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Length-weight relationships of the ichthyofauna associated with the Brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis, on the Southeastern Brazilian Bight (22°S-29°S) between 2008 and 2010

Relações comprimento-peso da ictiofauna associada à sardinha-verdadeira, Sardinella brasiliensis, na Bacia do Sudeste do Brasil (22ºS‑29ºS) entre 2008 e 2010

Abstracts

In this study, estimates of length-weight relationships are presented for twenty-four species caught in association with the Brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis, during four acoustics surveys carried out under the Program ECOSAR (Prospecting and evaluation of biomass of the stock of Brazilian sardine on the southeast coast by acoustic methods), which was to evaluate the biomass of species that were caught. The model parameters were estimated with the nonlinear iterative method of least squares. The value of the coefficient of determination (r2) and residual analysis were employed to verify the appropriateness of fit. The coefficient b values were tested with respect to isometry (β=3) using a tα1,0.05 test. The values of coefficient b ranged from 2.377 to 3.538. There is a tendency for positive allometry (b) in the sampled ichythyocenose.

relative growth; allometric model; pelagic and demersal fishes


No presente estudo são apresentadas as estimativas das relações comprimento-peso para vinte e quatro espécies capturadas em associação com a sardinha-verdadeira (Sardinella brasiliensis) durante quatro cruzeiros de prospecção hidroacústica realizados no âmbito do Programa ECOSAR (Prospecção e avaliação de biomassa do estoque de sardinha-verdadeira, na costa sudeste, por métodos hidroacústicos), cujo objetivo foi permitir a avaliação das biomassas das espécies capturadas. Para estimação dos parâmetros dos modelos foi empregado o método iterativo não linear de mínimos quadrados; o valor do coeficiente de determinação (r2) e a análise de resíduos foram empregados para verificar a adequação dos ajustes. Os valores dos coeficientes b foram testados em relação à isometria (β=3) através de teste tα1,0,05. O valor do coeficiente b variou entre 2,377 e 3,538, tendo sido constatada tendência de alometria positiva para o b na ictiocenose amostrada.

crescimento relativo; alometria; peixes pelágicos e demersais


Introduction

The diversity of marine fish in the Southeastern and Southern Brazilian regions has traditionally been investigated through research surveys (Vazzoler & Iwai 1971VAZZOLER, G. & IWAI, M. 1971. Relatório sobre prospecção e pesca exploratória na plataforma continental do Rio Grande do Sul. Instituto Oceanográfico, USP, São Paulo., Vazzoler 1973VAZZOLER, G. 1973. Relatório sobre a segunda pesquisa oceanográfica e pesqueira do Atlântico Sul entre Torres e Maldonado. Instituto Oceanográfico, USP, São Paulo., Yesaki et al. 1976YESAKI, M., RAHN, E. & SILVA, G. 1976. Sumário das explorações de peixes de arrasto de fundo ao largo da costa Sul do Brasil. Ser. Doc. Tec. / Inst. Pesqui. Desenvolv. Pesq. 19:1-37., Rossi-Wongtschowski & Paes 1993ROSSI-WONGTSCHOWSKI, C.L.D.B. & PAES, E.T. 1993. Padrões espaciais e temporais da comunidade de peixes demersais do litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo - Ubatuba, Brasil. Publ. espc. Inst. Oceanogr. (10):69-188., Rossi-Wongtschowski et al. 1995ROSSI-WONGTSCHOWSKI, C.L.D.B., SACCARDO, S.A. & CERGOLE, M.C. 1995. Situação do estoque da sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis) no litoral sudeste e sul do Brasil. IBAMA, Brasília., 2008ROSSI-WONGTSCHOWSKI, C.L.D.B., MUTO, E.Y. & SOARES, L.S.H. 2008. Ictiofauna. In Oceanografia de um ecossistema subtropical: Plataforma de São Sebastião, SP (A.M.S. Pires Vanin, org.). EdUSP, São Paulo, p. 381-404., Brasil 2006BRASIL. Ministério do Meio Ambiente - MMA. 2006. Programa REVIZEE: avaliação do potencial sustentável de recursos vivos da Zona Econômica Exclusiva do Brasil - relatório executivo. MMA, Brasília.). From these records, several studies were developed concerning various aspects of the fish species. Among the studied variables, the length-weight relationship is a density-dependent parameter that provides an index of health of fish stocks (Schneider et al. 2000SCHNEIDER, J.C., LAARMAN, P.W. & GOWING, H. 2000. Length-weight relationships. In Manual of fisheries survey methods II with periodic updates (J.C. Schneider, ed.). Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Michigan, p. 1-18.).

