Resumo em Inglês:This in vitro study evaluated the physical-chemical characteristics of whitening toothpastes and their effect on bovine enamel after application of a bleaching agent (16% carbamide peroxide). Physical-chemical analysis was made considering mass loss by desiccation, ash content and pH of the toothpastes. Thirty bovine dental enamel fragments were prepared for roughness measurements. The samples were subjected to bleaching treatments and simulated brushing: G1. Sorriso Dentes Brancos (Conventional toothpaste), G2. Close-UP Whitening (Whitening toothpaste), and G3. Sensodyne Branqueador (Whitening toothpaste). The average roughness (Ra) was evaluated prior to the bleaching treatment and after brushing. The results revealed differences in the physical-chemical characteristics of the toothpastes (p < 0.0001). The final Ra had higher values (p < 0.05) following the procedures. The mean of the Ra did not show significant differences, considering toothpaste groups and bleaching treatment. Interaction (toothpaste and bleaching treatment) showed significant difference (p < 0.0001). The whitening toothpastes showed differences in their physical-chemical properties. All toothpastes promoted changes to the enamel surface, probably by the use of a bleaching agent.
Resumo em Inglês:The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the microtensile bond strength of quartz fiber posts to different composites, and to composite combinations used as core materials. Thirty fiber posts were treated with a 24% hydrogen peroxide solution and silanized. The posts were divided into 5 groups according to the resin composite used as follows (n = 6): G1 - Ælite Flow (Bisco, Inc), G2 - Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE), G3 - Biscore (Bisco, Inc), G4 - Ælite Flow + Filtek Z250, G5 - Ælite Flow + Biscore. The resin composites were placed around the posts to produce cylindrical specimens. Two 1-mm² thick sticks containing the post in the center and composite cores on both ends were provided from each cylinder and tested for microtensile strength with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests were used for statistical analysis. Fractured surfaces were observed using a stereomicroscope with 20× magnification. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the interface of the fractured sticks. The results showed that G2 had the highest bond strength values, and the lowest values were seen with G3. There were significant differences between groups 1, 2, 4 and groups 3, 5 (p < 0.05). Under the stereomicroscope, most of the failures were adhesive between the post and core material. Under SEM, Ælite and Z250 had smoother surfaces than Biscore, containing less porosities and voids.
Resumo em Inglês:Silorane-based composite, an epoxy material, was marketed as promising less polymerization contraction than conventional restorative materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate, by means of photoelasticity, the polymerization stress generated by a silorane-based composite. Thirty photoelastic rings with orifices measuring 5 mm (d) × 3 mm (h) were prepared and divided into 6 groups (n = 5) according to the material tested. The inside walls of the rings were sandblasted with aluminum oxide, after which the restorative materials were inserted into the orifices and photoactivated according to the manufacturer's instructions. The specimens were analyzed and the visual representation of the stress was measured considering the isochromatic ring of first order. The data were converted to MPa and subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's test (α= 0.05). The adhesive Filtek P-90 (G5) showed high contraction stress (p < 0.05) when compared to G1, G2, G3, G4, and G6, which did not differ from each other (p > 0.05). The composite Filtek P-90 showed similar contraction stress compared to the conventional composite and, additionally, its adhesive showed higher stress than did the etch-and-rinse 2-step adhesive.
Resumo em Inglês:This study investigated the level of knowledge held by dentists about the possible treatment plan procedures for periodontal ligament injuries after dentoalveolar trauma. A 5-item self-applied questionnaire was prepared with questions referring to the professional profile of the interviewees and to the treatment plan they would propose for periodontal ligament injuries secondary to dentoalveolar trauma. The questionnaires were filled out by 693 dentists attending the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Society for Dental Research, and the data obtained were subjected to descriptive analysis. Either the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was applied to assess associations among variables, at a 5% level of significance. The results revealed that dentists experienced difficulty in establishing a treatment plan for subluxation, and for extrusive, lateral and intrusive luxations. In general, holding a dental specialty degree had no influence on the knowledge about treatment plan procedures for the most severe injuries. It could be concluded that the dentists participating in this study, whether specialists or not, did not have sufficient knowledge to treat most of the periodontal ligament injuries resulting from dentoalveolar trauma adequately.
