Abstract in English:Abstract This study analyzed the effect of prior application of copaiba oil (CO) emulsions as a dentin cleaning substance on microleakage and microtensile adhesive strength. Twenty-five premolars and sixty-four molars were used for microleakage and microtensile assays. For the microleakage assays, specimens with standard class V cavities were divided (n = 5), according to the tested CO emulsions: CO10%X, CO10%Y, and CO10%Z, as well as chlorhexidine 2% (CHX) and distilled water (DW), as positive and negative controls, respectively. Restorations were performed using the Adper Single Bond® and/or Clearfil SE Bond® systems. Cervical, occlusal, distal and mesial sections were assessed for tracer penetration degree at the composite/tooth interface. For the microtensile assay, healthy molars were divided into sixteen groups, in which artificial caries were induced in half of the groups. Dentin surfaces were treated with CO10%X and CO10%Y, CHX and DW. Microtensile bond strength was measured by fixing each sample to the plate of a universal testing machine operated at a speed of 0.5 mm/minute until failure. Dentin treated with CO10%X showed a lower infiltration rate than dentin treated with the other CO emulsions, CHX2% and DW. According to the microtensile assay, both healthy and affected dentin treated with CO10%X and Adper Single Bond® adhesive system presented higher adhesive strength. CO emulsion, used as a dentin biomodifier, interfered positively in microleakage and improved adhesive strength after acid etching in the Adper Single Bond® adhesive system, or before applying the Clearfil SE Bond® self-etching system.
Abstract in English:Abstract This retrospective study evaluated facial profile pleasantness determined by two protocols of Class II treatment. The sample comprised facial profile silhouettes obtained retrospectively from the pretreatment (T1) and posttreatment (T2) cephalograms of 60 patients (42 males and 18 females) divided into two groups. One group of 30 patients (mean age of 12.84 years) was treated with the extraction of maxillary first premolars (mean treatment time of 2.7 years), and the other group of 30 patients (mean age of 12.81 years) was treated with a mandibular advancement appliance (Forsus) (mean treatment time of 2.49 years). The facial profile silhouettes (T1 and T2) were randomly distributed in an album containing one patient per sheet. The examiners consisted of 60 orthodontists and 60 lay individuals, who analyzed the profiles in regard to facial pleasantness, using the Likert scale. A comparison between stages T1 and T2 of the two treatment protocols and between the examiners was performed by mixed-design analysis of variance at a significance level of 5%. The results demonstrated a significant difference between T1 and T2 (greater scores for T2 compared to T1), and between lay individuals and orthodontists (orthodontists assigned higher scores), but with no significant difference between the treatment protocols. Both protocols produced positive effects on the facial profile esthetics, from the standpoint of lay individuals and orthodontists.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the structural, morphological and mechanical properties of two different lithium disilicate glass-reinforced ceramics for CAD-CAM systems (IPS e.max CAD and Rosetta SM). Five methodologies were used for both ceramics: microstructure (n = 2) was analyzed using x-ray diffraction (XRD); morphological properties (n = 2) were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with and without hydrofluoric etching; porosity (n = 3) was assessed using 3D micro-computed tomography (micro-CT); flexural strength was measured (n =1 0) using the three-point bending test; and bond strength was determined with self-adhesive resin cement (n = 10), using a microshear bond test. After performing all the tests, the data were analyzed using t-Student test and two-way ANOVA. All the tests used a significance level of α = 0.05. High peak positions corresponding to standard lithium metasilicate and lithium disilicate with similar intensities were observed for both ceramics in the XRD analysis. Morphological analysis showed that the crystalline structure of the two ceramics studied showed no statistical difference after acid etching. Additionally, no significant differences were recorded in the number or size of the pores for the ceramics evaluated. Moreover, no differences in flexural strength were found for the ceramic materials tested, or in the bond strength to ceramic substrates for the resin cements. Based on the study results, no significant differences were found between the two CAD-CAM lithium disilicate glass-reinforced ceramics tested, since they presented similar crystalline structures with comparable intensities, and similar total porosity, flexural strength and bond strength.
Abstract in English:Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation from high energy X-ray on fluoride release, surface roughness, flexural strength, and surface chemical composition of the materials. The study groups comprised five different restorative materials: Beautifil II, GCP Glass Fill, Amalgomer CR, Zirconomer, and Fuji IX GP. Twenty disk-shaped specimens (8x2 mm) for fluoride release and 20 bar-shaped specimens (25 x 2x 2 mm) for flexural strength were prepared from each material. Each material group was divided into two subgroups: irradiated (IR) and non-irradiated (Non-IR). The specimens from IR groups were irradiated with 1.8 Gy/day for 39 days (total IR = 70.2 Gy). The amount of fluoride released into deionized water was measured using a fluoride ion-selective electrode and ion analyzer after 24 hours and on days 2, 3, 7, 15, 21, 28, 35, and 39 (n = 10). The flexural strength was evaluated using the three-point bending test (n = 10). After the period of measurement of fluoride release, seven specimens (n = 7) from each group were randomly selected to evaluate surface roughness using AFM and one specimen was randomly selected for the SEM and EDS analyses. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p = 0.05). The irradiation significantly increased fluoride release and surface roughness for Amalgomer CR and Zirconomer groups (p < 0.05). No significant change in flexural strength of the materials was observed after irradiation (p > 0.05). The ionizing radiation altered the amount of fluoride release and surface roughness of only Amalgomer CR and Zirconomer. The effect could be related to the chemical compositions of materials.
Abstract in English:Abstract Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells could be induced into ameloblast-like cells by ameloblasts serum-free conditioned medium (ASF-CM), and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) might be essential during the regulation of this process. The present study investigates the signal transduction that regulates the ameloblastic differentiation of iPS cells induced by ASF-CM. Mouse iPS cells were characterized and then cultured for 14 days in epithelial cell medium (control) or ASF-CM. Bone morphogenetic protein receptor II (BMPR-II) siRNA, inhibitor of Smad1/5 phosphorylation activated by activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) receptors, and inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation were used to treat the iPS cells in combination with ASF-CM. Real-time PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescent staining were used to evaluate the expressions of ameloblast markers ameloblastin, enamelin, and cytokeratin-14. BMPR-II gene and protein levels increased markedly in ASF-CM-treated iPS cells compared with the controls, while the mRNA levels of Bmpr-Ia and Bmpr-Ib were similar between the ASF-CM and control groups. ASF-CM stimulation significantly increased the gene and protein expression of ameloblastin, enamelin and cytokeratin-14, and phosphorylated SMAD1/5, p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2 MAPK compared with the controls. Knockdown of BMPR-II and inhibition of Smad1/5 phosphorylation both could significantly reverse the increased expression of ameloblastin, enamelin, and cytokeratin-14 induced by ASF-CM, while neither inhibition of p38 nor ERK1/2 phosphorylation had significant reversing effects. We conclude that smad1/5 signaling transduction, activated by ALK receptors, regulates the ameloblastic differentiation of iPS cells induced by ameloblast-conditioned medium.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the influence of cyclosporine administration on the repair of critical-sized calvaria defects (CSDs) in rat calvaria filled with diverse biomaterials. Sixty animals were divided into two groups: the control (CTR) group (saline solution) and the cyclosporine (CCP) group (cyclosporine, 10 mg/kg/day). These medications were administered daily by gavage, beginning 15 days before the surgical procedure and lasting until the day the animals were euthanized. A CSD (5 mm Ø) was made in the calvaria of each animal, which was allocated to one of 3 subgroups, according to the biomaterial used to fill the defect: coagulum (COA), deproteinized bovine bone (DBB), or biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics of hydroxyapatite and β-phosphate tricalcium (HA/TCP). Euthanasia of the animals was performed 15 and 60 days after the surgical procedure (n = 5 animals/period/subgroup). Bone repair (formation) assessment was performed through microtomography and histometry, while the analyses of the expression of the BMP2, Osteocalcin, and TGFβ1 proteins were performed using immunohistochemistry. The CSDs not filled with biomaterials demonstrated lower bone formation in the CCP group. At 15 days, less bone formation was observed in the CSDs filled with DBB, a smaller volume of mineralized tissue was observed in the CSDs filled with HA/TCP, and the expression levels of BMP2 and osteocalcin were lower in the CCP group compared to the CTR group. The use of cyclosporine impaired bone repair in CSD, and this effect can be partially explained by the suppression of BMP2 and osteocalcin expression.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic restraint stress (RS) and a high-fat diet (HFD) on the osseointegration of titanium implants in a rat model. After the surgical insertion of titanium implants into the metaphysis of the tibial bone, the rats were randomly divided into four equal groups (n = 8 each): control (CNT), restraint stress (RS), high-fat diet (HFD), and restraint stress plus high fat diet (RS-HFD). CNT: Rats received no further treatment during the 92-day experimental period. RS: Stress was applied to the rats beginning from two days after the implant surgery for one hour per day for the first 30 days, two hours per day for the next 30 days, and three hours per day for the last 30 days. HFD: Rats were fed a HFD for the following 90 days starting two days after surgery. RS-HFD: Rats were fed a HFD and RS was applied to rats for the following 90 days, starting two days after surgery. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were euthanized, and the implants and surrounding bone tissues were removed for histological analysis. Statistical analysis was performed by one way ANOVA and Bonferrroni tests. There were no significant differences in the bone–implant connection levels between the groups (p > 0.05), but in the HFD and RS-HFD groups, the bone filling ratios were found to be lower compared with the controls (p < 0.05) The data analyzed in this study suggest that an HFD with or without chronic RS adversely affected bone tissue in the rats during the 90-day osseointegration period.
Abstract in English:Abstract The sense of coherence (SOC) is a measure of global orientation regarding the ability of individuals to cope with stressful situations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between SOC and quality of life (QoL) and clinical and sociodemographic characteristics among survivors of oral, oropharynx, hypopharynx, or larynx cancer. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 90 cancer patients in follow up at the Santa Maria University Hospital in southern Brazil who had completed conformal 3D radiotherapy at least three months earlier. QoL was assessed using the University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL) questionnaire and SOC was measured using the Brazilian version of the SOC-13 questionnaire. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and the disease were obtained from patients’ charts. Oral clinical conditions were also evaluated. Associations between exploratory variables and mean UW-QOL scores were evaluated through Poisson regression and the results were presented as rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The mean overall UW-QOL score was 67.90 (± 18.71). Moderate and high SOC scores were associated with higher mean UW-QOL scores, that is, individuals with a stronger SOC demonstrated better QoL, (p < 0.05). Regarding the clinical variables, individuals with advanced stage cancer and those with hyposalivation and trismus had poorer QoL (p < 0.05). Patients with a greater SOC reported a better quality of life. Our findings show the importance of focusing on psychosocial factors, which can alleviate the impact caused by the disease and improve the QoL of these patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract Relevant public policies in oral health have been implemented in Brazil since 2004. Changes in the epidemiological status of dental caries are expected, mainly in the child population. This study aimed to assess the dental caries experience and associated factors among 12-year-old children in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted with data obtained from 415 cities, including a total of 26,325 schoolchildren who were included by the double-stage cluster technique, by lot and by systematic sampling. The statistical model included data from the São Paulo Oral Health Survey (SBSP 2015), the Human Development Index (HDI) and the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI). A theoretical-conceptual model categorized the variables into three blocks, namely, contextual (HDI, SVI, region of residence and fluoridation of water), individual (sex and ethnicity) and periodontal conditions (gingival bleeding, dental calculus and the presence of periodontal pockets), for association with the experience of caries (DMFT). Statistically significant associations were verified by hierarchical multivariate logistic (L) and Poisson (P) regression analyses (p < 0.05). The results showed that 57.7% of 12-year-old children had caries experience. Factors that determined a greater prevalence of dental caries in both models were nonwhite ethnicity (ORL = 1.113, ORP = 1.154) and the presence of gingival bleeding (ORL = 1.204, ORP = 1.255). Male children (ORL = 0.920 ORP = 0.859) and higher HDI (ORL = 0.022), ORP = 0.040) were associated with a lower prevalence of dental caries experience. Water fluoridation was associated with a lower DMFT index (ORP = 0.766). Dental caries experience is still associated with social inequalities at different levels. Policymakers should direct interventions towards reducing inequalities and the prevalence of dental caries among 12-year-old children.
Abstract in English:Abstract Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) possess significant chances of malignancy conversion. In order to develop an early diagnostic tool, the present study evaluated the expression of miRNA-21 and 31 as salivary markers. The case-control study was carried out in 36 healthy participants as controls and in 36 patients who were newly diagnosed as OPMD having four different lesions including leucoplakia, oral sub mucous fibrosis (OSMF)궱, oral lichen planus, and (OSMF)궱 with leucoplakia. The samples were also classified as non-dysplastic, or with mild, moderate, and severe dysplasia according to their histopathological reports. The salivary miRNA-21 and 31 expressions were studied using real-time PCR. The statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 22. Salivary miRNA-21 (p-value = 0.02) and 31 (p-value = 0.01) were significantly upregulated in severe dysplasia compared with control. Among the different lesions, leucoplakia had significant upregulation of miRNA-21 and 31. miRNA-21 can be used as a diagnostic marker with specificity of 66% and sensitivity of 69%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.820 for miRNA-21 and 0.5 for miRNA-31, which proved that miRNA-21 is a better diagnostic marker than miRNA-31 for OPMD.