Because the prior studies related to relative growth, summarized in Huxley (1993)HUXLEY, J.S. 1993. Problems of relative growth, with a new introduction by Frederick B. Churchill and an essay by Richard E. Strauss. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore., and focused on the growth pattern model (whether isometric or allometric) until its application in fish stock assessment (Beverton & Holt 1993BEVERTON, R.J.H. & HOLT, S.J. 1993. On the dynamics of exploited fish populations. The Blackburn Press, Caldwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-2106-4
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-210...
, Sparre & Venema 1998SPARRE, P. & VENEMA, S.C. 1998. Introduction to tropical fish stock assessment. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap., 306(1):1-407., Quinn II & Deriso 1999QUINN II, T.J. & DERISO, R.B. 1999. Quantitative fish dynamics. Oxford University Press, New York.), the length-weight relationship has been used in many studies. It is possible to mentioning fish shape and swimming patterns, biomass quantifications based on length frequency distributions, as a measure of changes in the expected individual weight for length and indicating its condition (i.e., fat accumulation and gonad development), differentiation of stocks, growth conditions, reproduction and feeding, ecological modeling, biomass calculation in acoustic surveys, and monitoring the “health” of the stocks over time.

In Brazil, several studies have estimated the parameters of the relationship between length and weight among marine fishes as Bernardes & Rossi-Wongtschowski (2000)BERNARDES, R.A. & ROSSI-WONGTSCHOWSKI, C.L.D.B. 2000. Length-weight relationship of small pelagic fish species of the Southeast and South Brazilian Exclusive Economic Zone. Naga: The Iclarm Quartely 23(4):30-32., Haimovici & Velasco (2000)HAIMOVICI, M.& VELASCO, G. 2000. Length-weight relationship of marine fishes from Southern Brazil. Fishbyte 23(1):19-23., Muto et al. (2000)MUTO, E.Y., SOARES, L.S.H. & ROSSI-WONGTSCHOWSKI, C.L.D.B. 2000. Length-weight relationship of marine fish species off São Sebastião System, São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Naga: The Iclarm Quartely 23(4):27-29., Lessa et al. (2004)LESSA, R.P., NÓBREGA, M.F. & BEZERRA JÚNIOR, J.L. 2004. Dinâmica de populações e avaliação de estoques dos recursos pesqueiros da região nordeste. vol.II. DIMAR Departamento de Pesca, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife., Frota et al. (2004)FROTA, L.O., COSTA, P.A.S. & BRAGA, A.C. 2004. Length-weight relationships of marine fishes from the central Brazilian coast. Naga: The Iclarm Quartely 27(1-2):20-26., Vianna et al. (2004)VIANNA, M., COSTA, F.E.S. & FERREIRA, C.N. 2004. Length-weight relationship of fish caught as by-catch by shrimp fishery in the southeastern coast of Brazil. Bol. Inst. Pesca 30(1):81-85., Madureira & Rossi-Wongtschowski (2005)MADUREIRA, L.S.P. & ROSSI-WONGTSCHOWSKI, C.L.D.B. (ed.). 2005. Prospecção de recursos pesqueiros pelágicos na Zona Econômica Exclusiva da região Sudeste-Sul do Brasil: hidroacústica e biomassas. Instituto Oceanográfico, USP, São Paulo., Giarizzo et al. (2006)GIARIZZO, T., SILVA DE JESUS, A.J., LAMEIRA, E.C., ARAÚJO DE ALMEIDA, J.B., ISAAC, V. & SAINT-PAUL, U. 2006. Weight-length relationships for intertidal fish fauna in a mangrove estuary in northern Brazil. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 22:325-327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2006.00671.x
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.20...
, Macieira & Joyeux (2008)MACIEIRA, R.M. & JOYEUX, J.C. 2008. Length-weight relationships for rockpool fishes in Brazil. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 25(3):358-359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2008.01118.x
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.20...
, Freire et al. (2009)FREIRE, K.M.F., ROCHA, G.R.A. & SOUZA, I.L. 2009. Length-weight relationships for fishes caught by shrimp trawl in southern Bahia, Brazil. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 25(3):356-357. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2009.01220.x
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.20...
, Joyeux et al. (2009)JOYEUX, J.C., GIARRIZZO, T., MACIEIRA, R.M., SPACH, H.L. & VASKE JUNIOR, T. 2009. Length-weight relationships for Brazilian estuarine fishes along a latitudinal gradient. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 25(3):350-355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2008.01062.x
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.20...
and Oliveira Freitas et al. (2011)OLIVEIRA FREITAS, M., MACHADO VASCONCELOS, S., HOSTIM-SILVA, M. & SPACH, H.L. 2011. Length-weight relationships for fishes caught by shrimp trawl in Santa Catarina coast, South Atlantic, Brazil. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 27(6):1427-1428. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2011.01749.x
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.20...
.

