Arctiinae (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Arctiinae (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

Milena de Sousa Nascimento Viviane Gianluppi Ferro Ricardo Ferreira Monteiro About the authors

Abstracts

This study describes the composition and distribution of the Arctiinae species (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) in Rio de Janeiro, generating the first list of Arctiinae species in the state. We assessed the variations in species composition and the different vegetation types in the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro. Data were collected primarily through surveys of museums and publication lists of species. We also conducted field sampling in March and September 2010. Of the 2,077 records covering 28 municipalities, 679 Arctiinae species were found in Rio de Janeiro state and were divided into two tribes and 220 genera. The location with the highest number of species recorded was Itatiaia, with 362 species, followed by Petrópolis and Angra dos Reis, with 320 and 306 species, respectively. Thirty-four percent (n = 230) of the species recorded were exclusive, i.e., occurred in only one location. The lowest dissimilarity values were observed between neighboring municipalities with the same type of plant formation, such as Petrópolis and Teresópolis (19%) or Itatiaia and Resende (24%). Some municipalities slightly further apart geographically, but with the same type of plant formation, also showed low levels of dissimilarity, for example, Petropolis and Resende (29%). However, most locations showed intermediate dissimilarity values of 40-60%, and in some cases, this figure rose to 96%. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, irrespective of its small geographical size and the predominance of a unique ecosystem, the Atlantic Forest shows a wide variation in relief, which may explain the high beta diversity values. Despite the large number of Arctiinae species recorded in Rio de Janeiro, few species were identified in areas with important forest remnants, such as Guapimirim, Nova Iguaçu, and Campos dos Goitacazes. Some regions of the northwestern part of the state were also subsampled. It is likely that new records of Arctiinae still exist in these locations, further increasing the list of Arctiinae species in Rio de Janeiro.

Beta diversity of moths; List of species; Atlantic Forest


Arctiinae (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo descrever a composição e distribuição de espécies de Arctiinae (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) no estado do Rio de Janeiro, gerando a primeira lista de espécies de Arctiinae para o estado. Avaliou-se também a variação na composição de espécies nos municípios e nas diferentes formações vegetais do estado. Os dados foram obtidos através de levantamentos em museus e de publicações de listas de espécies. Foram também realizadas coletas de campo nos meses de março e setembro de 2010. De um total de 2.077 registros, abrangendo 28 municípios, encontrou-se 679 espécies de Arctiinae para o estado do Rio de Janeiro, distribuídas em duas tribos e 220 gêneros. O município com o maior número de espécies foi Itatiaia, com 362 espécies, seguido de Petrópolis e Angra dos Reis, com 320 e 306 espécies, respectivamente. Trinta e quatro por cento (n = 230) das espécies de Arctiinae registradas tiveram distribuição exclusiva, ou seja, ocorreram em apenas uma localidade. Os menores valores de dissimilaridade foram observados entre municípios próximos e localizados sob o mesmo tipo de formação vegetal, como Petrópolis e Teresópolis (19%) ou Itatiaia e Resende (24%). Alguns municípios mais afastados geograficamente, mas ainda localizados sob o mesmo tipo de formação vegetal, apresentaram também baixos valores de dissimilaridade, como Petrópolis e Resende (29%), por exemplo. Entretanto, a maior parte dos municípios apresentou valores intermediários de dissimilaridade, entre 40 e 60%, e em alguns casos esse valor chegou até a 96%. O estado do Rio de Janeiro, mesmo com sua pequena dimensão geográfica e predomínio de um único ecossistema, a Mata Atlântica, apresenta uma grande variação no seu relevo, o que pode explicar alguns valores altos de diversidade beta. Apesar da grande quantidade de espécies de Arctiinae registrada para o estado do Rio de Janeiro, foram identificadas algumas localidades com remanescentes florestais importantes, como Guapimirim, Nova Iguaçu e Campos dos Goitacazes, e também algumas regiões do noroeste do estado ainda subamostradas. É bem provável que nessas localidades sejam encontrados novos registros de Arctiinae, aumentando ainda mais a lista de espécies de Arctiinae do estado do Rio de Janeiro.