Abstract in English:Abstract Lipoproteins are important bacterial immunostimulating molecules capable of inducing receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANKL) and osteoclast formation in vitro and in vivo . Although these molecules are present in periodontopathogenic bacteria, their role in periodontitis is not known. In this study, we used Pam2CSK4 (PAM2), a synthetic molecule that mimics bacterial lipoprotein, to investigate the effects of lipoproteins on periodontitis in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into three experimental groups: 1) Negative control group: animals received vehicle injection; 2) Positive control group: animals received injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS); 3) PAM2 group: animals received PAM2 injection. All the injections were performed bilaterally every other day into the palatal mucosa between first and second molars. After twenty-four days, the animals were euthanized to assess alveolar bone volume (micro-CT), cellular and extracellular composition in the gingiva (stereometric analysis), and osteoclast numbers (TRAP staining). Treatment with either PAM2 or LPS induced gingival inflammation, as demonstrated by increased infiltration of inflammatory cells and enhanced angiogenesis, associated with a smaller number of fibroblasts and decreased extracellular matrix. Importantly, treatment not only with LPS but also with PAM2 resulted in a larger number of TRAP+ multinucleated osteoclasts and significant loss of alveolar bone. Collectively, our data demonstrate that PAM2 can induce gingival inflammation and bone loss in mice, broadening the avenues of investigation into the role of lipoproteins in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study evaluated the effect of a cyclopentenone-type PG, 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-PG J2 (15d-PGJ2), and lectin (ScLL) on the viability of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs), and on IL-6 and TGFβ-1 release by these fibroblasts, stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). HGFs were stimulated with LPS 10 μg/ml and treated with 15d-PGJ2 1 and 2 μg/ml, and ScLL 2 and 5 μg/ml, for 1 and 3h, and then evaluated for viability by MTT assay. Supernatant was collected to detect IL-6 and TGFβ-1 release, by ELISA. Positive control was cells kept in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium, and negative control was those kept in LPS. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Dunnett’s test (α = 0.05). No significant difference was found in viability among experimental groups at 1h (p > 0.05). Percentage of ScLL 5 µg/ml viable cells was similar to that of positive control at evaluated periods (p > 0.05), whereas the other groups had lower levels than the positive control (p < 0.05). IL-6 release was statistically higher for ScLL 5 μg/ml and 15d-PGJ2 2 µg/ml at 1h, compared with the other treated groups and positive control (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found among the groups at 3h (p > 0.05), except for ScLL 2 µg/ml and 15d-PGJ2 1 µg/ml, which showed lower IL-6 release compared with that of negative control (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found among the groups for TGFβ-1 release (p > 0.05). Results indicated that ScLL 5 μg/ml did not interfere in viability, and ScLL 2 µg/ml and 15d-PGJ2 1 µg/ml demonstrated reduced IL-6 release. Tested substances had no effect on TGFβ-1 release.
Abstract in English:Abstract Although dental implants and bone regenerative procedures are important approaches for the reestablishment of esthetics and function in young patients with a history of generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP), no predictable outcomes have been reported, and the host osteo-immunoinflammatory response may play a relevant role in this context. In view of the lack of molecular investigations into the bone tissue condition of young patients with periodontitis, the aim of this study was to evaluate the gene expression of bone-related factors in this population. Bone biopsies were obtained from the posterior mandible in 16 individuals previously diagnosed with GAP and on periodontal support therapy and from 17 periodontally healthy (PH) patients. The gene expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteocalcin (OC), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and type I collagen (COL-I), important biomarkers of bone turnover, was evaluated by qRT-PCR. Lower TGF-β and OPG mRNA levels were observed in GAP patients compared to PH individuals (p ≤ 0.05). There were no between-group differences in levels of TNF-α, BSP, RANKL, OC, or COL-I mRNA (p>0.05). In young adults, a history of periodontal disease can negatively modulate the gene expression of important bone-related factors in alveolar bone tissue. These molecular outcomes may contribute to the future development of therapeutic approaches to benefit bone healing in young patients with history of periodontitis via modulation of osteo-immuno-inflammatory biomarkers.
Abstract in English:Abstract Telehealth has been applied in the Unified Health System (SUS) as a tool for qualifying professionals and improving the healthcare provided to the population served by the system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of teleconsultations on the qualifications of the clinical approach of the oral health teams involved in primary health care (PHC) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul under the Telehealth Brazil Networks Programme. The sample population of the study was composed of 285 dentists and 132 oral health assistants belonging to the Family Health Teams. A chi-square test was used to investigate possible associations between the absolute number of teleconsultations performed and several independent variables, namely, gender, age, dental specialty, time since graduation, time working in the Family Health Strategy (FHS), employment status, type of training institution, familiarity with information technology, and work satisfaction at the health facility. The level of significance was p < 0.05. Use of the oral health teleconsultation service led to a reduction of more than 45% in the number of referrals to other levels of care. However, no significant association was found between the number of teleconsultations and the independent variables analysed. The use of teleconsultations proved to be a powerful tool for professional training, for increasing the effectiveness of PHC, and for improving the oral healthcare provided.
Abstract in English:Abstract We sought to compare the characteristics and clinical significance of neutrophil extracellular traps in gingival samples from patients with periodontitis and those with gingivitis. The clinical indexes of gingival samples from patients with periodontitis and gingivitis were measured; the expression of TNF-alpha and IL-8 was measured by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR; and the expression of TLR-8 and MMP-9 was measured by western blotting assays. Chemotaxis, phagocytosis and phagocytic activity of neutrophils were measured. Compared with the healthy group, the expression of TNF-α and IL-8 in the periodontitis group and the gingivitis group increased significantly (p < 0.05), and TNF-α in the gingivitis group was significantly lower than that in the healthy group (p < 0.05). The expression of IL-8 in the periodontitis group was significantly higher than that in the periodontitis group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the expression of TLR-8 and MMP-9 in the periodontitis group was different from that in the gingivitis group and the healthy group, and the expression of TLR-8 and MMP-9 in the gingivitis group was significantly different from that in the healthy group (p < 0.05). In addition, the neutrophil mobility index in healthy people was 3.02 ± 0.53, that in the periodontitis group was 2.21 ± 0.13, and that in the gingivitis group was 2.31 ± 0.12. In conclusion, the chemotaxis of neutrophils in gingival samples of patients with periodontitis and gingivitis was decreased, the phagocytotic ability and activity of neutrophils were reduced, and the release of the extracellular trap-releasing inducible factors TNF-alpha and IL-8 also declined.
Abstract in English:Abstract Horizontal bone loss after tooth extraction is a common finding that demands bone reconstruction in various cases. The aim of this study was to assess the horizontal alveolar status in partially and completely edentulous patients using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). In total, 1516 CBCT scans of 1404 adult patients were analyzed. Assessment of the images was performed in accordance with the previously published horizontal alveolar change (HAC) classification, which categorizes horizontal bone defects into four classes: HAC 1, HAC 2, HAC 3 and HAC 4 (from the least severe to the most severe condition). Analysis of 1048 scans from partially edentulous patients presented a distribution of 63.55%, 22.14%, 13.36% and 0.95% in HAC 1, HAC 2, HAC 3 and HAC 4, respectively. Analysis of 468 scans from completely edentulous patient images presented a distribution of 19.87%, 28.63%, 41.67% and 9.83% in HAC 1, HAC 2, HAC 3 and HAC 4, respectively. Based on these results, as in HAC 4, no cancellous bone was found between the cortical buccal and lingual/palatal bone plates, it seems reasonable to state that the absence of cancellous bone is higher in completely edentulous patients than in partially edentulous patients. Therefore, the absence of cancellous bone seems to be higher in completely edentulous than in partially edentulous patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract Prevention and health promotion are considered important strategies to control oral diseases. Dental caries is preventable disease and remains the most common chronic disease that affects mainly low income children and still considered the main cause of tooth loss in adulthood in Brazil. The aim of this study is to present a System Dynamics model (SDM) specifically developed with the Stella Architect software to estimate the cost and clinical hours required to control the evolution of dental caries in preschool children in Maringá, Brazil. Two main strategies to control caries were considered in the model: the application of fluoride varnish on teeth presenting white spots, and the use of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) in cavitated carious lesions without pulp involvement. The parameters used in the model were: number of people covered by a local oral health team = 4,000; number of children up to 5 years = 7% of the population; children’s decayed, missing, filled teeth (dmft) index = 2.4; time/cost of 4 applications of fluoride varnish = 5 minutes/US$ 0.716; and time/cost of each ART restoration = 15 minutes/US$ 1.475. The SDM generated an estimated total cost of US$698.00, and a total of 112 clinical hours to treat the population in question. The use of the SDM presented here has the potential to assist decision making by measuring the material and human resources required to prevent and control dental caries at an early age.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentration, etching time, and application of phosphoric acid (PA) followed by neutralization with sodium bicarbonate on the bond strength between a feldspar ceramic and resin cement. Thus, 80 blocks (10 x 12 x 2 mm) of glass ceramic (VM - Vita Mark II - Vita Zahnfabrik) were made and randomly assigned to eight groups (n = 10) according to the factors: HF concentration (5 and 10%), etching time (60 and 120 s), and use of phosphoric acid (PA) (with and without). According to the experimental group, 37% PA (Condac, FGM) was applied after HF etching for 60s. Afterwards, samples were immersed in sodium bicarbonate for 1 min then in an ultrasonic bath in distilled water (5 min) for cleaning. After surface bonding treatment, cylinders (Ø = 2 mm; h = 2 mm) of dual resin cement (AllCem / FGM) were made in the center of each block. The samples were then stored in water (37ºC) for 90 days and submitted to the shear bond test (50 KgF, 1 mm/min). Failure analysis was performed by stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy. Data (MPa) were analyzed with 3-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Only the factor “HF concentration” was significant (p = 0.02). Most failures were of cohesive in ceramic (40%) and mixed types (42.5%). The 10% HF resulted in higher shear bond strength value than the 5% HF. Surface cleaning with phosphoric acid followed by sodium bicarbonate and HF time (60 or 120 seconds) did not influence the resin bond strength to feldspar ceramic.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to verify the oral habits, symptoms, and characteristics of some children aged 8 to 10 years that could be associated with possible sleep bruxism. A cross-sectional study was performed. Questionnaires were sent to parents to obtain information on sex, age, school shift, sleep quality, parents’ perception of children’s behavior, and children’s oral habits (nail biting, object biting, and lip biting), and symptoms such as headache or earache. In addition, parents reported the frequency of sleep bruxism (no day to 7 days a week). Descriptive analysis and multinomial logistic regression were performed and the level of significance was set at 5%. A total of 1,554 parents of children aged 8 to 10 years participated in this study. Possible sleep bruxism was reported as mild for 65.7%, moderate for 25.3%, and severe for 9% of the children. In the adjusted multinomial logistic regression, boys were 79% more likely to have sleep bruxism (OR: 1.79; 95%CI 1.23–2.60) and were 2.06 more times at risk of being in the habit of lip biting (OR: 2.06; 95%CI 1.26–3.37). Children with possible severe sleep bruxism were 61% more likely to develop object biting (OR: 1.61; 95%CI 1.09–2.39), 52% more likely to have headaches (OR: 1.52; 95%CI 1.01–2.28), and 3.29 more times at risk of poor sleep quality (OR: 3.29; 95%CI 2.25–4.82). Based on the report, boys with lip and object biting habits, headaches, and poor sleep quality presented a higher chance of possible severe sleep bruxism.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of Brazilian-Portuguese versions of the Health Literacy in Dentistry (HeLD) scale in a sample of elderly Brazilian participants. HeLD was initially translated into and cross-culturally adapted to the Brazilian Portuguese language. The reliability and validity of HeLD were then assessed in a sample of 535 non-institutionalized older persons who also completed a questionnaire containing sociodemographic and health information. Data were then randomly separated into two sub-datasets, and Confirmatory Factor Analysis was performed through structural equation modelling, with a maximum likelihood estimate to test the fit of the data to the factor structure of the long-and short-form HeLD (HeLD-29 and HeLD-14) versions of the instrument. The models were compared using the Akaike Information Criterion to assess goodness-of-fit and to determine which models were preferred. Internal consistency of HeLD was evaluated using Cronbach´s coefficient α. Both versions of HeLD were observed to demonstrate high internal reliability (Cronbach´s α ≥ 0.87 for all seven subscales), acceptable convergent (estimates of ≥ 0.50 for AVE and ≥ 0.70 for CR) and discriminant validity. However, the goodness-of-fit of the confirmatory factor analysis models demonstrated satisfactory results only for HeLD-14 subsamples (x2/df = 1.8–2.3; CFI = 0.97–0.98; GFI/NFI = 0.98–0.99; RMSEA = 0.05 and SRMR = 0.03). In conclusion, HeLD-14 was shown to be a reliable and valid instrument to measure oral health literacy in elderly Brazilian participants.
