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Arctiini Leach, [1815] (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae) of the Brazilian Amazon. III - Subtribe Ctenuchina Kirby, 1837

Arctiini Leach, [1815] (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae) da Amazônia Brasileira. III - Subtribo Ctenuchina Kirby, 1837

Abstract:

The Ctenuchina moths comprise 874 New World species. Here we provide a list of Ctenuchina species from the Brazilian Amazon. The list was produced from specimens deposited in the most important Brazilian collections and from literature data. Nearly 31% (273) of the New World Ctenuchina species were recorded, including 28 new occurrences for the Brazilian Amazon. Santarém and Belém were the municipalities with the highest number of species records, with 139 and 88, respectively. The high number of Ctenuchina records in the Amazon is underestimated because this subtribe has never been sampled in the vast majority of the biome. This is a worrying scenario because the Amazon has the world highest absolute rate of forest reduction. To suggest efficient conservation policies for the Arctiinae fauna of Amazon, it is urgent to intensify the sampling effort in this biome.

Keywords:
Amazon; Tiger moths; Inventory; Noctuoidea; Wasp Moths

Resumo:

As mariposas Ctenuchina compreendem 874 espécies no Novo Mundo. Neste trabalho, nós apresentamos uma lista das espécies de Ctenuchina que ocorrem na Amazônia brasileira. A lista foi produzida através de observação de espécimes depositados nas mais importantes coleções brasileiras e também através de dados da literatura. Aproximadamente 31% (273) das espécies de Ctenuchina que ocorrem no Novo Mundo foram registradas, incluindo 28 novas ocorrências para a Amazônia brasileira. Santarém e Belém foram os municípios com maior número de espécies registradas, com 139 e 88, respectivamente. Embora o número de registros de Ctenuchina seja considerado alto na Amazônia, este valor é subestimado visto que a fauna nunca foi amostrada na imensa maioria do bioma. Este cenário é preocupante, pois a Amazônia possui a maior taxa absoluta de redução florestal do mundo. A fim de podermos sugerir políticas de conservação eficientes para a fauna de Arctiinae da Amazônia, é urgente que se intensifique o esforço de coleta neste bioma.

Palavras-chave:
Amazônia; mariposas-tigre; Inventário; Noctuoidea; mariposas-vespa

Introduction

Arctiinae is distributed worldwide (Heppner 1991HEPPNER, J.B. 1991. Faunal regions and the diversity of LepidopteraTrop. Lep. 2(suppl. 1): 1-85.). With approximately 11,000 species, the Arctiinae moths are divided in four tribes (Zahiri et al. 2012ZAHIRI, R., HOLLOWAY, J.D., KITCHING, I.J., LAFONTAINE, J.D., MUTANEN, M. & WAHLBERG, N. 2012. Molecular phylogenetics of Erebidae (Lepidoptera, Noctuiodea). Syst. Entomol. 37(1): 102-124.), but only Arctiini and Lithosiini occurr in the Neotropics. Arctiini is classified in seven subtribes: Arctiina, Callimorphina, Ctenuchina, Euchromiina, Phaegopterina, Pericopina, and Spilosomina (Weller et al. 2009WELLER, S.J., DACOSTA, M., SIMMONS, R.B., DITTMAR, K. & WHITING, M. 2009. Evolution and taxonomic confusion in Arctiidae. In Tiger Moths and Wolly Bears, Behavior, Ecology and Evolution of the Arctiidae (W.E. Conner, ed.). Oxford University Press, New York, p.11-30., Vincent & Laguerre 2014VINCENT, B. & LAGUERRE, M. 2014. Catalogue of the Neotropical Arctiini Leach, [1815] (except Ctenuchina Kirby, 1837 and Euchromiina Butler, 1876) (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae). Zoosystema 36(2): 137-533.).

