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Brazilian Oral Research, Volume: 22, Issue: 4, Published: 2008
  • The advancing internationalization of our research Editorial

    Rode, Sigmar de Mello
  • Accuracy of stone casts obtained by different impression materials Dental Materials

    Faria, Adriana Cláudia Lapria; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Macedo, Ana Paula; Mattos, Maria da Gloria Chiarello de; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria

    Abstract in English:

    Several impression materials are available in the Brazilian marketplace to be used in oral rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of different impression materials used for fixed partial dentures following the manufacturers' instructions. A master model representing a partially edentulous mandibular right hemi-arch segment whose teeth were prepared to receive full crowns was used. Custom trays were prepared with auto-polymerizing acrylic resin and impressions were performed with a dental surveyor, standardizing the path of insertion and removal of the tray. Alginate and elastomeric materials were used and stone casts were obtained after the impressions. For the silicones, impression techniques were also compared. To determine the impression materials' accuracy, digital photographs of the master model and of the stone casts were taken and the discrepancies between them were measured. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan's complementary test. Polyether and addition silicone following the single-phase technique were statistically different from alginate, condensation silicone and addition silicone following the double-mix technique (p < .05), presenting smaller discrepancies. However, condensation silicone was similar (p > .05) to alginate and addition silicone following the double-mix technique, but different from polysulfide. The results led to the conclusion that different impression materials and techniques influenced the stone casts' accuracy in a way that polyether, polysulfide and addition silicone following the single-phase technique were more accurate than the other materials.
  • Assessment of the tensile strength of hexagonal abutments using different cementing agents Implantology

    Wahl, Carlos; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Brito Jr, Rui Barbosa; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; Smanio, Henrique

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of this study was to assess the uniaxial tensile strength after thermal cycling in replicas of CeraOne®abutments (abutment and coping sets), using four types of cements (n = 10). A zinc phosphate cement (Fosfato de Zinco®/ SSW), a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RelyX®luting / 3M-ESPE), a zinc oxide-eugenol cement (ZOE®/ SSW) and a zinc oxide cement without eugenol (TempBond NE®/ KERR) were used. After cementation, the samples were submitted to thermal cycles (1,000 cycles, 5ºC ± 2º to 55ºC ± 2º) for thirty seconds in each bath. Next, the samples were submitted to the tensile test in a universal test machine (0.5 mm/min). The data were submitted to ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer test (p < 0.05), and statistically significant difference was found among the cements. The highest tensile strength mean value found was for zinc phosphate cement (33.6 kgf) followed by the resin-modified glass ionomer cement (20.5 kgf), zinc oxide-eugenol cement (8.4 kgf) and the temporary cement (3.1 kgf). Therefore, it was found that the permanent cements presented higher tensile strength, and the temporary cement could be used in situations requiring reversibility and the removal of cemented dental implant-supported prostheses.
  • Protocol for production of a chewable material for masticatory function tests (Optocal - Brazilian version) Oral Physiology

    Pocztaruk, Rafael de Liz; Frasca, Luis Carlos da Fontoura; Rivaldo, Elken Gomes; Fernandes, Eduardo de Lima; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte

    Abstract in English:

    The present article aimed to present a standardized protocol for the production of a chewable test material that has been used in masticatory efficiency and performance studies. This chewable material has advantages in respect to its physical properties when compared to other artificial and natural test foods. It is constituted by mixing condensation silicon (58.3% by weight), common plaster (10.2% by weight), alginate (12.5% by weight), solid vaseline (11.5% by weight), tooth paste (7.5% by weight), and catalyst paste (20.8 mg/g), adding also three drops of mint essence. The mixed material is then inserted into an acrylic mould with perforations of 12 mm in diameter and 5 mm in height to produce rounded tablets with those measures after polymerization. It was named "Optocal - Brazilian version". A volume of 3 cm³ is indicated for a chewing test, which corresponds to 12 tablets using the present methodology. The present protocol can make the production of this chewable material easier, helping in its standardization for studies on masticatory function.
  • Evaluation of superficial microhardness in dental enamel with different eruptive ages Pediatric Dentistry