Abstract in English:Abstract: This in vitro study aimed to assess the effects of different pretreatments used to adapt glass-fiber posts cemented to root canals with different resin cements, regarding porosity percentage and bond strength. Twelve bovine incisor roots were prepared with Largo drills. After post space preparation, the specimens were randomized into two types of pretreatment groups (n = 3): water-wet bonding and ethanol-wet bonding. After the post were cemented, the roots were stored in 100% humidity at room temperature for 7 days. The samples were scanned by microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). Images were reconstructed by NRecon software, and CTAn software was used to analyze the porosity percentage (%) at the luting interface. Evaluation of the push-out bond strength was performed by serially cutting the roots, and submitting the slices to testing. Additionally, the resin cement post-gel shrinkage values (%) were measured using the strain-gauge method (n = 10). Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA, Tukey's test and Student's t test (a = 0.05). The roots prepared with ethanol-wet bonding using RelyX™ U200 had significantly lower porosity in the coronal and apical thirds (p < 0.05). The group prepared with ethanol-wet bonding using RelyX™ ARC presented better bond strength results in the coronal and apical thirds (p < 0.05). RelyX™ ARC (0.97%) produced a higher post-gel shrinkage value than RelyX™ U200 (0.77%). Canals pretreated with ethanol-wet bonding presented better outcomes in regard to porosity percentage and push-out bond strength.
Abstract in English:Abstract: The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate access to oral health services among adolescents enrolled in public schools of Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil, a large-size municipality in the Northeast of Brazil. An observational, descriptive, analytical, quantitative, and cross-sectional study was carried out through a school survey, in which four validated questionnaires were applied to 438 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. Data were processed using the SPSS statistical software version 20.0, with bivariate analysis and multivariate analysis through Poisson regression. About 90.9% of adolescents reported having visited the dentist at least once; however, when considering the last 6 months, this percentage fell to 48.4%. Adolescents used private services (50.2%) or the public service (49.8%). About 70.6% of interviewees reported dental treatment (61.1%) as the main reason for seeking the service. Through multivariate analysis, it was observed that the demand for the service was higher among female adolescents (60.5%, p <0.001); the other variables did not present statistically significant differences. In conclusion, the access to oral healthcare services reported by adolescents was good, but there is still a considerable part of this population with no access. Variables that presented significant associated with dental services were gender and toothache history, but only gender remained significant in the multivariate model.
Abstract in English:Abstract About 92,000 new cases of oropharynx carcinoma are expected to occur annually worldwide. There is no consensus about the best therapy for these advanced tumors. The objective of the present study was to evaluate overall and disease-free survival rates of patients with advanced oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma, comparing surgery + radiotherapy with chemotherapy + radiotherapy. Medical records of patients were reviewed. Previously treated tumors were excluded. Clinical, demographic and microscopic information was collected, and p16 staining was performed. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted. Forty-seven cases were included, 41 men and 6 women, having a mean age of 56.3 years. Most patients were smokers (85.1%) and consumed alcohol (74.5%). Patients were stage III (21.3%) or IV (78.7%). Most lesions affected the base of the tongue (36.2%). Of the 23 cases available for p16 testing, 3 were positive (13.0%). There was no difference between the overall and the disease-free survival rates for the two treatment modalities (p>0.05), even when only resectable tumors were compared. Seventeen cases experienced recurrence (36.2%); 16 (34.0%) patients remained alive without disease; 15 (31.9%) died due to disease; 9 (19.2%) were recurrent at the last follow-up. The two treatment protocols were equally efficient in treating advanced oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma, since both promoted similar overall and disease-free survival rates. The results and interpretations related herein mostly regard “conventional” oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas, as opposed to HPV-associated tumors.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of our study was to isolate populations of keratinocyte stem cells based on the expression of cell surface markers and to investigate whether the culture could affect their phenotype. keratinocytes from human oral mucosa were sorted based on the expression of the epithelial stem cell markers p75NTR and CD71. We also examined the co-expression of other epithelial stem markers such as integrins β1 and α6 and their stem cell-like proprieties in in vitro assays. Three passages after being sorted by MACS, more than 93% of the p75NTR+ve cells lost the expression of p75NTR, while 5.46% of the p75NTR-ve gained it. Within the small population of the p75NTR+ve cells, 88% co-expressed other epithelial stem cell markers such as integrins β1 and α6, while only 28% of p75NTR-ve cells co-expressed these markers. These results were confirmed by sorting cells by FACS. Additionally, when double staining was used for sorting cells, 99% of the p75NTR+veCD71-ve and 33% of the p75NTR-veCD71+ve cells expressed both integrins, but just one week after culture, only 1.74% of the p75NTR+veCD71-ve cells still expressed p75NTR and only 0.32% still expressed CD71. Similar results were obtained when co-culturing p75NTR+ve and p75NTR-ve populations before analysis. Our results suggest that phenotype changes may be part of an intrinsic cellular mechanism to conserve levels of protein expression as they may found in the human body. In addition, in vitro culture may not offer ideal conditions for epithelial stem cell maintenance due to phenotype changes under standard culture conditions.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this split mouth, double blinded, randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of use of Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of periodontal pockets. Twenty six patients (15 males, 11 females) diagnosed with generalized periodontitis with Pocket Depth > 5mm and plaque index score < 1.5, were randomly allocated by using computer generated random sequence, into two groups, one treated with intra-pocket application of PRGF adjunct to SRP and other with SRP alone. The clinical outcomes like pocket depth (PD), relative attachment level (RAL) and sulcus bleeding index (SBI) were assessed at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Twenty two patients (44 sites) were analyzed at the end of 6 month follow-up, using SPSS 20.0v software. There was a significant statistical difference observed between both the groups favouring SRP +PRGF group in terms of PD (p = 0.007) and RAL (p = 0.021) at the end of 6 month follow-up. Also there was a statistical significant difference (< 0.001) at all time points compared to baseline, for all parameters in intra-group comparison. Moreover, the sites with PD>4mm necessitating further treatment after 6-month follow-up were significantly lesser for SRP+PRGF group. The use of PRGF technology in non-surgical periodontal therapy, by single intra-pocket application in to periodontal pockets as an adjunct to SRP, in chronic periodontitis patients, was found to be effective in reduction of pocket depth and gain in clinical attachment level.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors associated with toothache in the adult population of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Individual data from a population sample (age 35 to 44 years) were collected from a secondary database of the SB Minas survey. Sampling was carried out by clusters and with multiple drawing stages. The eligibility criteria were to reside in areas chosen for the research, be within the age group, and accept to participate in the research. The individual variables assessed by a questionnaire and dental exams were sex, income, race/skin color, root caries, periodontal condition, need for dental treatment, and last dental appointment. The contextual variables, assessed by municipal indexes, were Human Development Index (HDI), illiteracy, unemployment, half minimum wage, quarter minimum wage, oral health team coverage, access to individual health care, and supervised tooth brushing average. The dependent variable was toothache in the past six months. A descriptive analysis was made using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and Hierarchical Linear and Nonlinear Modeling Software was used to perform the multilevel analyses for individual and contextual levels. An association was found between toothache and low income (OR = 2.00; 95%CI = 1.32–3.13), dental caries (OR = 1.86; 95%CI = 1.22–2.86), periodontal condition, and living on a quarter of the minimum wage or less (OR = 1.03; 95%CI = 1.00–1.08). Clinical and social factors were associated with toothache, reinforcing the need to improve public polices in oral health focused on the adult population.
Abstract in English:Abstract Although fiber-reinforced composites are commonly used in dental practice, whether fiber-reinforced crowns and fixed partial dentures can be used as definitive prostheses remains to be determined. This study used scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the load-bearing capacity of non-reinforced and fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) molar crowns prepared by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM). The crowns were fabricated from three empirical FRC blocks, one empirical composite block, and one commercial ceramic block. The FRC resin was prepared by mixing BaO silicate particles, E-glass fiber, and dimethacrylate resin. Specimens were divided into five groups (n = 10), differing in the amounts of filler, resin, and fiber. Crowns were statically loaded until fracture. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s post hoc multiple comparison tests were used for statistical analyses. The groups showed significant differences in load-bearing capacity; empirical bidirectional FRC resin blocks had the highest capacity, while commercial ceramic blocks had the lowest capacity. Molar crowns formed from FRC resin blocks had higher load-bearing capacity compared to non-reinforced composite resin and ceramic blocks. These results show that fiber reinforcement increased the load-bearing capacity of molar crowns.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between number of cavitated dental caries in adolescents and family cohesion, drug use, sociodemographic factors and visits to the dentist. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 746 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years from Campina Grande, Brazil. The parents answered a questionnaire addressing sociodemographic data, and the adolescents answered questionnaires on drug use, type of family cohesion and visits to the dentist. Two examiners underwent training and calibration exercises (K > 0.80) to diagnose dental caries using the Nyvad criteria. A directed acyclic graph was created to select the variables to be controlled in the statistical model. Associations between the independent variables and the outcome were determined using robust Poisson Regression analysis for complex samples (α = 5%). Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The prevalence of dental caries and cavitated lesions among the adolescents was 92.8% and 41.6%, respectively. The following variables remained associated with the number of cavitated lesions in the multivariate analysis: disengaged (RR: 6.30; 95%CI: 1.24–31.88; p = 0.028 ), separated (RR: 4.80; 95%CI: 1.03–22.35; p = 0.046) and connected (RR: 5.23; 95%CI: 1.27–21.59; p = 0.024) levels of family cohesion, and high social class (RR: 0.55; 95%CI: 0.39–0.76; p = 0.001). In conclusion, this paper posits that adolescents with a lower socioeconomic status, and those whose family cohesion was classified as disengaged, separated or connected, had a larger number of cavitated lesions.
Abstract in English:Abstract The possible role of B-cell growth and differentiation-related cytokines on the pathogenesis of diabetes-related periodontitis has not been addressed so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the gene expression of proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS), two major cytokines associated to survival, differentiation and maturation of B cells in biopsies from gingival tissue with periodontitis. Gingival biopsies were obtained from subjects with periodontitis (n = 17), with periodontitis and DM (n = 19) as well as from periodontally and systemically healthy controls (n = 10). Gene expressions for APRIL, BLyS, RANKL, OPG, TRAP and DC-STAMP were evaluated using qPCR. The expressions APRIL, BLyS, RANKL, OPG, TRAP and DC-STAMP were all higher in both periodontitis groups when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the expressions of BLyS, TRAP and RANKL were significantly higher in the subjects with periodontitis and DM when compared to those with periodontitis alone (p < 0.05). The mRNA levels of BLyS correlated positively with RANKL in the subjects with periodontitis and DM (p < 0.05). BLyS is overexpressed in periodontitis tissues of subjects with type 2 DM, suggesting a possible role of this cytokine on the pathogenesis DM-related periodontitis.
Abstract in English:Abstract To compare the shaping ability of different single-file systems in the preparation of mesial curved canals of mandibular molars using micro-CT technology. Fifteen mesial roots of mandibular molars with two independent and curved canals (n = 30) were selected, scanned at a resolution of 26.7 μm anatomically matched, and distributed into three groups (n = 10), according to the preparation system: WaveOne 25.08, Reciproc 25.08, and OneShape 25.06. A final micro-CT scanning was performed, data sets were registered with their respective counterparts, and compared regarding the three-dimensional (volume, surface area, and structure model index - SMI) and two-dimensional (perimeter, area, roundness, major and minor diameters) parameters, as well as, canal transportation, using ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests (α = 5%). Overall, no difference was observed between groups regarding area, perimeter, volume, surface area, and canal transportation (p > 0.05). Within group, no canal transportation was significantly higherobserved in the apical third (0.10 ± 0.05 mm) compared to coronal (0.08±0.040 mm) and middle (0.07 ± 0.03 mm) thirds (p < 0.05). Structure model index (SMI) was statistically higher after preparation with OneShape instrument (0.36 ± 0.26) compared to other systems (p < 0.05). Within the parameters of this study, similar shaping ability was observed in the preparation of mesial curved root canals of mandibular molars with Reciproc, OneShape and WaveOne systems.