The Ctenuchina moths are found in the "New World" and comprise 874 species (Weller et al. 2009WELLER, S.J., DACOSTA, M., SIMMONS, R.B., DITTMAR, K. & WHITING, M. 2009. Evolution and taxonomic confusion in Arctiidae. In Tiger Moths and Wolly Bears, Behavior, Ecology and Evolution of the Arctiidae (W.E. Conner, ed.). Oxford University Press, New York, p.11-30.). Several species have nocturnal activity, but some species are exclusively diurnal (Hagmann 1938HAGMANN, G. 1938. Syntomideos (Amatideos=Euchromideos) do Estado do Pará. In Livro Jubilar do Professor Lauro Travassos. Typographia do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, p.185-194.). Many species of Ctenuchina form mimicry rings with several wasp species (Simmons, 2009SIMONS, R.B. 2009. Adaptative coloration and mimicry. In Tiger moths and wooly bears. Behavior, ecology, and evolution of the Arctiidae (W.E. Conner, ed.). Oxford University Press, New York, p.115-126.). They have a pair of tympanic organs located in the metathorax, above the spiracles, covered by an operculum. The hind wings are small or reduced, with absence of Sc + R1 veins and separated CuA branches (Kitching & Rawlins 1999KITCHING, I.J. & RAWLINS, J.E. 1999. The Noctuoidea. In Lepidoptera, moths and butterflies. Volume 1: evolution, systematics, and biogeography (N.P. Kristensen, ed. vol.). In Handbook of zoology. Volume IV Arthropoda: insect (M. Fischer, ed.) de Gruyter, Berlin, p.355-401., Jacobson & Weller 2002JACOBSON, N.L. & WELLER, S.J. 2002. A cladistics study of the Arctiidae (Lepidoptera) by using characters of immatures and adults. Thomas Say Publications in Entomology, Lanham.). The larvae feed on Apocynaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Ebenaceaa, Moraceae, Fabaceae, Ulmaceae, Poaceae, Loganiaceae, Urticaceae, Malpighiaceae, Vochysiaceae, Malvaceae, Ochnaceae and Cyperaceae (Janzen & Hallwachs 2005JANZEN, D. & HALLWACHS, W. 2005. Philosophy, navigation and use of a dynamic database (ACG Caterpillars SRNP) for an inventory of the macrocaterpillar fauna, and its foodplants and parasitoids of the Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), north-western Costa Rica. http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu (last access in 30/07/2018).
http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu...
). The adults of several species are pharmacophagous and feed on pyrrolizidine alkaloids (Conner & Jordan 2009CONNER, W.E. & JORDAN, A.T. 2009. From armaments to ornaments: the relationship between chemical defense and sex in tiger moths. In Tiger moths and wooly bears. Behavior, ecology, and evolution of the Arctiidae (W.E. Conner, ed.). Oxford University Press, New York, p.155-172.).

We here report a list of Ctenuchina moths occurring in the Brazilian Amazon based on the specimens deposited in the most important Brazilian collections and also from literature data. This study is a continuation of Teston & Ferro (2016aTESTON, J.A. & FERRO, V.G. 2016a. Arctiini Leach, [1815] (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae) of the Brazilian Amazon. I - Subtribe Phaegopterina Kirby, 1892. Check List 12(2): 1-16., b)TESTON, J.A. & FERRO, V.G. 2016b. Arctiini Leach, [1815] (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae) of the Brazilian Amazon. II - Subtribe Pericopina Walker, [1865]. Check List 12(6): 1-7. and aims to increase the knowledge on Arctiinae in the Amazon region.

