Ann. Natal Mus. 14: 505–511. (Mozambique), and T. papillosa (Budde-Lund, 1893BUDDE-LUND, G. 1893. Landisopoder fra Venezuela, indsamlede af Dr. Fr. Meinert. Entomol. Medd. 4: 111–129.) (Venezuela: Los Tejes) (Schmalfuss 2003SCHMALFUSS, H. 2003. World catalog of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea). Stuttg. Beitr. Naturkd., Ser. A 654: 1–341., Souza et al. 2011SOUZA, L.A., ARAÚJO, J.P. & CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. 2011. The genus Trichorhina Budde-Lund in Brazil, with description of seven new species (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Platyarthridae). Iheringia, Sér. Zool. 101: 239–261., Campos-Filho et al. 2018aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., CARDOSO, G.M. & AGUIAR, J.O. 2018a. Catalogue of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazil: an update with some considerations. Nauplius 26: e2018038. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2018038
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201803...
). The new species differs from all these species in the different shape of the male pleopod 1 and 2 exopods. Moreover, it differs from T. albida in the molar penicil of mandibles being simple (vs. molar penicil of two branches); from T. argentina in the telson with concave lateral sides (vs. almost straight), antennula with rounded distal margin (vs. pointed), molar penicil of the mandibles being simple (vs. dichotomized), maxillula outer endite composed of 3 + 4 teeth, all apically entire (vs. 4 + 4 teeth, outer set with two cleft teeth), and male pleopod 2 exopod subrectangular (vs. triangular); from T. biumbonata in the telson with concave lateral sides (vs. almost straight), distal article of antennula bearing the aesthetascs apically and sub-apically inserted (vs. apically), molar penicil of the mandibles being simple (vs. dichotomized); from T. dobrogica in the telson with concave lateral sides (vs. straight), and antennula with distal article bearing seven aesthetascs sub-apically and apically inserted (vs. nine apical aesthetascs); from T. giannellii in the cephalon with lateral lobes not developed and supranntenal line present (vs. lateral lobes well-developed and absence of supranntenal line), telson with concave lateral sides (vs. almost straight), and male pereopod 7 ischium with the sternal margin straight (vs. slightly concave); from T. guanophila in the antennula bearing the aesthetascs sub-apically and apically inserted (vs. apically), molar penicil of the mandibles being simple (vs. dichotomized), outer endite of maxillula composed of 3 + 4 teeth, all apically entire (vs. 4 + 4, outer set with two cleft teeth), and male pereopod 1 merus and carpus bearing sparse setae on the sternal margin (vs. brush of setae); from T. lenkoi in the maxillula outer endite bearing the outer set apically entire (vs. outer set with one cleft tooth); from T. lobata in the dorsum covered with fan-shaped scale-setae (vs. triangular scale-setae), cephalon with the lateral lobes not developed (vs. lateral lobes strongly developed), telson twice as wide as long and distal margin right-angled (vs. as long as wide and distal margin acute), and male pereopod 7 ischium triangular with the sternal margin straight (vs. rounded and sternal margin slightly concave); from T. myrmecophila in the telson with lateral sides concave (vs. almost straight), and antennula bearing seven aesthetascs (vs. five); from T. orensis in a robust habitus (vs. slender), maxillula outer endite bearing the outer set of teeth apically entire (vs. outer set with one cleft tooth), male pereopod 1 merus and carpus bearing sparse setae on sternal margin (vs. brushes of setae), and male pleopod 1 endopod with straight apex (vs. apex slightly bent outwards); from T. pallida in having the molar penicil of mandibles being simple (vs. two branches) and maxillula outer endite bearing the outer set of teeth apically entire (vs. outer set with two cleft teeth); and from T. papillosa in the antennula bearing seven aesthetascs (vs. four or five), molar penicil of the mandibles being simple (vs. dichotomized), maxillula outer endite bearing the outer set of teeth apically entire (vs. outer set with two cleft teeth), and male pereopod 7 ischium with the sternal margin straight (vs. sternal margin concave) (Budde-Lund 1908BUDDE-LUND, G. 1908. Isopoda von Madagaskar und Ostafrika mit Diagnosen verwandter Arten. In: Voeltzkow, A. (Ed.) Reise in Ostafrika in den Jahren 1903-1905, Vol. 2. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse, Stuttgart, p. 265–308. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.12989
https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.12989...
, Arcangeli 1929ARCANGELI, A. 1929. Isopodi terrestri raccolti in Cuba dal Prof. F. Silvestri. Boll. Lab. Zool. Gen. Agr. R. Scuola Agric. Portici 23: 129–148., Van Name 1936VAN NAME, W.G. 1936. The American land and freshwater isopod Crustacea. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 71: 1–535. http://hdl.handle.net/2246/1185
http://hdl.handle.net/2246/1185...
, Vandel 1952VANDEL, A. 1952. Étude des isopodes terrestres récoltés au Vénézuela par le Dr. G. Marcuzzi. Memorie Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Verona 3: 59–203., Barnard 1960BARNARD, K.H. 1960. A collection of terrestrial Isopoda from Mt. Gorongoza, Portuguese E. Africa. Ann. Natal Mus. 14: 505–511., Radu 1960RADU, V.G. 1960. Un nou gen de izopode terestre în fauna Republicii Populare Romîne, genul Trichorhina. Studia Univ. Babes˘-Bolyai (Ser. 2, Biol.) 1960: 105–109., Souza-Kury 1993SOUZA-KURY, L.A. 1993. Notes on Trichorhina I. Two new species from northeastern Brazil. Revue Suisse Zool. 100: 157–210. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.82507
https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.82507...
, Araujo & Buckup 1996ARAUJO, P.B. & BUCKUP, L. 1996. Novos registros e uma espécie nova de Trichorhina do sul do Brasil. Revista Brasil. Zool. 13(3): 799–810. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-81751996000300028
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-8175199600...
, Souza et al. 2011SOUZA, L.A., ARAÚJO, J.P. & CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. 2011. The genus Trichorhina Budde-Lund in Brazil, with description of seven new species (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Platyarthridae). Iheringia, Sér. Zool. 101: 239–261.).

Trichorhina baiana

sp. nov. Campos-Filho, Gallão & Bichuette sp. nov.

Trichorhina sp. 4 Fernandes et al. 2019FERNANDES, C.S., CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2019. Synopsis of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves, with emphasis on new records from north, midwest, northeast and southeast regions. J. Nat. Hist. 53(17–18): 1095–1129. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.1634225
https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.16...
: 1117.

Figs 1, 2D, 13, and 14

Figure 13.
Trichorhina baiana Campos-Filho, Gallão & Bichuette sp. nov., ♀ paratype, LES 6289: A, habitus, dorsal view, B, pereonite 7, dorsal view, C, b/c coordinates, D, d/c coordinates, E, cephalon, frontal view, F, pleonites 4, 5 and telson, G, antennula, H, antenna, I, left mandible, J, right mandible, K, maxillula inner endite, L, maxilla, M, maxilliped.
Figure 14.
Trichorhina baiana Campos-Filho, Gallão & Bichuette sp. nov., ♀ paratype, LES 6289: A, uropod. ♂ paratype, LES 6289: B, pereopod 1, C, pereopod 7, D, genital papilla, E, pleopod 1, F, pleopod 2, G, pleopod 3 exopod, H, pleopod 4 exopod, I, pleopod 5 exopod.

Zoobank

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:397B4170-54BF-49BD-9E8B-23CF287D9A32

Type material

Holotype Bahia, São Desidério: 1♂ (LES 28734), Buraco da Sopradeira, 12°26’56”S 44°57’57”W, 23 April 2012, leg. D.M. Schimonsky, J.E. Gallão and C.S. Fernandes. Paratypes 1♂ (parts in micropreparations), 3♀ (one in micropreparations) (LES 6289), 1♂ (LES 6290), same data as holotype, 2♂, 2♀ (MHNCI), Gruta do Jorjão, 12º22’36”S 44º57’18”W, 22 March 2019, leg. K.M. Mise, AM 56, 1♀ (LES 6296), Gruta do Capão (Epigean), 12º22’06”S 44º52’03”W, 3 November 2012, leg. D.M. Schimonsky, J.E. Gallão and C.S. Fernandes, 2♂, 4♀ (MHNCI), Buraco do Inferno da Lagoa do Cemitério, 12º23’32”S 44º55’33”W, 23-26 March 2019, leg. T. Kardush, AM 27, many ♂ and ♀ (MHNCI), same data as previous, AM 104, 1♂ (MHNCI), same data as previous, AM 25, 4♂, 5♀ (MHNCI), same data as previous, AM 04, 1 juvenile (LES 6283), Gruta do Juraci, 12º24’52”S 44º51’01”W, 3 November 2011, leg. M.E. Bichuette, J.E. Gallão, C.S. Fernandes and D. Pedroso, 1♂, 2♀ (LES 6273), 2♂, 3♀ (LES 6274), Lapa do Manga I, 12º22’17.8”S 44º59’38.4”W, 5 November 2008, leg. M.E. Bichuette, T. Scatolini and D. Pedroso, 1♀ (LES 6272), Gruta Baixa Fria, 12º22’55.6”S 44º56’12.0”W, 4 November 2008, leg. M.E. Bichuette, T. Scatolini and D. Pedroso.

Description

Maximum body length: male 3.5 mm, female 4 mm. Colorless body. Body outline as in Fig. 13A, habitus slender, pereonites 1–7 lateral sides almost parallel, pereonites 1–4 with posterior margins straight, 5–7 progressively more arched. Dorsum surface covered with fan-shaped scale setae (Fig. 13B). One line of noduli laterales inserted close to posterior margins and more or less at same distance from lateral margins of pereonites (Fig. 13B), b/c and d/c coordinates as in Fig. 13C and D, respectively. Cephalon (Fig. 13A, E) with lateral lobes not developed, suprantennal slightly bent downwards in middle, eyes absent. Pleon (Fig. 13A, F) with outline almost continuous with that of pereonite 7, pleonites 3–5 epimera well-developed and directed backwards. Telson (Fig. 13F) triangular, lateral margins concave and narrowly rounded apex. Antennula (Fig. 13G) bearing six stout aesthetascs. Antenna (Fig. 13H) when extended posteriorly, reaching posterior margin of pereonite 1, flagellum as long as fifth article of peduncle, second article about twice as long as first with two sets of lateral aesthetascs on distal portion, apical organ short with long free sensilla. Buccal pieces (Fig. 13IM) as in T. araguaia sp. nov.: mandibles with molar penicil of about six branches, maxilliped endite without distal hook-like setae. Uropod (Fig. 14A) protopod and exopod outer margin grooved bearing glandular pores, exopod longer than endopod and inserted almost at same level as endopod. Pereopods 1–7 merus and carpus bearing sternal setae apically cleft, carpus 1 bearing transverse antennal grooming brush, distal seta with double-fringed apex, dactylus with long inner claw, ungual seta simple slightly surpassing outer claw, dactylar seta simple reaching outer claw basis.

Male: Pereopod 1 (Fig. 14B) merus and carpus bearing brushes of setae on sternal margin. Pereopod 7 (Fig. 14C) without sexual dimorphism. Genital papilla (Fig. 14D) with triangular ventral shield and two subapical orifices. Pleopod 1 (Fig. 14E) exopod ovoid, twice as broad as long, endopod about three times as long as exopod, distal portion tapering and slightly directed outwards. Pleopod 2 (Fig. 14F) exopod triangular, outer margin concave bearing three setae, endopod slender, almost twice as long as exopod, distal portion slender. Pleopod 3 and 4 exopods as in Fig. 14G and H, respectively. Pleopod 5 exopod (Fig. 14I) triangular, outer margin straight bearing five setae.

Etymology

The new species is named after the native women from Bahia named ‘Baiana do Acarajé’, also known as ‘Baiana’. These women are known for their profession of selling ‘Acarajé’ and other foods of African-Bahia cuisine.

Remarks

In the shape of the male pleopod 1 exopod, Trichorhina baiana sp. nov. resembles T. anhangueraCampos-Filho, Araujo & Taiti, 2014CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B., BICHUETTE, M.E., TRAJANO, E. & TAITI, S. 2014. Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 172(2): 360–425. https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172
https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172...
(Brazil: state of Pará). However, it is distinguished in having a slender dorsal habitus (vs. robust), a suprantennal line bent downwards in the middle (vs. straight), a maxillula outer endite of 4 + 4 teeth (vs. 4 + 5), mandible with a dichotomized molar penicil (vs. simple), male pereopods 1–7 bearing sparse setae on the sternal margin (vs. brush of setae on pereopods 1–3 merus and carpus), and male pleopod 2 endopod that is much longer than exopod (vs. slightly longer) (see figs 34–36 in Campos-Filho et al. 2014CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B., BICHUETTE, M.E., TRAJANO, E. & TAITI, S. 2014. Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 172(2): 360–425. https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172
https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172...
).

