A new species of Rheocricotopus Brundin from Mato Grosso, Brazil (Diptera: Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae)

Uma espécie nova de Rheocricotopus Brundin do Mato Grosso, Brasil (Diptera: Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae)

Trond Andersen Humberto Fonseca Mendes About the authors

Abstracts

Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus) sirventorum sp. n. is described and figured based on a male from Mato Grosso, Brazil. It is tentatively placed in subgenus Psilocricotopus Sæ,ther as it has a triangular, subapical crista dorsalis and a rounded superior volsella. However, the new species apparently lacks acrostichals and has 40 dorsocentrals in 1-4 irregular rows.

Chironomidae; Orthocladiinae; Rheocricotopus; Psilocricotopus; new species; Mato Grosso; Brazil; Neotropical region


Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus) sirventorum sp. n. é descrita e ilustrada com base em um macho adulto do Mato Grosso, Brasil. A espécie é tentativamente colocada no subgênero Psilocricotopus Sæther por apresentar crista dorsalis subapical e triangular e volsela superior arredondada. Entretanto esta espécie nova aparentemente não possui acrosticais e apresenta 40 dorsocentrais em 1-4 fileiras irregulares.

Chironomidae; Orthocladiinae; Rheocricotopus; Psilocricotopus; espécie nova; Mato Grosso; Brasil; região Neotropical


ARTICLES

A new species of Rheocricotopus Brundin from Mato Grosso, Brazil (Diptera: Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae)

Uma espécie nova de Rheocricotopus Brundin do Mato Grosso, Brasil (Diptera: Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae)

Trond AndersenI; Humberto Fonseca MendesII,** Corresponding author: Humberto Fonseca Mendes, e-mail: orthocladiinae@gmail.com

IDepartment of Natural History, University Museum of Bergen, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7800, N-5020, Bergen, Norway. e-mail: trond.andersen@um.uib.no

IICentro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas - CCNH, Universidade Federal do ABC - UFABC, Av. dos Estados, 5001, Bloco A, Torre 3, 6º andar, Bangu, CEP 09210-580, Santo André, SP, Brazil

ABSTRACT

Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus) sirventorum sp. n. is described and figured based on a male from Mato Grosso, Brazil. It is tentatively placed in subgenus Psilocricotopus Sæ,ther as it has a triangular, subapical crista dorsalis and a rounded superior volsella. However, the new species apparently lacks acrostichals and has 40 dorsocentrals in 1-4 irregular rows.

Keywords:Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae, Rheocricotopus, Psilocricotopus, new species, Mato Grosso, Brazil, Neotropical region.

RESUMO

Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus) sirventorum sp. n. é descrita e ilustrada com base em um macho adulto do Mato Grosso, Brasil. A espécie é tentativamente colocada no subgênero Psilocricotopus Sæther por apresentar crista dorsalis subapical e triangular e volsela superior arredondada. Entretanto esta espécie nova aparentemente não possui acrosticais e apresenta 40 dorsocentrais em 1-4 fileiras irregulares.

Palavras-chave:Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae, Rheocricotopus, Psilocricotopus, espécie nova, Mato Grosso, Brasil, região Neotropical.

Introduction

The genus Rheocricotopus Brundin, 1956 with 69 valid species, is known from all zoogeographical regions except Antarctica and Oceania. The genus is split in two subgenera, Psilocricotopus Sæther, 1985 with 46 species and Rheocricotopus s. str. with 23 species. The larvae are rheophilic on plants and stones in streams and rivers and are rarely found in the littoral zone of lakes (Cranston et al. 1983).

The genus has been reported repeatedly from the Neotropical Region. Spies et al. (2009) recorded larvae from Costa Rica, Cranston et al. (1989) an undescribed species from Puerto Rico, Ospina-Torres et al. (1999) larvae from Colombia, Roback & Coffman (1983) larvae from Peru, Prat et al. (2011) larvae from Ecuador and Peru, and Roque et al. (2007) and Trivinho-Strixino (2011) larvae from Brazil. Further, Wiedenbrug (2000) recorded pupal exuviae of a Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus) species from mountain streams in Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. However, there is no described species from Central or South America, although Spaniotoma (Trichocladius) brachypus Edwards, 1931: 279, presently regarded as a generically unplaced valid species (see Spies & Reiss 1996) might belong to Rheocricotopus. This species was described based on a single female from Rio Pichileufu, Rio Negro State in Argentina and has a small humeral pit, few dorsocentrals and well developed squamal fringe (Edwards 1931).