Diversidade Beta de mariposas; Lista de espécies; Mata Atlântica


Introduction

The Atlantic Forest biome is the second most biodiverse forest complex in Brazil, behind only the Amazon Forest (Ab'Sáber 2005AB'SÁBER, A.N. 2005. Os Domínios de Natureza no Brasil: Potencialidades Paisagísticas. 3 ed. Ateliê Editorial, São Paulo.). Originally, the Atlantic Forest covered more than 1 million km2 (SOS Mata Atlântica & INPE 2015SOS MATA ATLÂNTICA & INPE. 2015. Atlas dos Remanescentes Florestais da Mata Atlântica Período 2013-2014, Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica e Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais. Disponível em http://mapas.sosma.org.br/dados/ (last accessed 18/02/2016).
http://mapas.sosma.org.br/dados/...
). Today, the biome covers only about 8% of its original area, representing approximately 1% of the national territory (SOS Mata Atlântica & INPE 2015SOS MATA ATLÂNTICA & INPE. 2015. Atlas dos Remanescentes Florestais da Mata Atlântica Período 2013-2014, Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica e Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais. Disponível em http://mapas.sosma.org.br/dados/ (last accessed 18/02/2016).
http://mapas.sosma.org.br/dados/...
). Due to the extensive habitat loss and the high degree of endemism, the Atlantic Forest is considered a hotspot of biodiversity (Myers et al. 2000MYERS, N., MITTERMEIER, R.A., MITTERMEIER, C.G., FONSECA, G.A.B. & KENT, J. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853-858, 10.1038/35002501
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, Galindo-Leal & Câmara 2005GALINDO-LEAL, C. & CÂMARA, I.G. 2005. Status do hotspot Mata Atlântica: Uma síntese. In Mata Atlântica: Biodiversidade, Ameaças e Perspectivas (C. Galindo-Leal & I.G. Câmara, orgs.). Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica e Conservação Internacional, São Paulo, p. 3-11.) and is one of the most threatened forests in the world (Oliveira-Filho & Fontes 2000OLIVEIRA-FILHO, A.T. & FONTES, M.A.L. 2000. Patterns of floristic differentiation among Atlantic forests in southeastern Brazil and the influence of climate. Biotropica 32(4): 793-810, doi: 10.1646/0006-3606(2000)032[0793:POFDAA]2.0.CO;2
https://doi.org/10.1646/0006-3606(2000)0...
). The state of Rio de Janeiro, which had 100% of its area inside the Atlantic Forest, has only about 20% of its area covered by remnants of this biome today (SOS Mata Atlântica & INPE 2015SOS MATA ATLÂNTICA & INPE. 2015. Atlas dos Remanescentes Florestais da Mata Atlântica Período 2013-2014, Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica e Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais. Disponível em http://mapas.sosma.org.br/dados/ (last accessed 18/02/2016).
http://mapas.sosma.org.br/dados/...
). The Atlantic Forest in the state of Rio de Janeiro includes different vegetation types and can be divided into major floristic blocks, such as dense rainforest (lowland, hillside, and altitude forests), semi-deciduous forest (forests inland plateaus), and associated ecosystems (salt marshes and mangroves) (SOS Mata Atlântica & INPE 2015SOS MATA ATLÂNTICA & INPE. 2015. Atlas dos Remanescentes Florestais da Mata Atlântica Período 2013-2014, Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica e Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais. Disponível em http://mapas.sosma.org.br/dados/ (last accessed 18/02/2016).
http://mapas.sosma.org.br/dados/...
).

