The introduction of automated instrumentation in endodontics represented a major advance in progress for this specialty, with improvements in the quality and predictability of root canal preparation and a significant reduction in procedural errors. In recent years, endodontic instruments have undergone a series of changes brought about by modifications in design, surface treatments, and thermal treatments. In addition, new movements have also been incorporated to offer greater safety and efficiency, optimizing the properties of the NiTi alloy, especially through eccentric rotary motion. An understanding of the mechanical properties of these new NiTi instruments and their effect on the clinical performance of root canal preparation is essential if dental practitioners are to select the instruments that provide optimal clinical outcomes, especially in curved or flattened canals. The objective of this literature review is to present and discuss the characteristics of the NiTi alloys used in the major instrumentation systems available in the market, as well as the influence of the metallurgical and mechanical properties of NiTi instruments and the movements that drive them, to enable more accurate and predictable planning of root canal preparation.
Endodontics; Root Canal Preparation; Dental Instruments