Abstract in English:Toothpaste can be used as a vehicle for substances to improve the oral health of individuals and populations. Therefore, it should be recommended based on the best scientific evidence available, and not on the opinion of authorities or specialists. Fluoride is the most important therapeutic substance used in toothpastes, adding to the effect of mechanical toothbrushing on dental caries control. The use of fluoride toothpaste to reduce caries in children and adults is strongly based on evidence, and is dependent on the concentration (minimum of 1000 ppm F) and frequency of fluoride toothpaste use (2'/day or higher). The risk of dental fluorosis due to toothpaste ingestion by children has been overestimated, since there is no evidence that: 1) fluoride toothpaste use should be postponed until the age of 3-4 or older, 2) low-fluoride toothpaste avoids fluorosis and 3) fluorosis has a detrimental effect on the quality of life of individuals exposed to fluoridated water and toothpaste. Among other therapeutic substances used in toothpastes, there is evidence that triclosan/copolymer reduce dental biofilm, gingivitis, periodontitis, calculus and halitosis, and that toothpastes containing stannous fluoride reduce biofilm and gingivitis.
Abstract in English:This article presents general aspects of risk factors and particularities of the management of individuals with oral clefts (OCs). A practical manual of prevention and management of this congenital defect was prepared based on a review of the literature and using data from Brazilian multicenter studies. Since OCs require efforts from all levels of healthcare, the data herein presented permits appropriate follow-up for affected individuals and their families. Also, the recognition of risk factors is crucial for planning and implementing preventive measures at the individual and population levels.
Abstract in English:The anticaries effect of fluoride (F) toothpaste containing 1100 µg F/g in reducing enamel demineralization is well established, but its effect on dentine has not been extensively studied. Furthermore, it has been shown that toothpaste containing a high F concentration is necessary to remineralize root dentine lesions, suggesting that a 1100 µg F/g concentration might not be high enough to reduce root dentine demineralization, particularly when dentine is subjected to a high cariogenic challenge. Thus, the aim of this pilot study was to evaluate in situ the effect of F toothpaste, at a concentration of 1100 µg F/g, on dentine demineralization. In a crossover and double-blind study, conducted in two phases of 14 days, six volunteers wore a palatal appliance containing four slabs of bovine root dentine whose surface hardness (SH) was previously determined and to which a 10% sucrose solution was applied extra-orally 8×/day. Volunteers used a non-F toothpaste (negative control) or F toothpaste (1100 µg F/g, NaF/SiO2) three times a day. On the 10th and 14th days of each phase, two slabs were collected and SH was determined again. Dentine demineralization was assessed as percentage of SH loss (%SHL). The effect of toothpaste was significant, showing lower %SHL for the F toothpaste group (42.0 ± 9.7) compared to the non-F group (62.0 ± 6.4; p < 0.0001), but the effect of time was not significant (p > 0.05). This pilot study suggests that F toothpaste at 1100 µg F/g is able to decrease dentine caries even under a high cariogenic challenge of biofilm accumulation and sugar exposure.
Abstract in English:Dental erosion is the loss of dental hard tissues caused by non-bacterial acids. Due to acid contact, the tooth surface becomes softened and more prone to abrasion from toothbrushing. Dentifrices containing different active agents may be helpful in allowing rehardening or in increasing surface resistance to further acidic or mechanical impacts. However, dentifrices are applied together with brushing and, depending on how and when toothbrushing is performed, as well as the type of dentifrice and toothbrush used, may increase wear. This review focuses on the potential harmful and helpful effects associated with the use of dentifrices with regard to erosive wear. While active ingredients like fluorides or agents with special anti-erosive properties were shown to offer some degree of protection against erosion and combined erosion/abrasion, the abrasive effects of dentifrices may increase the surface loss of eroded teeth. However, most evidence to date comes from in vitro and in situ studies, so clinical trials are necessary for a better understanding of the complex interaction of active ingredients and abrasives and their effects on erosive tooth wear.
Abstract in English:Over the last decade, there has been growing interest in diagnosing non-cavitated lesions in epidemiological studies involving large numbers of preschool children, schoolchildren and young adults. In this context, assessment of lesions characteristics indicating whether or not there is ongoing mineral loss is also considered relevant. The reasoning sustained by these studies is that diagnosis of the caries process limited to the cavitated level is no longer in accordance with current state-of-the-art knowledge in cariology. This paper highlights one topic of the lecture entitled "Caries Process: Evolving Evidence and Understanding," presented at the 18th Congress of the Brazilian Association for Oral Health Promotion (Associação Brasileira de Odontologia de Promoção de Saúde - ABOPREV) in April 2013. In the framework of epidemiological studies, the interest in diagnosing active and inactive non-cavitated lesions was elucidated. However, relevant questions associated with the diagnosis of non-cavitated lesions that might raise concerns among researchers and health administrators were not addressed. The present paper aims to bring these questions into discussion. The contribution of this discussion in terms of developing the understanding of caries decline is analyzed by using data from a caries trends study of Brazilian preschool children residing in the Federal District of Brazil as an example. The inclusion of active and inactive non-cavitated lesions in the diagnosis of the caries process allowed us to demonstrate that, in Brazilian 1- to 5-year-old children, caries prevalence decreased significantly from 1996 to 2006, simultaneously with a reduction in the rate of caries progression.