In a comparison with the blind species within the genus, Trichorhina baiana sp. nov. resembles T. anophthalma Arcangeli, 1936 (Portugal), T. atoyacensisMulaik, 1960MULAIK, S. 1960. Contribución al conocimiento de los isópodos terrestres de Mexico. Revista Soc. Mex. Hist. Nat. 21: 79–292. (Mexico: province of Veracruz), T. bonetiRioja, 1956RIOJA, E. 1956. Dos nuevos isópodos cavernícolas de la Sierra Madre Oriental (región de Xilitla), México. An. Inst. Biol. Univ. México 26: 447–457. (Mexico: province of San Luis Potosí), T. brasilensisAndersson, 1960ANDERSSON, Å. 1960. South American terrestrial isopods in the collection of the Swedish State Museum of Natural History. Ark. Zool. 12: 537–570. (Brazil: state of Santa Catarina), T. buchnerorum (Verhoeff, 1942) (France, Italy and Menorca), T. caecaVandel, 1952VANDEL, A. 1952. Étude des isopodes terrestres récoltés au Vénézuela par le Dr. G. Marcuzzi. Memorie Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Verona 3: 59–203. (Venezuela: El Junquito), T. cipoensisCampos-Filho, Bichuette & Taiti, 2016CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., BICHUETTE, M.E. & TAITI, S. 2016. Three new species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Nauplius 24: e2016001. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2016001
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201600...
(Brazil: state of Minas Gerais), T. hoestlandtiVandel, 1960VANDEL, A. 1960. Les isopodes terrestres de l’Archipel Madérien. Mém. Mus. Natn. Hist. Nat. (N.S., Ser. A) 22: 1–155. (Madeira), T. kaingangi Campos-Filho, 2015 (Brazil: state of Paraná), T. paolaeCaruso, 1978CARUSO, D. 1978. Ricerche faunistiche ed ecologiche sulle grotte di Sicilia. V. Isopodi nuovi di grotte carsiche siciliane (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscoidea). Animalia 5: 145–157. (Italy: Sicily, Malta), T. pataxosiCampos-Filho, Bichuette & Taiti, 2016CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., BICHUETTE, M.E. & TAITI, S. 2016. Three new species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Nauplius 24: e2016001. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2016001
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201600...
(Brazil: state of Minas Gerais), T. pittieri (Pearse, 1921PEARSE, A. 1921. Crustacea from Lake Valencia, Venezuela. Proc. U. S. Natn. Mus. 59: 459–462. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.59-2381.459
https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.59-2...
) (Brazil: state of Pará, Guyana and Venezuela), T. simoni (Dollfus, 1893DOLLFUS, A. 1893. Voyage de M. E. Simon au Venezuela (Decembre 1887-April 1888). 25e mémoire. Isopodes terrestres. Annls Soc. Ent. Fr. 62: 339–346, pls 9–10.) (Venezuela: Colonie Tovar), T. xoltunaeMulaik, 1960MULAIK, S. 1960. Contribución al conocimiento de los isópodos terrestres de Mexico. Revista Soc. Mex. Hist. Nat. 21: 79–292. (Mexico: province of Veracruz), and T. zimpanensisMulaik, 1960MULAIK, S. 1960. Contribución al conocimiento de los isópodos terrestres de Mexico. Revista Soc. Mex. Hist. Nat. 21: 79–292. (Mexico: province of Hidalgo) (Schmalfuss 2003SCHMALFUSS, H. 2003. World catalog of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea). Stuttg. Beitr. Naturkd., Ser. A 654: 1–341., Campos-Filho et al. 2018aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., CARDOSO, G.M. & AGUIAR, J.O. 2018a. Catalogue of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazil: an update with some considerations. Nauplius 26: e2018038. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2018038
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201803...
). It differs from T. anophthalma in the telson with concave lateral sides (vs. straight), and male pleopod 1 endopod with the distal part slightly bent outwards (vs. distal part straight); from T. boneti in the telson with concave lateral sides (vs. almost straight), mandibles with molar pencil of six branches (vs. three branches), and outer endite of the maxillula bearing the outer set of teeth apically entire (vs. outer set with two teeth cleft); from T. brasilensis in the cephalon with lateral lobes not developed (vs. lateral lobes well-developed), mandibles with molar penicil of six branches (vs. several branches), and male pleopod 1 exopod ovoid (vs. subquadrangular); from T. buchnerorum in the telson triangular (vs. rounded), maxillula outer endite bearing the outer set of teeth apically entire (vs. outer set with all teeth apically cleft), male pleopod 1 exopod ovoid (vs. heart-shaped); from T. caeca in the telson triangular (vs. rounded), molar penicil of mandibles of six branches (vs. three branches), and maxillula outer endite bearing the outer set of teeth apically entire (vs. outer set with two teeth cleft); from T. cipoensis in the telson with concave lateral sides (vs. slightly concave), antennula bearing six apical aesthetascs (vs. several sub-apically and apically aesthetascs), mandibles with dichotomized molar penicil (vs. simple), outer endite of maxillula bearing the outer set of teeth apically entire (vs. outer set with two teeth cleft), and male pleopod 1 exopod ovoid (vs. triangular); from T. hoestlandti in the telson with concave lateral sides (vs. straight), and male pleopod 1 endopod slightly directed outwards (vs. directed downwards); from T. kaingangi in the slender dorsal habitus (vs. robust), cephalon with lateral lobes not developed (vs. lateral lobes well-developed), dactylar seta not surpassing outer claw (vs. surpassing outer claw), male pleopod 1 exopod ovoid (vs. subtriangular), and male pleopod 2 endopod much longer than exopod (vs. slightly longer); from T. pataxosi in the slender dorsal habitus (vs. robust habitus), cephalon with suprantennal line and lateral lobes not developed (vs. suprantennal line absent and lateral lobes well-developed), mandibles with dichotomized molar penicil (vs. simple), male pereopod 7 merus and carpus bearing sparse setae on the sternal margin (vs. merus and carpus 7 bearing a brush of setae), and male pleopod 1 exopoid ovoid (vs. subtriangular); from T. pittieri in the cephalon with lateral lobes not developed (vs. lateral lobes well-developed), and telson with concave lateral sides (vs. almost straight); from T. simoni in the telson triangular (vs. rounded); and from T. xoltunae and T. zimpanensis in the cephalon with lateral lobes not developed (vs. lateral lobes well-developed on both species), telson with concave lateral sides (vs. slightly concave in T. xoltunae), and male pleopod 2 endopod much longer than exopod (vs. subequal on both species) (Van Name 1936VAN NAME, W.G. 1936. The American land and freshwater isopod Crustacea. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 71: 1–535. http://hdl.handle.net/2246/1185
http://hdl.handle.net/2246/1185...
, Andersson 1960ANDERSSON, Å. 1960. South American terrestrial isopods in the collection of the Swedish State Museum of Natural History. Ark. Zool. 12: 537–570., Mulaik 1960MULAIK, S. 1960. Contribución al conocimiento de los isópodos terrestres de Mexico. Revista Soc. Mex. Hist. Nat. 21: 79–292., Vandel 1952VANDEL, A. 1952. Étude des isopodes terrestres récoltés au Vénézuela par le Dr. G. Marcuzzi. Memorie Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Verona 3: 59–203., 1953VANDEL, A. 1953. La famille des Squamiferidae et l‘origine des Platyarthrus. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. 77: 371–388., 1960VANDEL, A. 1960. Les isopodes terrestres de l’Archipel Madérien. Mém. Mus. Natn. Hist. Nat. (N.S., Ser. A) 22: 1–155., 1962VANDEL, A. 1962. Isopodes terrestres. (Deuxième Partie). In: Fédération Française des Sociétes de Sciences Naturelles (Ed.) Faune de France 66. P. Lechevalier, Paris, p. 417–931., Caruso 1978CARUSO, D. 1978. Ricerche faunistiche ed ecologiche sulle grotte di Sicilia. V. Isopodi nuovi di grotte carsiche siciliane (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscoidea). Animalia 5: 145–157., Taiti & Ferrara 1980TAITI, S. & FERRARA, F. 1980. Nuovi studi sugli isopodi terrestri dell‘Arcipelago Toscano. Redia 63: 249–300., Campos-Filho et al. 2014CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B., BICHUETTE, M.E., TRAJANO, E. & TAITI, S. 2014. Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 172(2): 360–425. https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172
https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172...
, 2015aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., MISE, K.M. & SESSEGOLO, G.C. 2015a. A new species of Trichorhina Budde-Lund, 1908 (Isopoda: Oniscidea: Platyarthridae) from Paraná caves, southern Brazil. Nauplius 23: 112–119. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-64972015002324
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-6497201500...
, 2016CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., BICHUETTE, M.E. & TAITI, S. 2016. Three new species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Nauplius 24: e2016001. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2016001
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201600...
, Reboleira et al. 2015REBOLEIRA, A.S.P.S., GONÇALVES, F., OROMÍ, P. & TAITI, S. 2015. The cavernicolous Oniscidea (Crustacea: Isopoda) of Portugal. Eur. J. Taxon, 161: 1–61. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2015.161
https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2015.161...
).

Trichorhina crucis

Campos-Filho, López-Orozco & Sfenthourakis sp. nov.

Figs 1, 15, and 16

Figure 15.
Trichorhina crucis Campos-Filho, López-Orozco & Sfenthourakis sp. nov., ♀ paratype, LES 28741: A, habitus, dorsal view, B, pereonite 1, dorsal view, C, b/c coordinates, D, d/c coordinates, E, cephalon, frontal view, F, pleonites 4, 5 and telson, G, antennula, H, antenna, I, left mandible, J, right mandible, K, maxillula outer endite, L, maxilla, M, maxilliped.
Figure 16.
Trichorhina crucis Campos-Filho, López-Orozco & Sfenthourakis sp. nov., ♀ paratype, LES 28741: A, uropod. ♂ paratype, LES 28741: B, pereopod 1, C, pereopod 7, D, genital papilla, E, pleopod 1, F, pleopod 2, G, pleopod 3 exopod, H, pleopod 4 exopod, I, pleopod 5 exopod.

Zoobank

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:24E45B11-E00D-4274-9AB1-769854754242

Type material

Holotype Minas Gerais, Caeté: 1♂ (LES 28735), Gruta AP-51, 20°01’42”S 43º41’35”W, 13-17 April 2010, leg. R. Bessi. Paratypes 1♀ (LES 28736), 1♂, 2♀ (LES 28737), same data as holotype, 1♂ (LES 28738), same locality and collector as holotype, 12-21 November 2009, Minas Gerais, Santa Bárbara: 1 juvenile (LES 28739), Gruta AP-09, 20º01’34”S 43º40’55”W, 19-23 July 2008, leg. R. Bessi, 6♂, 4♀ (LES 28740), Gruta AP-25, 20º02’S 43º40’W, 19-23 July 2008, leg. R. Bessi, 4♂ (one with parts in micropreparations), 7♀ (one in micropreparations), 1 juvenile (LES 28741), Gruta AP-26, 20º02’42”S 43º40’48”W, 14-21 November 2009, leg. R. Bessi, 2♂, 3♀ (LES 28742), Gruta AP-33, 20º02’16”S 43º40’40”W, 9-13 January 2012, leg. R. Bessi, 1♂, 1♀, 1 juvenile (LES 28743), Gruta AP-52, 20º02’02”S 43º40’19”W, 13-17 April 2010, leg. R. Bessi, 1 specimen without pleon (LES 28744), same locality and collector as previous, 12-21 November 2009, 6♂, 7♀, 2 juveniles (LES 28745), Serra do Gandarela, GAND-119, 11-13 March 2013, leg. R. Bessi, 1♂ (LES 28746), same locality and collector as previous, 17-19 October 2012, 4♀ (LES 28747), GAND-149, 17-19 October 2012, leg. R. Bessi, 1♂, 1♀ (LES 28748), SPD-33, 9-13 January 2012, lacking collector data, 1♂, 1♀ (LES 28749), SPD-038 cave, 9-13 January 2012, leg. R. Bessi.

Description

Maximum body length: male 4 mm, female 4.5 mm. Colourless body. Body (Fig. 15A) slender, pereonites 1 and 2 epimera slightly directed frontwards, 3–7 gradually directed backwards. Dorsum covered with fan-shaped scale-setae, posterior margin bearing triangular scale-setae (Fig. 15B). One line of noduli laterales inserted close to posterior margins and more or less at same distance from lateral margins of pereonites (Fig. 15B), b/c and d/c coordinates as in Fig. 15C and D, respectively. Cephalon (Fig. 15A, E) with lateral lobes well-developed, suprantennal line slightly concave, eyes absent. Pleon (Fig. 15A, F) outline continuous with that of pereonite 7, pleonites 3–5 epimera elongated and directed backwards. Telson (Fig. 15F) triangular, lateral sides almost straight, slightly concave near apex. Antennula (Fig. 15G) distal article bearing 11 apical aesthetascs. Antenna (Fig. 15H) when extended posteriorly surpasses posterior margin of pereonite 1, flagellum as long as fifth article of peduncle, second article about three times as long as first with two lateral aesthetascs on distal portion, apical organ short with long free sensilla. Buccal pieces (Fig. 15IM) mostly as in T. quadriocellata sp. nov.: maxillula outer endite of 3 + 4 teeth, maxilliped endite without distal seta on ventral longitudinal ridge. Uropod (Fig. 16A) protopod and exopod outer margin grooved bearing glandular pores, exopod twice as long as endopod, endopod inserted proximally. Pereopods 1–7 merus and carpus bearing sternal setae apically cleft, carpus 1 bearing transverse antennal grooming brush, distal seta double-fringed at apex, dactylus with short inner claw, ungual seta simple not surpassing outer claw, dactylar seta simple reaching median portion of outer claw (Fig. 16C).

