Thrips species (Insecta: Thysanoptera) associated to Cowpea in Piauí, Brazil

Espécies de tripes (Insecta: Thysanoptera) associadas ao caupi no Piauí, Brasil

Abstracts

Thrips are still poorly known in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., in Piauí, despite their economic importance in this crop, which stands out as one of the major cultures of North and Northeast regions from Brazil. Thus, this study aimed to identify the thrips species associated to the crop in Teresina and Bom Jesus, Piauí, Brazil. From October 2007 to August 2008, cowpea inflorescences were sampled in the municipalities by the technique of simple bagging. After screenings, thrips were preserved in AGA, mounted on permanent microscope slides and identified. The identified species were: Frankliniella brevicaulis Hood, 1937, F. insularis (Franklin, 1908), F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910), F. tritici (Fitch, 1855) and Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin, 1908). The slides are deposited at the entomological collection of the Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí. A key to the species is provided.

pests; Phlaeothripidae; Thripidae; Frankliniella; Vigna unguiculata


Tripes ainda são pouco conhecidos em caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., no Piauí, a despeito de sua importância econômica na cultura, que se destaca como um dos principais cultivos das regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Assim, esse estudo objetivou identificar as espécies de tripes associadas à cultura em Teresina e Bom Jesus, Piauí, Brasil. De outubro de 2007 a agosto de 2008, inflorescências de caupi foram amostradas no dois municípios, por meio técnica do ensacamento simples. Após triagens, os tripes foram preservados em AGA, montados em lâminas de microscopia permanentes e identificados. As espécies identificadas foram: Frankliniella brevicaulis Hood, 1937, F. insularis (Franklin, 1908), F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910), F. tritici (Fitch, 1855) e Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin, 1908). As lâminas estão depositadas na coleção entomológica do Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí. Uma chave de identificação para as espécies é fornecida.

pragas; Phlaeothripidae; Thripidae; Frankliniella; Vigna unguiculata


SHORT COMMUNICATIONS

Thrips species (Insecta: Thysanoptera) associated to Cowpea in Piauí, Brazil

Espécies de tripes (Insecta: Thysanoptera) associadas ao caupi no Piauí, Brasil

Élison Fabrício Bezerra LimaI,* * Corresponding author: Élison Fabricio Bezerra Lima, e-mail: elisonfabricio@hotmail.com ; Lúcia da Silva FontesI; Silvia Marisa Jesien PinentII; Adriana Saraiva dos ReisI; Francisco Rodrigues Freire FilhoIII; Angela Celis de Almeida LopesI

IDepartamento de Biologia, Centro de Ciências da Natureza, Universidade Federal do Piauí – UFPI, Campus Ministro Petrônio Portella, Ininga, CEP 64049-550, Teresina, PI, Brasil. www.ufpi.br

IIDepartamento de Fitossanidade, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 772, CEP 91540-000, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. (www.ufrgs.br)

IIIEmbrapa Meio-Norte, Av. Duque de Caxias, 5650, Bairro Buenos Aires, CEP 64006-220, Teresina, PI, Brasil. www.cpamn.embrapa.br

ABSTRACT

Thrips are still poorly known in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., in Piauí, despite their economic importance in this crop, which stands out as one of the major cultures of North and Northeast regions from Brazil. Thus, this study aimed to identify the thrips species associated to the crop in Teresina and Bom Jesus, Piauí, Brazil. From October 2007 to August 2008, cowpea inflorescences were sampled in the municipalities by the technique of simple bagging. After screenings, thrips were preserved in AGA, mounted on permanent microscope slides and identified. The identified species were: Frankliniella brevicaulis Hood, 1937, F. insularis (Franklin, 1908), F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910), F. tritici (Fitch, 1855) and Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin, 1908). The slides are deposited at the entomological collection of the Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí. A key to the species is provided.

Keywords: pests, Phlaeothripidae, Thripidae, Frankliniella, Vigna unguiculata.

RESUMO

Tripes ainda são pouco conhecidos em caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., no Piauí, a despeito de sua importância econômica na cultura, que se destaca como um dos principais cultivos das regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Assim, esse estudo objetivou identificar as espécies de tripes associadas à cultura em Teresina e Bom Jesus, Piauí, Brasil. De outubro de 2007 a agosto de 2008, inflorescências de caupi foram amostradas no dois municípios, por meio técnica do ensacamento simples. Após triagens, os tripes foram preservados em AGA, montados em lâminas de microscopia permanentes e identificados. As espécies identificadas foram: Frankliniella brevicaulis Hood, 1937, F. insularis (Franklin, 1908), F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910), F. tritici (Fitch, 1855) e Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin, 1908). As lâminas estão depositadas na coleção entomológica do Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí. Uma chave de identificação para as espécies é fornecida.

Palavras-chave: pragas, Phlaeothripidae, Thripidae, Frankliniella, Vigna unguiculata.

Introduction

Almost a hundred of the about 6,000 described thrips species (Mound & Morris 2007) are notorious for causing extensive crop damage by feeding on leaf tissue or by vectoring viral diseases (Reynaud 2010). In Brazil, 546 thrips species are currently known (Monteiro & Lima 2011), from which about 24 are considered harmful to cultivated plants (Monteiro 2002).

Thrips are pests of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., in the state of Piaui, attacking flowers, causing flower abortion and, thus, huge economic losses by reducing the crop productivity (Freire Filho et al. 2005). This crop is very important in northeastern Brazil, where, according to Freire Filho et al. (1999) it constitutes the main protein source for the population. However, thrips are poorly known on cowpea, despite their economic importance. Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom, 1910) is the only thrips species recorded on cowpea in northeastern Brazil, in the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Piauí (Chagas 1993, Fontes et al. 2011).