Abstract in English:Abstract A few investigations of caries biofilms have identified Scardovia spp.; however, little is known about its involvement in caries pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to assess the gene expression profile of Scardovia spp. in root caries, and compare it with other microorganisms. Clinical samples from active root caries lesions were collected. Microbial mRNA was isolated and cDNA sequenced. The function and composition of the Scardovia were investigated using two methods: a) de novo assembly of the read data and mapping to contigs, and b) reads mapping to reference genomes. Pearson correlation was performed (p < 0.05). Proportion of Scardovia inopinata and Scardovia wiggsiae sequences ranged from 0-6% in the root caries metatranscriptome. There was a positive correlation between the transcriptome of Lactobacillus spp. and Scardovia spp. (r = 0.70; p = 0.03), as well as with other Bifidobacteriaceae (r = 0.91; p = 0.0006). Genes that code for fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (the key enzyme for “Bifid shunt”), as well as ABC transporters and glycosyl-hydrolases were highly expressed. In conclusion, “Bifid shunt” and starch metabolism are involved in carbohydrate metabolism of S. inopinata and S. wiggsiae in root caries. There is a positive correlation between the metabolism abundance of Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacteriaceae members, and Scardovia in root caries.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of the present study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of pain scales used to assess dentin hypersensitivity (DH). The preferred scale, and toothbrushing habits of participants were also investigated. This cross-sectional study was conducted with students and employees of a Brazilian Federal University who presented DH. The participants answered a questionnaire about their toothbrushing and drinking habits. Hypersensitive and non-sensitive teeth were submitted to tactile and ice stick stimuli. Then, the subjects marked their pain level in the visual analogue (VAS), numeric scale (NS), faces pain scale (FPS) and verbal evaluation scale (VES). DH was also assessed by Schiff scale (SS). The data were analyzed by Wilcoxon and Chi-Square tests, as well as by ROC curve. The mean age of the sample (56 women, 16 men) was 27.8 years. The most prevalent acidic beverage was coffee (36.0%) and the most preferred scale was the NS (47.2%). The pain level was statistically higher in teeth with DH compared to teeth without DH (p < 0.05). The accuracy ranged from 0.729 (SS) to 0.750 (NS). The highest sensitivity value was 81.9% for NS. The SS presented the highest specificity (91%). The visual analog, numerical, verbal evaluation, faces pain, and Schiff scales were accurate for DH diagnosis. The Schiff scale was the preferred scale for DH assessment.
Abstract in English:Abstract SARS-CoV-2 is a new virus responsible for the outbreak of the respiratory disease COVID-19, which has spread to several countries around the world, causing considerable consternation and a fear of contagions in global healthcare settings. The objective of this study is to identify, among Madrid’s adult population, the impact of COVID-19 on self-perceived vulnerability, infectiousness, aversion to germs, and other behaviors in the current situation regarding dental practice. This cross-sectional observational study involves 1,008 persons randomly surveyed on the streets of Madrid, Spain between March 1 and March 8, 2020. Their perceived vulnerability to disease was measured using the perceived vulnerability to disease scale. An additional questionnaire evaluated basic sociodemographic aspects, medical history, personal hygiene behavior, willingness to go to certain places and the perception of the risk of contagion when going to a dental practice. There are significant differences by sex on the germ aversion subscale (p < 0.05) and in the risk of waiting in the waiting room (p < 0.01), tooth extraction ((p < 0.05), endodontics (p < 0.05) and fillings ((p < 0.05). Women consider the risk to be higher than men do. The risk group (over 60 and with systemic disease) has significant differences on the subscales of infectivity (p < 0.01) and germ aversion (p < 0.01). Our study shows high levels of vulnerability regarding contracting COVID-19 and avoiding dental care as perceived by the population over 60 years old and with a systemic disease.
Abstract in English:Abstract This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the effect of a silane-containing universal adhesive used with or without a silane agent on the repair bond strength between aged and new composites. Forty nanohybrid composite resin blocks were stored in distilled water for 14 d and thermo-cycled. Sandpaper ground, etched, and rinsed speciments were randomly assigned into four experimental groups: silane + two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system, two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system, silane + silane-containing universal adhesive system, and silane-containing universal adhesive system. Blocks were repaired using the same composite. After 24 h of water storage, the blocks were sectioned and bonded sticks were submitted to microtensile testing. Ten unaged, non-repaired composite blocks were used as a reference group to evaluate the cohesive strength of the composite. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests were used to analyze average µTBS. One-way ANOVA and Dunnet post-hoc tests were used to compare the cohesive strength values and bond strength obtained in the repaired groups (α = 0.05). The µTBS values were higher for the silane-containing universal adhesive compared to the two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system (p = 0.002). Silane application improved the repair bond strength (p = 0.03). The repair bond strength ranged from 39.3 to 65.8% of the cohesive strength of the reference group. Using universal silane-containing adhesive improved the repair bond strength of composite resin compared to two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive. However, it still required prior application of a silane agent for best direct composite resin repair outcomes.
Abstract in English:Abstract Currently, the whole world is under the threat of the COVID-19 pandemic, and dentists are at high risk. The aim of this study was to investigate what kind of precautions Turkish dentists take in dental clinics during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study population consisted of dentists in Turkey. An online questionnaire (23 questions–57 items) was sent to a sample of Turkish dentists from March 16 to March 20, 2020. The questionnaire comprised a series of questions about dentists’ demographic characteristics, their concerns, and the measures taken in dental clinics against COVID-19. This study included a total of 1,958 Turkish dentists. A total of 1,274 (65.1%) were general dentists, and 684 (34.9%) were specialists. Five hundred twenty-two (26.7%) dentists attended an informational meeting on COVID-19. Of these dentists, 69.8% were aware of COVID-19 according to their self-assessed knowledge scores. More than 90% of the dentists were concerned about themselves and their families. Only 12% of the dentists wore an N95 mask. Although Turkish dentists took some precautionary measures, they did not take enough precautions to protect themselves, the dental staff, and other patients from COVID-19. As the number of COVID-19 cases increased, the measures taken slightly increased in dental clinics as well. Dentists are strongly recommended to take maximum precautions in the clinical setting. The guidelines about the COVID-19 pandemic should be sent to all dentists by the regional and national dental associations.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to evaluate adolescents’ aesthetic perceptions and their social judgments regarding different enamel opacities. Sample size was calculated and resulted in the inclusion of 100 adolescents (aged 10 to 15 years) from a public school in Jequié, Bahia, Brazil. Images of enamel opacities were manipulated to create aesthetic enamel defects, such as enamel color changes (unilateral and bilateral white opacity, unilateral and bilateral yellowish opacity, and unilateral and bilateral yellowish opacity with loss of structure). The images of the opacities were based on Fédération Dentaire Internationale’s Developmental Defects of Enamel (DDE) Index. Aesthetic perception and social judgments were evaluated using a validated questionnaire with 12 questions (six positive and six negative points) on social aspects, considering the six manipulated images and the control. The photographic analyses were projected one-by-one by computer to adolescents individually in a classroom. Participants had one minute to observe each image and answer the questionnaire. The data were analyzed by descriptions, and the Friedman Wilcoxon test (p < 0.05). The results indicate that all opacities negatively impacted social judgment (p < 0.001). The enamel aesthetic defects most affecting an individual’s perception were bilateral yellow opacity with or without loss of structure (p < 0.001). Regarding social judgment, all participants showed a negative perception of all the tested opacity types (p < 0.001). In conclusion, even opacities presenting only a color change caused aesthetic dissatisfaction to the individuals and changes in their social judgment toward others. Color changes in dental enamel have several aesthetic consequences.
Abstract in English:Abstract Candida infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The increase in its incidence has been associated with resistance to antimicrobial therapy and biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tea tree oil (TTO) and its main component – terpinen-4-ol – against resistant Candida albicans strains (genotypes A and B) identified by molecular typing and against C. albicans ATCC 90028 and SC 5314 reference strains in planktonic and biofilm cultures. The minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, and rate of biofilm development were used to evaluate antifungal activity. Results were obtained from analysis of the biofilm using the cell proliferation assay 2,3-Bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Terpinen-4-ol and TTO inhibited C. albicans growth. CLSM confirmed that 17.92 mg/mL of TTO and 8.86 mg/mL of terpinen-4-ol applied for 60 s (rinse simulation) interfered with biofilm formation. Hence, this in vitro study revealed that natural substances such as TTO and terpinen-4-ol present promising results for the treatment of oral candidiasis.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to verify the precision and applicability of two methods of age estimation, Kvaal’s and Cameriere’s methods, among Brazilian adults. A sample composed of periapical radiographs of canine teeth belonging to 320 Brazilian adults was analyzed, divided into groups according to sex (male and female) and age group (20–29 years, 30–39 years, 40–49 years and 50-59 years). Kvaal’s method presented better results when compared to the results of Cameriere’s method in the general evaluation of each canine tooth, except for the upper left canine (tooth 23), which presented a mean error (ME) with no statistically significant difference between the methods (Kvaal: ME = 7.43, p = 0.4991, Cameriere: ME = 7.55, p = 0.6982). In the evaluation by age groups, Kvaal’s method presented a lower variation between the real age and estimated age when applied to the age groups of 20-29 years and 30-39 years compared to the results provided by Cameriere’s method. With respect to the groups aged 40 to 49 years and 50 to 59 years, Cameriere’s method presented better performance than the results provided by Kvaal’s method. The methods of estimating age proposed by Kvaal and Cameriere are simple and nondestructive and have demonstrated reproducibility and reliability. The Kvaal method was more accurate for the age groups of 20-29 and 30-39 years, and for those over 40 years, the Cameriere method was the most accurate.
Abstract in English:Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyze the differential expression of DEC1 in oral normal mucosa (NM), oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Surgically excised specimens from patients with OLK (n = 47), OSCC (n = 30) and oral normal mucosa (n=11) were immunostained for DEC1. The expression of DEC1 protein was evaluated, and its association with the clinicopathological features was analyzed. The expression of DEC1 in NM, OLK and OSCC tissues increased in turn, and significant differences were observed among the groups (P < 0.0001). In terms of the association between DEC1 expression and epithelial dysplasia, DEC1 expression was lower in hyperkeratosis without dysplasia (H-OLK) than in OLK with moderate to severe dysplasia (S-OLK), and these differences were significant (p < 0.05). The expression of DEC1 in OSCC with OLK was significantly higher than that in OSCC without OLK (p < 0.01). Therefore, DEC1 could be a potential biomarker of malignant transformation in the carcinogenesis of OSCC, which may provide a new research direction for the transformation of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) into OSCC.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective was to evaluate the compressive strength (CS), diametral tensile strength (DTS), flexural strength (FS), and Knoop microhardness (KH) of different conventional restorative glass-ionomer cements (GICs) and to correlate these mechanical properties (MP) with the stabilization time (ST) of their chemical bonds. Eighteen GICs were tested: Bioglass [B], Chemfil Rock [CR], Equia Forte [EF], Gold Label 2 [GL2], Gold Label 9 [GL9], Glass Ionomer Cement II [GI], Ionglass [IG], Ion Z[ IZ], Ionomaster [IM], Ionofil Plus [IP], Ionostar Plus [IS], Ketac Molar Easymix [KM], Magic Glass [MG], Maxxion R [Ma], Riva Self Cure [R], Vidrion R [V], Vitro Fil [VF] and Vitro Molar [VM]. The mechanical strength tests were performed in a universal testing machine. KH readings were done with a diamond indenter. STs were examined by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Data were analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey test (p<0.05). The Spearman rank test was used to evaluate the dependence between the MPs and ST results. The highest MP values were EF, GL2, GL9, GI and KM and the lowest for MG, MA, B, VF and IM. The longest ST was for GL2 and the shortest was for B. ST correlated positively with MP. GICs with longer chemical bonds ST are generally stronger and the ST value obtained from FTIR was useful in predicting the strength of GICs tested.
Abstract in English:Abstract: This study aimed to identify factors associated with the need for complete dentures in one dental arch or both, among the elderly population. The cross-sectional household study was conducted with a representative sample of elderly people (65 years or older) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. The dependent variable was the need for complete dentures (in one arch or both), and independent variables were socioeconomic and demographic conditions, social capital, self-perception of oral health and access to dental services. Simple and multinomial logistic regression models tested effect measures (p < 0.05). A total of 5,948 elderly people participated. Results indicated that those with greater chances of needing a complete denture in one arch were male (OR = 1.54; CI95%:1.04–2.29), with fewer household goods (OR = 2.25; CI95%:1.50–3.38), lower monthly household income: R$501-1500 (OR = 3.44; CI95%:1.27–9.35), R$1501–2500 (OR = 4.11; CI95%:1.50–11.27), R$2501–4500 (OR = 2.76; CI95%:1.10–6.95), self-reported need for a complete denture (OR = 4.75; CI95%:3.08–7.35), ≥3 years since last dental appointment (OR = 1.80; CI95%:1.06–3.05), and dissatisfaction with last dental appointment (OR = 1.80; CI95%:1.06–3.05). There were more chances of the need for complete dentures in both arches among older elders (OR = 1.44; CI95%:1.06–1.88), with lower monthly household income: R$ < 501 (OR = 4.45; CI95%:1.71–11.60), R$501–1500 (OR = 4.01; CI95%:2.14–7.51), R$1501–2500 (OR = 2.95; CI95%:1.64–5.32), < 3 years of education (OR = 1.45; CI95%:1.13–1.85), feeling unhappy (OR = 2.74; CI95%:1.35–5.57), self-reported need for a complete denture (OR = 8.48; CI95%:5.75–12.50), dissatisfaction with their mouth (OR = 2.38; CI95%:1.64–3.46), ≥3 years since last dental appointment (OR = 4.28; CI95%:2.85–6.43), and dissatisfaction with last dental appointment (OR = 4.28; CI95%:2.85–6.43). The several dimensions of the determinants of the need for a complete denture reflect the influence of both demographic and socioeconomic aspects, social capital, self-perception of oral health and access to dental services.