The Atlantic Forest is considered one of the most studied forests among Brazilian biomes, probably because of its proximity to major research centers. However, many gaps still exist, particularly in very diverse groups, such as insects (Lewinsohn & Prado 2004LEWINSOHN, T.M. & PRADO, P.I. 2004. Biodiversidade Brasileira: Síntese do Estado Atual do Conhecimento. 2 ed. Editora Contexto, São Paulo.). The order Lepidoptera is among the major groups of invertebrates in terms of published inventories, but much of the work has focused on butterflies (Lewinsohn & Prado 2004LEWINSOHN, T.M. & PRADO, P.I. 2004. Biodiversidade Brasileira: Síntese do Estado Atual do Conhecimento. 2 ed. Editora Contexto, São Paulo.). In the state of Rio de Janeiro, even with a high concentration of research centers and a large area of preserved Atlantic Forest, relatively few studies have been conducted on Lepidoptera fauna, except for the publications by Zikán & Zikán (1968)ZIKÁN, J.F. & ZIKÁN, W. 1968. Inseto-fauna do Itatiaia e da Mantiqueira 3: Lepidoptera. Pesqui. Agropecu. Bras. 3: 45-109., Monteiro et al. (2004)MONTEIRO, R.F., ESPERANÇO, A.P., BECKER, V.O., OTERO, L.S., HERKENHOFF, E.V. & SOARES, A. 2004. Mariposas e borboletas na Restinga de Jurubatiba. In Pesquisas de Longa Duração na Restinga de Jurubatiba - Ecologia, História Natural e Conservação (C.F.D. Rocha, F.A. Esteves & F.R. Scarano, eds.). Rima Editora, São Carlos. p. 143-164. and the lists of Pieridae species in Monteiro et al. (2009)MONTEIRO, R.F., FREITAS, A.V.L., COSTA FILHO, M.A.F, NASCIMENTO, M.S., ALVES, T.G., BROWN, JR K.S., MIELKE, O.H.H., CASAGRANDE, M.M. & DUARTE, M. 2009. Borboletas da Mata Atlântica do Estado do Rio de Janeiro: Pieridae (Lepidoptera). Arq. Mus. Nac. 67(3-4): 283-289. and of Lycaenidae in Duarte et al. (2009)DUARTE, M., ROBBINS, R.K., FREITAS, A.V.L., BROWN, JR K.S., MONTEIRO, R.F., CASAGRANDE, M.M., MIELKE, O.H.H., NASCIMENTO, M.S. & ALVES, T.G. 2009. Borboletas da Mata Atlântica do Estado do Rio de Janeiro: Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera). Arq. Mus. Nac. 67(3-4): 291-302..