Materials and methods

We intensively searched the literature and examined specimens from entomological collections of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas na Amazônia (INPA; Manaus), Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi (MPEG; Belém), Coleção Becker (VOB; Camacan), Coleção Entomológica Padre Jesus Santiago Moure of the Universidade Federal do Paraná (DZUP; Curitiba), Fundação Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOC; Rio de Janeiro), Museu de Zoologia of the Universidade de São Paulo (MZUSP; São Paulo), Museu Nacional of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ; Rio de Janeiro), and Laboratório de Estudos de Lepidópteros Neotropicais (LELN) of the Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará (UFOPA; Santarém). To identify the species, we used literature (Hampson 1898HAMPSON, G.F. 1898. Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenae in the British Museum. Catalogue of the Syntomidae in the collection of the British Museum. Taylor & Francis, London., 1914HAMPSON, G.F. 1914. Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenae in the British Museum. Supplement. Volume I. Catalogue of the Amatidae and Arctiadae (Nolinae and Lithosianae) in the collection of the British Museum. Taylor & Francis, London., Seitz 1919-1925SEITZ, A. 1919-1925. 4. Familie: Arctiidae, Bärenspinner. In Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde. II. Abteilung: Die Gross-Schmetterlinge des Amerikanischen Faunengebietes. 6. Band. Die Amerikanischen Spinner und Schwärmer (A. Seitz, ed.). Alfred Kernen, Stuttgart, p.231-497.) and specimens deposited in the visited collections. The systematic organization to generic level follows Hampson (1898)HAMPSON, G.F. 1898. Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenae in the British Museum. Catalogue of the Syntomidae in the collection of the British Museum. Taylor & Francis, London. and Weller et al. (2000WELLER, S.J., SIMMONS, R.B., BOADA, R. & CONNER, W.E. 2000. Abdominal Modifications Occurring in Wasp Mimics of the Ctenuchine-Euchromiine Clade (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 93(4): 920-928.), with updates of the generic names according Watson et al. (1995)WATSON, A., FLETCHER, D.S. & NYE, I.W.B. 1995. Noctuoidea: Arctiidae, Cocytiidae, Ctenuchidae, dilobidae, Dioptidae, lymantriidae, Notodontidae, Strepsimanidae, Thaumetopoeidae & Thyretidae. In the Generic names of moths of the world (I.W.B. Nye, ed.). The Natural Histori Museum, London, v.2, p.1-228. and corrections of Pinheiro & Duarte (2013PINHEIRO, L.R. & DUARTE, M. 2013. Taxonomic notes on Ctenuchina, Euchromiina, and Phaegopterina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini). Fla. Entomol. 96(2): 351-359.), Pinheiro & Gaal-Haszler (2015)PINHEIRO L.R, & GAAL-HASZLER, S. 2015. Illustrated catalogue of Neotropical Ctenuchina, Euchromiina and Pericopina types (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) described by Hans Zerny, with discussion on their taxonomic status. Zootaxa. 3925(4): 505-535. and Pinheiro (2016)PINHEIRO, L.R. 2016. Re-evaluation of the identities of Eucereon punctatum (Guérin-Méneville, [1844]) and E. archias (Stoll, 1790), with a discussion on E. mitigatum Walker, 1857, rev. stat. (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini, Ctenuchina). Zoosystema 38(1): 127-140..

The geographical coordinates of the localities in the Brazilian Amazon with Arctiinae records were obtained from the Geo Loc tool of "Species Link date & tools" (http://splink.cria.org.br/geoloc) and Google Earth (https://earth.google.com/web/). The list is organized alphabetically. Species and records without precise location data, and those from locations that belong to more than one biome (e.g., Cerrado and Amazon) were not included in the list.

Results

Our research generated a list of 273 Ctenuchina species (Table 1), including 28 new occurrences for the Brazilian Amazon (indicated by "NEW"). Twenty-three species appear as new records for the municipalities and their respective States (indicated by "AMZ"). In total, 75 (nearly 10%) Amazonian municipalities had Ctenuchina species records (Table 2 and Figure 1). Santarém (PA), Belém (PA), and Cacaulândia (RO) were the municipalities with the highest number of species, with 139, 88, and 60, respectively.

Table 1
Ctenuchina (Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) species of the Brazilian Amazon.
Table 2
Geographic coordinates of municipalities and richness of the Ctenuchina species (Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctini) in the Brazillian Amazon.

Figure 1
Geographic distribution of Ctenuchiina species records in Brazillian Amazon. The numbers refer to the municipalities of Table 2.