Abstract in English:Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of and attitudes toward coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among the parents of child dental patients in Shenzhen during the outbreak. A structured questionnaire containing 10 questions was used, and each question had 2 or 3 possible answers. The parents of children (aged 0-14 years) who visited the dental department of our hospital last year were eligible to participate in this study. A total of 148 parents were interviewed by telephone in February 2020 by research staff. A total of 94.59% of the parents said they paid high attention to COVID-19 and explained it to their children; 66.22% thought the dental department environment was more dangerous than other public places; 91.89% believed the dental department had a higher risk of virus infection; and 83.78% said they would take their children to a dental department if the children had a severe toothache. Approximately 81.08% of the parents expressed confidence after we informed them about the preventive measures taken in the dental department to ensure safe treatment for their children. In conclusion, all parents were concerned about COVID-19, and most of them had talked about it with their children often. In addition, a considerable percentage of them would not take their children to the dental department even if they had severe dental pain and thought that the dental environment could be more dangerous than other environments. More information about this topic should be delivered to this population.
Abstract in English:Abstract We assessed the association between edentulism and all–cause mortality among community–dwelling older adults from São Paulo, Brazil, from 2006 to 2017. This prospective cohort study used data from the Health, Well–being and Aging Study (SABE, Portuguese acronym). Edentulism was evaluated by means of clinical oral examination and all–cause mortality data were obtained from state official records. Covariates included socioeconomic factors (age, sex, and schooling); health behavior (smoking, alcohol intake, and physical activity); dental care (prostheses use); general health (multimorbidity); and nutritional status (underweight). Kaplan–Meier survival curves were stratified by edentulism and compared using the log–rank test. Cox proportional hazards model was applied to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for the association between edentulism and mortality after adjusting for covariates. The study sample included 1,687 participants (age, 60–102 years; edentulous: 47.2%). In the 11 years of follow–up, we analyzed 10,494 person–years and 566 deaths. In bivariate analysis, edentulous older adults were found to be at a higher risk of dying from all causes than the dentate participants (HR: 1.81; 95%CI: 1.53–2.15). After sequential adjustment for socioeconomic factors, health behavior, dental care, general health, and nutritional status, this association was attenuated, but remained significant (HR: 1.34; 95%CI: 1.10–1.63). In conclusion, edentulism is a significant predictor of all–cause mortality among older adults.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study was performed to evaluate the interplay between dental caries, nutritional status, and genetic polymorphisms in TAS1R1 and TAS1R2 (taste receptor, type 1, member 1 and 2) in preschool children and pre-adolescents. We included 525 subjects (306 preschool children and 219 pre-adolescents). Parents/caregivers answered a self-administered questionnaire about their children’s systemic health, characteristics, oral hygiene habits, and diet. Clinical examination was performed to evaluate dental caries and nutritional status. Saliva samples were collected for DNA extraction. The genotyping of rs17492553 ( TAS1R1 ), rs3935570, and rs4920566 ( TAS1R2 ) polymorphisms was performed using real-time PCR with Taqman Genotyping Master Mix and SNP assay. Both univariate and multivariate Poisson regression analyses with robust variance were used for the data analysis. In preschool children, consumption of sweets between meals increased the prevalence of dental caries by 85% (PR c = 1.85; 95%CI 1.39–2.46; p < 0.001), whereas in pre-adolescents, this prevalence increased by 34% (PR a = 1.34; 95%CI 1.11–1.62; p = 0.002), regardless of genetic polymorphisms . Moreover, individuals carrying at least one allele C in rs17492553 presented 23% more prevalence of dental caries (PR a = 1.23; 95%CI 1.02–1.49 p = 0.030). Nutritional status was not associated with dental caries, neither with genetic polymorphisms . Consumption of sweets between meals increased the prevalence of dental caries. In pre-adolescents, rs17492553 genetic polymorphism in TAS1R1 was associated with dental caries.
Abstract in English:Abstract Poor oral hygiene seems to be the norm in children and teenagers with Down Syndrome (DS). Advances in design and types of toothbrushes may improve biofilm control. This randomized, single-blind, crossover clinical trial evaluated the effectiveness of electric toothbrushes regarding mechanical control of biofilm in children and teenagers with DS and their cooperation. Twenty-nine participants with DS, aged 6 to 14 years, used both types of toothbrushes: electric (ET) and manual (MT). The order of use of the different types of toothbrushes was randomly defined, including a 7-day period with each type with 7-day washout period in between. The Turesky-Quigley-Hein biofilm index was used before and after brushing to assess the effectiveness of the technique. Frankl’s behavioral scale was used during toothbrushing to assess the participants’ cooperation. Paired T-test, Mann Whitney, Chi-square, and Fisher’s Exact tests were applied, with a significance level of 5%. The quantity of dental biofilm was significantly reduced after both brushing techniques (p < 0.001). However, no significant difference was found in total biofilm (ET: 0.73 ± 0.36; MT: 0.73 ± 0.34; p = 0.985) or % biofilm reduction (ET: 72.22%; MT: 70.96%; p = 0.762) after brushing between techniques or in % biofilm reduction between toothbrushes of age groups (6 –9 years, p = 0.919; 10–14 years, p = 0.671). Participants showed similar cooperation level with the two types of toothbrush (p = 1.000). The use of electric or manual toothbrush had no effect on the quantity of dental biofilm removed in children and teenagers with DS, nor did it influence their cooperation during the procedure.
Abstract in English:Abstract In view of the epidemiological relevance of periodontal disease and chronic noncommunicable diseases, the study aimed to evaluate the relationship between them through subclinical indicators of systemic risk in a population group with healthy habits, including alcohol and tobacco abstinence. A complete periodontal examination of six sites per tooth was performed in a sample of 420 participants from the Advento study (Sao Paulo), submitted to anthropometric and laboratory evaluation. Periodontitis was defined and classified based on the Community Periodontal Index score 3 (periodontal pocket = 4–5 mm) and score 4 (periodontal pocket ≥ 6 mm). The prevalence of mild/moderate and severe periodontitis was 20% and 8.2%, respectively. Both categories of periodontal disease had significantly higher levels of triglycerides, C-reactive protein, calcium score, and calcium percentile, whereas blood glucose after tolerance test was significantly higher among people with severe periodontitis and HDL-c levels were lower (p < 0.05). Young adults with severe periodontitis had significantly higher prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. Besides these conditions, the older adults with severe periodontitis had significantly higher prevalence of dyslipidemia and subclinical atherosclerosis. The group with periodontitis had also a higher coronary heart disease risk based on the PROCAM score (p < 0.05). The results indicated associations of periodontitis with several systemic indicators for chronic noncommunicable diseases, and highlighted the need for multiprofessional measures in the whole care of patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of malocclusion, nutritive and non-nutritive sucking habits and dental caries in the masticatory function of preschool children. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 384 children aged 3–5 years. A single examiner calibrated for oral clinical examinations performed all the evaluations (kappa > 0.82). Presence of malocclusion was recorded using Foster and Hamilton criteria. The number of masticatory units and of posterior teeth cavitated by dental caries was also recorded. The parents answered a questionnaire in the form of an interview, addressing questions about the child’s nutritive and non-nutritive sucking habits. The masticatory function was evaluated using Optocal test material, and was based on the median particle size in the masticatory performance, on the swallowing threshold, and on the number of masticatory cycles during the swallowing threshold. Data analysis involved simple and multiple linear regression analyses, and the confidence level adopted was 95%. The sample consisted of 206 children in the malocclusion group and 178 in the non-malocclusion group. In the multiple regression analysis, the masticatory performance was associated with age (p = 0.025), bottle feeding (p = 0.004), presence of malocclusion (p = 0.048) and number of cavitated posterior teeth (p = 0.030). The swallowing threshold was associated with age (p = 0.025), bottle feeding (p = 0.001) and posterior malocclusion (p = 0.017). The number of masticatory cycles during the swallowing threshold was associated with the number of cavitated posterior teeth (p = 0.001). In conclusion, posterior malocclusion, bottle feeding and dental caries may interfere in the masticatory function of preschool children.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study assessed the effect of area of residence (rural vs. urban) on dental caries experience among southern Brazilian schoolchildren. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in Rosário do Sul, southern Brazil, and included 373 9–14-year-old schoolchildren attending public municipal schools (122 living in the rural area, and 251, in the urban area). Data collection included a questionnaire and a clinical examination. Clinical examination of the permanent dentition involved visible plaque index, gingival bleeding index and dental caries experience (non-cavitated and cavitated, inactive and active lesions). Samples of water were collected to check the fluoride concentration. Caries prevalence and extent using different criteria were compared between rural and urban schoolchildren using the chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney test, respectively. The association between explanatory variables and the extent of caries activity (number of active caries lesions) was assessed using Poisson regression. When caries was recorded at the cavity level (WHO criterion), no difference was observed between rural and urban populations (p ≥ 0.05). Conversely, higher caries prevalence and extent were found among urban schoolchildren when active non-cavitated lesions were also computed (p < 0.05). In the adjusted Poisson regression model, urban schoolchildren were 57% more likely to present more active lesions than rural students (RR = 1.57; 95%CI = 1.29–1.92). Rural communities did not have sufficient fluoride in the water supply, whereas ideal concentrations were detected in the urban areas. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study found that urban schoolchildren showed greater caries experience than rural students, and that this increment was related to active non-cavitated lesions.
Abstract in English:Abstract The purpose of this double-blind, randomized, crossover in situ study is to compare remineralization of preformed enamel lesions by casein phosphopeptide-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and fluoride dentifrice products. During each of four 10-day experimental legs, 10 participants wore intraoral removable palatal acrylic appliances with four human enamel slabs with preformed lesions. A 0.03-mL treatment paste was dripped extraorally onto the enamel blocks once a day for 3 min. The four randomly allocated treatments were as follows: CO- Control: silica dentifrice without fluoride; MP: MI Paste; MPP: MI Paste Plus and FD: Fluoride dentifrice - 1100 ppm F as NaF). Knoop surface hardness (SH) test was performed in three stages (T0 – sound enamel, T1 - after preformed lesion, and T2 - after treatment) and the cross-sectional hardness (CSH) test was performed after treatment using a 50-gram Knoop load for 15 s. Knoop hardness number (KHN) was similar between treatments. %SHr was significantly higher in the MP, FD, and MPP when compared to CO group (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests, p < 0.05). Harder enamel was found in MP (75 μm) and FD groups at 75 to 175 μm. Treatment with DF, MP, and MPP promoted an increase of 20.27%, 19.24%, and 14.71%, respectively, in Integral Hardness Change (ΔIHC) when compared to CO (p<0.05). Remineralizing agents (MP, MPP, and DF) were able to inhibit demineralization of human enamel subjected to high cariogenic challenge in situ. DF had the greatest preventive potential against the progression of carious lesions.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dentists and dental undergraduate students know the terminology of the International Caries Consensus Collaboration (ICCC), and make their restorative treatment decisions regarding carious tissue removal accordingly. Data collection was performed using an electronic questionnaire, considering: a) profile of the respondent; b) analysis of four clinical cases with respect to possible management strategies; and c) questions on cariology field terminology. Sample size consisted of 175 dentists and 66 last semester dental students. Statistical analyses were performed comparing profile, type of institution and dental specialty of the participants. Results showed students were less conservative and agreed less with the ICCC than dentists, and private schools, less than public institutions. Private institutions were 12% (95%CI = 0.833–0.949; p = 0.000) more likely to be less updated with the ICCC recommendations than public institutions, and dentists were 20% more likely to agree with them than students (95%CI = 1.118–1.302; p = 0.000). Dentists were 66% more likely to be conservative than students (95%CI = 0.203–0.554; p = 0.000); dentists and students who graduated or were graduating from public universities were twice as likely to be conservative as those from private universities (95%CI = 1.336–3.333; p = 0.001). In conclusion, students in the last semester are less conservative than dentists, and respondents who graduated or were graduating from public dental schools were more aligned with the current concepts of the ICCC. Several answers were not aligned with ICCC directives, thus showing that management of deep carious lesions still causes restorative therapeutic insecurity.