The Arctiinae subfamily, as well as other moth and butterfly families, has been the subject of many studies, as they are suitable for studies on environmental impact and change models, are easy to collect and identify, and have a short lifecycle (Lewinsohn et al. 2005LEWINSOHN, T.M., FREITAS, A.V.L. & PRADO, P.I. 2005. Conservação de invertebrados terrestres e seus habitats no Brasil. Megadiv. 1(1): 62-69.). About 11,000 Arctiinae species exist in the world (Jacobson & Weller 2002JACOBSON, N.L. & WELLER, S.J. 2002. A cladistic study of the Arctiidae (Lepidoptera) by using characters of immatures and adults. Thom. Say P: monographs. Lanham, pp 97.), of which approximately 6,000 species occur in the Neotropics and 1,400 in Brazil (Ferro & Diniz 2010FERRO, V.G. & DINIZ, I.R. 2010. Riqueza e composição das mariposas Arctiidae (Lepidoptera) no Cerrado. In Cerrado: conhecimento quantitativo como subsídio para as ações de conservação (I.R. Diniz, J. Marinho-Filho, R.B. Machado & R. Cavalcanti, eds.). Editora Thesaurus, Brasília, p. 255-313.). In a recent study, Vincent & Laguerre (2014)VINCENT, B. & LAGUERRE, M. 2014. Catalogue of the Neotropical Arctiini Leach, [1815] (except Ctenuchina Kirby, 1837 and Euchromiina Butler, 1876) (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae). ZOOSYSTEMA 36(2): 137-533, 10.5252/z2014n2a1
https://doi.org/10.5252/z2014n2a1...
published a catalog of the Neotropical Arctiini (except Ctenuchina and Euchromiina) in which presents an updated list of neotropical tiger moths, with 2,404 species of Arctiini. In Brazil, there are several studies about tiger moths, in different biomas like Savanas (Ferro & Diniz 2007FERRO, V.G. & DINIZ, I.R. 2007. Arctiidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera) da Estação Biológica de Boracéia (Salesópolis, São Paulo, Brasil). Biota Neotrop. 7(3): 331-338 http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n3/pt/abstract?article+bn02207032007 (last accessed 10/05/2013), 10.1590/S1676-06032007000300033
http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n3/p...
, Ferro& Diniz 2010FERRO, V.G. & DINIZ, I.R. 2010. Riqueza e composição das mariposas Arctiidae (Lepidoptera) no Cerrado. In Cerrado: conhecimento quantitativo como subsídio para as ações de conservação (I.R. Diniz, J. Marinho-Filho, R.B. Machado & R. Cavalcanti, eds.). Editora Thesaurus, Brasília, p. 255-313., Moreno et al. 2015MORENO, C., MAGALHÃES, F.C., REZENDE, L.H.G., NEVES, K. & FERRO, V.G. 2015. Riqueza e composição de Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) em cinco Unidades de Conservação do Cerrado. Iheringia Ser. Zool. 105(3):297-306, 10.1590/1678-476620151053297306
https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-47662015105...
), the Amazon Forest (Teston & Delfina 2010TESTON, J.A. & DELFINA, M.C. 2010. Diversidade de Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae) em área alterada em Altamira, Amazônia Oriental, Pará, Brasil. Acta Amazon. 40(2): 387-396, 10.1590/S0044-59672010000200017
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0044-5967201000...
, Delfina & Teston 2013DELFINA, M.C. & TESTON, J.A. 2013. Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae) ocorrentes em uma área de pastagem na Amazônia Oriental em Altamira, Pará, Brasil. Acta Amazon. 43(1): 81-90, 10.1590/S0044-59672013000100010
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0044-5967201300...
, Teston & Correa, 2015TESTON, J.A. & CORREA, D.C.V. 2015. The Arctiini (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae) fauna of the Serra do Pardo National Park, Pará, Brazil. Check List 11(2): 1613, 10.15560/11.2.1613
https://doi.org/10.15560/11.2.1613...
) and even in the Atlantic Forest (Ferro & Teston 2009FERRO, V.G. & TESTON, J.A. 2009. Composição de espécies de Arctiidae (Lepidoptera) no sul do Brasil: Relação entre tipos de vegetação e entre a configuração espacial do hábitat. Rev. Bras. Entomol. 53(2): 278-286, 10.1590/S0085-56262009000200010
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0085-5626200900...
, Ferro & Melo 2011FERRO, V.G. & MELO, A.S. 2011. Diversity of tiger moths in a Neotropical hotspot: determinants of species composition and identification of biogeographic units. J. Insect Conserv. 15:643-651, 10.1007/s10841-010-9363-6
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10841-010-9363-...
, Ferro & Romanowski, 2012FERRO, V.G. & ROMANOWSKI, H.P. 2012. Diversity and composition of tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) in an area of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil: is the fauna more diverse in the grassland or in the forest? Zoologia 29(1): 7-18, 10.1590/S1984-46702012000100002
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-4670201200...
, Zenker et al. 2015ZENKER, M.M., DEVRIES, P.J., PENZ, C.M., TESTON, J.A., FREITAS, A.V.L. & PIE, M.R. 2015. Diversity and composition of Arctiinae moth assemblages along elevational and spatial dimensions in Brazilian Atlantic Forest. J. Insect Conserv. 19:129-140, 10.1007/s10841-015-9753-x
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10841-015-9753-...
). In general, these works address the richness, diversity and species composition of Arctiinae in certain areas, but there are few studies that compile lists of species for Brazilian states. Therefore, there have been no reviews that have summarized the existing knowledge about this family in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Thus, we generated a list of Arctiinae species for the state of Rio de Janeiro and investigated the richness, composition, and species similarity in the different plant formations of the state.

Materials and Methods

Arctiinae records for the state of Rio de Janeiro (i.e., the presence of a species in a given locality/municipality) were obtained predominantly from specimens deposited in the following Brazilian collections: (1) Entomological Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz; (2) Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; (3) Entomological Collection of Laboratório de Ecologia de Insetos, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; (4) Entomological Collection Padre Jesus Santiago Moure, Universidade Federal do Paraná; (5) Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo; (6) Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi; and (7) Vitor Becker's collection. Specimens with dubious provenance and identification were not considered. The collection labels of many specimens did not have the geographic coordinates and altitudes of the localities. In such cases, we obtained this information through the “Splink” information system, developed by the Reference Center on Environmental Information (http://splink.cria.org.br/geoloc?criaLANG = pt).