In this study, estimates of the length-weight relationship are presented for twenty-four species that were captured in association with the Brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879), during four acoustic surveys conducted under the Program ECOSAR (Prospection and evaluation of the Brazilian sardine biomass on the southeast coast through acoustic methods).

Material and Methods

The data for the present study were collected on four research cruises conducted with RV Atlântico Sul (FURG) during January-February 2008 (ECOSAR IV), November 2008 (ECOSAR V), September-October 2009 (ECOSAR VI) and February-March 2010 (ECOSAR VII) (Figure 1). The objective of the ECOSAR program was to assess the biomass of the species that were caught. Fish were caught using purse seine and mid-water-trawls in the Southeastern Brazilian Bight (22 °S-29 °S) at depths between 10 and 100 m. The species of the fish were identified and their nomenclature confirmed (Eschmeyer 2012ESCHMEYER, W.N. (ed.). 2012. Catalog of Fishes. http://research.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp. (último acesso em 24/06/2012).
http://research.calacademy.org/research/...
). Their total length (Lt) was measured in mm (from the tip of the snout to the end of the caudal fin) as was their weight (Wt) in grams.

Figure 1.
Fishing hauls during the surveys of the ECOSAR Program (2008-2010).

The data were only analyzed for those species for which more than thirty individuals were captured on the four cruises, to allow for statistical inferences. The variation in the total length of each species was subjected to descriptive analysis (Triola 2005TRIOLA, M.F. 2005. Introdução à estatística. 9. ed. LTC, Rio de Janeiro.). The length and weight data were reviewed in scatter diagrams to identify outliers and possible measurement errors. The relationships were fitted to the equation Wt = a Ltb (Le Cren 1951LE CREN, E.D. 1951. The length-weight relationship and seasonal cycle in gonad weight and condition in the perch (Perca fluviatilis). J. Anim. Ecol. 20(2):201-219. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1540
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1540...
), which was calculated with the help of Minitab®. The estimates of the parameters were obtained with the nonlinear iterative method of least squares, and the coefficient of determination (r2) and the residual analysis were employed to verify the adequacy of fit, according to Vieira (2006)VIEIRA, S. 2006. Análise de variância. Atlas, São Paulo.. To determine whether the growth was isometric (β = 3) or allometric for each species, the b coefficients were tested by a tα1,0.05 test, considering Ha: b < 3 or b > 3 according to the value estimated (Triola 2005TRIOLA, M.F. 2005. Introdução à estatística. 9. ed. LTC, Rio de Janeiro.).

Results and Discussion

The data from 13,222 fish comprising five orders, fifteen families and twenty-five species were analyzed. Table 1 shows the species analyzed, the ranges and means of their length, the number of fishes, the parameters of the length-weight relationships, the coefficients of determination and the results of the allometric t tests. The fitted models were biologically and statistically adequate to describe the length-weight relationship for all species. A model of residual analysis is presented in Figure 2 and all assumptions (normality, randomness, homoscedasticity and independence) showed no tendency for all species. Random residuals have showed that models were adequate (Bervian et al. 2006BERVIAN, G., FONTOURA, N.F. & HAIMOVICI, M. 2006. Statistical model of variable allometric growth: otolith growth in Micropogonias furnieri (Actinopterygii, Sciaenidae). J. Fish Biol. 68:196-208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-1112.2006.00890.x
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-1112.20...
).

Figure 2.
Model based on Engraulis anchoita data of the residual analysis applied to fit the length-weight relationships. The graphics allow checks of the assumptions of (a) normality, (b) randomness, (c) homoscedasticity and (d) independence of the data.

Table 1.
Values of the minimum, average and maximum total length (Lt, mm); a, b (± confidence interval) and determination (r2) coefficients of the length-weight relationship; and the “t” and “p” values of isometric t-test (p < 0.05 - significantly allometric).

The minimum and maximum values of b for the length-weight relationships were, respectively, 2.377 and 3.538, and its frequency distribution is presented in Figure 3.

Figure 3.
Frequency distribution values of the coefficient b obtained for the length-weight relationships of 25 species.