Below we describe and figure a new species of Rheocricotopus based on a single male from Mato Grosso in Central-Western Brazil and place it tentatively in the subgenus Psilocricotopus as the gonostylus has a triangular, preapical crista dorsalis and the superior volsella is rounded (see subgeneric diagnosis in Sæther (1985)). However, the new species has 1-4 irregular rows of dorsocentrals and is apparently lacking acrostichals. Although the two subgenera are distinct in the immature stages, the difference is less clear in the adults. A proper placement in subgenus should thus await the discovery of larvae and pupae.

Material and Methods

The specimen was mounted on a slide in Canada balsam following the procedures outlined by Sæther (1969). The terminology follows Sæther (1980).

The holotype will be deposited in Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (MZUSP).

RHEOCRICOTOPUS (PSILOCRICOTOPUS) SIRVENTORUM SP. N. (FIGURES 1-7).


 



Type material: Holotype male, Brazil: Mato Grosso, Nova Xavantina, Fazenda Queté, córrego Cachoeira, 14º 32.817' S and 52º 31.395' W, 16.x.2007, light trap, L.C. Pinho et al. (MZUSP).

Diagnostic characters: The species can be separated from other members of the genus by having 40 dorsocentrals in 1-4 irregular rows and apparently no acrostichals.

Etymology: The species is named after Ana and Rafael Sirvent Berenguer, San Vicente, for all hospitality while the senior author was in Spain drawing this species.

Description: Male (n = 1). Total length 2.10 mm. Wing length 1.10 mm. Total length / wing length 1.92. Wing length/length of profemur 2.33.

Coloration. Dark brown, thorax dark brown without distinct pattern.

Head. AR 1.07. Ultimate flagellomere 371 µm long. Temporal setae 5 including 3 outer verticals and 2 postorbitals. Clypeus with 16 setae. Tentorium, stipes, and cibarial pump as in Figure 1. Tentorium 136 µm long, 23 µm wide. Stipes 120 µm long, 27 µm wide. Palp segment lengths (in µm): 30, 48, 68, 98, 163. Third palpomere with 3 sensilla clavata subapically, longest 12 µm long.




Thorax (Figure 2). Antepronotum with 5 setae. Dorsocentrals 40 in 1-4 irregular rows, acrostichals apparently absent, prealars 4, supraalar absent. Scutellum with 7 setae, uniserial.

Wing (Figure 3). VR 1.08. Costal extension 14 µm long. Brachiolum with 1 seta, R with 1 seta, remaining veins and cells bare. Squama with 3 setae.

Legs. Spur of fore tibia 39 µm long, spurs of mid tibia 14 µm and 8 µm long, spurs of hind tibia 34 µm and 14 µm long. Width at apex of fore tibia 32 µm, of mid tibia 32 µm, of hind tibia 34 µm. Comb with 11 setae, longest 38 µm, shortest 16 µm long. Tarsomere 1 of mid leg with 5 sensilla chaetica in basal one-third (Figure 4). Pulvilli as in Figure 5. Length and proportions of legs as in Table 1.




Hypopygium (Figures 6-7). Tergite IX covered with microtrichia, with 2 marginal setae on each side of the anal point; laterosternite IX with 2 setae. Anal point subtriangular, 23 µm long, 8 µm wide at base; with 5 lateral setae. Phallapodeme 52 µm long, aedeagal lobe with small horse-shoe shaped sclerotization orally. Transverse sternapodeme strongly curved, 77 µm long, with distinct oral projections. Gonocoxite 159 µm long, with bare, plate-like and sclerotized, 34 µm long, 6 µm wide projection along inner margin, starting 24 µm above apex. Superior volsella rounded, plate-like and sclerotized, 50 µm long, 10 µm wide at its widest part, starting 91 µm above apex of gonocoxite. Gonostylus 70 µm long, with distinct, triangular subapical crista dorsalis; megaseta 9 µm long. HR 2.26. HV 2.98.

Biology and Distribution

The species was collected in a light trap situated near a small, fast flowing stream in southeastern Mato Grosso State in Brazil.