We also used data from published lists of Arctiinae species (Zikán & Zikán 1968ZIKÁN, J.F. & ZIKÁN, W. 1968. Inseto-fauna do Itatiaia e da Mantiqueira 3: Lepidoptera. Pesqui. Agropecu. Bras. 3: 45-109., Monteiro et al. 2004MONTEIRO, R.F., ESPERANÇO, A.P., BECKER, V.O., OTERO, L.S., HERKENHOFF, E.V. & SOARES, A. 2004. Mariposas e borboletas na Restinga de Jurubatiba. In Pesquisas de Longa Duração na Restinga de Jurubatiba - Ecologia, História Natural e Conservação (C.F.D. Rocha, F.A. Esteves & F.R. Scarano, eds.). Rima Editora, São Carlos. p. 143-164.) and samplings. The moths were sampled in protected areas in the municipalities of Casimiro de Abreu (Reserva Biológica União), Nova Iguaçu (Reserva Biológica Tinguá), and Teresópolis (Parque Nacional da Serra dos =rgãos). Samplings were conducted during the end of the rainy season (March 2010) and the late dry season (September 2010). These samplings were made during new-moon nights, using a 2-m-wide × 1.5-m-high white sheet and a 250 W mixed light lamp. The lamp was lit one hour after sunset and was connected to a power generator for two hours. The moths were identified through the literature (Watson & Goodger 1986WATSON, A. & GOODGER, D.T. 1986. Catalogue of the Neotropical tiger-moths. Occas. Pap. Syst. Entomol. 1: 1-70., Piãas Rubio et al. 2000PIÑAS-RUBIO, F., RAB-GREEN, S., ONORE, G. & MANZANO, P.I. 2000. Mariposas Del Ecuador. Arctiidae, Subfamilias: Arctiinae y Pericopinae. Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito., Piãas Rubio & Manzano 2003PIÑAS-RUBIO, F. & MANZANO, P.I. 2003. Mariposas del Ecuador, Arctiidae, Subfamília: Ctenuchinae. Conpaãia de Jesús, Quito., 10.1007/s10841-010-9363-6
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10841-010-9363-...
) and by a comparison with the digital images of deposited species in the Becker's collection, whose identifications were confirmed by a comparison of the types.

The second order Jackknife and Chao 2 non-parametric estimators were used for estimating Arctiinae richness in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Moreover, the variation in species composition of these moths between different vegetation types was assessed using the Simpson's beta diversity index. This index was selected because it is less influenced by differences in species richness between samples (Koleff et al. 2003KOLEFF, P., GASTON, K.J. & LENNON, J.J. 2003. Measuring beta diversity for presence-absence data. J. Anim. Ecol. 72(3): 367-382, 10.1046/j.1365-2656.2003.00710.x
https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2656.2003...
). Municipalities with Arctiinae records were categorized according to their predominant vegetation type, following the classification of SOS Mata Atlântica & INPE (2015). The vegetation types considered were: (1) altitude forests: formations of dense rainforests located at elevations above 200 m; (2) lowland forests: formations of dense rainforests located at low altitudes (up to 200 m), including salt marshes and floodplain forests, which are predominantly coastal vegetation on sandy soil; and (3) mixed formations: municipalities that have both lowland forests and altitude forests. Statistical analyses were performed using R software (R Development Core Team 2009R DEVELOPMENT CORE TEAM. 2009. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna. http://www.R-project.org (last accessed 30/08/2011).
http://www.R-project.org...
).

Results

We obtained 2,077 Arctiinae records for the state of Rio de Janeiro, including 28 (30%) municipalities in the state. In total, 679 Arctiinae species were recorded for the state of Rio de Janeiro, which were divided into two tribes and 220 genera. The list of Arctiinae species in each municipality of the state of Rio de Janeiro is presented in Appendix 1. The estimations of second order Jackknife richness and Chao 2 show the existence of 916 and 1,037 Arctiinae species in the state, respectively. Therefore, according to the Chao 2 estimate, which is the most conservative index, our species list represented 74% of the expected Arctiinae fauna.

The location with the highest number of recorded species was Itatiaia, with 362 species (Table 1). The municipalities of Petrópolis, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, and Teresópolis also showed high species richness of Arctiinae (320, 306, 239, and 207, respectively) (Table 1). The distribution of Arctiinae species in the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro was quite heterogeneous, as the three richest municipalities accounted for 86% of all Arctiinae species in the state. Of the 28 municipalities in the state with Arctiinae records, 46% (n = 13) had less than 15 species and only 21% (n = 6) had more than 100 species (Figure 1).