It is noteworthy that b provided the best estimates for those typical small pelagic fish which were caught by the mid-water trawl and seine, such as the Clupeiformes, Trachurus lathami and Chloroscombrus chrysurus. Most of the values for the young demersal fish fell near the modeled relationships, such as Dactylopterus volitans, while for other species, such as Decapterus punctatus, Anchoviella lepidentostole and Pomatomus saltatrix, only a small representative range of lengths were captured.

For some species, such as A. lepidentostole, Pellona harroweri, S. brasiliensis, Harengula clupeola, Priacanthus arenatus, C. chrysurus, Selene setapinnis, Scomber japonicus, and Chilomycterus spinosus, the values for the coefficient b were the same as those obtained in other studies, although for other species such as Engraulis anchoita, Chirocentrodon bleekerianus, Opisthonema oglinum, Bregmaceros atlanticus, D. volitans, P. saltatrix, T. lathami, Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus, Thyrsitops lepidopoides, Trichiurus lepturus, Peprilus paru, Aluterus monoceros, and Stephanolepis hispidus, remarkable differences from the published values were observed. Probably these differences should be caused since different surveys were performed with diverse fishing gears at different times (Magro et al. 2000MAGRO, M., CERGOLE, M.C. & ROSSI-WONGTSCHOWSKI, C.L.D.B. 2000. Síntese de conhecimentos dos principais recursos pesqueiros costeiros potencialmente explotáveis na Costa Sudeste-Sul do Brasil: Peixes. MMA/CIRM, São Paulo., Bernardes & Rossi-Wongtschowski 2000BERNARDES, R.A. & ROSSI-WONGTSCHOWSKI, C.L.D.B. 2000. Length-weight relationship of small pelagic fish species of the Southeast and South Brazilian Exclusive Economic Zone. Naga: The Iclarm Quartely 23(4):30-32., Muto et al. 2000MUTO, E.Y., SOARES, L.S.H. & ROSSI-WONGTSCHOWSKI, C.L.D.B. 2000. Length-weight relationship of marine fish species off São Sebastião System, São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Naga: The Iclarm Quartely 23(4):27-29., Vianna et al. 2004VIANNA, M., COSTA, F.E.S. & FERREIRA, C.N. 2004. Length-weight relationship of fish caught as by-catch by shrimp fishery in the southeastern coast of Brazil. Bol. Inst. Pesca 30(1):81-85., Cergole et al. 2005CERGOLE, M.C., ÁVILA-DA-SILVA, A.O. & ROSSI-WONGTSCHOWSKI, C.L.D.B. 2005. Análise das principais pescarias comerciais da região Sudeste-Sul do Brasil: dinâmica populacional das espécies em explotação. Instituto Oceanográfico, USP, São Paulo., Madureira & Rossi-Wongtschowski 2005MADUREIRA, L.S.P. & ROSSI-WONGTSCHOWSKI, C.L.D.B. (ed.). 2005. Prospecção de recursos pesqueiros pelágicos na Zona Econômica Exclusiva da região Sudeste-Sul do Brasil: hidroacústica e biomassas. Instituto Oceanográfico, USP, São Paulo.).

The magnitude of b represents the fish growth pattern, whether the growth is proportionally greater for length or weight (Quinn II & Deriso 1999QUINN II, T.J. & DERISO, R.B. 1999. Quantitative fish dynamics. Oxford University Press, New York.), and is therefore related to their body shape (Pough et al. 2008POUGH, F.H., JANIS, C.M. & HEISER, J. 2008. A vida dos vertebrados. 4. ed. Atheneu, São Paulo.). Thus, fish in pelagic ecosystem usually have small and slender shapes, which show a proportionately greater increase in length than in weight over time, rather than rounded shapes. Besides, allometric coefficient depicts better relative growth of fishes (Braga 1986BRAGA, F.M.S. 1986. Estudo entre fator de condição e relação peso/comprimento para alguns peixes marinhos. Braz. J. Biol. 46(2):339-346.).

In this study, the b values varied within the expected range (Froese 2006FROESE, R. 2006. Cube law, condition factor and weight length relationships: history, meta-analysis and recommendations. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 22:241-253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2006.00805.x
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.20...
): the most common values were between 3.0 and 3.1, the range that included 50% of the species. The distribution of b values was asymmetrical, with more species having values above 3.0 than below this value; eleven species showed positive allometry (b > 3, p < 0.05), seven showed negative allometry (b < 3, p < 0.05), and seven showed isometric growth (b = 3, p > 0.05) (Table 1).