Resumo em Inglês:The cleaning capacity of Hero 642 nickel-titanium files, complemented by the Hero Apical instruments in flattened roots, was determined by histological analysis, considering the area of action of the instruments on the coronal walls and the presence of remaining debris. Twenty-four single-canal, human mandibular incisors were divided into three groups and prepared as follows: GI, instrumented with Hero 642 NiTi files 30/.06, 25/.06, 20/.06, 25/.06, and 30/.06; GII, instrumented as GI followed by Hero Apical size 30/.06; GIII, instrumented as GI followed by Hero Apical sizes 30/.06 and 30/.08, then returning to 30/.06 with pendulum movements. The apical thirds were prepared for histological processing, analyzed at 40× magnification and the images were examined morphometrically. Statistical analysis showed that GIII presented the best results for removing debris (5.22% ± 4.13), with more contact between the instruments and the root canal walls (19.31% ± 0.15). This differed statistically from GI (14.04% ± 4.96 debris removal, with 42.96% ± 7.11 instrument contact) and GII (12.62% ± 5.76 debris removal, with 35.01% ± 0.15 instrument contact). Root canal preparation with Hero 642, complemented by Hero Apical instruments (30/.06 and 30/.08, then re-instrumented with Hero Apical 30/.06 using pendulum movements), was more efficient for debris removal and allowed more contact of the instruments with the root canal walls. GII presented the worst results.
Resumo em Inglês:The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dental trauma and associated factors among a sample of patients with severe cerebral palsy. The sample was made up of 120 individuals equally divided into two groups. The group with cerebral palsy was made up of 60 patients diagnosed with the spastic form of the disease. The control group was made up of 60 individuals with no mental impairment. Questionnaires were used to collect information on individual, socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics. Dental trauma was assessed based on the clinical chart of each participant, on a questionnaire and on a clinical evaluation to determine past injuries. Mouth mirrors and millimeter periodontal probes (Community Periodontal Index probe) were used to measure overjet. Lip seal and breathing type were determined during the clinical exams and interviews. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p < 0.05) and multivariate logistic regression (forward stepwise procedure). The prevalence of dental trauma was greater among individuals with cerebral palsy (18%) than in the control group (5%), with the difference achieving statistical significance (p = 0.023). Individuals with lip incompetence had a greater chance of exhibiting dental trauma (OR [CI 95%] = 3.81 [1.19-12.24]). The prevalence of dental trauma among individuals with cerebral palsy was high. A lack of lip seal was identified as a factor directly associated to this prevalence.
Resumo em Inglês:To achieve proper recontouring of anterior and posterior teeth, to obtain optimal morphology during enamel stripping, it is important to be aware of dental anatomy. This study aimed at evaluating crown dimensions and proximal enamel thickness in a sample of 40 extracted sound, human, mandibular, second bicuspids (20 right and 20 left). Mesiodistal, cervico-occlusal and buccolingual crown dimensions were measured using a digital caliper, accurate to 0.01 mm. Teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and cut along their long axes through the proximal surfaces to obtain 0.7 mm-thick central sections. Enamel thickness on the cut sections was measured using a perfilometer. Comparative analyses were carried out using the Student's-t test (α= 5%). The mean mesiodistal crown widths for right and left teeth were 7.79 mm (± 0.47) and 7.70 mm (± 0.51), respectively. Mean cervico-occlusal heights ranged from 8.31 mm (± 0.75) on the right to 8.38 mm (± 0.85) on the left teeth. The mean values for the buccolingual dimension were 8.67 mm (± 0.70) on the right and 8.65 mm (± 0.54) on the left teeth. The mean enamel thickness on the mesial surfaces ranged from 1.35 mm (± 0.22) to 1.40 mm (± 0.17), on the left and right sides, respectively. On the distal surfaces, the corresponding values were 1.44 mm (± 0.21) and 1.46 mm (± 0.12). No significant differences were found between measurements for right and left teeth. However, enamel thickness was significantly greater on the distal surfaces, compared with the mesial surfaces.