Acknowledgements

We are greatly indebted to Luiz Carlos Pinho, Florianópolis, for the loan of the specimen and to Patrick Ashe, Ireland, for information about the genus. Thanks are also due to FAPESP (11/50162-1) and the University Museum of Bergen for financial support.

References

CRANSTON, P.S., OLIVER, D.R. & SÆTHER, O.A. 1983. The larvae of Orthocladiinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the Holarctic region - Keys and diagnoses. In Chironomidae of the Holarctic region. Keys and diagnoses. Part 1. Larvae (T. Wiederholm ed. ). Entomol. Scand. 19(Suppl.):149-291.

CRANSTON, P.S., OLIVER, D.R. & SÆTHER, O.A. 1989. The adult males of Orthocladiinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the Holarctic region - Keys and diagnoses. In Chironomidae of the Holarctic region. Keys and diagnoses. Part 3. Adult males (T. Wiederholm ed. ). Entomol. Scand. 34(Suppl.):165-352.

EDWARDS, F.W. 1931. Chironomidae. In Diptera of Patagonia and South Chile. Trustees Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, part 2, fasc. 5, p.233-331.

OSPINA-TORRES, R., RISS, H.W. & RUIZ-MORENO, J.L. 1999. Guía para la identificación genérica de larvas de quironómidos (Diptera: Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae) de la sabana de Bogotá. In Insectos de Colombia Vol. II. Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Fiscas y Naturales, Colección Jorge Alvarez Lleras No. 13. (G. Amat, G. Andrade & F. Fernández, eds). Editora Guadalupe, Bogotá, p.363-384.

PRAT, N., ACOSTA, R., VILLAMARÍN, C. & RIERADEVALL, M. 2011. Guia para el reconocimiento de las larvas de Chironomidae (Diptera) de los ríos altoandinos de Ecuador y Perú. Clave para la determinación de los principales morfotipos larvários. http://www4.ub.edu/riosandes/docs/CLAVE%20MACROMORFOLOGIA%20LARVAS%20V3.pdf (último acesso 01/02/2012).

ROBACK, S.S. & COFFMAN, W.P. 1983. Results of the Catherwood Bolivian-Peruvian Altiplano Expedition. Part II. Aquatic Diptera including montane Diamesinae and Orthocladiinae (Chironomidae) from Venezuela. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 135:9-79.

ROQUE, F.O., TRIVINHO-STRIXINO, S., MILAN, L. & LEITE, J.G. 2007. Chironomid species richness in low-order streams in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: a first approximation through a Bayesian approach. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 26:221-231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1899/0887-3593(2007)26[221:CSRILS]2.0.CO;2

SÆTHER, O.A. 1969. Some Nearctic Podonominae, Diamesinae and Orthocladiinae (Diptera: Chironomidae). Bull. Fish. Res. Bd Canada. 107:1-154.

SÆTHER, O.A. 1980. Glossary of Chironomid morphology terminology (Diptera: Chironomidae). Entomol. Scand. 14(Suppl.):1-51.

SÆTHER, O.A. 1985. A review of the genus Rheocricotopus Thienemann & Harnisch, 1932, with the description of three new species (Diptera, Chironomidae). Spixiana 11(Suppl.):59-108.

SPIES, M. & REISS, F. 1996. Catalog and bibliography of Neotropical and Mexican Chironomidae. Spixiana 22(Suppl.):61-119.

SPIES, M., ANDERSEN, T., EPLER, J.H. & WATSON JUNIOR, C.N. 2009. Chironomidae (Non-biting midges). In Manual of Central American Diptera (B.V. Brown, A. Borkent, J.M. Cumming, D.M. Wood, N.E. Woodley & M.A. Zumbado, eds). NRC Research Press, Ottawa, p.437-480.

TRIVINHO-STRIXINO, S. 2011. Larvas de Chironomidae. Guia de identificação. EdUFSCar, São Carlos, p.1-371.

WIEDENBRUG, S. 2000. Studie zur Chironomidenfauna aus Bergbächen von Rio Grande do Sul, Brasilien. Tese do Doutorado, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München, p.1-444.