    Palti, Dafna Geller; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira; Silva, Salete Moura Bonifacio da; Abdo, Ruy Cesar Camargo; Lima, José Eduardo de Oliveira

    Abstract in English:

    This study evaluated the superficial microhardness of enamel in teeth at different posteruptive ages (before eruption in the oral cavity, 2-3 years after eruption, 4-10 years after eruption and more than 10 years after eruption). The study sample was composed of 134 specimens of human enamel. One fragment of each tooth was obtained from the flattest central portion of the crown to produce specimens with 3 x 3 mm. The enamel blocks were minimally flattened out and polished in order to obtain a flat surface parallel to the base, which is fundamental for microhardness testing. Microhardness was measured with a microhardness tester and a Knoop diamond indenter, under a static load of 25 g applied for 5 seconds. Comparison between the superficial microhardness obtained for the different groups was performed by analysis of Student's t test. The results demonstrated that superficial microhardness values have a tendency to increase over the years, with statistically significant difference only between unerupted enamel and that with more than 10 years after eruption. According to the present conditions and methodology, it was concluded that there were differences between the superficial micro-hardness of specimens at different eruptive ages, revealing an increasing mineralization. However, this difference was significant only between unerupted specimens and those with more than 10 years after eruption.
  • Professional flossing as a diagnostic method for gingivitis in the primary dentition Pediatric Dentistry

    Mariath, Adriela Azevedo Souza; Bressani, Ana Eliza Lemes; Haas, Alex Nogueira; Araujo, Fernando Borba de; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of this study was to evaluate flossing as a diagnostic method for interproximal gingival bleeding in children. For this crossover study, 23 pre-schoolchildren presenting neither restorations nor approximal carious cavities and with at least 15% of gingival bleeding sites were selected. Examinations were performed at three different moments (3-4 days interval). Examinations comprised repeated measurements of two gingival indices with a 10-minute interval in the following sequences: the Ainamo & Bay Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) followed by the Carter & Barnes flossing index (CBI); CBI followed by GBI; and GBI followed by GBI. Data analysis was performed only for the interproximal sites, considering the GBI as the gold-standard. Agreement between indices, sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were estimated. Percentage agreements in sequences GBI-CBI, CBI-GBI and GBI-GBI were 70.3%, 76.4% and 84.5%, respectively. Validation of flossing in the first sequence (GBI-CBI) resulted in values of 0.61 (95%CI 0.53 - 0.68), 0.72 (95%CI 0.69 - 0.76), 0.33 (95%CI 0.28 - 0.39) and 0.89 (95%CI 0.86 - 0.92) respectively for SE, SP, PPV and NPV. It can be concluded that professional flossing is a useful tool in the diagnosis of interproximal gingival inflammatory status in children, especially in conditions of gingival health.
  • Lack of association between the TNF-α -308 (G/A) genetic polymorphism and periodontal disease in Brazilians Periodontics

    Menezes, Natascha Giovannetti de; Colombo, Ana Paula Vieira

    Abstract in English:

    This study evaluated the frequency of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) -308 G/A polymorphism in Brazilians with periodontal health (PH = 51), chronic periodontitis (CP = 74) and generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP = 38). Human DNA was obtained from mouthwash samples and TNF-α genotyping was performed by PCR and RFLP analyses. Differences in clinical and genetic parameters among groups were sought by Kruskal-Wallis, χ² and Fisher's exact tests. The allele -308G was detected in 91.7%, whereas the allele -308A was found in 35.4% of all subjects. No significant differences were observed in the frequency of these alleles (χ² = 2.610, p > 0.05) and the genotypes G/G, G/A, and A/A (χ² = 2.547, p = 0.636) among groups. The data suggest that the TNF-α -308 G/A polymorphism is not associated with periodontitis in this Brazilian population.
  • Smoking enhances bone loss in anterior teeth in a Brazilian population: a retrospective cross-sectional study Periodontology