Resumo em Inglês:The aim of this study was to investigate the association between bottle feeding and prevalence rates of increased overjet and Class 2 primary canine relationship. The sample consisted of 911 children (461 boys, 450 girls) aged 3 (13.9%), 4 (40.8%), 5 (34%) and 6 (11.3%) years, with complete primary dentition. Information about nutritive and nonnutritive (pacifier and/or digit) sucking habits was collected through questionnaires. Three calibrated dentists (κ: 0.9-1.0 and Rs > 0.90) performed the clinical assessments. The children were divided into four groups: G1 - not bottle-fed; G2 - exclusively bottle-fed; G3 - breast- and bottle-fed, bottle feeding ceased before 3 years of age; and G4 - breast- and bottle-fed, bottle feeding ceased between 3 and 4 years of age. Associations between nutritive and nonnutritive sucking behaviors and the malocclusions studied were analyzed by multiple binary logistic regression (α= 0.05). The frequencies of increased overjet were: 25.3% (G1), 38.8% (G2), 39.2% (G3) and 47.8% (G4). The percentages of Class 2 canine relationship were: 27.9% (G1), 48.8% (G2), 43.4% (G3) and 43% (G4). No significant effect of bottle feeding was found. The chances of diagnosing increased overjet (O.R. = 4.42, p < 0.001) and Class 2 canine relationship (O.R. = 4.02, p < 0.001) were greater for children with pacifier and/or digit-sucking habits, compared to those without a history of nonnutritive sucking behavior. It may be suggested that bottle feeding alone is not directly associated with higher prevalence rates of increased overjet and Class 2 canine relationship in the primary dentition.
Resumo em Inglês:Two antimicrobial agents, a fixed combination of essential oils (EOs) and 0.07% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) are found in commercially available mouthrinses, Listerine® Antiseptic and Crest® Pro HealthTM, respectively. Both mouthrinses have been shown to control dental plaque and gingivitis in short and longer term studies. The aim of this study was to determine the comparative effectiveness of these two mouthrinses using a 2-week experimental gingivitis model. Qualified subjects were randomly assigned to one of three mouthrinse groups: a fixed combination of EOs, 0.07% CPC, or negative control (C) rinse. Following baseline clinical assessments and a dental prophylaxis, subjects began a two-week period in which they rinsed twice daily with their assigned rinse and abstained from any mechanical oral hygiene procedures or other oral care products. Subjects were reassessed at the end of the two-week period. One hundred and forty-seven subjects were randomized and 142 completed this study. After two weeks use, the EOs rinse was superior (p < 0.011) to the CPC rinse in inhibiting the development of gingivitis, plaque, and bleeding, with 9.4% and 6.6% reductions compared to CPC for gingivitis and plaque, respectively. Both rinses were superior to the negative control rinse (p < 0.001). This study demonstrates that the essential oil-containing mouthrinse has superior antiplaque/antigingivitis effectiveness compared to the 0.07% CPC-containing mouthrinse without mechanical oral hygiene influence.
Resumo em Inglês:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fracture strength of roots that were prosthetically restored with metallic posts with or without any remaining coronal structure and with different finish lines. Sixty bovine incisors were sectioned below the cementoenamel junction, endodontically treated, and randomly divided into six experimental groups (n = 10) containing teeth with or without any remaining coronal structure, and with a beveled shoulder, a bevel, or a shoulder finish line design. The metallic posts were luted with dual-cured resin cement. The cores were made with composite resin, and metal crowns were cemented with zinc phosphate cement. The specimens were subjected to a tangential compressive load (135º angle) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure, using a universal testing machine. The fracture strength data were analyzed using the ANOVA and LSMeans (least square means) tests (α= 0.05). The data indicated that the teeth with 2 mm of remaining coronal structure showed the highest fracture strength values when compared with the teeth without any remaining structure (p < 0.05). As to the different finish line designs, the highest fracture strength values were obtained for the beveled shoulder, followed by the bevel and then by the shoulder designs (p < 0.05). It may be concluded that, to increase fracture strength, a beveled shoulder and 2 mm of remaining coronal structure are the ideal conditions.