Abstract in English:Abstract This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the effects of different luting protocols on the thickness of luting interface of ceramic laminate veneers. Thirty-six lithium disilicate blocks (7 × 8 × 0.6 mm) were cemented onto bovine enamel. They were divided into 6 groups based on the luting protocol (no previous photoactivation of the dental adhesive; previous activation of the dental adhesive only on enamel surface; and previous photoactivation of the dental adhesive on both the enamel surface and inner surface of ceramic laminate) and the luting materials used (Single Bond Universal/RelyX Veneer and Tetric N Bond/Variolink Veneer). The luting interface thickness of ceramic laminate veneers was evaluated using a laser scanning confocal microscope (n = 6). The luting interface measurements were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA and the Tukey least significant difference test (α = 0.05). Prior activation of the adhesive on the dental enamel and inside the ceramic laminate exhibited higher luting interface thickness than that with no prior photoactivation of both luting materials (p < 0.05). Specimens cemented with Tetric N Bond/Variolink Veneer, submitted for prior photoactivation of the adhesive on the dental enamel and on both dental enamel and inner surface of ceramic, exhibited lower luting interface thickness than those luted with Single Bond Universal/RelyX Veneer (p < 0.05). The prior photoactivation of dental adhesives influenced the thickness of luting interface in laminate restorations. Tetric N Bond/Variolink Veneer yielded more satisfactory results than Single Bond Universal/RelyX Veneer when the adhesive was light activated.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study evaluated the interference of enamel and coronal dentin thickness and ambient light in pulse oximetry interpretation, using SaO2the human finger as a reference. Forty-two intact human permanent mandibular molars were sectioned mesiodistally in the central portion. Buccal and lingual dentin surfaces were drilled, and 4 mm, 3 mm and 2 mm enamel/dentin thicknesses were interposed between finger and device, after which SaO2 levels were measured by finger pulse oximetry. A reference device was designed to align pulse oximeter light-emitting diode, buccal surface of tooth, little finger, lingual surface of tooth and photodiode. Variables were described as means and standard deviation, and the confidence interval was reported. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the groups, followed by Bonferroni correction. Student t test for paired samples was used to determine presence of ambient light (α = 0.05). Mean SaO2 level was lower at 4.0 ± 0.2 mm thickness, regardless of presence or absence of ambient light (92.7% and 89.3%). The other thicknesses yielded values of 95.5% and 94.5% at 3.0 ± 0.2 mm, and 96.4% and 96.0% at 2.0 ± 0.2 mm (p < 0.001). There were significant differences between SaO2 values at 4.0 ± 0.2 mm, 3.0 ± 0.2 mm and 2.0 ± 0.2 mm thicknesses, in the presence of ambient light. Mean SaO2 level in positive control was 96.3%, and mean pulse rate was 69.5 bpm in presence of ambient light; in the absence of light, these values were 96% and 70.5 bpm. Enamel and dentin thickness interfere with SaO2, regardless of presence or absence of ambient light. The lowest SaO2 levels were found for the thickest tooth samples.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to determine the incidence of mandibular third molar (M3) impaction after orthodontic treatment by edgewise appliances, and identify possible determinant factors of M3 impaction. A retrospective cohort study was conducted with 1154 patients. Complete orthodontic records were analyzed pretreatment and posttreatment, considering the following variables: type of Angle malocclusion, treatment with or without extraction of first premolars, overbite, stage of dentition, M3 prior angulation and duration of orthodontic treatment. Impaction was determined after radiographic evidence of total closure of the root apex. The chi-square test and Poisson regression (p < 0.05) were used for statistical analysis with a hierarchical approach. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Mandibular M3 impaction incidence was 17%. Overbite equal to or greater than 4 mm (RR = 1.23, 95%CI: 1.11–1.26, p < 0.001), prior mesial angulation of M3 (RR = 0.59, 95%CI: 0.52–0.68, p < 0.001), non-extraction of first premolars (RR=1.06, 95%CI: 1.01–1.12, P=0.019) and orthodontic treatment time equal to or less than three years (RR = 0.94. 95%CI: 0.90–0.99, p < 0.014) were significantly associated with impacted M3. There was no correlation between the type of Angle malocclusion and the risk of impaction. In conclusion, the incidence of mandibular M3 impaction was considered low. The main pretreatment factors directly involved in impaction were mesioangulation of M3 and overbite equal to or greater than 4 mm. Orthodontic treatment with extraction of first premolars and treatment time greater than 3 years reduce the risk of impaction.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present study sought to evaluate the impact of quarantine resulting from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on dental appointments and patients’ positions and concerns regarding their ongoing dental treatment. Patients from private dental clinics answered an online questionnaire anonymously regarding their treatment, availability and willingness to attend dental appointments, and concerns about contamination. Descriptive statistics of the responses were performed with percentages and responses were compared between sexes, regions, and other aspects using the chi-squared test. Five hundred ninety-five patients (412 females and 183 males; mean age: 38.21 years) answered the questionnaire. Most patients reported they were receiving dental treatment (orthodontics) and would attend to a dental appointment; meanwhile, those patients not receiving treatment would not attend or would visit only in the case of an emergency. Males reported to be calmer than females, who were more anxious and afraid; as such, males reported more willing to go a dental appointment while, in general, females were not worried about how quarantine could affect dental treatment. Patients actively undergoing treatment and orthodontic patients were more concerned about a delay in treatment. There was a significant association between feelings about the COVID-19 pandemic and the level of willingness to attend a dental appointment. The quarantine recommended due to the COVID-19 pandemic was shown to have an impact on dental appointments and the anxiety levels of patients, since there was a significant association between patients’ feelings and their willingness to attend a dental appointment. Overall, patients undergoing dental treatment and orthodontics were more willing to attend an appointment and were more concerned about an increase in treatment duration.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate the performance of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital periapical radiographs (PR) in diagnosing external root resorption (ERR) in human permanent teeth replanted after traumatic avulsion. The samples comprised 39 permanent maxillary incisors replanted after traumatic avulsion. Digital PR and CBCT images were taken from each tooth and independently examined by 2 calibrated examiners to assess the ERR activity regarding type and extension. The degrees of agreement between both imaging examinations were determined by the mean global agreement index using SPSS software. The two imaging examinations diverged greatly in the diagnosis of the type of ERR since CBCT identified more cases as inflammatory ERR and PR as replacement ERR. A discordance level of 69.2% was observed between the two methods in the diagnosis of the type of ERR when CBCT for mesial and distal (MD) surfaces was considered and 61.5% when CBCT for mesial, distal, buccal and lingual (MD/BL) was considered. Likewise, CBCT and PR differed regarding the ERR index. PR examinations classified most cases as moderate or severe (69.2%), while CBCT examinations classified more cases as mild either in the MD surfaces analysis (41.4%) or in the analysis of the MD-BL surfaces (51.3%). In conclusion, the present results highlight a discrepancy between CBCT and digital PR performance in the diagnosis of different types and extent of ERR in replanted teeth.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to compare the occurrence and intensity of postoperative pain and analgesic intake after root canal treatment, using different root canal sealers. Sixty single-rooted teeth diagnosed with asymptomatic necrosis and apical periodontitis were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups (n=20), according to the root canal sealer: AH Plus, Endofill or MTA Fillapex. Endodontic treatment was performed in two sessions, and calcium hydroxide was used as the intracanal dressing. Patients were instructed to record pain intensity as none, slight, moderate and severe. Scores from 1 to 4 were attributed to each level of pain after 24 h, 48 h and 7 days. The need for analgesic intake was also recorded. Differences in the incidence of postoperative pain and the need for an analgesic were analyzed using the chi-square test. Differences in pain intensity after treatment were analyzed using the ordinal (linear) chi-square test. No significant differences were detected among the groups in terms of either incidence or intensity of postoperative pain, or need for analgesic intake, at any timepoint (p>0.05). No pain was reported after 7 days. AH Plus, Endofill and MTA Fillapex used for filling root canals resulted in the same rate of postoperative pain and need for analgesic medication.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the Brazilian School Health Program (SHP) on dental clinical disorders such as caries, gingivitis, and dental trauma as well as on the oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of adolescents in Nova Friburgo, RJ, Brazil. The study consisted of a non-probabilistic (convenience) sample comprising 319 12-year-old adolescents, both participants and non-participants of the SHP, for at least two years. Socio-demographic and OHRQoL questionnaires (CPQ11-14, the Child Perceptions Questionnaire) were applied as well as clinical examinations for caries, periodontal disease, and dental trauma following the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria by calibrated researchers. Mann-Whitney, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression models were used for the data analysis. Statistically significant differences were observed between the groups covered and not covered by the SHP for gingivitis (p = 0.0373) and OHRQoL on the social welfare subscale (p = 0.0265) and total scale (p = 0.0449) of CPQ11-14. Multivariate analysis showed that female adolescents were 1.74 times more likely to present a lower OHRQoL (OR = 1.74, 95%IC = 1.10–2.77, p = 0.0183) than males. In addition, non-SHP subjects were 1.56 times more likely to have poor OHRQoL (OR = 1.56, 95%IC = 0.94–2.59, p = 0.0873) than program participants. In conclusion, SHP positively influenced the OHRQoL of adolescents. However, follow-up studies are needed to verify the continued effectiveness of this Brazilian SHP in improving the oral health levels and quality of life of adolescents.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to verify the association between sociodemographic, general health, and oral health data with self-rated general health (SRGH) and self-rated oral health (SROH) in independent-living older Brazilians. This cross-sectional study was part of a larger study with older individuals living independently in the city of Campinas, Brazil – the “Rede FIBRA” Study (the Frailty in Brazilian Elderly Study). A random sample of 688 older individuals responded the SRGH and 673, the SROH. SRHG and SROH were both assessed using a single item. The questionnaire included sociodemographic, general, and oral health data. The mean age was 72.28 ± 5.4 years. The adjusted analysis revealed that the probability of rating general health as bad was higher for illiterate participants (PR: 1.77, 95%CI: 1.13–2.77) or with low educational level (PR: 1.76, 95%CI: 1.17–2.65), those with depressive symptoms (PR: 1.45, 95%CI:1.21–1.74), participants that self-reported food limitation due to problems with denture or lack of it (PR: 1.29, 95%CI: 1.05–1.56), and those with xerostomia (PR 1.40, 95%CI: 1.17–1.67). The probability of rating general health as bad was lower for participants that presented 0-2 chronic diseases (PR: 0.64, 95%CI: 0.53–0.78) and were pre-frail (PR: 0.76, 95%CI: 0.61-0.96). With regard to SROH, the probability of rating oral health as bad was higher for participants with natural teeth (PR:1.61, 95%CI: 1.24–2.08), that reported xerostomia (PR: 1.44, 95%CI: 1.13–1.84), and food limitation due to problems with denture or lack of it (PR: 1.43, 95%CI: 1.07–1,91), and lower for participants that reported having enough money to cover daily expenses (PR: 0.78, 95%CI: 0.61–0.99). Oral health data and income seem to be related to self-perceptions of general and oral health.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aims of the present study were to compare conventional radiography, radiographs digitized with a scanner or photographic camera, and digital radiography, used to evaluate the radiopacity of endodontic materials, and to compare the accuracy of linear and quadratic models used to convert radiopacity values to equivalent millimeters of aluminum (mm Al). Specimens of AH Plus, Endofill, Biodentine and BioMTA materials (n = 8) were radiographed next to an aluminum step-wedge using radiographic films and digital radiography systems (FONA CMOS sensor, Kodak CMOS sensor and photosensitive phosphor plate-PSP). Conventional radiographs were digitized using a scanner or photographic digital camera. Digital images of all the radiographic systems were evaluated using dedicated software. Optical density units (ODU) of the specimens and the aluminum step-wedge were evaluated by a photo-densitometer (PTDM), used in conventional radiographs. The radiopacity in equivalent mm Al of the materials was determined by linear and quadratic models, and the coefficients of determination (R2) values were calculated for each model. Radiopacity of the materials ranged from -9% to 25% for digital systems and digitized radiographs, compared to the PTDM (p < 0.05). The R2 values of the quadratic model were higher than those of the linear model. In conclusion, the FONA CMOS sensor showed the lowest radiopacity variability of the methodologies used, compared with the PTDM, except for the BioMTA group (higher than PTDM). The quadratic model showed higher R2 values than the linear model, thus indicating better accuracy and possible adoption to evaluate the radiopacity of endodontic materials.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of shortening of etching time for dentin on the restoration survival after selective carious tissue removal in primary molars. This two-arm randomized clinical trial included sixty-two subjects (5–8 year-old) and 100 primary molars presenting moderate dentin carious lesions on occlusal surface. The sample was randomly assigned into groups previously to adhesive application (Adper Single Bond 2; 3M ESPE): etching time recommended by manufacturer (15 s) or reduced (7 s). Resin composite (Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior Restorative; 3M ESPE) was inserted in a single increment for all restorations. Restorations were evaluated at 1, 6, 12, and 18 months using FDI criteria. Survival estimates for restorations’ longevity were evaluated with Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox regression analysis with shared frailty was used to assess the factors associated with failures (p < 0.05). The etching time did not influence the restorations’ survival (HR 0.35 95%CI 0.11–1.12; p = 0.06). Mean estimated time of survival was 17.6 months (95%CI, 17.2–17.9). The survival rates at the 18-month follow-up were 75.7% and 91.4% (AFR: 16.9% and 5.7%) when primary dentin was acid etched for 15 and 7 s, respectively (log-rank p = 0.06). In conclusion, the etching time for dentin did not influence the clinical behavior of adhesives restorations. However, there was a tendency for better clinical outcome when using etching time of 7 s.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aims to assess the influence of high-density material on the radiographic diagnosis of proximal caries in digital systems with automatic exposure compensation, and to evaluate the effect of subjective adjustment of brightness and contrast to undertake this diagnostic task. Twenty bitewing radiographs of forty posterior human teeth with non-cavitated carious lesions, confirmed by micro-CT, were obtained with two digital systems. A porcelain-fused-to-metal crown attached to a titanium implant was inserted into the exposed area, and all the radiographs were repeated. Five radiologists assessed the radiographs and diagnosed proximal carious lesions. Afterwards, the observers were asked to adjust image brightness and contrast, based on their subjective perception, and to reassess the images. Thirty percent of each experimental group was reassessed to test intraobserver reproducibility, totaling 208 images per observer. Intraobserver and interobserver agreements ranged from fair to substantial. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and area under the ROC curve were calculated and compared for each radiographic system, using ANOVA (α = 0.05). Overall, presence of high-density material and adjustment of brightness and contrast did not significantly influence the radiographic diagnosis of proximal caries (p ≥ 0.05). Regarding Digora Optime, adjustment of brightness and contrast significantly increased (p < 0.05) the diagnostic accuracy of proximal carious lesions in the presence of high-density material. In conclusion, the presence of high-density material in the X-rayed region does not influence radiographic diagnosis of proximal caries. However, when it is present in the X-rayed area, subjective adjustment of brightness and contrast is recommended for use with the Digora Optime digital system.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study evaluates how atenolol affects dental mineralization in offspring of female spontaneously hypertensive rats (fSHR) and normotensive Wistar rats (fW). fSHR and fW were treated with atenolol (100 mg/Kg/day, orally) during pregnancy and lactation. Non-treated fSHR and fW were the control groups. Enamel and dentin hardness were analyzed (Knoop, 15 g load, 10s) in mandibular incisor teeth (IT) and molar teeth (MT) obtained from the male offspring of atenolol-treated and non-treated fWistar and fSHR. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, followed by Tukey post hoc test (p < 0.05). Atenolol reduced the arterial blood pressure (SBP) in fSHR, but it did not change the SBP in fW. The offspring of non-treated fSHR had lower enamel (IT and MT) and dentin (IT) hardness than the offspring of non-treated fW (p < 0.05). Atenolol increased enamel and dentin hardness in the IT obtained from the offspring of fSHR and fW (p<0.05), but the offspring of fSHR presented higher values (p < 0.05). Atenolol did not alter enamel width in the IT obtained from any of the groups, but it increased enamel and dentin hardness in the IT obtained from the offspring of fSHR and fW. Atenolol affected the IT obtained from the offspring of fSHR. Atenolol increased only enamel hardness in the MT obtained from the offspring of fW. In conclusion, maternal hypertension reduces tooth hard tissues, and treatment with atenolol increases tooth hardness in male offspring of hypertensive and normotensive female rats.