    Lima, Fernando Renó de; Cesar-Neto, João Batista; Lima, Dimas Renó de; Kerbauy, Warley David; Nogueira-Filho, Getulio Rocha

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of the present study was to radiographically evaluate the effect of smoking on bone loss resulting from chronic periodontitis. Periapical radiographs were analyzed of 80 patients with chronic periodontitis (40 current or former smokers and 40 never-smokers) that attended a private periodontal practice. The smokers or former-smokers with a minimum consumption of 10 cigarettes/day for a period of over 10 years were selected. Interproximal radiographic bone loss was considered as the distance between the cementum-enamel junction and the alveolar bone crest. Bone loss for smokers was higher than that observed in never-smokers (p < 0.05) (3.33 ± 1.09 mm and 2.24 ± 0.76 mm; mean ± standard deviation for smokers and non-smokers, respectively). When each region of the mouth was comparatively evaluated, it was observed that the smokers' incisors presented the highest bone loss when compared with the other groups of teeth (p < 0.01). Within the limits of the present investigation it can be concluded that smoking enhances the bone loss resulting from periodontitis and that the incisors are the teeth most affected.
  • Fractographic analysis, accuracy of fit and impact strength of acrylic resin Prosthodontics

    Faot, Fernanda; Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus Rodrigues; Del Bel Cury, Altair Antoninha

    Abstract in English:

    This study evaluated accuracy of fit, impact strength, types and morphology of fractures of a microwave acrylic resin polymerized with a cycle alternative to that recommended by the manufacturer. Onda Cryl was polymerized according to the manufacturer's instructions (MC), 3 min at 360 W, 4-min pause, and 3 min at 810 W; and with an alternative cycle (AC) of 6 min at 630 W. Accuracy of fit was measured at 3 points at the right (A) and left (B) ridge crests and at the midline (C) on the posterior palatal seal for each denture base (n = 10/group). The measurements were taken immediately after finishing and after 30-day storage in water. The impact strength test (Charpy method) was performed with a 40 kJ/cm load (n = 20/group). Fractographic analysis was accomplished for all fragments and the fracture types were characterized by means of their morphology, crack propagation angles and microstructure. Accuracy of fit data were analyzed by ANOVA, impact strength and radius values were compared by the t test, and the fractographic analysis data, by the Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test. The significance level was fixed at p < 0.05. No statistical differences were found between the two cycles of polymerization used. However, after the 30-day storage period in water, the denture bases showed better fit (P < .05). Most of the fractures were classified as brittle (MD: 70%, AC: 80%). Based on the results of this study, it could be concluded that both polymerization cycles are adequate to polymerize the denture resin studied.
  • Educative practices and attitudes within the pre-school environment: evaluating the education professionals Public Health

    Antunes, Leonardo dos Santos; Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves; Corvino, Marcos Paulo Fonseca

    Abstract in English:

    School and family together play an important role in the individual development of children. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the practices and attitudes towards oral health care of 245 education professionals working in 24 public municipal pre-schools in Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The data were obtained from self-questionnaires consisting of both open and closed questions. The methodology was both quantitative and qualitative, and the quantitative analysis was based on frequency (%). Regarding oral health practices, it was observed that the majority of the education professionals emphasized toothbrushing as a vital method of oral hygiene. In addition, 70.7% of the education professionals performed other types of oral hygiene activities with the schoolchildren, and 17.1% did so with the children's families. All the participants of the study considered that education professionals have a key role in promoting healthy oral habits amongst the schoolchildren and they believe that involving the dentist in educative programs is important. It was therefore concluded that the education professionals surveyed have positive practices and attitudes regarding the children's care, and they recognize their role in fostering healthy habits and developing integrated pedagogic oral health programs.
  • Comparative analysis of human and bovine teeth: radiographic density Radiology