Male: Pereopd 1 (Fig. 16B) merus and carpus bearing brushes of setae on sternal margin. Pereopod 7 (Fig 16C) without sexual dimorphism. Genital papilla (Fig. 16D) with triangular ventral shield and subapical orifices. Pleopod 1 (Fig. 16E) exopod triangular, distal margin bearing two small setae, endopod about twice as long as exopod, distal portion slightly bent outwards and bearing small setae on median margin. Pleopod 2 (Fig. 16F) exopod triangular, outer margin concave bearing seven small setae, endopod slender, longer than exopod. Pleopod 3 and 4 exopods as in Fig. 16G and H, respectively. Pleopod 5 exopod (Fig. 16I) triangular, outer margin slightly convex bearing seven setae.

Etymology

The new species is named after the Delta Crucis star, which is located in the Crux constellation in the southern sky. In the Brazilian flag, it represents the state of Minas Gerais.

Remarks

Trichorhina crucis sp. nov. differs from T. baiana sp. nov. in several characters: the telson with the lateral sides almost straight (vs. concave), the distal article of the antennula bearing six aesthetascs (vs. 11 aesthetascs), mandibles with simple molar penicil (vs. dichotomized), the maxiliped endite with two hook-like setae on the distal margin (vs. absent), the male pleopod 1 exopod triangular (vs. ovoid), and the male pleopod 2 endopod elongated (vs. shorter).

Trichorhina mineira

Campos-Filho, Carpio-Díaz & Taiti sp. nov.

Figs 1, 17, and 18

Figure 17.
Trichorhina mineira Campos-Filho, Carpio-Díaz & Taiti sp. nov., ♀ paratype, LES 28751: A, habitus, dorsal view, B, pereonite 1, dorsal view, C, b/c coordinates, D, d/c coordinates, E, cephalon, frontal view, F, pleonites 4, 5 and telson, G, antennula, H, antenna, I, left mandible, J, right mandible, K, maxillula, L, maxilla, M, maxilliped.
Figure 18.
Trichorhina mineira Campos-Filho, Carpio-Díaz & Taiti sp. nov., ♀ paratype, LES 28751: A, uropod. ♂ paratype, LES 28751: B, pereopod 1, C, pereopod 7, D, genital papilla, E, pleopod 1, F, pleopod 2, G, pleopod 3 exopod, H, pleopod 4 exopod, I, pleopod 5 exopod.

Zoobank

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:A17967CA-7CAA-48A9-98D0-852422018990

Type material

Holotype Minas Gerais, Conceição do Mato Dentro: 1♂ (LES 28750), Gruta CAI-03, 18º53’01”S 43º25’02”W, 3-13 May 2011, leg. R. Bessi. Paratypes 1♂ (parts in micropreparations), 1♀ (in micropreparations), (LES 28751), same data as holotype.

Description

Maximum body length: male 4 mm, female 4.5 mm. Colorless body. Body (Fig. 17A) robust, pereonite 1 epimera slightly directed frontwards, 2–7 gradually directed backwards. Dorsum covered with fan-shaped scale-setae (Fig. 17B). One line of noduli laterales inserted close to posterior margins and more or less at same distance from lateral margins of pereonites (Fig. 17B), b/c and d/c coordinates as in Fig. 17C and D, respectively. Cephalon (Fig. 17E) with lateral lobes slightly developed, suprantennal line slightly bent downwards in middle, eyes absent. Pleon (Fig. 17A, F) narrower than pereon, pleonites 3–5 epimera well developed and directed backwards. Telson (Fig. 17F) triangular, lateral sides slightly concave, right-angled apex. Antennula (Fig. 17G) bearing many aesthetascs inserted apically. Antenna (Fig. 17H) when extended posteriorly surpassing posterior margin of pereonite 1, flagellum as long as fifth article of peduncle, second article about three times as long as first bearing two lateral sensilla, apical organ short with long free sensilla. Buccal pieces (Fig. 17IM) as in T. quadriocellata sp. nov.: maxillula outer endite with 3 + 4 teeth, maxilliped endite without distal seta on ventral longitudinal ridge. Uropod (Fig. 18A) protopod and exopod outer margin grooved bearing glandular pores, exopod twice as long as endopod, endopod inserted almost at same level as exopod. Pereopods 1–7 merus and carpus bearing sternal setae apically cleft, carpus 1 bearing transverse antennal grooming brush, distal seta with double-fringed apex, dactylus with long inner claw, ungual and dactylar setae simple not surpassing outer claw.

Male: Pereopod 1 (Fig. 18B) 1–3 merus and carpus with brushes of setae on sternal margin. Pereopod 7 without sexual dimosrphism (Fig. 18C). Genital papilla (Fig. 18D) with triangular ventral shield and subapical orifices. Pleopod 1 (Fig. 18E) exopod ovoid, endopod three times as long as exopod, distal portion tapering bearing small setae on median margin. Pleopod 2 (Fig. 18F) exopod triangular, outer margin concave bearing three setae, endopod longer than exopod. Pleopod 3 and 4 exopods as in Fig. 18G and H, respectively. Pleopod 5 exopod (Fig. 18I) triangular, outer margin almost straight bearing six setae.

Etymology

The new species is named after the native people of the state of Minas Gerais, called ‘mineiros’. The female designation is applied in agreement with the gender of the genus.

Remarks

In the shape of the male pleopod 1 exopod T. mineira sp. nov. resembles T. baiana sp. nov., from which it differs in having the telson with slightly concave lateral sides (vs. concave), the uropod endopod inserted proximally (vs. almost at the same level), the dactylar seta reaching the median portion of the outer claw (vs. reaching the outer claw basis), the male pleopod 1 endopod with the distal portion stout (vs. slender), and the male pleopod 2 endopod longer than exopod (vs. twice as long).

Trichorhina marianae

Campos-Filho, Gallão & Bichuette sp. nov.

Figs 1, 19, 20, and 25D

Figure 19.
Trichorhina marianae Campos-Filho, Gallão & Bichuette sp. nov., ♀ paratype, LES 0339: A, habitus, dorsal view, B, pereonite 1 epimeron, dorsal view, C, b/c coordinates, D, d/c coordinates, E, cephalon, frontal view, F, pleonites 4, 5 and telson, G, antennula, H, antenna, I, left mandible, J, right mandible, K, maxillula, L, maxilla, M, maxilliped.
Figure 20.
Trichorhina marianae Campos-Filho, Gallão & Bichuette sp. nov., ♀ paratype, LES 0339: A, uropod. ♂ holotype, LES 0339: B, pereopod 1, C, pereopod 7, D, genital papilla, E, pleopod 1, F, pleopod 2, G, pleopod 3 exopod, H, pleopod 4 exopod, I, pleopod 5 exopod.

Zoobank

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:97C9F817-954D-4BA4-BC46-A7B8BC6D071B

Type material

Holotype Minas Gerais, Pains: 1♂ (parts in micropreparations) (LES 28752), Caverna C10, 20º22’47”S 45º33’29”W, 4 November 2005, leg. M.E. Bichuette. Paratypes 1♀ (in micropreparations) (LES 339), same data as holotype, 1♀ (LES 342), Caverna C6A, 4 November 2005, leg. M.E. Bichuette.

Description

Maximum body length: male 2 mm, female 3 mm. Color pale yellowish. Body (Fig. 19A) slender, pereonite 1 epimera slightly directed frontwards, 2–7 gradually directed backwards. Dorsum covered with fan-shaped scale-setae (Fig. 19B). One line of noduli laterales inserted close to posterior margins and more or less at same distance from lateral margins of pereonites (Fig. 19B), b/c and d/c coordinates as in Fig. 19C and D, respectively. Cephalon (Fig. 19A, E) with lateral lobes well-developed, suprantennal line slightly bent downwards in middle, eyes absent. Pleon (Fig. 19A, F) slightly narrower than pereon, pleonites 3–5 epimera well-developed and directed backwards. Telson (Fig. 19F) triangular, lateral sides slightly concave, right-angled apex. Antennula (Fig. 19G) with several aesthetascs inserted apically and sub-apically. Antenna (Fig. 19H) when extended posteriorly surpassing posterior margin of pereonite 1, flagellum as long as fifth article of peduncle, second article about three times as long as first bearing two lateral aesthetascs, apical organ short with long free sensilla. Buccal pieces (Fig. 19IM) as in T. quadriocellata sp. nov.: maxillula inner endite bearing distal outer tip, outer endite composed of 3 + 4 teeth, maxilliped endite without distal seta on ventral longitudinal ridge. Uropod (Fig. 20A) protopod and exopod outer margin grooved bearing glandular pores, exopod slightly longer than endopod, endopod inserted almost at same level as exopod. Pereopods 1–7 merus and carpus bearing sternal setae apically cleft, carpus 1 bearing transverse antennal grooming brush, distal seta with double-fringed apex, dactylus with long inner claw, ungual and dactylar setae simple not surpassing outer claw.

Male: Pereopods 1 and 7 (Fig. 20B, C) without sexual dimorphism. Genital papilla (Fig. 20D) with triangular ventral shield and subapical orifices. Pleopod 1 (Fig. 20E) exopod ovoid, endopod four times as long as exopod, distal portion stout, directed outwards and bearing small setae on median margin. Pleopod 2 (Fig. 20F) exopod triangular, outer margin concave bearing four setae, endopod longer than exopod. Pleopod 3 and 4 exopods as in Fig. 20G and H, respectively. Pleopod 5 exopod (Fig. 20I) triangular, outer margin slightly concave bearing six setae.

Etymology

The new species is named after the speleologist Dr. Mariana Barbosa Timo, who has made significant contributions to the field through her work in Pains and her efforts in the conservation of Brazilian caves.

Remarks

In the shape of the male pleopod 1 exopod T. marianae sp. nov. ressembles T. baiana sp. nov and T. mineira sp. nov.. However, it differs in having the cephalon with well-developed lateral lobes (vs. slightly developed in T. baiana sp. nov. and T. mineira sp. nov.), antennula bearing several distal aesthetascs (vs. six in T. baiana sp. nov.), mandibles with simple molar penicil (vs. dichotomized in T. baiana sp. nov.), uropod exopod slightly longer than endopod (vs. exopod longer than endopod in T. baiana sp. nov. and T. mineira sp. nov.), male pereopod 1 merus and carpus with sparse setae along the sternal margin (vs. dense in T. baiana sp. nov. and T. mineira sp. nov.), and male pleopod 2 endopod that is slightly longer than exopod (vs. distinctly longer in T. baiana sp. nov.).

Trichorhina bessiae

Campos-Filho, Carpio-Díaz & Bichuette sp. nov.

Figs 1, 21, and 22

Figure 21.
Trichorhina bessiae Campos-Filho, Carpio-Díaz & Bichuette sp. nov., ♀ paratype, LES 28756: A, habitus, dorsal view, B, pereonite 1 epimeron, dorsal view, C, b/c coordinates, D, d/c coordinates, E, cephalon, frontal view, F, pleonites 4, 5 and telson, G, antennula, H, antenna, I, left mandible, J, right mandible, K, maxillula outer endite, L, maxilliped.
Figure 22.
Trichorhina bessiae Campos-Filho, Carpio-Díaz & Bichuette sp. nov., ♂ paratype, LES 28757: A, uropod, B, pereopod 1, C, pereopod 7, D, pleopod 1, E, pleopod 2, F, pleopod 3 exopod, G, pleopod 4 exopod, H, pleopod 5 exopod.

Zoobank

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:0FC3464A-6379-4475-A9C4-6F55533444F1

Type material

Holotype Minas Gerais, Morro do Pilar: 1♂ (LES 28753), Gruta MP-01A, 20º12’31”S 43º51’28”W, 28 February 2012, leg. R. Bessi. Paratypes Minas Gerais, Morro do Pilar: 1♀ (LES 28754), same data as holotype, 3♂ (LES 28755), Gruta MP-01, same coordinates as holotype, 3-6 October 2011, leg. R. Andrade, 2♂, 2♀ (one in in micropreparations) (LES 28756), Gruta MP-01B, same data as previous, 1♂ (parts in micropreparations), 1♀ (LES 28757), Gruta MP-10, 20º15’57”S 43º53’16”W, 13-17 February 2012, leg. R. Bessi;1♂ (LES 28758), Gruta MP-13, 20º13’30”S 43º51’42”W, same date and collector as previous; 1♂ juvenile (LES 28759), Gruta MP-14, 20º13’41”S 43º51’47”W, 12–24 November 2011, leg. R. Andrade; 1♂, 2♀ (LES 28760), Gruta MP-16, 20º14’34”S 43º52’01”W, 13-17 February 2012, leg. R. Bessi.

Description

Maximum body length: male 4.5 mm, female 3.5 mm. Colourless body. Body (Fig. 21A) slender, pereonites 1 and 2 epimera slightly directed frontwards, 3–7 gradually directed backwards. Dorsum covered with fan-shaped scale-setae (Fig. 21B). One line of noduli laterales inserted close to posterior margins and more or less at same distance from lateral margins of pereonites (Fig. 21B), b/c and d/c coordinates as in Fig. 21C and D, respectively. Cephalon (Fig. 21E) with lateral lobes not well-developed, suprantennal line bent downwards in middle, eyes absent. Pleon (Fig. 21A, F) outline continuous with that of pereonite 7, pleonites 3–5 epimera directed backwards. Telson (Fig. 21F) triangular, lateral sides slightly concave, right-angled apex. Antennula (Fig. 21G) with proximal and distal article subequal in length, distal article bearing at least 16 apical aesthetascs. Antenna (Fig. 21H) when extended posteriorly surpassing posterior margin of pereonite 1, flagellum slightly shorter than fifth article of peduncle, second article about three times as long as first bearing two sets of lateral aesthetascs on distal portion, apical organ short with long free sensilla. Buccal pieces (Fig. 21IL) as in T. quadriocellata sp. nov.: maxillula outer endite with 3 + 4 teeth, maxilliped endite without distal seta on ventral longitudinal ridge. Uropod (Fig. 22A) protopod and exopod with outer margin grooved bearing glandular pores, exopod longer than endopod, endopod inserted almost at same level as exopod. Pereopods 1–7 merus and carpus bearing sternal setae cleft at apex, carpus 1 bearing transverse antennal grooming brush, distal seta double-fringed at apex, dactylus with long inner claw, ungual and dactylar setae simple not surpassing outer claw.