Table 1
Arctiinae species richness in the municipalities of the state of Rio de Janeiro which had records of these moths and the percentage of exclusive species for each locality. Coordinates (in decimal degrees; datum SAD69), altitudes and vegetation types of each locality are also presented.

Aclytia heber (Cramer 1780) had the highest number of records throughout the study, occurring in 14 municipalities. Ilipa tengyra (Walker 1854) (12 municipalities), Pionia lycoides (Walker 1854) (11 municipalities), and Dycladia lucetius (Cramer 1782) (11 municipalities) were also very common in the state. Thirty-four percent (n = 230) of the Arctiinae species occurred in only one location. Itatiaia had the highest number of exclusive species (n = 96 or 26.5%).

Figure 1
Map of the state of Rio de Janeiro, indicating the number of records of Arctiinae species in each municipality. AR: Angra dos Reis; AB: Armação dos Búzios; AC: Arraial do Cabo; BM: Barra Mansa; CM: Cachoeiras de Macacu; CG: Campos dos Goytacazes; CA: Carapebus; CB: Casimiro de Abreu; DC: Duque de Caxias; GU: Guapimirim; IT: Itatiaia; MA: Macaé; MG: Magé; MN: Mangaratiba; MR: Maricá; NI: Niterói; NF: Nova Friburgo; NG: Nova Iguaçu; PE: Petrópolis; RE: Resende; RJ: Rio de Janeiro; SA: Santo Antônio de Pádua; SM: São João de Meriti; SJ: Silva Jardim; TA: Tanguá; TE: Teresópolis; TR: Três Rios; VA: Vassouras. Cities without records of Arctiinae species are not indicated by abbreviations on the map.

Comparing the species composition of Arctiinae in different vegetation types in the state of Rio de Janeiro, the largest number of recorded species was observed in the altitude forests formations (574 species), followed by mixed formations (418 species), whereas lowland forests formations only presented 139 species. The dissimilarity of species was low within the three types of plant formations evaluated (Table 3). The smallest difference between the Arctiinae compositions was observed between the altitude forests and the mixed formations (Table 2).

Table 2
Matrix of dissimilarity between vegetation types in the state of Rio de Janeiro using Simpson's beta diversity index.

Discussion

The Arctiinae fauna of the state of Rio de Janeiro compiled in this study represents 11% of the Arctiinae registered for the Neotropics (Jacobson & Weller 2002JACOBSON, N.L. & WELLER, S.J. 2002. A cladistic study of the Arctiidae (Lepidoptera) by using characters of immatures and adults. Thom. Say P: monographs. Lanham, pp 97.) and about 50% of the recorded fauna for Brazil (Ferro & Diniz 2010). There are few lists of Arctiinae species for Brazilian states (e.g., Ferro & Teston 2009FERRO, V.G. & TESTON, J.A. 2009. Composição de espécies de Arctiidae (Lepidoptera) no sul do Brasil: Relação entre tipos de vegetação e entre a configuração espacial do hábitat. Rev. Bras. Entomol. 53(2): 278-286, 10.1590/S0085-56262009000200010
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0085-5626200900...
), but the richness of these moths in the state of Rio de Janeiro is the largest ever recorded for a Brazilian state, with more than twice that observed in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Ferro & Teston 2009FERRO, V.G. & TESTON, J.A. 2009. Composição de espécies de Arctiidae (Lepidoptera) no sul do Brasil: Relação entre tipos de vegetação e entre a configuração espacial do hábitat. Rev. Bras. Entomol. 53(2): 278-286, 10.1590/S0085-56262009000200010
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0085-5626200900...
) and 1.4 times greater than that of Santa Catarina (Ferro et al. 2012FERRO, V.G., RESENDE, I.M.H. & DUARTE, M. 2012. Mariposas Arctiinae (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) do estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 12(4): 000-000 http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v12n4/pt/abstract?article+bn01312042012 (last accessed 10/05/2013)., 10.1590/S1676-06032012000400018
http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v12n4/...
). The richness of the Arctiinae species in the state of Rio de Janeiro presented here is quite close to that for the state of São Paulo's estimated richness (Brown Jr. & Freitas 1999BROWN JR, K.S. & FREITAS, A.V.L. 1999. Lepidoptera. In Biodiversidade do Estado de São Paulo: Síntese do conhecimento ao final do século XX (C.R.F. Brandão & E.M. Cancello, eds.). Fapesp, São Paulo, v. 5, p. 225-243.), although the latter has approximately six times the area of the Rio de Janeiro (IBGE 2013IBGE. 2013. Resolução N°1 do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, de 15 de Janeiro de 2013 - Área Territorial Oficial. Diário Oficial da União, Brasília, DF.). Indeed, the state of Rio de Janeiro has still areas well preserved from the Atlantic Forest and also has several research centers, these two facts can support this great diversity of Acrtiinae found in the state.