Resumo em Inglês:The aim of this study was to evaluate whether patients with hyposalivation present damaged mastication or mandibular movements during speech. Forty subjects composed 2 groups: control and hyposalivation. Masticatory performance was assessed with a silicon-based artificial material and a 10-sieve method. Mandibular movements during speech were observed with a 3D jaw-tracking device. Data were analyzed with Student's t-test or the Mann-Whitney method (P < 0.05). The masticatory performance (mm) of control and hyposalivation were 4.40 ± 0.62 and 4.74 ± 1.34, respectively. Outcomes for speech movements (mm) were as follows: maximum vertical opening amplitude (10.8 ± 4.2; 9.9 ± 2.7) and displacements to the right (1.0 ± 0.8; 0.5 ± 0.6), left (1.8 ± 1.4; 2.3 ± 1.2), or anterior-posterior (2.8 ± 1.1; 2.9 ± 1.0) for control and hyposalivation, respectively. No statistical difference was found between groups for any variable. The results indicated that hyposalivation did not affect masticatory performance or mandibular movements during speech.
Resumo em Inglês:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dimensional accuracy of different materials used in the confection of dies. Two stainless steel standard models were confected. One of the models, which was 2 mm larger than the other model, was used to provide a uniform relief for the two-step putty-wash impression technique. Thirty impressions were obtained using a polyvinyl siloxane impression material and randomly divided into three groups (n = 10) according to the type of casting material: type IV dental stone, commercially available epoxy resin (Tri-Epoxy), and industrial epoxy resin (Sikadur). After the setting/polymerization of the casting material, the dimensional stability was measured in terms of the height, diameter of the base and diameter of the top from the obtained dies and from the standard metal model using a profile projector. Results were analyzed by ANOVA and Dunnet test (α = 0.05). In the height values, no significant difference was observed between the groups, except for Sikadur casts, which showed lower mean values. The Tri-Epoxi group showed statistically lower mean base diameter values, compared with the other groups, and both epoxy resin groups showed statistically lower mean top diameter values, compared with that for the type IV dental stone group. We concluded that type IV gypsum and the commercially available epoxy resin showed similar behavior in most areas. The industrial epoxy resin did not show the same characteristics, although the diameter of the base obtained with it was similar to that obtained with type IV dental stone.
Resumo em Inglês:There are many studies that compare the accuracy of multislice (MSCT) and cone beam (CBCT) computed tomography for evaluations in the maxillofacial region. However, further studies comparing both acquisition techniques for the evaluation of simulated mandibular bone lesions are needed. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of MSCT and CBCT in the diagnosis of simulated mandibular bone lesions by means of cross sectional images and axial/MPR slices. Lesions with different dimensions, shape and locularity were produced in 15 dry mandibles. The images were obtained following the cross sectional and axial/MPR (Multiplanar Reconstruction) imaging protocols and were interpreted independently. CBCT and MSCT showed similar results in depicting the percentage of cortical bone involvement, with great sensitivity and specificity (p < 0.005). There were no significant intra- or inter-examiner differences between axial/MPR images and cross sectional images with regard to sensitivity and specificity. CBCT showed results similar to those of MSCT for the identification of the number of simulated bone lesions. Cross sectional slices and axial/MPR images presented high accuracy, proving useful for bone lesion diagnosis.
Resumo em Inglês:Composite resins might be susceptible to degradation and staining when in contact with some foods and drinks. This study evaluated color alteration and changes in microhardness of a microhybrid composite after immersion in different colored foods and determined whether there was a correlation between these two variables. Eighty composite disks were randomly divided into 8 experimental groups (n = 10): kept dry; deionized water; orange juice; passion fruit juice; grape juice; ketchup; mustard and soy sauce. The disks were individually immersed in their respective test substance at 37 ºC, for a period of 28 days. Superficial analysis of the disk specimens was performed by taking microhardness measurements (Vickers, 50 g load for 45 seconds) and color alterations were determined with a spectrophotometer (CINTRA 10- using a CIEL*a*b* system, 400-700 nm wavelength, illuminant d65 and standard observer of 2º) at the following times: baseline (before immersion), 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05). Both variables were also submitted to Pearson's correlation test (p < 0.05). The passion fruit group underwent the greatest microhardness change, while the mustard group suffered the greatest color alteration. Significant positive correlation was found between the two variables for the groups deionized water, grape juice, soy sauce and ketchup. Not all color alteration could be associated with surface degradation.