Male: Pereopod 1 (Fig. 22B) merus and carpus bearing brush of setae on sternal margin. Pereopod 7 (Fig. 22C) without sexual dimorphism. Genital papilla (not drawn) with triangular ventral shield and subapical orifices. Pleopod 1 (Fig. 22D) exopod sub-rectangular, twice as broad as long, distal margin rounded, outer margin straight, inner margin slightly concave, endopod about three times as long as exopod, distal portion tapering, slightly bent outwards and bearing small setae on median margin. Pleopod 2 (Fig. 22E) exopod triangular, outer margin concave bearing three setae, endopod slender and longer than exopod. Pleopod 3 and 4 exopods as in Fig. 22F and G, respectively. Pleopod 5 exopod (Fig. 22H) triangular, outer margin slightly sinuous bearing five setae.

Etymology

The new species is named after Dr. Regina Bessi, who collected part of the specimens described in this study and made significant contributions to the collection of Oniscidea from Brazilian caves.

Remarks

Trichorhina bessiae sp. nov. differs from all blind species of the genus in the different shape of the male pleopod 1 exopod. Moreover, it differs in the telson with slightly concave lateral sides (vs. concave in T. baiana sp. nov.), antennula with distal article bearing 16 aethestascs (vs. six in T. baiana sp. nov., seven in T. crucis sp. nov.), mandibles with simple molar penicil (vs. dichotomized in T. baiana sp. nov.), maxiliped endite bearing two setae on distal margin (vs. absent in T. baiana sp. nov.), uropod branches inserted almost at the same level (vs. distinct levels in T. crucis sp. nov.), dactylar seta reaching the median portion of the outer claw (vs. reaching the basis of the outer claw in T. baiana sp. nov.), male pleopod 2 endopod longer than exopod (vs. twice as long as exopod in T. baiana sp. nov.), and male pleopod 5 exopod with the outer margin slightly sinuous (vs. straight in T. baiana sp. nov., slightly convex in T. crucis sp. nov.).

Trichorhina jurai

Campos-Filho, Gallão & Bichuette sp. nov.

Figs 1, 23, 24, and 25E, F

Figure 23.
Trichorhina jurai Campos-Filho, Gallão & Bichuette sp. nov., ♀ paratype, LES 0654: A, habitus, dorsal view, B, pereonite 1 epimeron, dorsal view, C, b/c coordinates, D, d/c coordinates, E, cephalon, frontal view, F, pleonites 3–5 and telson, G, antennula, H, antenna, I, left mandible, J, right mandible, K, maxillula, L, maxila, M, maxilliped.
Figure 24.
Trichorhina jurai Campos-Filho, Gallão & Bichuette sp. nov., ♀ paratype, LES 0654: A, uropod. ♂ holotype, LES 0654: B, pereopod 1, C, pereopod 7, D, genital papilla, E, pleopod 1, F, pleopod 2, G, pleopod 3 exopod, H, pleopod 4 exopod, I, pleopod 5 exopod.
Figure 25.
Photographs of the new species of Trichorhina: A, Trichorhina yakupyrang Campos-Filho, Carpio-Díaz & Bichuette sp. nov., B, Trichorhina quadriocellata Campos-Filho, Borja-Arrieta & Bichuette sp. nov., C, Trichorhina alphard Campos-Filho, Sfenthourakis & Taiti sp. nov., D, Trichorhina marianae Campos-Filho, Gallão & Bichuette sp. nov., E, F, Trichorhina jurai Campos-Filho, Gallão & Bichuette sp. nov.

Zoobank

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:AAB5742B-E569-45DD-BBF0-0D0911F8AA51

Type material

Holotype São Paulo, Iporanga, PETAR: 1♂ (parts in micropreparations) (LES 28761), Ressurgência das Areias de Água Quente, 24º33’45”S 48º40’18”W, 29 September 2012, leg. M.E. Bichuette. Paratypes 1♂, 1♀ (in micropreparations) (LES 28762), same data as holotype, 2♂ (one with parts in micropreparations), 3♀ (LES 0654), Caverna de Santana, PETAR, 24º32’0.87”S 48º42’30”W, 13-20 April 2009, leg. F. Pellegatti-Franco.

Description

Maximum body length: male 4.5 mm, female 4 mm. Colourless body. Body (Fig. 23A) robust, lateral sides almost parallel, epimera 1 directed frontwards, 2–7 directed backwards. Dorsum covered with fan-shaped scale-setae (Fig. 23B). One line of noduli laterales inserted close to posterior margins and more or less at same distance from lateral margins of pereonites (Fig. 23B), b/c and d/c coordinates as in Fig. 23C and D, respectively. Cephalon (Fig. 23A, E) with lateral lobes strongly developed, suprantennal line bent downwards in middle, eyes absent. Pleon (Fig. 23A, F) outline continuous with that of pereonite 7, pleonites 3–5 epimera well-developed and directed backwards. Telson (Fig. 23F) triangular, lateral margins concave, distal portion sub-quadrate with distal margin rounded. Antennula (Fig. 23G) with proximal and distal articles subequal in length, distal article bearing 6–9 apical aesthetascs, distal margin rounded or pointed. Antenna (Fig. 23H) when extended posteriorly surpassing posterior margin of pereonite 1, flagellum as long as fifth article of peduncle, second article about three times as long as first bearing two sets of lateral aesthetascs on distal portion, apical organ short with long free sensilla. Buccal pieces (Fig. 23IM) as in T. araguaia sp. nov.: mandibles with molar penicil of six or seven branches, maxillula outer endite with 3 + 4 teeth apically entire, maxilliped endite bearing one hook-like seta on distal margin. Uropod (Fig. 24A) protopod and exopod outer margin grooved bearing glandular pores, exopod slightly longer than endopod, endopod inserted proximally. Pereopods 1–7 merus and carpus bearing sternal setae cleft at apex, carpus 1 bearing transverse antennal grooming brush, distal seta with double-fringed apex, dactylus with long inner claw, ungual and dactylar setae simple not surpassing outer claw.

Male: Pereopods 1–4 merus and carpus with brush of setae on sternal margin (Fig. 24B). Pereopod 7 (Fig. 24C) without sexual dimosphism. Genital papilla (Fig. 24D) with triangular ventral shield and subapical orifices. Pleopod 1 (Fig. 24E) exopod sub-ovoid, twice as broad as long, distal outer margin almost straight, endopod more three times as long as exopod, distal portion tapering. Pleopod 2 (Fig. 24F) exopod triangular, outer margin concave bearing two to four setae, endopod longer than exopod. Pleopod 3 and 4 exopods as in Fig. 24G and H, respectively. Pleopod 5 exopod (Fig. 24I) triangular, outer margin slightly convex bearing eight setae.

Etymology

The new species is named after Jurandir Aguiar dos Santos, also known as Jura, for his invaluable assistance during the collection in the caves of the PETAR region.

Remarks

Trichorhina jurai sp. nov. differs from all blind species of the genus in the shape of the male pleopod 1 exopod. Moreover, it differs from T. baiana sp. nov., T. crucis sp. nov., and T. bessiae sp. nov. in having a robust dorsal habitus (vs. slender in all species), telson with rounded distal margin (vs. triangular in all species), cephalon with the lateral lobes strongly developed and suprantennal line bent downwards in the middle (vs. lateral lobes not developed in T. baiana sp. nov. and T. bessiae sp. nov., slightly developed in T. crucis sp. nov., suprantennal line slightly bent downwards in T. crucis sp. nov.), antennula with the distal article bearing six to nine aesthetascs (vs. 11 in T. crucis sp. nov., several in T. bessiae sp. nov.), mandibles with molar penicil dichotomized (vs. simple in T. crucis sp. nov. and T. bessiae sp. nov.), maxillula outer endite with 3 + 4 teeth and outer set apically entire or two teeth cleft at the apex (vs. 3 + 4 apically entire in T. crucis sp. nov. and T. bessiae sp. nov.), maxiliped endite with one seta on distal margin (vs. absent in T. baiana sp. nov., two setae in T. crucis sp. nov. and T. bessiae sp. nov.), male pleopod 2 endopod slightly longer than exopod (vs. twice as long as exopod in T. baiana sp. nov.).

In the wide shape of the telson, the new species resembles T. amplitelson, but it can be distinguished by the absence of eyes (vs. eyes composed of four ommatidia in T. amplitelson), cephalon with lateral lobes subrectancular (vs. subquadrangular in T. amplitelson), and telson with lateral sides concave (vs. slightly concave in T. amplitelson).

Discussion

Despite the large number of Brazilian caves, the complete scenario regarding cave-dwelling species of the Oniscidea is still far from being known. The taxonomic impediment remains the main factor hindering progress in the recognition of specimens (Campos-Filho et al. 2014CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B., BICHUETTE, M.E., TRAJANO, E. & TAITI, S. 2014. Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 172(2): 360–425. https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172
https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172...
).

Regarding the diversity and distribution of Trichorhina (see Fig. 1), the genus demonstrates a high endemic rate and likely has a strong relationship with the geological history of its localities. This is also true for other diverse members of South American Oniscidea, such as Philosciidae and Scleropactidae (Schmidt et al. 2007, Campos-Filho et al. 2018aCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., CARDOSO, G.M. & AGUIAR, J.O. 2018a. Catalogue of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazil: an update with some considerations. Nauplius 26: e2018038. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2018038
https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e201803...
). This study describes 11 new species of the genus, highlighting its diversity, which is clearly far from being complete.

The subterranean classification, sensuTrajano and Carvalho (2017)TRAJANO, E. & CARVALHO, M.R. 2017. Towards a biologically meaningful classification of subterranean organisms: a critical analysis of the Schiner-Racovitza system from a historical perspective, difficulties of its application and implications for conservation. Subterr. Biol. 22: 1–26. https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.22.9759
https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.22.9759...
, for the representatives of Trichorhina remains uncertain, even when species lacks eyes and body pigments, which are considered classical troglomorphic characters. Species of the genus exhibit a dorsal surface covered with fan-shaped scale-setae, which is advantageous in an endogean life. This structure facilitates the movement of the animal in non-consolidated substrate, as it prevents particles from sticking to the dorsal surface of the body during locomotion (see Schmalfuss 1984SCHMALFUSS, H. 1984. Eco-morphological strategies in terrestrial isopods. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 53: 49–63., Wood et al. 2017WOOD, C.T., KOSTANJŠEK, R., ARAUJO, P.B. & ŠTRUS, J. 2017. Morphology, microhabitat selection and life-history traits of twosympatric woodlice (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea): A comparativeanalysis. Zool. Anz. 268: 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcz.2017.04.008
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcz.2017.04.00...
). The presence of a dorsal surface covered with scale-setae is also observed in other members of Oniscidea, such as Philosciidae (Caraiboscia Vandel, 1968, LeonardosciaCampos-Filho, Araujo & Taiti, 2014CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B., BICHUETTE, M.E., TRAJANO, E. & TAITI, S. 2014. Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 172(2): 360–425. https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172
https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172...
and MetaprosekiaLeistikow, 2000LEISTIKOW, A. 2000. A new genus of Oniscidea from South America and a phylogenetic analysis of related genera (Crustacea: Isopoda: Philosciidae). Contributions to Zoology 69(3): 179–196.), Chileoniscus Taiti, Ferrara & Schmalfuss, 1986 (incertae sedis) (Leistikow 2000LEISTIKOW, A. 2000. A new genus of Oniscidea from South America and a phylogenetic analysis of related genera (Crustacea: Isopoda: Philosciidae). Contributions to Zoology 69(3): 179–196., Schmidt 2007, Campos-Filho et al. 2014CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B., BICHUETTE, M.E., TRAJANO, E. & TAITI, S. 2014. Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 172(2): 360–425. https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172
https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172...
). As mentioned by Campos-Filho et al. (2014CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B., BICHUETTE, M.E., TRAJANO, E. & TAITI, S. 2014. Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 172(2): 360–425. https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172
https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172...
, 2017bCAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., BICHUETTE, M.E., MONTESANTO, G., ARAUJO P.B. & TAITI, S. 2017b. The first troglobiotic species of the family Pudeoniscidae (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea), with descriptions of a new genus and two new species. Subterr. Biol. 23: 69–84. https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.23.20963
https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.23.2096...
), this structure likely evolved through convergence or parallel evolution to accommodate the endogean way of life (see Schmalfuss 1984SCHMALFUSS, H. 1984. Eco-morphological strategies in terrestrial isopods. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 53: 49–63.), which is a common behavior among members of Platyarthridae.

It is well known that cave sampling is planned and carried out during specific periods to avoid hazardous environmental conditions, such as heavy rainfall. Additionally, assessing the localities might present some difficulties due to the location of the caves. Thus, in order to support a reliable classification, sampling efforts outside caves must also be conducted.