Received 14/12/2011

Revised 14/02/2012

Accepted 29/02/2012

  • *
    Corresponding author: Humberto Fonseca Mendes, e-mail:
    • CRANSTON, P.S., OLIVER, D.R. & SÆTHER, O.A. 1983. The larvae of Orthocladiinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the Holarctic region - Keys and diagnoses. In Chironomidae of the Holarctic region. Keys and diagnoses. Part 1. Larvae (T. Wiederholm ed.
    • ). Entomol. Scand. 19(Suppl.):149-291.
    • CRANSTON, P.S., OLIVER, D.R. & SÆTHER, O.A. 1989. The adult males of Orthocladiinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the Holarctic region - Keys and diagnoses. In Chironomidae of the Holarctic region. Keys and diagnoses. Part 3. Adult males (T. Wiederholm ed.
    • ). Entomol. Scand. 34(Suppl.):165-352.
    • EDWARDS, F.W. 1931. Chironomidae. In Diptera of Patagonia and South Chile. Trustees Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, part 2, fasc. 5, p.233-331.
    • OSPINA-TORRES, R., RISS, H.W. & RUIZ-MORENO, J.L. 1999. Guía para la identificación genérica de larvas de quironómidos (Diptera: Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae) de la sabana de Bogotá. In Insectos de Colombia Vol. II. Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Fiscas y Naturales, Colección Jorge Alvarez Lleras No. 13. (G. Amat, G. Andrade & F. Fernández, eds).
    • Editora Guadalupe, Bogotá, p.363-384.
    • PRAT, N., ACOSTA, R., VILLAMARÍN, C. & RIERADEVALL, M. 2011. Guia para el reconocimiento de las larvas de Chironomidae (Diptera) de los ríos altoandinos de Ecuador y Perú. Clave para la determinación de los principales morfotipos larvários. http://www4.ub.edu/riosandes/docs/CLAVE%20MACROMORFOLOGIA%20LARVAS%20V3.pdf (último acesso 01/02/2012).
      » link
    • ROBACK, S.S. & COFFMAN, W.P. 1983. Results of the Catherwood Bolivian-Peruvian Altiplano Expedition. Part II. Aquatic Diptera including montane Diamesinae and Orthocladiinae (Chironomidae) from Venezuela. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 135:9-79.
    • ROQUE, F.O., TRIVINHO-STRIXINO, S., MILAN, L. & LEITE, J.G. 2007. Chironomid species richness in low-order streams in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: a first approximation through a Bayesian approach. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 26:221-231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1899/0887-3593(2007)26[221:CSRILS]2.0.CO;2
    • SÆTHER, O.A. 1969. Some Nearctic Podonominae, Diamesinae and Orthocladiinae (Diptera: Chironomidae). Bull. Fish. Res. Bd Canada. 107:1-154.
    • SÆTHER, O.A. 1980. Glossary of Chironomid morphology terminology (Diptera: Chironomidae). Entomol. Scand. 14(Suppl.):1-51.
    • SÆTHER, O.A. 1985. A review of the genus Rheocricotopus Thienemann & Harnisch, 1932, with the description of three new species (Diptera, Chironomidae). Spixiana 11(Suppl.):59-108.
    • SPIES, M. & REISS, F. 1996. Catalog and bibliography of Neotropical and Mexican Chironomidae. Spixiana 22(Suppl.):61-119.
    • SPIES, M., ANDERSEN, T., EPLER, J.H. & WATSON JUNIOR, C.N. 2009. Chironomidae (Non-biting midges). In Manual of Central American Diptera (B.V. Brown, A. Borkent, J.M. Cumming, D.M. Wood, N.E. Woodley & M.A. Zumbado, eds). NRC Research Press, Ottawa, p.437-480.
    • TRIVINHO-STRIXINO, S. 2011. Larvas de Chironomidae. Guia de identificação. EdUFSCar, São Carlos, p.1-371.
    • WIEDENBRUG, S. 2000. Studie zur Chironomidenfauna aus Bergbächen von Rio Grande do Sul, Brasilien. Tese do Doutorado, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München, p.1-444.

    * Corresponding author: Humberto Fonseca Mendes, e-mail: orthocladiinae@gmail.com

    Publication Dates

    • Publication in this collection
      24 July 2012
    • Date of issue
      Mar 2012

    History

    • Received
      14 Dec 2011
    • Accepted
      29 Feb 2012
    • Reviewed
      14 Feb 2012
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