We recorded 61 genera, of which 20 were monospecific. The genera Eucereon Hübner, 1819 had the highest number of species (37), followed by DelphyreWalker, 1854WALKER, F. 1854a. List of the specimens of lepidopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part I. - Lepidoptera Heterocera. Edward Newman, London. (20), and HeliuraButler, 1876BUTLER, A.G. 1876. Notes on the Lepidoptera of the family Zygaenidae, whit descriptions of new genera and species. J. Linn. Soc. Lond., Zool. 12(60-62): 342-407. (17). The species with the highest number of locality records were Eucereon varia (Walker, 1854WALKER, F. 1854a. List of the specimens of lepidopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part I. - Lepidoptera Heterocera. Edward Newman, London.) (with 23), followed by Telioneura glaucopis R. Felder, 1869FELDER, C. & FELDER, R. 1864-1875. Pl 75-120 (1874). In Reise der österreichischen fregatte novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859 unter den Befehlen des Commodore B. Von Wüllestorf-Urbair. Zoologischer Theil, Zweiter Band, Zweite Abtheilung: Lepidoptera (C. Felder, R. Felder & A.F. Rogenhofer, eds.). Staatsdruckerei, Vienna. (22), Correbidia calopteridia (Butler, 1878BUTLER, A.G. 1878. On the Lepidoptera of the Amazons, collected by Dr James W. H. Trail during the years 1873 to 1875. Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 26(1): 39-84.) (21) and Epidesma ursula (Cramer, 1782) (20). Eighty-nine species (32.6%) occurred in only one locality (Table 1).

Discussion

The number of Ctenuchina species recorded for the Brazilian Amazon reported on this study is high. It corresponds to 31.2% of "New World" Ctenuchina fauna (Weller et al. 2009WELLER, S.J., DACOSTA, M., SIMMONS, R.B., DITTMAR, K. & WHITING, M. 2009. Evolution and taxonomic confusion in Arctiidae. In Tiger Moths and Wolly Bears, Behavior, Ecology and Evolution of the Arctiidae (W.E. Conner, ed.). Oxford University Press, New York, p.11-30.) and is more than two times higher than what has been reported for Mexico (Hernández-Baz et al. 2013HERNÁNDEZ-BAZ, F., MORON, M.A., CHAMÉ-VAZQUEZ, E. & GONZÁLEZ, J.M. 2013. Ctenuchina and Euchromiina (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae) of Three Biological Research Stations of México's Ecosur. J. Lepid. Soc. 67(3): 145-155.) and the Brazilian Cerrado (Ferro et al. 2010FERRO, V.G., MELO, A.S. & DINIZ, I.R. 2010. Richness of tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) in the Brazilian Cerrado: how much do we know? Zoologia 27(5): 725-731.). The fact that Santarém and Belém are the Amazon municipalities with the highest number of Ctenuchina records is probably related to the proximity and access to the collection sites. Belém is the capital of the state of Pará and has an important museum (Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, founded in 1866) and other research institutions, as well as easy access to sampling sites. Santarém has been widely sampled by H. Zerny and G. Hagmann in the 1930s (Zerny 1931ZERNY, H. 1931. Ergebnisse einer zoologischen Sammerlreise nach Brasilien, insbesondere in das Amazonasgebiet, ausgeführt von Dr. H. Zerny. VII. Teil. Lepidoptera III: Die Syntomiden des Staates Pará. Ann. Nat. hist. Mus. Wien 45(1): 225-263., Hagmann 1938HAGMANN, G. 1938. Syntomideos (Amatideos=Euchromideos) do Estado do Pará. In Livro Jubilar do Professor Lauro Travassos. Typographia do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, p.185-194.). Hagmann resided in Santarém and Zerny spent a season collecting in forests and other natural areas nearby Santarém. Belém is also the second municipality with the highest number of Phaegopterina and Pericopina records (Teston & Ferro 2016aTESTON, J.A. & FERRO, V.G. 2016a. Arctiini Leach, [1815] (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae) of the Brazilian Amazon. I - Subtribe Phaegopterina Kirby, 1892. Check List 12(2): 1-16., bTESTON, J.A. & FERRO, V.G. 2016b. Arctiini Leach, [1815] (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae) of the Brazilian Amazon. II - Subtribe Pericopina Walker, [1865]. Check List 12(6): 1-7.).