The three municipalities with the highest level of Arctiinae species richness in this study (Itatiaia, Petrópolis, and Angra dos Reis) showed the highest richness values for Arctiinae ever recorded at a single site collection from Brazil (Ferro & Diniz 2007FERRO, V.G. & DINIZ, I.R. 2007. Arctiidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera) da Estação Biológica de Boracéia (Salesópolis, São Paulo, Brasil). Biota Neotrop. 7(3): 331-338 http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n3/pt/abstract?article+bn02207032007 (last accessed 10/05/2013), 10.1590/S1676-06032007000300033
http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n3/p...
). According the Atlas of Forest Remnants of the Atlantic Forest (SOS Mata Atlântica & INPE 2015SOS MATA ATLÂNTICA & INPE. 2015. Atlas dos Remanescentes Florestais da Mata Atlântica Período 2013-2014, Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica e Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais. Disponível em http://mapas.sosma.org.br/dados/ (last accessed 18/02/2016).
http://mapas.sosma.org.br/dados/...
), these three municipalities are located in areas that have the largest remaining forest in this biome; thus, they are municipalities with large areas of preserved Atlantic Forest. Besides being well preserved, these locations are very well sampled, which probably explains the richness of Arctiinae in these locations, especially Itatiaia, because of the insects that Zikán & Zikán (1968)ZIKÁN, J.F. & ZIKÁN, W. 1968. Inseto-fauna do Itatiaia e da Mantiqueira 3: Lepidoptera. Pesqui. Agropecu. Bras. 3: 45-109. collected for 36 years in the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia area and its surroundings. Previous surveys of butterfly families, such as Lycaenidae (Duarte et al. 2009DUARTE, M., ROBBINS, R.K., FREITAS, A.V.L., BROWN, JR K.S., MONTEIRO, R.F., CASAGRANDE, M.M., MIELKE, O.H.H., NASCIMENTO, M.S. & ALVES, T.G. 2009. Borboletas da Mata Atlântica do Estado do Rio de Janeiro: Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera). Arq. Mus. Nac. 67(3-4): 291-302.) and Pieridae (Monteiro et al. 2009MONTEIRO, R.F., FREITAS, A.V.L., COSTA FILHO, M.A.F, NASCIMENTO, M.S., ALVES, T.G., BROWN, JR K.S., MIELKE, O.H.H., CASAGRANDE, M.M. & DUARTE, M. 2009. Borboletas da Mata Atlântica do Estado do Rio de Janeiro: Pieridae (Lepidoptera). Arq. Mus. Nac. 67(3-4): 283-289.), also highlight Itatiaia as a municipality with the highest number of recorded species of these insects. The small number of records in Nova Iguaçu and Guapimirim can be explained by the lack of Lepidoptera surveys in these regions, as there are still well-preserved forest remnants in these municipalities, such as Reserva Biológica Tinguá and the lowest part of the of Parque Nacional da Serra dos =rgãos, respectively. Municipalities without Arctiinae records match those where no survey of Lepidoptera has been conducted, and most have little or no forested areas, as in several municipalities north and west of the state (SOS Mata Atlântica & INPE 2015SOS MATA ATLÂNTICA & INPE. 2015. Atlas dos Remanescentes Florestais da Mata Atlântica Período 2013-2014, Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica e Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais. Disponível em http://mapas.sosma.org.br/dados/ (last accessed 18/02/2016).
http://mapas.sosma.org.br/dados/...
).