    Tanaka, Jefferson Luis Oshiro; Medici Filho, Edmundo; Salgado, José Antônio Pereira; Salgado, Miguel Angel Castillo; Moraes, Luiz Cesar de; Moraes, Mari Eli Leonelli de; Castilho, Julio Cezar de Melo

    Abstract in English:

    Since bovine teeth have been used as substitutes for human teeth in in vitro dental studies, the aim of this study was to compare the radiographic density of bovine teeth with that of human teeth to evaluate their usability for radiographic studies. Thirty bovine and twenty human teeth were cut transversally in 1 millimeter-thick slices. The slices were X-rayed using a digital radiographic system and an intraoral X-ray machine at 65 kVp and 7 mA. The exposure time (0.08 s) and the target-sensor distance (40 cm) were standardized for all the radiographs. The radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin of each slice were obtained separately using the "histogram" tool of Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The mean radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin were calculated by the arithmetic mean of the slices of each tooth. One-way ANOVA demonstrated statistically significant differences for the densities of bovine and human enamel (p < 0.05) and for bovine and human coronal dentin (p < 0.05). No statistically significant differences were found for the bovine and human radicular dentin (p > 0.05). Based on the results, the authors concluded that: a) the radiographic density of bovine enamel is significantly higher than that of human enamel; b) the radiodensity of bovine coronal dentin is statistically lower than the radiodensity of human coronal dentin; bovine radicular dentin is also less radiodense than human radicular dentin, although this difference was not statistically significant; c) bovine teeth should be used with care in radiographic in vitro studies.
  • Influence of method and period of storage on the microtensile bond strength of indirect composite resin restorations to dentine Restorative Dentistry

    Santana, Fernanda Ribeiro; Pereira, Janaína Carla; Pereira, Cristina Alves; Fernandes Neto, Alfredo Júlio; Soares, Carlos José

    Abstract in English:

    This study evaluated the influence of the method and period of storage on the adhesive bond strength of indirect composite resin to bovine dentin. Ninety bovine incisors were stored in three different solutions: 0.2% thymol, 10% formalin, and 0.2% sodium azide, during 3 periods of storage: 7 days, 30 days and 6 months, resulting in 9 groups (n = 10). The roots were cut off and the buccal surface was ground with #600-grit silicon carbide paper. The surface was conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 s and a composite resin restoration (TPH Spectrum) was fixed using a one-bottle adhesive system (Adper Single Bond) and a dual-cured resinous cement (Rely X ARC) under a load of 500 g for 5 minutes. The samples were serially cut perpendicular to the bonded interface to obtain slices of 1.2 mm in thickness. Each slab was trimmed with a cylindrical diamond bur resulting in an hourglass shape with a cross-sectional area of approximately 1 mm². The microtensile bond strength (μTBS) testing was performed in a testing machine (EMIC 2000 DL) at a 0.5 mm/minute crosshead-speed until failure. After fracture, the specimens were examined under SEM to analyze the mode of fracture. μTBS Means were expressed in MPa and the data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA (3X3) and the Tukey test (α = 0.05). The storage times of 7 and 30 days produced no significant difference irrespective of the solution type. The formalin and thymol solutions, however, did have a negative influence on bond strength when the teeth were stored for 6 months.
  • Microhardness assessment of different commercial brands of resin composites with different degrees of translucence Restorative Dentistry

    Anfe, Taciana Emília de Almeida; Caneppele, Taciana Marco Ferraz; Agra, Carlos Martins; Vieira, Glauco Fioranelli

    Abstract in English:

    Owing to improvements in its mechanical properties and to the availability of shade and translucence resources, resin composite has become one of the most widely used restorative materials in present day Dentistry. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between the surface hardness of seven different commercial brands of resin composites (Charisma, Fill Magic, Master Fill, Natural Look, Opallis, Tetric Ceram, and Z250) and the different degrees of translucence (translucid, enamel and dentin). Vickers microhardness testing revealed significant differences among the groups. Z250 was the commercial brand that showed the best performance in the hardness test. When comparing the three groups assessed within the same brand, only Master Fill and Fill Magic presented statistically significant differences among all of the different translucencies. Natural Look was the only one that showed no significant difference among any of the three groups. Charisma, Opallis, Tetric Ceram and Z250 showed significant differences among some of the tested groups. Based on the results found in this study, it was not possible to establish a relation between translucence and the microhardness of the resin composites assessed. Depending on the material assessed, however, translucence variation did affect the microhardness values of the resin composites.
  • Papain-based gel for biochemical caries removal: influence on microtensile bond strength to dentin Restorative Dentistry

    Piva, Evandro; Ogliari, Fabrício Aulo; Moraes, Rafael Ratto de; Corá, Felipe; Henn, Sandrina; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    Abstract in English:

    This study investigated the influence of a papain-based gel (Papacárie) for chemo-mechanical caries removal on bond strength to dentin. Human molars were assigned to the following groups: Group 1: sound teeth were flattened to expose dentin; Group 2: after flattening of surfaces, the papain-based gel was applied on the sound dentin; Group 3: overlying enamel from carious teeth was removed and mechanical excavation of dentin was conducted; Group 4: chemo-mechanical excavation of carious dentin was conducted using the papain-based gel. The Prime&Bond NT or Clearfil SE Bond adhesive systems were used for restorative procedures. A microtensile bond strength test was performed, and the modes of failure were determined under SEM. The data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed between the sound dentin groups. For both excavation methods, Clearfil presented a significantly higher bond strength than Prime&Bond NT. Also, for Clearfil, the mechanically excavated samples disclosed a significantly higher bond strength than the chemo-mechanically ones. For Prime&Bond NT, no significant differences were detected between the excavation methods. Predominance of mixed failures for the sound substrate and of adhesive failures for the carious dentin one was detected. The bond strength to carious dentin of the self-etching system was negatively affected by chemo-mechanical excavation using the papain-based gel.
  • Oral candidiasis in HIV+ patients under treatment with protease inhibitors Stomatology

    Witzel, Andréa Lusvarghi; Silveira, Fernando Ricardo Xavier da; Pires, Maria de Fátima Costa; Lotufo, Mônica Andrade

    Abstract in English:

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of Protease Inhibitors (PI) on the occurrence of oral candidiasis in 111 HIV+ patients under PI therapy (Group A). The controls consisted of 56 patients that were not using PI drugs (Group B) and 26 patients that were not using any drugs for HIV therapy (Group C). The patient's cd4 cell counts were taken in account for the correlations. One hundred and ninety three patients were evaluated. The PI did not affect the prevalence of oral candidiasis (p = 0.158) or the frequency of C. albicans isolates (p = 0.133). Patients with lower cd4 cell counts showed a higher frequency of C. albicans isolates (p = 0.046) and a greater occurrence of oral candidiasis (p = 0.036).
  • Analysis of the postural stability in individuals with or without signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder Temporomandibular Disorders

    Ries, Lilian Gerdi Kittel; Bérzin, Fausto

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability and the distribution of weight of individuals with TMD (Temporomandibular Disorder) when placed in an orthostatic position. Forty female volunteers, participating in this study, were distributed into a control and a TMD group. Clinical examinations of the craniomandibular system and of the neck were performed. Postural stability was evaluated using a stabilographic platform. Through this system, the sway index (SI), the maximum medial-lateral distance (MMLD), the maximum anterior-posterior distance (MAPD) and the medial-lateral symmetry (MLS) could be determined. Tests were performed in the mandibular rest position and during isometric and isotonic contraction. The variables were analyzed through repeated measures ANOVA. The level of significance was p < 0.05. The results of this study indicate that individuals with TMD present more pain in the cervical region (p < 0.05). The group with TMD showed a significant reduction in SI (p < 0.05), MMLD (p < 0.05) and MLS (p < 0.01). Individuals with TMD presented greater postural asymmetry, and cervical pain demonstrated a potential link with an increase in postural stability.
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