Additional information, such as geological formation, biome inclusion, and surrounding vegetation, is useful for classifying subterranean Oniscidea. In the present study, only T. baiana sp. nov. can be classified as troglobitic. This species is described from caves located within the Caatinga biome, a xeric domain in Brazil (Ab’Saber 1977AB’SABER, AN. 1977. Os domínios morfoclimáticos na América do Sul. Primeira aproximação. Geomorfologia 52: 1–22., Morrone et al. 2022), while the remaining species are considered troglophilic. Therefore, the number of troglobiont for the country is now about 50 species.

The current Brazilian legislation, Decree No. 10.935, published on January 12, 2022, exposes subterranean habitats to an unprecedented threat, which could lead to the complete loss of both unknown and already known biodiversity (Ferreira et al. 2022FERREIRA, R.L., BERNARD, E., DA CRUZ JÚNIOR, F.W., PILÓ, L.B., et al. 2022. Brazilian cave heritage under siege. Science. 375(6586):1238–1239. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abo1973
https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abo1973...
, Oliveira et al. 2022OLIVEIRA, H.F.M., SILVA, D.C., ZANGRANDI, P.L. & DOMINGOS, F.M.C.B. 2022. Brazil opens highly protected caves to mining, risking fauna. Nature, Correspondence. 602:386. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-022-00406-x
https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-022-00406...
). Most of the Brazilian caves are located outside of conservation units (SNIF 2018SNIF – Sistema Nacional de Informações Florestais. 2018. Sistema Nacional de Unidades de Conservação – mapas. [accessed on July 19, 2023]. https://snif.florestal.gov.br/pt-br/dados-complementares/212-sistema-nacionalde-unidades-de-conservacao-mapas
https://snif.florestal.gov.br/pt-br/dado...
), and these caves are currently facing critical threats, such as deforestation of surrounding vegetation for cattle grazing and establishment of monocultures, mining, urban expansion, and others (Trajano 2000TRAJANO, E. 2000. Cave faunas in the Atlantic Tropical rain forest: composition, ecology, and conservation. Biotropica. 32(4b):882–893. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2000.tb00626.x
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2000...
; Gallão & Bichuette 2018GALLÃO, J.E. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2018. Brazilian obligatory subterranean fauna and threats to the hypogean environment. Zookeys 746: 1–23. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.746.15140
https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.746.1514...
).

As mentioned by Campos-Filho et al. (2023c)CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., SFENTHOURAKIS, S., GALLO, J.S., GALLÃO, J.E., TORRES, D.F., CHAGAS-JR, A., SENNA-HORTA, L., CARPIO-DÍAZ, Y.M., LÓPEZ-OROZCO, C.M., BORJA-ARRIETA, R., ARAUJO, P.B., TAITI, S. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2023c. Shedding light into Brazilian subterranean isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea): expanding distribution data and describing new taxa. Zoosytema 45(19): 531–599. https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v45a19
https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v4...
, cave habitats are extremely important for their overall fauna and surrounding communities because of their favorable environmental conditions, such as stability in humidity and temperature (Fernandes et al. 2016FERNANDES, C.S., BATALHA, M.A., BICHUETTE, M.E. & BENOIT, J.B. 2016. Does the cave environment reduce functional diversity? PLoS ONE. 11(3):e0151958. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151958
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.015...
). Regarding its location and topography, a cave may act as potential refuge for surrounding or migrating taxa. Conservation efforts and sustainable strategic plans, including the surrounding inhabitants of the cave, are necessary to preserve these habitats.

Key to the Brazilian species of Trichorhina

To date, the best character to distinguish Trichorhina species is the number of ommatidia. Therefore, the present key is an attempt to provide initial guidance for species identification. However, the original descriptions should be consulted to ensure accurate species identification. Trichorhina pittieri (Pearse, 1921PEARSE, A. 1921. Crustacea from Lake Valencia, Venezuela. Proc. U. S. Natn. Mus. 59: 459–462. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.59-2381.459
https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.59-2...
), recorded from the state of Pará (Lemos de Vastro 1967) is not included in the present key. In Pearse’s description of Leptotrichus pittieri (= Trichorhina p.) from Lake Valencia, Marakay department, Venezuela, he mentioned specimens with small eyes, but did not describe the number of ommatidia. In Lemos de Castro (1967) work, the specimens were eyeless. These specimens likely represent distinct taxa. Future examinantion of these species is needed to ensure their taxonomy.

1 Eyes present 2
1’ Eyes lacking 25
2 Eyes of one ommatidium 3
2’ Eyes of two or more ommatidia 4
3 Ommatidium large and black, males and females present T. macrops
3’ Ommatidium small and brown, only females known T. tomentosa
4 Eyes of two ommatidia, one reduced T. heterophthalma
4’ Eyes of more than two ommatidia 5
5 Eyes of three ommatidia 6
5’ Eyes of four or more ommatidia 7
6 Maxilliped endite without setae on distal margin, and male pleopod 1 exopod ovoid T. curupira
6’ Maxilliped endite with setae on distal margin, male pleopod 1 exopod subquadrangular with outer margin straight T. alphard sp. nov.
7 Eyes of four ommatidia 8
7’ Eyes of five or more ommatidia 13
8 Maxillula outer endite with 3 + 3 teeth 9
8’ Maxillula outer endite with 3 + 4 teeth 10
8’’ Maxillula outer endite with 4 + 4 teeth 11
9 Maxillula outer endite with all teeth entire, mandibles with molar penicil simple T. sexdens
9’ Maxillula outer endite with two teeth cleft at apex, mandibles with molar penicil dichotomized T. alphard sp. nov.
10 Maxillula outer endite with two teeth cleft at apex, telson triangular with lateral sides concave, antennula with aesthetascs inserted apically T. acuta
10’ Maxillula outer endite with all teeth entire, telson trapezoidal with lateral sides almost straight, antennula with aesthetascs inserted apically and subapically T. amplitelson
11 Maxillula outer endite with teeth cleft at apex T. paraensis
11’ Maxillula outer endite with all teeth entire 12
12 Body robust, cephalon with lateral lobes well-developed, antennula with distal article bearing several aesthetascs, mandibles with molar penicil dichotomized, male pereopod 7 merus without lobe on proximal sternal portion T. yakupyrang sp. nov.
12’ Body slender, cephalon with lateral lobes not well-developed, antennula with distal article bearing few aesthetascs, mandibles with molar penicil simple, male pereopod 7 merus with lobe on proximal sternal portion T. quadriocellata sp. nov.
13 Eyes of five ommatidia 14
13’ Eyes of six or more ommatidia 21
14 Mandibles with molar penicil simple 15
14’ Mandibles with molar penicil dichotomized 18
15 Maxillula outer endite with teeth apically cleft 16
15’ Maxillula outer endite with teeth apically entire 17
16 Antennula with five aesthetascs, maxillula outer endite with one tooth apically cleft, male pleopod 1 endopod with straight apical portion directed backwards, male pleopod 2 endopod as long as exopod T. lenkoi
16’ Antennula with eight aesthetascs, maxillula outer endite with two teeth apically cleft, male pleopod 1 endopod with apical portion slightly bent outwards, male pleopod 2 endopod about twice as long as exopod T. orensis
17 Cephalon with lateral lobes slightly surpassing median lobe, antennula with aesthetascs inserted apically, male pleopod 1 exopod subquadrangular (as wide as long), male pleopod 2 exopod triangular T. myrmecophila
17’ Cephalon with lateral lobes not surpassing median lobe, antennula with aesthetascs inserted in rows sub- and apically, male pleopod 1 exopod subrectangular (twice as wide as long), male pleopod 2 exopod surectangular T. acrux sp. nov.
18 Maxillula outer endite with 3 + 4 teeth, all entire T. biumbonata
18’ Maxillula outer endite with 4 + 4 teeth, all entire or two cleft at apex 19
19 Maxillula outer endite with all teeth entire T. tatiane
19’ Maxillula outer endite with two teeth cleft at apex 20
20 Male pereopod 1 merus and carpus densely covered with setae on sternal margin, male pleopod 1 exopod with distal margin slightly conave T. guanophila
20’ Male pereopod 1 merus and carpus with sparse setae on sternal margin, male pleopod 1 exopod with distal margin slightly convex T. argentina
21 Eyes of six ommatidia T. bicolor
21’ Eyes of eight or more ommatidia 22
22 Eyes of eigth ommatidia T. crassisetae
22’ Eyes of ten or more ommatidia 23
23 Eyes of ten ommatidia 24
23’ Eyes of 15 ommatidia T. tropidocerata
24 Antennula with aesthetascs inserted transversally on distal article, male pereopod 1 merus and carpus bearing sparse setae on sternal margin, male pleopod 1 exopod triangular T. amazonica
24’ Antennula with aesthetascs inserted longitudinally on distal article, male pereopod 1 merus and carpus bearing dense setae on sternal margin, male pleopod 1 exopod sub-ovoid T. yiara
25 Mandibles with molar penicil simple 26
25’ Mandibles with molar penicil dichotomized 31
26 Maxillula outer endite with 3 + 4 teeth (cleft and/or entire) 27
26’ Maxillula outer endite with 3 + 5 teeth (all entire) T. pataxosi
26’’ Maxillula outer endite with 4 + 5 teeth (all entire) T. anhanguera
27 Maxillula outer endite with 3 + 4 teeth, all entire 28
27’ Maxillula outer endite with 3 + 4 teeth, two cleft at apex T. cipoensis
28 Male pleopod 1 exopod triangular, heart-shaped T. crucis sp. nov.
28’ Male pleopod 1 exopod subrectangular or ovoid 29
29 Uropod exopod twice as long as endopod, male pleopod 1 endopod slightly directed outwards, distal part tapering 30
29’ Uropod exopod slightly longer than endopod, male pleopod 1 endopod directed outwards, distal part stout T. marianae sp. nov.
30 Male pleopod 1 exopod ovoid T. mineira sp. nov.
30’ Male pleopod 1 exopod subrectangular T. bessiae sp. nov.
31 Maxillula outer endite with 3 + 4 teeth, entire or cleft 32
31’ Maxillula outer endite with 4 + 4 teeth, three cleft at apex T. baiana sp. nov.
31’’ Maxillula outer endite with 4 + 5 teeth (all entire) T. kaingangi
32 Telson triangular with narrow distal portion T. brasiliensis
32’ Telson triangular with broad distal portion T. jurai sp. nov.

Acknowledgments

We thank C.S. Fernandes, D.M. von Schimonsky, L.B. Simões, T.L.C. Scatolini and D.R. Pedroso for help in the field trips of LES lab; E. Trajano, F. Pellegatti-Franco, N. Morachioli and R. Bessi, for collections and donation of part of the material; Jussyklebson Silva de Sousa and Jurandir A. dos Santos for assistance during collections in caves of São Desidério and PETAR regions, respectively; L. de Assis for the photographs of the speciemens (Figure 25); Grupo Bambuí de Pesquisas Espeleológicas (GBPE) for all support to MEB in the caves from São Desidério region, state of Bahia, to Kleber Makoto Mise for donation of material from Buraco do Inferno and Gruta do Jorjão caves, São Desidério, state of Bahia; Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) for the scholarship granted to ISC-F (CAPES/PNPD/UFCG/CTRN/PPGEGRN/201713705–5) during his postdoctoral stage (2017-2021) at the Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia e Gestão de Recursos Naturais, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for the productivity fellowship (310378/2017-6) granted to MEB; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) for the financial support on São Desidério region (project 2010/08459-4); Sistema de Autorização Informação em Biodiversidade (SISBIO) and Fundação Florestal/COTEC for the collection permissions granted to MEB; and “ONISILOS Research Program – 2018”, funded by the University of Cyprus – UCY, Research Project titled “Biodiversity of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Cyprus in the light of integrative taxonomy”, for the postdoctoral fellowship granted to ISC-F.

Data Availability

All materials used in the present study are deposited in the scientific collections of the Laboratório de Estudos Subterrâneos (LES), Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, state of São Paulo, and Museu de História Natural de Capão da Imbuia (MHNCI), state of Paraná. Supporting data are available at: SciELO Dataverse <https://doi.org/10.48331/scielodata.UZNSQA>, and Zoobank <urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A4EFA1F6-6AAB-4254-8522-263087597C87>.