Abstract in English:Abstract Inflammatory external root resorption (IERR) is a pathological process defined by the progressive loss of dental hard tissue, dentin, and cementum, resulting from the combination of the loss of external root protective apparatus and root canal infection. It has been suggested that healing patterns after tooth replantation may be influenced by the genetic and immunological profiles of the patients. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the DNA methylation patterns of 22 immune response-related genes in extracted human teeth presenting with IERR. Methylation assays were performed on samples of root fragments showing IERR and compared with healthy bone tissue collected during the surgical extraction of impacted teeth. The methylation patterns were quantified using EpiTect Methyl II Signature Human Cytokine Production PCR Array. The results revealed significantly higher hypermethylation of the FOXP3 gene promoter in IERR (65.95%) than in the bone group (23.43%) (p < 0.001). The ELANE gene was also highly methylated in the pooled IERR sample, although the difference was not statistically significant (p= 0.054). Our study suggests that the differential methylation patterns of immune response-related genes, such as FOXP3 and ELANE, may be involved in IERR modulation, and this could be related to the presence of root canal infection. However, further studies are needed to corroborate these findings to determine the functional relevance of these alterations and their role in the pathogenesis of IERR.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this study, we evaluated the physicochemical properties (PCP; radiopacity, flow, pH, and solubility) and the quality of root canal filling provided by an experimental industrialized paste (EP), with the same active ingredients as those of the Guedes Pinto paste, compared with the Vitapex® paste. PCP were analyzed according to the ANSI/ADA laboratory testing methods for endodontic filling and sealing materials. To analyze filling capacity, 120 artificial primary teeth (60 maxillary incisors [MIs] and 60 mandibulary molars [MMs]) were endodontically treated. The teeth were divided into eight groups based on the dental group (MIs or MMs), filling material (Vitapex® or EP), and insertion method (syringe or lentulo). The Image J® software was used to analyze the initial an final digital radiographies of each tooth, measuring and comparing root canal and void areas. The percentage of filling failure areas was obtained. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test of mean comparison. Regarding PCP, both pastes presented results according the ANSI/ADA standards. Flow capacity: Vitapex: 19.6 mm, EP: 25 mm (p < 0.01); radiopacity: Vitapex: 4.47 mmAl, EP: 6.06 mmAl (p < 0.01); pH after 28 days: Vitapex: 7.79, EP: 8.19 (p = 0.12); and solubility after 28 days: Vitapex: 2.68%, EP: 2.89% (p > 0.05). Regarding filling capacity analysis, EP demonstrated 12.5% of failure against 31.5% of Vitapex (p < 0.01). Compared to Vitapex, EP presented statistically significantly better results in flow, radiopacity, pH, and filling capacity. Molars presented more filling failures than incisors. The insertion method using a syringe and a thin tip was significantly better than that using Lentulo spiral carriers.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to i) evaluate the prevalence of P. gingivalis and the genotypes fim A I, Ib, II, III, IV, and V in Brazilian patients with periodontitis stage III and IV, grades B and C, ii) compare periodontitis grades B and C with regard to the prevalence of P. gingivalis and fim A genotypes, and iii) correlate the presence of these pathogens with clinical periodontal variables. Two samples of subgingival biofilm were collected from the interproximal sites with the greatest clinical attachment loss (CAL) of each patient (grade B = 38; grade C = 54) and submitted to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the identification of P. gingivalis and fim A genotypes. The collected periodontal clinical parameters included gingival index, plaque index, probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BoP) and CAL. P. gingivalis was present in 61.96% of the samples, but more prevalent in patients with grade C periodontitis (p = 0.048) and higher CAL (p < 0.001), PD (p < 0.001), and BoP (p = 0.01) values, and at sites with high CAL values (p = 0.01). The fim A II genotype was more prevalent in patients with greater mean PD (p = 0.04) and a higher proportion of bleeding sites (p = 0.006). Thus, in this sample of Brazilian periodontitis patients, the presence of P. gingivalis was associated with grade C periodontitis and periodontal destruction, while the fim A II genotype was associated with increased PD and BoP, supporting the notion that P. gingivalis fim A II is an important virulence factor in periodontal tissues.
Abstract in English:Abstract Information about bacterial diversity, such as the number of each species in the root canals of primary teeth, contributes to improving our effective management of infections of endodontic origin in primary teeth. This study made a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the bacteria in the root canals of primary teeth with necrotic pulp, using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Thirty-one primary teeth with pulp necrosis from 31 children were evaluated using the FISH technique, to detect the presence and density of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Campylobacter rectus, Enterococcus faecalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, Streptococcus, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola. Descriptive measures explained the data related to density, and Student’s t-test assessed the differences among the densities of each bacterium, according to signs and symptoms. The bacterial density was paired and correlated. All bacteria tested were detected and identified in all the samples. The average number of bacterial individuals from each species ranged from 1.9 x 108 cells/mL (S. mutans) to 3.1 x 108 cells/mL (F. nucleatum) (p > 0.05). The sum of the mean counts of each bacterium represented almost 80% of the entire microbial community. Patients with pain had significantly more T. denticola, and those with edema showed a greater density of Streptococcus and P. nigrescens (p < 0.05). This study revealed that all 12 bacteria evaluated were found in all primary teeth with pulp necrosis. There was no predominance among the species studied; all species had a similar number of individuals.
Abstract in English:Abstract We aimed to evaluate the orofacial antinociceptive effect of geraniol in mice and its molecular anchorage mechanism. Seven mice per group (probabilistic sample) were treated with geraniol (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg, i.p.), morphine (6 mg/kg, i.p.) and vehicle (saline + Tween 80 at 0.2%, i.p.) 30 minutes prior to the beginning of the experiment. Injecting glutamate (25 μM), capsaicin (2.5 μg) and formalin (2%) into the right upper lip (perinasal) of the mouse induced nociception. Behavioral analysis of the animals considered the friction time (in seconds) of the mentioned region using hind or front paws by a researcher blinded to the treatment groups. The statistical analysis was performed blindly, considering α = 5%. The results showed that in the glutamate and capsaicin tests, concentrations of 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg presented antinociceptive activity (p < 0.005, power> 80%). In the formalin test, geraniol was able to reduce nociception at a concentration of 50 mg/kg (p < 0.005, power> 80%). In the molecular anchorage study, high values of binding between the evaluated substance and receptors of glutamate were observed (metabotropic glutamate receptor, -87.8501 Kcal/mol; N-methyl-D-aspartate, -86.4451 Kcal/mol; α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid, -85.6755 Kcal/mol). Geraniol presented orofacial antinociceptive activity, probably by interacting with glutamate-related receptors.
Abstract in English:Abstract The composition of infiltrants can influence their physical properties, viscosity and depth of penetration (DP). Strategies are used to increase the DP, such as the addition of diluents or the use of heat. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of preheating and composition on physical properties and DP of infiltrants in demineralized enamel. The groups were assigned, and the following experimental formulations were made: 25%BisEMA +75%TEGDMA; 25%BisEMA +65%TEGDMA +10%ethanol; 25%BisEMA +65%TEGDMA +10%HEMA; 100%TEGDMA; 90%TEGDMA +10%ethanol; 90%TEGDMA +10%HEMA. The samples were photoactivated at two temperatures (25°C and 55°C). Degree of conversion (DC) was performed using an infrared spectrophotometer. Elastic modulus (E), flexural strength (FS) and contact angle (CA) tests were also performed. The DP of an infiltrant in demineralized enamel was determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) using an indirect labeling technique. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. DC increased after preheating in all the groups; however, 90%TEGDMA+10%ethanol showed the lowest DC for both temperatures, and the lowest E. Preheating did not influence E or FS. The CA increased at 55°C for most groups, but decreased for groups containing HEMA. Temperature did not seem to influence DP, and Icon showed the lowest DP values. The 100%TEGDMA composition showed more homogeneous penetration, whereas Icon showed heterogeneous and superficial penetration. The preheating technique does not improve all properties in all the material compositions. The composition of a material can influence and improve its properties.
Abstract in English:Abstract Forensic facial reconstruction aids in the process of human identification by facial recognition. The nose plays an important role in this process; however, its soft tissues wither away during cadaveric decomposition. There are few studies in the area of facial recognition of the Brazilian population, especially concerning Brazilian nasal prediction guides. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the angle formed by the tangents drawn from the rhinion and prosthion points (nose tip) is equal to 90º, as proposed by the pioneer study by Tedeschi-Oliveira et al. (2016). It is important to highlight that this is the only method to date developed to predict the nasal tip in Brazilians, and has not yet been tested in other populations. Images of computed tomography scans of 228 individuals (171 females and 57 males) were screened according to the same criteria used by the authors of the primary study. The images were analyzed using the Horos® program, version 1.1.7 – 64 bit. The mean angle studied was about 90º, and any difference between this mean and the real angle measured did not significantly compromise the accuracy of the nose tip location. The findings tested in the present study corroborate the hypothesis investigated by Tedeschi-Oliveira et. al. Therefore, we suggest that the method be used in forensic practice to estimate nose tips in Brazilians.
Abstract in English:Abstract Regulatory T (Treg) cells can suppress antitumor immune response, but little is known about possible age-related differences in the number of these cells in the microenvironment of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). The aim of this study was to determine the number of FoxP3+ Treg cells in the microenvironment of OTSCC in young (≤ 45 years) and older (≥ 60 years) patients, and to correlate the findings with clinicopathological parameters (sex, tumor size/extent, regional lymph node metastasis, clinical staging, and histopathological grade of malignancy). Forty-eight OTSCCs (24 diagnosed in young patients and 24 diagnosed in older patients) were selected. Lymphocytes exhibiting nuclear immunopositivity for FoxP3 were quantified at the tumor invasive front and the results were analyzed statistically using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. FoxP3+ lymphocytes were observed in all cases assessed. The number of FoxP3+ lymphocytes in OTSCC tended to be higher in older patients (p = 0.055). Analysis of OTSCC in males and in early clinical stages revealed a higher number of Treg cells in older patients than in young ones (p < 0.05). In older patients, the number of Treg cells tended to be higher in smaller tumors (p = 0.079). Tumors with intense inflammatory infiltrate exhibited a larger number of Treg cells, both in young (p = 0.099) and older patients (p = 0.005). The results suggest a greater participation of Treg cells in immunoinflammatory responses in the microenvironment of OTSCC in older patients, particularly in males and in early stages.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to map evidence-based guidelines for oral care of the dependent elders and perform the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese. Initially, a systematized review was conducted in Medline, Scielo, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases without restrictions in search period or type of study. Articles in English, Spanish, and Brazilian Portuguese describing evidence-based guidelines for oral care, including oral hygiene recommendations, of institutionalized dependent elders were included as long as they presented an evaluation of evident quality. The guideline that met inclusion criteria was submitted to cross-cultural adaptation after obtaining permission from the original authors. Two hundred and nineteen references were found. Three selected articles described evidence-based guidelines for oral care, but the Oral Health Care Guideline for Older People in Long-term Care Institutions (OGOLI), originally developed and implemented in the Netherlands, was selected. It was based on evidence level A2 and consensus of experts and met the quality requirements of the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE). This guideline presents oral care recommendations for elders with different levels of dependence in activities of daily living to be performed by caregivers and nursing staff. The adaptation of the OGOLI was mainly on the attributions of care providers, given the differences in professional regulations between Brazil and the Netherlands. The cross-cultural equivalence between OGOLI and its Brazilian Portuguese version was verified.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present study aimed to validate (cross-culturally adapt and test psychometric properties) the Brazilian version of the Halitosis Associated Life-Quality Test (HALT). A process of translation and cross-cultural adaptation was conducted by a group of dental researchers. The first draft of the Brazilian Portuguese version was pre-tested on a sample of 33 individuals leading up to the final version of the questionnaire. The Brazilian version of the HALT (B-HALT) was applied to 100 individuals with halitosis (organoleptic score ≥ 2) and 100 individuals without halitosis (organoleptic score < 2). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to evaluate the dimensionality of B-HALT. Cronbach’s alpha (α) and interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to measure its reliability. For convergent validity, Spearman’s correlation was conducted between the B-HALT and the organoleptic scores. The discriminant validity was evaluated through the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. EFA confirmed the unidimensionality of B-HALT, which has also demonstrated excellent internal consistency (α = 0.96) and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.93). There was a positive correlation between B-HALT and organoleptic scores (r = 0.33; p < 0.001). B-HALT was able to discriminate between the groups with and without halitosis measured by the organoleptic method (p < 0.001) and self-reported halitosis (p < 0.001). B-HALT has demonstrated to be a reliable and valid tool to evaluate the oral health-related quality of life associated to halitosis in Brazilian adults.