Unless some length-weight parameters represent only some life stages, the results are the most current estimates for the species recorded in the Southeastern Brazilian Bight and may be used as a tool in future studies aimed at monitoring the populations.

References

  • BERNARDES, R.A. & ROSSI-WONGTSCHOWSKI, C.L.D.B. 2000. Length-weight relationship of small pelagic fish species of the Southeast and South Brazilian Exclusive Economic Zone. Naga: The Iclarm Quartely 23(4):30-32.
  • BERVIAN, G., FONTOURA, N.F. & HAIMOVICI, M. 2006. Statistical model of variable allometric growth: otolith growth in Micropogonias furnieri (Actinopterygii, Sciaenidae). J. Fish Biol. 68:196-208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-1112.2006.00890.x
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-1112.2006.00890.x
  • BEVERTON, R.J.H. & HOLT, S.J. 1993. On the dynamics of exploited fish populations. The Blackburn Press, Caldwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-2106-4
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-2106-4
  • BRAGA, F.M.S. 1986. Estudo entre fator de condição e relação peso/comprimento para alguns peixes marinhos. Braz. J. Biol. 46(2):339-346.
  • BRASIL. Ministério do Meio Ambiente - MMA. 2006. Programa REVIZEE: avaliação do potencial sustentável de recursos vivos da Zona Econômica Exclusiva do Brasil - relatório executivo. MMA, Brasília.
  • CERGOLE, M.C., ÁVILA-DA-SILVA, A.O. & ROSSI-WONGTSCHOWSKI, C.L.D.B. 2005. Análise das principais pescarias comerciais da região Sudeste-Sul do Brasil: dinâmica populacional das espécies em explotação. Instituto Oceanográfico, USP, São Paulo.
  • ESCHMEYER, W.N. (ed.). 2012. Catalog of Fishes. http://research.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp. (último acesso em 24/06/2012).
    » http://research.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp
  • FREIRE, K.M.F., ROCHA, G.R.A. & SOUZA, I.L. 2009. Length-weight relationships for fishes caught by shrimp trawl in southern Bahia, Brazil. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 25(3):356-357. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2009.01220.x
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2009.01220.x
  • FROESE, R. 2006. Cube law, condition factor and weight length relationships: history, meta-analysis and recommendations. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 22:241-253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2006.00805.x
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2006.00805.x
  • FROTA, L.O., COSTA, P.A.S. & BRAGA, A.C. 2004. Length-weight relationships of marine fishes from the central Brazilian coast. Naga: The Iclarm Quartely 27(1-2):20-26.
  • GIARIZZO, T., SILVA DE JESUS, A.J., LAMEIRA, E.C., ARAÚJO DE ALMEIDA, J.B., ISAAC, V. & SAINT-PAUL, U. 2006. Weight-length relationships for intertidal fish fauna in a mangrove estuary in northern Brazil. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 22:325-327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2006.00671.x
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2006.00671.x
  • HAIMOVICI, M.& VELASCO, G. 2000. Length-weight relationship of marine fishes from Southern Brazil. Fishbyte 23(1):19-23.
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  • JOYEUX, J.C., GIARRIZZO, T., MACIEIRA, R.M., SPACH, H.L. & VASKE JUNIOR, T. 2009. Length-weight relationships for Brazilian estuarine fishes along a latitudinal gradient. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 25(3):350-355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2008.01062.x
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2008.01062.x
  • LE CREN, E.D. 1951. The length-weight relationship and seasonal cycle in gonad weight and condition in the perch (Perca fluviatilis). J. Anim. Ecol. 20(2):201-219. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1540
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1540
  • LESSA, R.P., NÓBREGA, M.F. & BEZERRA JÚNIOR, J.L. 2004. Dinâmica de populações e avaliação de estoques dos recursos pesqueiros da região nordeste. vol.II. DIMAR Departamento de Pesca, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife.
  • MACIEIRA, R.M. & JOYEUX, J.C. 2008. Length-weight relationships for rockpool fishes in Brazil. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 25(3):358-359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2008.01118.x
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2008.01118.x
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  • MUTO, E.Y., SOARES, L.S.H. & ROSSI-WONGTSCHOWSKI, C.L.D.B. 2000. Length-weight relationship of marine fish species off São Sebastião System, São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Naga: The Iclarm Quartely 23(4):27-29.
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    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2011.01749.x
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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Apr-Jun 2013

History

  • Received
    7 Oct 2012
  • Reviewed
    9 Apr 2013
  • Accepted
    3 May 2013
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