References

  • AB’SABER, AN. 1977. Os domínios morfoclimáticos na América do Sul. Primeira aproximação. Geomorfologia 52: 1–22.
  • ALHO, C.J.R. 2011. Biodiversity of the Pantanal: its magnitude, human occupation, environmental threats and challenges for conservation. Braz. J. Biol. 71(1, suppl 1): 229–232. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842011000200001
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842011000200001
  • ALVARES, C.A., STAPE, J.L., SENTELHAS, P.C., GONÇALVES, J.L.M. & SPAROVEK, G. 2013. Köppen’s climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorol. Z. 22(6): 711–728. https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0507
    » https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0507
  • ANDERSON, L.E. 1954. Hoyer’s Solution as a Rapid Permanent Mounting Medium for Bryophytes. The Bryologist 57: 242. https://doi.org/10.2307/3240091
    » https://doi.org/10.2307/3240091
  • ANDERSSON, Å. 1960. South American terrestrial isopods in the collection of the Swedish State Museum of Natural History. Ark. Zool. 12: 537–570.
  • ANGARTEN, N.B.O., RAMOS, A.M., ANASTÁCIO, E.M.F. & TAGLIARI, P.D. 2017. Caracterização da fauna de invertebrados em cavidades naturais no âmbito do licenciamento ambiental da ferrovia de integração oeste-leste. In Anais do 34º Congresso Brasileiro de Espeleologia (M.A. Rasteiro, C.M. Teixeira-Silva & S.G. Lacerda, eds). Campinas, SBE. p. 9–21. Available at: http://www.cavernas.org.br/anais34cbe/34cbe_009-021.pdf
    » http://www.cavernas.org.br/anais34cbe/34cbe_009-021.pdf
  • ARAUJO, P.B. & ALMERÃO, M.P. 2007. Nova espécie de Trichorhina (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Plathyarthridae) do Brasil. Iheringia, Ser. Zool. 97(2): 219–222. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0073-47212007000200012
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/S0073-47212007000200012
  • ARAUJO, P.B. & BUCKUP, L. 1994. Nova espécie de Trichorhina do sul do Brasil. Iheringia, Ser. Zool. 77: 129–134. https://biostor.org/reference/80018
    » https://biostor.org/reference/80018
  • ARAUJO, P.B. & BUCKUP, L. 1996. Novos registros e uma espécie nova de Trichorhina do sul do Brasil. Revista Brasil. Zool. 13(3): 799–810. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-81751996000300028
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-81751996000300028
  • ARCANGELI, A. 1929. Isopodi terrestri raccolti in Cuba dal Prof. F. Silvestri. Boll. Lab. Zool. Gen. Agr. R. Scuola Agric. Portici 23: 129–148.
  • ARCANGELI, A. 1936a. Specie nuove di isopodi terrestri della Spagna raccolti dal Prof. F. Silvestri. Boll. Lab. Zool. Gen. Agr. R. Scuola Agric. Portici 29: 40–46.
  • ARCANGELI, A. 1936b. Gli isopodi terrestri del Portogallo. Boll. Lab. Zool. Gen. Agr. R. Scuola Agric. Portici 29: 1–39.
  • ARCANGELI, A. 1941. Crustacea, Isopoda. In: Missione biologica Sagan-Omo, Vol. 12. Zoologia VI. Myriapoda, Arachinda, Tardigrada, Crustacea, Mollusca. Reale Accademia D’Italia, Roma, p. 5–18.
  • AULER, A.S. 2002. Karst areas in Brazil and the potential for major caves - an overview. Bol. Soc. Venez. Espeleol. 36: 29–35.
  • AULER, A.S. 2017. Hypogene Caves and Karst of South America. In: Hypogene Karst Regions and Caves of the World. Cave and Karst Systems of the World (A. Klimchouk, A.N. Palmer, J.D. Waele, A.S. Auler & P. Andra, eds). Springer, Cham, p. 817–826. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-53348-3_55
    » https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-53348-3_55
  • AULER, A. & FARRANT, A.R. 1996. A brief introduction to karst and caves from Brazil. Proc. Univ. Bristol Spelaeol. Soc. 20(3): 187–200.
  • AULER, A.S. & PARKER, C.W., BARTON, H.A. & SOARES, G.A. 2019. Iron formation caves: Genesis and ecology. In: White, B., Culver, D.C., Pipan, T. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of caves. Third Edition. Academic Press (Elsevier), Amsterdam, p. 559–566. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814124-3.00067-4
    » https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814124-3.00067-4
  • AULER, A.S. & SAURO, F. 2019. Quartzite and quartz sandstone caves of South America. White, B., Culver, D.C., Pipan, T. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of caves. Third Edition. Academic Press (Elsevier), Amsterdam, p. 850–860. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814124-3.00102-3
    » https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814124-3.00102-3
  • BARNARD, K.H. 1932. Contributions to the Crustacean fauna of South Africa, No. 11, Terrestrial Isopoda. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 30(2): 179–388.
  • BARNARD, K.H. 1960. A collection of terrestrial Isopoda from Mt. Gorongoza, Portuguese E. Africa. Ann. Natal Mus. 14: 505–511.
  • BASTOS-PEREIRA, R., SOUZA, L.A. & FERREIRA, R.L. 2017. A new amphibious troglobitic styloniscid from Brazil (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Synocheta). Zootaxa 4294(2): 292–300. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4294.2.11
    » https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4294.2.11
  • BEDEK, J., GOTTSTEIN, S. & TAITI, S. 2019a. A new species of Alpioniscus (Illyrionethes) from the Dinaric Karst (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Trichoniscidae). Subterr. Biol. 32: 33–42. https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.32.37509
    » https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.32.37509
  • BEDEK, J., GOTTSTEIN, S. & TAITI, S. 2019b. Taxonomy of Alpioniscus (Illyrionethes): A. magnus and three new species from the Dinaric Karst (Isopoda: Oniscidea: Trichoniscidae). Zootaxa 4657(3): 483–502. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4657.3.4
    » https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4657.3.4
  • BEDEK, J., TAITI, S., ILANDŽIJA, H., RISTORI, E. & BARATTI, M. 2019c. Molecular and taxonomic analyses in troglobiotic Alpioniscus (Illyrionethes) species from the Dinaric Karst (Isopoda: Trichoniscidae). Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 187(3): 539–584. https://doi.org/10.1093/zoolinnean/zlz056
    » https://doi.org/10.1093/zoolinnean/zlz056
  • BEDEK, H.E., ZIMMERMANN, N.E., MCVICAR, T.R., VERGOPOLAN, N., BERG, A. & WOOD, E.F. 2018. Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution. Sci. Data 5: e180214. https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.214
    » https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.214
  • BEDEK, H.E., ZIMMERMANN, N.E., MCVICAR, T.R., VERGOPOLAN, N., BERG, A. & WOOD, E.F. 2020. Publisher Correction: Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution. Sci. Data 7: e274. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-00616-w
    » https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-00616-w
  • BICHUETTE, M.E., FONSECA-FERREIRA, R. & GALLÃO, J.E. 2015. Biota associada às cavernas em formações ferríferas. In: Ruchkys, U.A., Travassos, L.E.P., Rasteiro, M.A., Faria, L.E. (Ed.) Patrimônio espeleológico em Rochas ferruginosas – Propostas para sua Conservação no Quadrilátero ferrífero, Minas Gerais. Sociedade Brasileira de Espeleologia, Campinas, p. 174–191.
  • BICHUETTE, M.E., MONTEIRO-NETO, D., FERNANDES, C.S. & GALLÃO, J.E. 2013. Estudo espeleobiológico do sistema cárstico João Rodrigues, São Desidério, Bahia. Anais do 32 º Congresso Brasileiro de Espeleologia 32(1): 95–98. http://www.cavernas.org.br/anais32cbe/32cbe_095-098.pdf
    » http://www.cavernas.org.br/anais32cbe/32cbe_095-098.pdf
  • BIM, O.J.B. & FURLAN, S.A. 2013. Mosaic of Jacupiranga – Ribeira Valley, SP: conservation, environmental conflicts and solutions. Agrária 18: 4–36.
  • BOYKO, C.B., BRUCE, N.L., HADFIELD, K.A., MERRIN, K.L., OTA, Y., POORE, G.C.B., TAITI, S., SCHOTTE, M. & WILSON, G.D.F. 2008 (onwards). World Marine, Freshwater and Terrestrial Isopod Crustaceans database. Trichorhina Budde-Lund, 1908. Available at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=249422
    » http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=249422
  • BRANDT, J.F. 1833. Conspectus Monographiae Crustaceorum Oniscodorum Latreillii. Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispŷt. Prir. 6: 171–193, pl. 4.
  • BUDDE-LUND, G. 1893. Landisopoder fra Venezuela, indsamlede af Dr. Fr. Meinert. Entomol. Medd. 4: 111–129.
  • BUDDE-LUND, G. 1908. Isopoda von Madagaskar und Ostafrika mit Diagnosen verwandter Arten. In: Voeltzkow, A. (Ed.) Reise in Ostafrika in den Jahren 1903-1905, Vol. 2. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse, Stuttgart, p. 265–308. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.12989
    » https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.12989
  • BUDDE-LUND, G. 1909. Zoologische und anthropologische Ergebnisse im westlichen und zentralen Südafrika, Vol. 2, IX. Isopoden (I), Land-Isopoden. Denkschr. med.-naturwiss. Ges. 14: 53–70, pl. 5–7.
  • BUDDE-LUND, G. 1913. Terrestrial Isopoda, particularly considered in relation to the distribution of the southern Indo-Pacific species. Trans. Linn. Soc. London (2. Ser., Zool.) 15: 367–394. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1912.tb00107.x
    » https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1912.tb00107.x
  • CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. & ARAUJO, P.B. 2011. Two new troglobitic species of Scleropactidae (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Pará, Brazil. Nauplius 19: 27–39.
  • CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B., BICHUETTE, M.E., TRAJANO, E. & TAITI, S. 2014. Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 172(2): 360–425. https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172
    » https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12172
  • CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., BICHUETTE, M.E., ARAUJO, P.B. & TAITI, S. 2017a. Description of a new species of Cylindroniscus Arcangeli, 1929 (Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazil, with considerations on the family placement of the genus. North-West J. Zool. 13(2): 227–233.
  • CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., BICHUETTE, M.E., MONTESANTO, G., ARAUJO P.B. & TAITI, S. 2017b. The first troglobiotic species of the family Pudeoniscidae (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea), with descriptions of a new genus and two new species. Subterr. Biol. 23: 69–84. https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.23.20963
    » https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.23.20963
  • CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., BICHUETTE, M.E. & TAITI, S. 2016. Three new species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Nauplius 24: e2016001. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2016001
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2016001
  • CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., CARDOSO, G.M. & AGUIAR, J.O. 2018a. Catalogue of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazil: an update with some considerations. Nauplius 26: e2018038. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2018038
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2018038
  • CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., CARDOSO, G.M. & AGUIAR, J.O. 2018b. New species and first record of Alloniscus Dana, 1854 (Isopoda: Oniscidae: Alloniscidae) from Brazil. Nauplius 26: e20188014. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2018014
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2018014
  • CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., CARDOSO, G.M. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2022c. Isopoda, Oniscidea. In: Zampaulo, R.A. & Prous, X. (eds.) Fauna cavernícola do Brasil: 363–387. Editora Rupestre, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
  • CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., CHAGAS JR, A., SFENTHOURAKIS, S. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2023a. A new species of Metaprosekia Leistikow, 2000 (Oniscidea, Philosciidae) from caves of the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ. 58(3): 679–688. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650521.2023.2188009
    » https://doi.org/10.1080/01650521.2023.2188009
  • CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., FERNANDES, C.M., CARDOSO, G.M., BICHUETTE, M.E., AGUIAR, J.O. & TAITI, S. 2019. Two new species and new records of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves. Zootaxa 4564(2): 422–448. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4564.2.6
    » https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4564.2.6
  • CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., FERNANDES, C.M., CARDOSO, G.M., BICHUETTE, M.E., AGUIAR, J.O. & TAITI, S. 2020. New species and new records of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) of the families Philosciidae and Scleropactidae from Brazilian caves. Eur. J. Taxon. 606: 1–38. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2020.606
    » https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2020.606
  • CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., GALLO, J.S., GALLÃO, J.E., TORRES, D.F., CARPIO-DÍAZ, Y.M., LÓPEZ-OROZCO, C.M., BORJA-ARRIETA, R., TAITI, S. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2022a. Expanding the knowledge on the diversity of the cavernicolous Styloniscidae Vandel, 1952 (Oniscidea, Synocheta) from Brazil, with descriptions of two new species from the semiarid karst regions. ZooKeys 1101: 35–55. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1101.79043
    » https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1101.79043
  • CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., GALLO, J.S., GALLÃO, J.E., TORRES, D.F., HORTA, L., CARPIO-DÍAZ, Y.M., LÓPEZ-OROZCO, C.M., BORJA-ARRIETA, R., AGUIAR, J.O. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2022b. Unique and fragile diversity emerges from Brazilian caves – two new amphibious species of Xangoniscus Campos-Filho, Araujo & Taiti, 2014 (Oniscidea, Styloniscidae) from Serra do Ramalho karst area, state of Bahia, Brazil. Subterranean Biology 42: 1–22. https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.42.75725
    » https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.42.75725
  • CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., MISE, K.M. & SESSEGOLO, G.C. 2015a. A new species of Trichorhina Budde-Lund, 1908 (Isopoda: Oniscidea: Platyarthridae) from Paraná caves, southern Brazil. Nauplius 23: 112–119. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-64972015002324