In a study conducted with Arctiinae in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil, Ferro & Teston (2009)FERRO, V.G. & TESTON, J.A. 2009. Composição de espécies de Arctiidae (Lepidoptera) no sul do Brasil: Relação entre tipos de vegetação e entre a configuração espacial do hábitat. Rev. Bras. Entomol. 53(2): 278-286, 10.1590/S0085-56262009000200010
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0085-5626200900...
found that 33% of the species occurred in only one municipality, almost identical to the percentage observed in this study. The large number of species recorded exclusively in Itatiaia (26.5%) may reflect the extensive survey of Lepidoptera species (Zikán & Zikán 1968ZIKÁN, J.F. & ZIKÁN, W. 1968. Inseto-fauna do Itatiaia e da Mantiqueira 3: Lepidoptera. Pesqui. Agropecu. Bras. 3: 45-109.) or the high degree of endemism in the region.

The altitude forest had the highest number of Arctiinae records because it encompassed nine municipalities, including the best-sampled ones (Itatiaia and Petrópolis). Moreover, we must also consider the conservation status of these formations within the state, as the altitude forests represent the best preserved formation in the state of Rio de Janeiro, where the largest conservation areas in the state are concentrated (Itatiaia National Park and Serra dos =rgãos National Park). The mixed formation also encompassed municipalities that were well sampled, such as Angra dos Reis and Rio de Janeiro, which have areas in good condition within the state, such as Serra da Bocaina National Park and Tijuca National Park, respectively, which are protected. Moreover, lowland forests, including the sandbank formations, is one of the most degraded vegetation formations in the state, as it occurs in regions of high population density, high real estate value, accelerated deforestation, and forest fragmentation. In general, the remnants of sandbank formations in the state of Rio de Janeiro are located in patches of vegetation surrounded by urban or rural areas. The one large remaining sandbank conservation area in the state is the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park.

After compiling existing records for Arctiinae moths in the State of Rio de Janeiro from Brazilian museum collections, data from the literature, and samplings, we obtained a list of 679 species. This species number was larger than any previously published list of Arctiinae in a Brazilian state. Although, several subsampled locations in the state lack surveys, such as Guapimirim, Nova Iguaçu, and Campos dos Goytacazes, which still have representative areas of Atlantic Forest vegetation. Our results indicate a wide variation in the Arctiinae dissimilarity values among the municipalities of the state of Rio de Janeiro. This pattern may reflect the low host specificity of the caterpillars and the small geographical size, although there is a large variation existing in relief of the state. If the results for the Arctiinae species represent a standard for other groups of Lepidoptera, or for insects as a whole, it is clear that host specificity is an issue that remains to be investigated.

Appendix I
List of Arctiinae species in the state of Rio de Janeiro. AR: Angra dos Reis; AB: Armação dos Búzios; AC: Arraial do Cabo; BM: Barra Mansa; CM: Cachoeiras de Macacu; CG: Campos dos Goytacazes; CA: Carapebus; CB: Casimiro de Abreu; DC: Duque de Caxias; GU: Guapimirim; IT: Itatiaia; MA: Macaé; MG: Magé, MN: Mangaratiba; MR: Maricá; NI: Niterói; NF: Nova Friburgo; NG: Nova Iguaçu; PE: Petrópolis; RE: Resende; RJ: Rio de Janeiro; SA: Santo Antônio de Pádua; SM: São João de Meriti; SJ: Silva Jardim; TA: Tanguá; TE: Teresópolis; TR: Três Rios; VA: Vassouras.

Acknowledgments

We would like to offer our sincere thanks to CAPES and to Programa de Pós-graduação em Ecologia (PPGE/UFRJ) for Milena S. Nascimento's doctoral scholarship and support. We also acknowledge CNPq for Ricardo F. Monteiro's scholarship research productivity. Finally, we thank INCT Hympar Sudeste (CNPq/FAPESP/CAPES) for financing this research and ICMBio for the research permits in the União Biological Reserve, in Tinguá Biological Reserve and in Serra dos =rgãos National Park. RedeLep-CNPq (grant #563332/2010-7) funded the Viviane Ferro work.

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    June 2016

History

  • Received
    23 Sept 2015
  • Reviewed
    19 Feb 2016
  • Accepted
    16 May 2016
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