The aim of this research was to identify the thrips species on cowpea in two municipalities in the state of Piaui, Brazil. A key to species is provided.

Materials and Methods

Thrips collections were weekly performed in October and December 2007 and January, February, July and August 2008 in Teresina and in April 2008 in Bom Jesus, according to the flowering of cowpea. Samples were collected in experimental fields at Embrapa Meio-Norte, in a transition area between the Caatinga and pre-Amazon in Teresina (05° 05' 21" S, 42° 48' 07" W, 72 m altitude) and in an area of Cerrado in Bom Jesus (09° 04' 28" S, 44° 21' 31" W, 277 m altitude).

The technique used to collect thrips was the simple bagging (Waquil et al. 1986), in which cowpea inflorescences were removed and placed in clear plastic bags. After two hours of collection, the material was taken to the laboratory of Entomology of the Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí, for screening.

In the laboratory, the insects, still in plastic bags, were placed in a freezer at –5 °C for one hour before screening, to facilitate this stage. Then, fine-bristled brushes, under stereomicroscope, helped transfering the thrips to microtubes containing AGA (60% ethyl alcohol, glycerin and glacial acetic acid in the ratio 10:1:1 respectively). Slides were prepared according to the technique proposed by Mound & Marullo (1996) and Mound & Kibby (1998). The identification was based on the keys proposed by Moritz et al. (2004), Mound & Kibby (1998), Mound & Marullo (1996) and Monteiro (1994).

Results and Discussion

Five thrips species were identified, four belonging to the family Thripidae, Frankliniella brevicaulis Hood, 1937, F. insularis (Franklin, 1908), F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910), F. tritici (Fitch, 1855) and one to the family Phlaeothripidae, Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin, 1908). All of them, except for Frankliniella schultzei, are recorded for the first time in the state of Piaui and on cowpea in Brazil. The material is deposited in the entomological collection of the Departamento de Biologia, Centro de Ciências da Natureza, Universidade Federal do Piauí. The number of specimens collected in each municipality can be visualized in Table 1.

Knowing thrips species that occur on cowpea is very important for this crop in the state of Piaui, and perhaps for the entire northeastern region, since these insects have become important pests in the crop in recent years, especially in dry periods (Andrade Junior et al. 2002).

Frankliniella schultzei is recorded in several plant species in Brazil, and is considered pest on cotton, eggplant, lettuce, melon, soybean, rose, tobacco, tomato and watermelon. From the species collected in this survey, this is the one that may cause greater agricultural problems to the crop, either because of the number it was found or taking into account the wide range of other plant species in which it causes economic losses. Its agricultural importance worldwide is given by both feeding damage and vectoring tospoviruses (Hoddle et al. 2008). Only yellow specimens were collected.

Frankliniella brevicaulis is widely distributed in the Neotropics, and is recorded in Brazil in banana (Monteiro et al. 1999), where it causes damage to the fruits in the form of brown rough punctures, which reduces the commercial value of the fruits (Fancelli 2004).

Frankliniella insularis is widely distributed in Brazil, where it feeds on legumes (Mound & Marullo 1996), but it is not considered a pest. However, it can be considered a minor pest of leguminous crops in Central America, such as Cajanus spp. and Pachyrhizus spp. (Hoddle et al. 2008).

Frankliniella tritici is well distributed in North America, associated to a wide range of plant species with flowers, and is considered a pest of roses (Hoddle et al. 2008). In Brazil, the species is recorded only in wheat in Rio Grande do Sul (Monteiro 1999).

In Brazil, H. gowdeyi is recorded in peach (Schuber et al. 2008), nectarine (Hickel & Ducroquet 1998) and chrysanthemums (Carvalho et al. 2006), with no economic importance.

Key to Species

1. Abdominal segment X tubular (Figure 1e), female without visible ovipositor, forewing without vein setae, with a median constriction and series of duplicated cilia in the apical region of the posterior margin (Figure 1c). Antennal segments III and IV with two and four simple sensilla, respectively. Post-ocular setae with expanded apex (Figure 1a). Maxillary bridge present. Mesopresternum boat-shaped (Figure 1b). Abdominal tergites III-VII with two pairs of wing retaining setae (Figure 1d) ..................................Haplothrips gowdeyi

1'. Abdominal segment X conical, female with visible ovipositor. Forewings with two complete rows of veins setae (Figures 1h, j). Antennal segments III and IV with forked sensilla (Figures 1i, k).........2

2. Ocellar setae III near, between the hind ocelli (Figure 1f). Metanotum without campaniform sensilla (Figure 1g). Posteromarginal comb on abdominal tergite VIII incomplete, with short teeth laterally ................................................................................................. F. schultzei

2'. Ocellar setae III apart. Metanotum with a pair of campaniform sensilla .................................................................................... 3

3. Forewings dark with basal fourth clear (Figure 1h). Posteromarginal comb on abdominal tergite VIII with moderately long teeth and variable failure medially ........................ Frankliniella insularis

3'. Forewings with uniform coloration (Figure 1j) ........................... 4

4. Pedicel on antennal segment III cup-shaped (Figure 1i). Posteromarginal comb on tergite VIII complete with median teeth smaller than the lateral ones ......................... Frankliniella brevicaulis

4'. Pedicel on antennal segment III swollen (Figure 1k). Posteromarginal comb on abdominal tergite VIII incomplete, with small teeth laterally (Figure 1l) ...........................Frankliniella tritici

Received 16/02/2012

Revised 16/02/2012

Accepted 19/03/2013

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    07 May 2013
  • Date of issue
    Mar 2013

History

  • Received
    16 Feb 2012
  • Accepted
    19 Mar 2013
  • Reviewed
    16 Feb 2012
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