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-64972015002324
  • CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., MONTESANTO, G., ARAUJO, P.B. & TAITI, S. 2017c. New species and new records of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazil. Iheringia, Sér. Zool. 107: e2017034. https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-4766e2017034
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-4766e2017034
  • CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., SFENTHOURAKIS, S., GALLÃO, J.E., SENNA-HORTA, L. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2023b. The first troglobitic terrestrial isopod (Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Peru. Nauplius 31: e2023003. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2023003
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2023003
  • CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., SFENTHOURAKIS, S., GALLO, J.S., GALLÃO, J.E., TORRES, D.F., CHAGAS-JR, A., SENNA-HORTA, L., CARPIO-DÍAZ, Y.M., LÓPEZ-OROZCO, C.M., BORJA-ARRIETA, R., ARAUJO, P.B., TAITI, S. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2023c. Shedding light into Brazilian subterranean isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea): expanding distribution data and describing new taxa. Zoosytema 45(19): 531–599. https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v45a19
    » https://doi.org/10.5252/zoosystema2023v45a19
  • CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. & TAITI, S. 2021. Oniscidea taxonomy: presente and future. Abstract book of the 11th International Symposium on Terrestrial Isopod Biology, “Facets of terrestrial isopod biology”. Ghent: Spinicornis. p. 9. Available at https://spinicornis.be/istib2021/
    » https://spinicornis.be/istib2021/
  • CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., TAITI, S. & ARAUJO, P.B. 2015b. Taxonomic revision of the genus Benthana Budde-Lund, 1908 (Isopoda: Oniscidea: Philosciidae). Zootaxa 4022: 1–73. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4022.1.1
    » https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4022.1.1
  • CARDOSO, G.M., BASTOS-PEREIRA, R. & FERREIRA, R.L. 2022a. A new species of Chaimowiczia from the karstic Serra do Ramalho plateau, Brazil (Oniscidea, Synocheta, Styloniscidae). Subterr. Biol. 42: 139–149. https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.42.80274
    » https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.42.80274
  • CARDOSO, G.M., BASTOS-PEREIRA, R. & FERREIRA, R.L. 2023. Cave-dwellers Diploexochus (Isopoda, Armadillidae): new species and new records of the genus from Brazil. Nauplius 31: e2023008. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2023008
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2023008
  • CARDOSO, G.M., BASTOS-PEREIRA, R., SOUZA, L.A. & FERREIRA, R.L. 2020a. New troglobitic species of Xangoniscus (Isopoda: Styloniscidae) from Brazil, with notes on their habitats and threats. Zootaxa 4819(1): 084–108. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4819.1.4
    » https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4819.1.4
  • CARDOSO, G.M., BASTOS-PEREIRA, R., SOUZA, L.A. & FERREIRA, R.L. 2020b. New cave species of Pectenoniscus Andersson, 1960 (Isopoda: Oniscidea: Styloniscidae) and an identification key for the genus. Nauplius 28: e2020039. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2020039
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2020039
  • CARDOSO, G.M., BASTOS-PEREIRA, R., SOUZA, L.A. & FERREIRA, R.L. 2021. Chaimowiczia: a new Iuiuniscinae genus from Brazil (Oniscidea, Synocheta, Styloniscidae) with the description of two new troglobitic species. Subterr. Biol. 39: 45–62. https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.39.65305
    » https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.39.65305
  • CARDOSO, G.M. & FERREIRA, R.L. 2023. New troglobitic species of Pectenoniscus Andersson, 1960 (Isopoda: Oniscidea: Styloniscidae) from Bahia state, Brazil. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650521.2023.2230735
    » https://doi.org/10.1080/01650521.2023.2230735
  • CARDOSO, G.M. & FERREIRA, R.L. 2023. New troglobitic species of Benthana from iron-ore caves and its important record in the Amazon biome (Isopoda: Philosciidae). Zootaxa5319(4): 548–562. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5319.4.5
    » https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5319.4.5
  • CARPIO-DÍAZ, Y.M., LÓPEZ-OROZCO, C.M., CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. & NAVAS S., G.R. 2018. Terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea) of the Botanical Garden of Cartagena “Guillermo Piñeres”, Colombia, with the description of three new species. Arthropoda Sel. 27(4): 301–318.
  • CARPIO-DÍAZ, Y.M., LÓPEZ-OROZCO C.M., BORJA-ARRIETA R. & CAMPOS-FILHO I.S. 2021. A new species and first record of Trichorhina Budde-Lund, 1908 (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Platyarthridae) from the Department of Norte de Santander, Colombia. Nauplius 29: e2021028. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2021028
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2021028
  • CARUSO, D. 1978. Ricerche faunistiche ed ecologiche sulle grotte di Sicilia. V. Isopodi nuovi di grotte carsiche siciliane (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscoidea). Animalia 5: 145–157.
  • CAVALCANTI, L.F. 2017. Dados secundários de espécies classificadas como troglóbias e troglomórficas para o projeto áreas prioritárias para a conservação do patrimônio espeleológico brasileiro. In Anais do 34º Congresso Brasileiro de Espeleologia (M.A. Rasteiro, C.M. Teixeira-Silva & S.G. Lacerda, eds). Campinas: SBE. p. 43–66. Available at: http://www.cavernas.org.br/anais34cbe/34cbe_043-066.pdf
    » http://www.cavernas.org.br/anais34cbe/34cbe_043-066.pdf
  • CECAV – Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Conservação de Cavernas. 2018. Base de dados Eoespacializados das cavernas do Brasil. Available at https://www.gov.br/icmbio/pt-br/assuntos/centros-de-pesquisa/cecav Accessed on 12 May 2023.
    » https://www.gov.br/icmbio/pt-br/assuntos/centros-de-pesquisa/cecav
  • CORDEIRO, L.M., BORGHEZAN, R. & TRAJANO, E. 2014. Subterranean biodiversity in the Serra da Bodoquena karst area, Paraguay river basin, Mato Grosso do Sul, Southwestern Brazil. Biota Neotrop. 14(3): e20140114. https://doi.org/10.1590/1676-06032014011414
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/1676-06032014011414
  • DANTAS, R.B. 2019. Estudo de fatores de degradação ambiental na APA de São Desidério. Revista de Gestão & Sustentabilidade Ambiental 8(3): 673–687. https://doi.org/10.19177/rgsa.v8e32019673-687
    » https://doi.org/10.19177/rgsa.v8e32019673-687
  • DIMITRIOU, A.C., TAITI, S. & SFENTHOURAKIS, S. 2019. Genetic evidence against monophyly of Oniscidea implies a need to revise scenarios for the origin of terrestrial isopods. Sci. Rep. 9: 18508. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-55071-4
    » https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-55071-4
  • DOLLFUS, A. 1893. Voyage de M. E. Simon au Venezuela (Decembre 1887-April 1888). 25e mémoire. Isopodes terrestres. Annls Soc. Ent. Fr. 62: 339–346, pls 9–10.
  • DOLLFUS, M.A. 1896. On West Indian terrestrial isopod crustaceans. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1896: 388–400. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1896.tb03049.x
    » https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1896.tb03049.x
  • FABRICIUS, J.C. 1798. Supplementum entomologiae systematicae. CG Proft & Storch, Hafniae, p. 296–306. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/42138493
    » https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/42138493
  • FERNANDES, C.S., BATALHA, M.A., BICHUETTE, M.E. & BENOIT, J.B. 2016. Does the cave environment reduce functional diversity? PLoS ONE. 11(3):e0151958. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151958
    » https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151958
  • FERNANDES, C.S., CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S., ARAUJO, P.B. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2019. Synopsis of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves, with emphasis on new records from north, midwest, northeast and southeast regions. J. Nat. Hist. 53(17–18): 1095–1129. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.1634225
    » https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.1634225
  • FERNANDES, C.S., CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2018. Cylindroniscus platoi (Isopoda: Oniscidea: Styloniscidae), a new cave-dwelling species from Lagoa Santa Karst, Southeasthern Brazil. Zootaxa 4461: 411–420. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4464.3.6
    » https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4464.3.6
  • FERRARA, F. & TAITI, S. 1985. The terrestrial isopods of Aldabra. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 85(3): 291–315. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1985.tb01508.x
    » https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1985.tb01508.x
  • FERRARA, F. & TAITI, S. 1989. A new genus and species of terrestrial isopod from Malaysia. J. Nat. Hist. 23(5): 1033–1039. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222938900770941
    » https://doi.org/10.1080/00222938900770941
  • FERRARA, F. & SCHMALFUSS, H. 1983. New isopod material from Southwest Cameroon, with description of 13 new species. Stuttg. Beitr. Naturk., Ser. A 360: 1–43. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/33441412
    » https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/33441412
  • FERREIRA, R.L., BERNARD, E., DA CRUZ JÚNIOR, F.W., PILÓ, L.B., et al. 2022. Brazilian cave heritage under siege. Science. 375(6586):1238–1239. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abo1973
    » https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abo1973
  • FERREIRA, R.L., OLIVEIRA, M.P.A. & SILVA, M.S. 2015. Biodiversidade subterrânea em geossistemas ferruginosos. In: Carmo, F.F.C., Kamino, L.H.Y. (Ed.) Geossistemas ferruginosos do Brasil: Áreas prioritárias para Conservação da Diversidade geológica e biológica, Patrimônio cultural e Serviços ambientais. 3i Editora, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
  • FERREIRA, R.L., PROUS, X., BERNARDI, L.F.O. & SOUZA-SILVA, M. 2010. Fauna subterrânea do estado do Rio Grande do Norte: caracterização e impactos. Revista Brasileira de Espeleologia 1(1): 25–51.
  • GALLÃO, J.E. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2015. Taxonomic distinctness and conservation of a new high biodiversity subterranean area in Brazil. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. 87(1): 209–217. https://doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201520140312
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201520140312
  • GALLÃO, J.E. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2018. Brazilian obligatory subterranean fauna and threats to the hypogean environment. Zookeys 746: 1–23. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.746.15140
    » https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.746.15140
  • GALVÃO, A., FERREIRA, C.F., ROSSATO, R.M., REINO, J.C.R., JANSEN, D.C. & VILELA, C.V. 2012. Breve descrição do patrimônio espeleológico do município de São Desidério BA. Revista Brasileira de Espeleologia 2(1): 13–28.
  • IBAMA – Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis. 2003. Plano de Manejo do Parque Nacional do Pantanal Matogrossense. Brasília.
  • JAVIDKAR, M., COOPER, S.J.B., KING, R.A., HUMPHREYS, W.F. & AUSTIN, A. 2015. Molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal a new southern hemisphere oniscidean family (Crustacea: Isopoda) with a unique water transport system. Invertebr. Syst. 29: 554–577. https://doi.org/10.1071/IS15010
    » https://doi.org/10.1071/IS15010
  • JAVIDKAR, M., KING, R.A., COOPER, S.J.B., HUMPHREYS, W.F. & AUSTIN, A. 2017. Taxonomy of Paraplatyarthrus Javidkar and King (Isopoda: Oniscidea: Paraplatyarthridae) with description of five new species from Western Australia, and comments on Australian Trichorhina Budde-Lunde, 1908 (Platyarthridae). Zootaxa, 4243(3): 401–431. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4243.3.1
    » https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4243.3.1
  • KARMANN, I. & SÁNCHEZ, L.E. 1979. Distribuição das rochas carbonáticas e províncias espeleológicas do Brasil. Espeleo-Tema 13: 105–167.
  • LATREILLE, A. 1802. Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insects. Tome III. Famille Seconde. Cloportides. L’Imprimeria de F. Dufart, Paris, p. 42–43. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.15764
    » https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.15764
  • LEISTIKOW, A. 2000. A new genus of Oniscidea from South America and a phylogenetic analysis of related genera (Crustacea: Isopoda: Philosciidae). Contributions to Zoology 69(3): 179–196.
  • MONTESANTO, G. 2015. A fast GNU method to draw accurate scientific illustrations for taxonomy. ZooKeys 515: 191–206. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.515.9459
    » https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.515.9459
  • MONTESANTO, G. 2016. Drawing setae: a GNU way for digital scientific illustrations. Nauplius 24: e2016017. https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2016017
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/2358-2936e2016017
  • MULAIK, S. 1960. Contribución al conocimiento de los isópodos terrestres de Mexico. Revista Soc. Mex. Hist. Nat. 21: 79–292.
  • MULAIK, S. & MULAIK, D. 1943. New Texas terrestrial isopods with notes on other species. Bull. Univ. Utah 34: 1–15. https://collections.lib.utah.edu/ark:/87278/s6349454
    » https://collections.lib.utah.edu/ark:/87278/s6349454
  • OLIVEIRA, O.A.B., OLIVITO, J.P.R. & RODRIGUES-SILVA, D. 2011. Caracterização da Unidade Espeleológica e das Unidades Geomorfológicas da região do Quadrilátero Ferrífero – MG. Espeleo-Tema 22(1): 61–80.
  • OLIVEIRA, H.F.M., SILVA, D.C., ZANGRANDI, P.L. & DOMINGOS, F.M.C.B. 2022. Brazil opens highly protected caves to mining, risking fauna. Nature, Correspondence. 602:386. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-022-00406-x