The Ctenuchina richness of Santarém and Belém is the largest recorded in Brazil. For example, in Salesópolis it has been recorded 42 Ctenuchina species (Ferro & Diniz 2007FERRO, V.G. & DINIZ, I.R. 2007. Arctiidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera) da Estação Biológica de Boracéia (Salesópolis, São Paulo, Brasil). Biota Neotrop. 7(3): 331-338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032007000300033 (last access on 15/07/2018)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032007...
) and in Joinville 57 species (Ferro et al. 2012FERRO, V.G., RESENDE, I.M.H. & DUARTE, M. 2012. Arctiinae (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) do estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 12(4): 166-180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032012000400018 (last access on 15/07/2018)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032012...
). These two last sites are located in the Atlantic Forest biome and were intensively sampled in the recent past. In the Cerrado sites, a much lower number of Ctenuchina species has been recorded, ranging from 3 (Scherrer et al. 2013SCHERRER, S., FERRO, V.G., RAMOS, M.N. & DINIZ, I.R. 2013. Species composition and temporal activity of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) in two cerrado vegetation types. Zoologia 30(2): 200-210.) to 26 (Moreno & Ferro 2016MORENO, C. & FERRO, V.G. 2016. Arctiinae moths (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) of the Emas National Park, Goiás, Brazil. Biota Neotropica 16, p. e20150037. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611-BN-2015-0037 (last access on 31/07/2018).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611-BN-2...
). Moreover, the number of Ctenuchina species in a single Amazon site (Santarém, 139) is higher than that recorded for the whole Cerrado (133 species, Ferro et al. 2010FERRO, V.G., MELO, A.S. & DINIZ, I.R. 2010. Richness of tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) in the Brazilian Cerrado: how much do we know? Zoologia 27(5): 725-731.). It may indicate that this taxon is more diverse in rain-forest than in xeric environments.

Until now Teston and Ferro (2016bTESTON, J.A. & FERRO, V.G. 2016b. Arctiini Leach, [1815] (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae) of the Brazilian Amazon. II - Subtribe Pericopina Walker, [1865]. Check List 12(6): 1-7.) have reported 819 Arctiinae species in the Brazilian Amazon. Due to the new records reported in this study (28) there has been an increase in richness for the biome, and now a total of 847 tiger moth species are recorded for the Amazon. Similarly to the the subtribes Phaegopterina (Teston & Ferro 2016aTESTON, J.A. & FERRO, V.G. 2016a. Arctiini Leach, [1815] (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae) of the Brazilian Amazon. I - Subtribe Phaegopterina Kirby, 1892. Check List 12(2): 1-16.) and Pericopina (Teston & Ferro 2016bTESTON, J.A. & FERRO, V.G. 2016b. Arctiini Leach, [1815] (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae) of the Brazilian Amazon. II - Subtribe Pericopina Walker, [1865]. Check List 12(6): 1-7.), the number of Amazonian species of Ctenuchina is underestimated because it has never been sampled in the vast majority of the biome (less than 10% of the municipalities has been sampled until now). In addition, the sampling points are poorly distributed and usually restricted to more populated cities and along major rivers. This is a worrying scenario because the Amazon has the world highest absolute rate of forest reduction (Silva et al. 2005). This biome has suffered from logging, fires, fragmentation, mining, wildlife extinction, invasion of alien species, and wildlife trafficking (Fearnside 2003). To suggest efficient conservation policies for the Arctiinae moths in the Amazon, it is urgent to intensify the collection effort in this biome.

Acknowledgements

We are indebted to the museum curators for allowing VGF's access to the collections under their care and for logistical support. This publication is part of the RedeLep "Rede Nacional de Pesquisa e Conservação de Lepidópteros", SISBIOTA-Brasil, CNPq (563332/2010-7).

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    18 Mar 2019
  • Date of issue
    2019

History

  • Received
    04 Oct 2018
  • Reviewed
    11 Dec 2018
  • Accepted
    17 Jan 2019
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