Abstract in English:The aim of this study is to share the experience of implementing a network for the diagnosis of oral cancer by integrating primary, secondary, and tertiary oral health care centers and identifying the possible weaknesses of the process. The study also investigated the risks of exposure to the main risk factors for oral and lip cancer and their most common potentially malignant lesions (PML). A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted in two different regions, with patients seen at a primary health care facility from August 2010 to July 2011. Patients with oral lesions were referred to dental specialty centers for biopsy. Patients with PML were treated in dental specialty centers, and patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were referred to tertiary health care facilities. The dentists' knowledge of PML and SCC was assessed by an objective questionnaire. A total of 3,965 individuals were examined, 296 lesions were found, and 73 biopsies were performed, of which 13.7% were diagnosed as PML and 9.6% as SCC. Tobacco use and sunlight exposure were associated with SCC (85.7%) and PML (80%), respectively. In total, 55 dentists were assessed. The lesions most commonly recognized as PML were leukoplakia (74%), erythroplakia (57%), and actinic cheilosis (56%). Most dentists (74%) felt incapable of performing biopsies, most likely because of an anxiety towards oral cancer, and 57% had never performed one. The integration of primary and secondary health care enables the diagnosis of PML and SCC and establishes a diagnosis network. However, the inability of most primary care dentists to identify PML and perform biopsies is a weakness of the diagnostic process.
Abstract in English:This text begins by reflecting on health promotion and equity/ inequity. In health, inequity is understood as a political concept that has moral implications and that is committed to social justice. A discussion follows on some issues regarding the risk and prevention of diseases, still considered a hegemonic practice, and lack of experience in oral health-care, bearing in mind the concept of vulnerability. The risk is probabilistic and involves the mathematical chances of acquiring a disease in a certain group, whereas vulnerability addresses the potential of acquiring or not acquiring a disease in a certain environment. The need for systematic studies on determinants is stressed, with the ultimate goal of improving health and reducing inequities, and with the concern and political intention of including health equity in governmental policies.
Abstract in English:Different reasons can contribute to classifying dental prosthesis wearers as high-risk individuals in relation to dental biofilm accumulation. These include a past history of oral disease, age and additional retentive areas. Other common complaints include inflammation and halitosis. Moreover, prosthesis replacement and prosthetic pillar loss are generally associated with caries and periodontal disease recurrence. Therefore, the present study undertook to make a critical review of the literature, aiming at discussing the main aspects related to chemical agent prescriptions for dental prosthesis wearers. Most of the articles were selected based on relevance, methods and availability in regard to the specific subject under investigation, without considering publication year limitations. Different types of prostheses and their impact on teeth and other oral tissues were reported. It was demonstrated that there is greater biofilm buildup and increased inflammatory levels in the presence of different types of prostheses, suggesting that additional measures are required both on population-wide and individual levels in order to control these factors. Mechanical control consists of a combination of manual or electric toothbrush and toothpaste, as well as specific devices for interdental cleaning. Although many chemical agents exhibit antimicrobial benefits when used for prosthesis disinfection, only a few agents can be used safely without causing damage. Regarding the selection of antiseptics by the overall population, chlorhexidine is the most indicated in the short term and in sporadic cases. The most indicated adjuncts to overcome the deficiencies and limitations of daily mechanical biofilm control are products containing essential oils as active ingredients.
Abstract in English:Great possibilities for oral rehabilitation emerged as a result of scientific consolidation, as well as a large number of dental implant applications. Along with implants appeared diseases such as mucositis and peri-implantitis, requiring management through several strategies applied at different stages. Biofilm accumulation is associated with clinical signs manifest by both tooth and implant inflammation. With this in mind, regular and complete biofilm elimination becomes essential for disease prevention and host protection. Chemical control of biofilms, as an adjuvant to mechanical oral hygiene, is fully justified by its simplicity and efficacy proven by studies based on clinical evidence. The purpose of this review was to present a consensus regarding the importance of antimicrobial mouthrinse use as an auxiliary method in chemical peri-implant biofilm control. The active ingredients of the several available mouthrinses include bis-biguanide, essential oils, phenols, quaternary ammonium compounds, oxygenating compounds, chlorine derivatives, plant extracts, fluorides, antibiotics and antimicrobial agent combinations. It was concluded that there is strong clinical evidence that at least two mouthrinses have scientifically proven efficacy against different oral biofilms, i.e., chlorhexidine digluconate and essential oils; however, 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate presents a number of unwanted side effects and should be prescribed with caution. Chemical agents seem beneficial in controlling peri-implant inflammation, although they require further investigation. We recommend a scientifically proven antiseptic, with significant short and long term efficacy and with no unwanted side effects, for the prevention and/or treatment of peri-implant disease.
Abstract in English:Properly performed daily mechanical biofilm control is the most important prevention strategy for periodontal diseases. However, proper mechanical biofilm control is not performed effectively by the majority of the population, mainly due to lack of motivation and of manual dexterity. Local biofilm retention factors may aggravate home oral hygiene quality. For this reason, patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances comprise a group that may benefit from the daily use of mouthwashes. The purpose of this review was to perform a systematic search in the literature on antiseptics used to control supragingival biofilm and gingivitis in orthodontic patients. Six studies investigating the effect of chlorhexidine and 5 studies evaluating the effect of the daily use of antiseptics were found. Chlorhexidine showed better results in reducing plaque and gingivitis. However, because of its adverse effects after continuous use, it should not be indicated for long-term periods. Among the agents considered for daily use, the fixed combination of essential oils was the only one evaluated in a clinical trial, in which a comparative group presented a statistically significant clinical impact. There is no direct evidence supporting the indication of antiseptic agents for orthodontic patients other than chlorhexidine and essential oils. It can be concluded that, for patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, chlorhexidine should be considered for treating acute gingival inflammation, whereas essential oils should be indicated for long-term daily use in controlling supragingival biofilm.