    » https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-022-00406-x
  • PEARSE, A. 1921. Crustacea from Lake Valencia, Venezuela. Proc. U. S. Natn. Mus. 59: 459–462. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.59-2381.459
    » https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.59-2381.459
  • PELLEGRINI, T.G. & FERRERIA, R.L. 2016. Are inner cave communities more stable than entrance communities in Lapa Nova show cave? Subterr. Biol. 20: 15–37. https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.20.9334
    » https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.20.9334
  • PINHEIRO, R.V.L., MAURITY, C.W. & PEREIRA, E. 2015. Cavernas em arenito da Província Espeleológica Altamira-Itaituba: dados espeleogenéticos com base no exemplo da Gruta das Mãos (PA), Amazônia, Brasil. Espeleo-Tema 26(1): 5–18.
  • PINTO-DA-ROCHA, R. 1995. Sinopse da fauna cavernícola do Brasil (1907–1994). Pap. Avulsos Zool. 39: 61–173.
  • POTT, A., OLIVEIRA, A.K.M., DAMASCENO-JUNIOR, G.A. & SILVA, J.S.V. 2011. Plant diversity of the Pantanal wetland. Braz. J. Biol. 71(1, suppl. 1): 265–273. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842011000200005
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842011000200005
  • RADU, V.G. 1960. Un nou gen de izopode terestre în fauna Republicii Populare Romîne, genul Trichorhina Studia Univ. Babes˘-Bolyai (Ser. 2, Biol.) 1960: 105–109.
  • REBOLEIRA, A.S.P.S., GONÇALVES, F., OROMÍ, P. & TAITI, S. 2015. The cavernicolous Oniscidea (Crustacea: Isopoda) of Portugal. Eur. J. Taxon, 161: 1–61. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2015.161
    » https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2015.161
  • RIOJA, E. 1955. Estudios carcinológicos. XXXIII. Observaciones acerca de dos nuevas espécies de isópodos cavernícolas de Chiapas. An. Inst. Biol. Univ. México 26: 199–209.
  • RIOJA, E. 1956. Dos nuevos isópodos cavernícolas de la Sierra Madre Oriental (región de Xilitla), México. An. Inst. Biol. Univ. México 26: 447–457.
  • RUBBIOLI, E., AULER, A., MENIN, D. & BRANDI, R. 2019. Cavernas-Atlas do Brasil Subterrâneo. ICMBio, Brasília, DF, 340p.
  • SALLUN, A.E.M. & SALLUN FILHO, W. 2009. Geologia em planos de manejo – subsídios para zoneamento ambiental do PEI – SP. Geociências 28(1): 91–107. https://ppegeo.igc.usp.br/index.php/GEOSP/article/view/7117/6562
    » https://ppegeo.igc.usp.br/index.php/GEOSP/article/view/7117/6562
  • SÃO PAULO, State Law N° 12.810 of 21 February, 2008. Available at: https://www.al.sp.gov.br/norma/76411
    » https://www.al.sp.gov.br/norma/76411
  • SCHMALFUSS, H. 1984. Eco-morphological strategies in terrestrial isopods. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 53: 49–63.
  • SCHMALFUSS, H. 2003. World catalog of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea). Stuttg. Beitr. Naturkd., Ser. A 654: 1–341.
  • SCHMALFUSS, H. & FERRARA, F. 1978. Terrestrial isopods from West Africa, Part 2: Families Tylidae, Ligiidae, Styloniscidae, Philosciidae, Platyarthridae, Rhyscotidae, Porcellionidae, Trachelipidae. Monitore Zool. Ital. (N.S.), Suppl. 11: 15–97. https://doi.org/10.1080/03749444.1978.10736575
    » https://doi.org/10.1080/03749444.1978.10736575
  • SCHMIDT, C. 2002. Contribution to the phylogenetic system of the Crinocheta (Crustacea, Isopoda). Part 1. (Olibrinidae to Scyphaidae s. str.). Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berl., Zoosyst. Evol. 78: 275–352. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mmnz.20020780207
    » https://doi.org/10.1002/mmnz.20020780207
  • SCHMIDT, C. 2003. Contribution to the phylogenetic system of the Crinocheta (Crustacea, Isopoda). Part 2 (Oniscoidea to Armadillidiidae). Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berl., Zoosyst. Evol. 79: 3–179. https://doi.org/10.1002/mmnz.20030790102
    » https://doi.org/10.1002/mmnz.20030790102
  • SCHMIDT, C. 2008. Phylogeny of the Terrestrial Isopoda (Oniscidea): a review. Arthropod Syst. Phylo. 66(2): 191–226. https://doi.org/10.3897/asp.66.e31684
    » https://doi.org/10.3897/asp.66.e31684
  • SCHMIDT, C. & LEISTIKOW, A. 2004. Catalogue of genera of the terrestrial Isopoda (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea). Steenstrupia 28(1): 1–118.
  • SECTAM – Secretaria Executiva de Ciência, Tecnologia e Meio Ambiente. 2006. Plano de Manejo do PE da Serra dos Martírios/Andorinhas – PESAM/PA. Pará.
  • SEMA – Secretaria do Meio Ambiente do Estado de São Paulo. 1997. Macrozoneamento do Vale do Ribeira. Proposta preliminar para Discussão pública. São Paulo.
  • SEMA – Secretaria do Meio Ambiente do Estado de São Paulo. 2007. Plano de manejo espeleológico da Gruta da Capelinha. São Paulo.
  • SFENTHOURAKIS, S. & TAITI, S. 2015. Patterns of taxonomic diversity among terrestrial isopods. ZooKeys 515: 13–25. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.515.9332
    » https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.515.9332
  • SILVA, M.S. & FERREIRA, R.L. 2015. Cave invertebrates in Espírito Santo state, Brazil: a primary analysis of endemism, threats and conservation priorities. Subterr. Biol. 16: 79–102. https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.16.5227
    » https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.16.5227
  • SILVESTRI, F. 1918. Contribuzione alla conoscenza dei termitidi e termitofili dell’Africa occidentale. II. Termitofili. Parte prima. Arthropoda. Crustacea. Isopoda. Boll. Lab. Zool. Gen. Agr. R. Scuola Agric. Portici 12: 290–294.
  • SNIF – Sistema Nacional de Informações Florestais. 2018. Sistema Nacional de Unidades de Conservação – mapas. [accessed on July 19, 2023]. https://snif.florestal.gov.br/pt-br/dados-complementares/212-sistema-nacionalde-unidades-de-conservacao-mapas
    » https://snif.florestal.gov.br/pt-br/dados-complementares/212-sistema-nacionalde-unidades-de-conservacao-mapas
  • SOUZA, L.A., ARAÚJO, J.P. & CAMPOS-FILHO, I.S. 2011. The genus Trichorhina Budde-Lund in Brazil, with description of seven new species (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Platyarthridae). Iheringia, Sér. Zool. 101: 239–261.
  • SOUZA, L.A., BEZERRA, A.V. & ARAÚJO, J.P. 2006. The first troglobitic species of Scleropactidae from Brazil (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea). Subterr. Biol. 4: 37–43.
  • SOUZA, L.A., FERREIRA, R.L. & SENNA, A.R. 2015. Amphibious shelter-builder Oniscidea species from the New World with description of a new subfamily, a new genus and a new species from Brazilian Cave (Isopoda, Synocheta, Styloniscidae). PLoS ONE 10(5): e0115021. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115021
    » https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115021
  • SOUZA, L.A., SENNA, A.R. & KURY, A.B. 2010. A new species and first record of Gabunillo Schmalfuss & Ferrara, 1983 (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Armadillidae) from the Neotropics. Zootaxa 2677: 1–14. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2677.1.1
    » https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2677.1.1
  • SOUZA-KURY, L.A. 1993. Notes on Trichorhina I. Two new species from northeastern Brazil. Revue Suisse Zool. 100: 157–210. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.82507
    » https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.82507
  • SOUZA-KURY, L.A. 1997. Two new species of Trichorhina from Brazilian Amazonia. Crustaceana 70: 180–190. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20105849
    » https://www.jstor.org/stable/20105849
  • SOUZA-SILVA, M. & FERREIRA, R.L. 2016. The first two hotspots of subterranean biodiversity in South America. Subterranean Biology 19: 1–21. https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.19.8207
    » https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.19.8207
  • TABACARU, I. & GIURGINCA, A. 2013. Cavernicolous Oniscidea of Romania. Travaux de l’Institut de Speologie “Emile Racovitza”. t. LII: 3–26.
  • TAITI, S. 2004. Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea (woodlice). In: Gunn, J. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of caves and karst science. Fitzroy Dearborn, Taylor and Francis Group, New York, p. 547–551.
  • TAITI, S., ARGANO, R., MARCIA, P., SCARPA, F., SANNA, D. & CASU, M. 2018. The genus Alpioniscus Racovitza, 1908 in Sardinia: taxonomy and natural history (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Trichoniscidae). Zookeys 801: 229–263. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.801.24102
    » https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.801.24102
  • TAITI, S. & CHECCUCCI, I. 2009. New species and records of terrestrial Isopoda (Crustacea, Oniscidea) from Socotra Island, Yemen. ZooKeys 31: 73–103. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.31.140
    » https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.31.140
  • TAITI, S. & FERRARA, F. 1980. Nuovi studi sugli isopodi terrestri dell‘Arcipelago Toscano. Redia 63: 249–300.
  • TAITI, S. & FERRARA, F. 2004. The terrestrial Isopoda (Crustacea: Oniscidea) of the Socotra Archipelago. Fauna of Arabia 20: 211–325.
  • TAITI, S. & GRUBER, G.A. 2008. Cave-dwelling terrestrial isopods from Southern China (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea), with descriptions of four new species. In: Latella, L., Zorzin, R. (Ed.) Research in South China karsts. Mem. Mus. Civico Storia Nat. Verona, Monografie Naturalistiche 3: 101–123.
  • TAITI, S., MONTESANTO, G. & VARGAS, J.A. 2018. Terrestrial Isopoda (Crustacea, Oniscidea) from the coasts of Costa Rica, with descriptions of three new species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(Suppl. 1): S187–S210. http://dx.doi.org/10.15517/rbt.v66i1.33296
    » https://doi.org/10.15517/rbt.v66i1.33296
  • TAITI, S. & XUE, Z. 2012. The cavernicolous genus Trogloniscus nomem novum, with descriptions of four new species from southern China (Crustacea, Oniscidea, Styloniscidae). Trop. Zool. 25(4): 183–209. https://doi.org/10.1080/03946975.2012.751240
    » https://doi.org/10.1080/03946975.2012.751240
  • TEIXEIRA P.S.D. & DIAS M.S. 2003. Levantamento espeleológico da região cárstica de Arcos, Pains, Doresópolis, Córrego Fundo e Iguatama, frente às atividades degradadoras. Anais XVIII Congresso Brasileiro de Espeleologia (Vol. 1, pp. 193–199).
  • TRAJANO, E. 2000. Cave faunas in the Atlantic Tropical rain forest: composition, ecology, and conservation. Biotropica. 32(4b):882–893. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2000.tb00626.x
    » https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2000.tb00626.x
  • TRAJANO, E. & CARVALHO, M.R. 2017. Towards a biologically meaningful classification of subterranean organisms: a critical analysis of the Schiner-Racovitza system from a historical perspective, difficulties of its application and implications for conservation. Subterr. Biol. 22: 1–26. https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.22.9759
    » https://doi.org/10.3897/subtbiol.22.9759
  • TRAJANO, E., GALLÃO, J.E. & BICHUETTE, M.E. 2016. Spots of high diversity of troglobites in Brazil: the challenge of measuring subterranean diversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 25(10): 1805–1828. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-016-1151-5
    » https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-016-1151-5
  • VAN NAME, W.G. 1936. The American land and freshwater isopod Crustacea. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 71: 1–535. http://hdl.handle.net/2246/1185
    » http://hdl.handle.net/2246/1185
  • VANDEL, A. 1946. Crustacés isopodes terrestres (Oniscoïdea) épigés et cavernicoles du Portugal. Étude des recoltes de Monsieur A. de Barros Machado. Anaïs Fac. Cienc. Porto 30(3-4): 135–427.
  • VANDEL, A. 1952. Étude des isopodes terrestres récoltés au Vénézuela par le Dr. G. Marcuzzi. Memorie Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Verona 3: 59–203.
  • VANDEL, A. 1953. La famille des Squamiferidae et l‘origine des Platyarthrus. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. 77: 371–388.
  • VANDEL, A. 1960. Les isopodes terrestres de l’Archipel Madérien. Mém. Mus. Natn. Hist. Nat. (N.S., Ser. A) 22: 1–155.
  • VANDEL, A. 1962. Isopodes terrestres. (Deuxième Partie). In: Fédération Française des Sociétes de Sciences Naturelles (Ed.) Faune de France 66. P. Lechevalier, Paris, p. 417–931.
  • VANDEL, A. 1963. Isopodes terrestres recueillis en Amerique du Sud par Claude Delamare Deboutteville. In: Deboutteville, C.D. (Ed.) Biologie de l’Amerique australe. Éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, p. 63–100.
  • VANDEL, A. 1973. Les isopodes terrestres de la Mélanésie. Zool. Verh. 125: 1–160.
  • VANDEL, A. 1981. Les isopodes terrestres et cavernicoles de l’île de Cuba (second mémoire). In: Résultats des Expéditions biospéologiques cubano-roumaines à Cuba, Vol. 3. Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste România, Bucharest, p. 35–76.
  • VERHOEFF, K.W. 1937. Ueber einige neue und bekannte Isopoda terrestria. 61. Isopoden-Aufsatz. Sber. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berl. 1936: 411–430.
  • VERHOEFF, K.W. 1946. Über Landisopoden der Seychellen und aus Burma. Ark. Zool. 73A(6): 1–18.
  • VERHOEFF, K.W. 1949. Über Land-Isopoden aus der Türkei. III. Istanbul Univ. Fen Fak. Mecm., Seri B 14: 21–48.
  • WAHRBERG, R. 1922. Results of Dr. E. Mjöberg’s Swedish Scientific Expeditions to Australia 1910–1913. 30. Terrestre Isopoden aus Australien. Ark. Zool. 15: 1–298. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/12435304
    » https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/12435304
  • WOOD, C.T., KOSTANJŠEK, R., ARAUJO, P.B. & ŠTRUS, J. 2017. Morphology, microhabitat selection and life-history traits of twosympatric woodlice (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea): A comparativeanalysis. Zool. Anz. 268: 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcz.2017.04.008
    » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcz.2017.04.008

Edited by

Associate Editor
Mercedes Marchese

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    02 Feb 2024
  • Date of issue
    2023

History

  • Received
    02 Aug 2023
  • Accepted
    17 Nov 2023
Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP Departamento de Biologia Vegetal - Instituto de Biologia, UNICAMP CP 6109, 13083-970 - Campinas/SP, Tel.: (+55 19) 3521-6166, Fax: (+55 19) 3521-6168 - Campinas - SP - Brazil
E-mail: contato@biotaneotropica.org.br