Abstract in English:Abstract To assess the impact of oral conditions on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of pediatric liver transplant candidates. This cross-sectional study included 60 children aged 13 to 48 months who were liver transplant candidates that attended the AC Camargo Cancer Center, São Paulo, Brazil. On the day of oral examinations, the children’s mothers were invited to answer two questionnaires; one related to children’s OHRQoL using the B-ECOHIS and another related to socioeconomic/demographic characteristics. Thereafter, a single, adequately trained dentist carried out children’s oral examinations for gingival inflammation (Silness-Löe index), dental plaque (Green-Vermillion Simplified index), dental caries (dmft index), developmental defects of enamel (DDE index), tooth discoloration, oral mucosal/lip alterations. The data collected also included socioeconomic/demographic characteristics and liver disease. The adjusted Poisson regression model was used to associate children’s socioeconomic/demographic characteristics and clinical conditions to the outcome. The adjusted regression model showed that children with untreated caries lesions (RR = 3.35, p < 0.0001) and tooth discoloration (RR = 1.74, p = 0.04) had poorer total B-ECOHIS scores. Dental discoloration and untreated caries lesions had a negative impact on the OHRQoL in pediatric liver transplant candidates.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the clinical and radiographic success rates of pulpotomies in primary molars using a new stain-free tricalcium silicate cement (Bio-C Pulpo) versus a conventional white MTA (MTA Angelus) as a pulpotomy medicament for primary teeth. Seventy primary teeth in 33 patients were randomly divided into two groups, MTA Angelus (n = 34) and Bio-C Pulpo (n = 36). Clinical and radiographic follow-up examinations were conducted at seven days (except radiographic follow-up), and at one, three, six and 12 months. At 12 months, the clinical success rate of the MTA Angelus group was 100 percent (28 out of 28), and the radiographic success rate was 100 percent (28 out of 28). In comparison, the clinical success rate for the Bio-C Pulpo group was 100 percent (29 out of 29), and the radiographic success rate was 100 percent (29 out of 29). No significant differences were found between the groups at any follow-up evaluation. According to Fisher´s exact test, a significant difference was observed between the pulpotomy agent and tooth discoloration (p < 0.001). The success rates were 100% for the Bio-C Pulpo group, with no case of discoloration, and 10.31% for the MTA Angelus group. Both MTA Angelus and Bio-C Pulp pulpotomy medicaments are appropriate options for pulpotomies in primary teeth, and enable high clinical and radiographic success rates. However, more long-term studies are required to test the new Bio-C Pulpo medicament.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of MDP (10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate) concentration and application mode of experimental adhesives on microshear bond strength (μSBS) to dentin after storage in distilled water at 37°C for 24h and 6 months. Five experimental adhesives were prepared with: CQ, DABE, BHT, ethanol, HEMA, TEGDMA, Bis-EMA, UDMA, and Bis-GMA. Concentrations of 0 wt%, 3 wt%, 9 wt%, 12 wt% or 15 wt% of MDP were added to their composition. The adhesives were applied to flat dentin surfaces in etch-and-rinse or self-etching modes. Cylindrical molds filled with light-cured composite resin were placed above the dentin. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37oC for 24h or 6 months and submitted to μSBS testing. The adhesives were also submitted to pH analysis. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, three-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α = 5%). All the adhesives used in the etch-and-rinse mode showed significantly higher bond strength than the adhesives applied in the self-etching approach. The 9 wt% adhesive showed the highest bond strength values, and 3 wt% was most stable after storage. A strong negative correlation between MDP concentration and pH was observed. It was concluded that the formulations with low concentrations of MDP (up to 9 wt%) showed better results for bond strength and bond strength degradation over time.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this prospective epidemiological study was to evaluate the occurrence of incidents involving the craniofacial region of soccer players during three official FIFA competitions. The craniofacial incidents were identified by video analysis of all 144 matches of two FIFA World Cups (2014/2018) and the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup. Data collection included incident type, incident severity, site affected, incident cause and referee decision. The multivariate Poisson regression model was performed to analyze the associations between covariates. A total of 238 incidents were observed in the craniofacial region (1.6 incidents/match), representing a rate of 48.5 incidents per 1000 hours. At least 80.6% of the matches presented at least one incident, and, in more than 60%, the referee’s decision was no foul. According to severity, 26.8% of the incidents were classified as having mild or high severity. Incidents involving lacerations or fracture presented higher severity compared with hits (IRR 3.45[95%CI: 1.89–6.30]). Head-to-head impacts showed an incidence of severe incidents twice as high as those involving upper extremities (IRR 2.01[95%CI:1.07–3.76]). A high number of craniofacial incidents were observed in the last FIFA competitions. Head-to-head impacts and lacerations or fractures were associated with higher incident severity.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to assess the effect of caries increment on Oral Health-related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of Brazilian adolescents and to evaluate the responsiveness of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) in this group. A population-based sample of 515 Brazilian 12-year-olds from a large city located in the southeast of Brazil was evaluated according to a random multistage sampling design at baseline and 291 at three years follow-up, using the DMFT index and the CPQ11-14 instrument. To evaluate the responsiveness to change, the measures of effect size and longitudinal construct validity were used. It was verified that OHRQoL among adolescents with DMFT increment across the three years worsened significantly (p<0.05) in relation to their counterparts. The effect size varied from small to moderate. The longitudinal construct validity of CPQ11-14 was satisfactory. Caries increment impacted on OHRQoL of adolescents in Brazil. The CPQ11-14 instrument demonstrated acceptable responsiveness properties.
Abstract in English:Abstract Asymptomatic Apical Periodontitis is essentially an inflammatory disease of microbial aetiology. Association and function of the cell components involved, or specific inductive factors and growth mediators associated with development, maintenance and resolution of the periapical lesions are still unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentration of Regulatory T cells (FoxP3+; Treg), Langerhans cells (CD1a+; LC) and mast cells in asymptomatic apical periodontitis. 73 cases were selected: 30 periapical granulomas, 29 radicular cysts and 14 residual cysts. All groups were submitted to morphological analysis for classification of inflammatory infiltrate and thickness of the epithelial lining as well as to immunohistochemical analysis for detection of LC and Treg cells. Toluidine blue staining was used for detecting mast cells. Analysis showed higher mean numbers of LC (8.2 cells/0.2mm2), and Treg cells in radicular cysts (5.910 cells/0.2mm2). As for mast cells, it was found that radicular cysts had a higher mean number of these cells compared to other periapical lesions (12.68 cells/0.2mm2). The association between thickness of the epithelial lining and inflammatory cells showed that the presence of hypertrophic epithelium in radicular cysts presented higher density of LC. The number of LC and Treg cells play an important role in the control of the inflammatory micro-environment in periapical granulomas and radicular cysts, respectively. The presence of mast cells in radicular cysts may be associated with progression of the lesion. Knowledge regarding the inflammatory cell profile is therefore essential for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of asymptomatic periapical periodontitis.
Abstract in English:Abstract The purpose of the present study was to compare the perceptions of the parents/ caregivers of young people with and without Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) with regards to their oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). A cross-sectional study was conducted with 29 individuals with MPS and 29 normotypic individuals aged three to 21 years and their parents/caregivers. All parents/caregivers of young people with MPS in follow-up at two reference hospitals in the city of Belo Horizonte, southeastern Brazil, were invited to participate in the study. Individuals without MPS were recruited from the pediatric clinics of both hospitals. Parents/caregivers answered a structured questionnaire addressing the sociodemographic characteristics, behavioral habits and medical and dental history of the children as well as the Brazilian short-form version of the Parental-Caregiver (P-CPQ). The individuals with and without MPS were examined for malocclusion, dental caries and oral hygiene by an examiner who had undergone training and calibration exercises. Mean age of the subjects was 12.1 years (± 4.2). Comparing total P-CPQ scores and scores on the oral symptoms, functional limitations and wellbeing domains, the parents/caregivers individuos with MPS reported a statistically significant greater negative impact on OS domain than their counterparts. Regarding the clinical variables, malocclusion was also associated a greater negative impact on OHRQoL of young people with MPS when compared to those of young people without MPS. Our findings show the great negative impact caused by the malocclusion of young people with MPS.
Abstract in English:Abstract Acrylic resin has been used in the manufacture of prostheses, however, in the oral cavity, this material starts to retain microorganisms capable of causing gingival inflammation due its porosities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the use of silicon dioxide as a coating layer applied onto acrylic resin, on the adhesion of Candida albicans (Ca). After the incubation period in Sabouraud Dextrose Broth, a total of 1 ml of the Ca suspension was added to plate wells, each well containing a specimen of acrylic resin. The adhesion ability of Ca on acrylic resin was determined by counting colonies. Three groups (n = 6) of acrylic resin were assessed: with polishing (RP); without polishing (RW); with polishing and coating layer of silicon dioxide (RPC). Ca deposited on the surface of the acrylic resin was also observed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Statistical assessment by Kruskal-Wallis and Student-Newman-Keuls Method were done (α = 2%). There was significant difference among the groups. The RPC group showed the lowest growth, with an average of 5.59 Log CFU/cm 2 ; there was a statistically significant difference in relation to group RW, which presented a growth of 6.07 Log CFU/cm 2 and to group RP with 5.91 Log CFU/cm 2 (p < 000.1). SEM images demonstrated that in the RP and RPC group, the surface of the resin had greater regularity, and smaller number of microorganisms. The application of silicon dioxide coating on acrylic resin appears to be a promising alternative, and its use can help in reducing the adhesion of Ca in prostheses.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study evaluated the effect of selective carious tissue removal on the fracture strength and failure mode of composite restorations in molars presenting only the buccal cusps. Deep cavities were prepared on the occlusal surface, and the lingual cusps were removed. Carious lesions in the middle of the pulpal wall were artificially induced with acetic acid (pH = 4.5) for 35 days. The demineralized dentin was left intact or was completely removed prior to restoration with a bulk-fill composite (n = 10). Images of the specimens were obtained by optical coherence tomography (OCT) before and after the caries induction/removal. The mechanical resistance to fracture by axial compressive loading and the failure type and extension were determined. The pulpal wall/composite interface of the fractured specimens was analyzed by OCT. The data were analyzed for significance with t-tests (α = 0.05). The deepest cavities and a more frequent occurrence of pulpal exposure were observed more often for non-selective carious tissue removal. The protocol of carious tissue removal did not affect the fracture strength (p = 0.554). An increased occurrence of catastrophic failures involving the roots was observed for non-selective carious tissue removal. Some occurrences of restoration displacement or cracks throughout the resin-dentin were observed only for the selective carious tissue approach. Selective carious tissue removal is a feasible approach to extensively damaged teeth since it reduced the occurrence of pulpal exposure and root fractures, without compromising the fracture strength.
Abstract in English:Abstract Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is the most recent infectious disease that is spreading rapidly throughout the world. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and awareness levels of dentists on COVID-19. This survey study, consisting of 37 questions, was sent to dentists via an online link in the first two weeks of April 2020. The questionnaire consisted of questions related to the knowledge level of dentists on COVID-19 during the pandemic period. The knowledge level of dentists was assessed with a 24-point scoring, consisting of correct answers. A Chi-square test was used to compare qualitative data (p < 0.05). A total of 267 dentists participated in this study, of which 51.7% were aged under 30 years, and 67% were women. The participants’ knowledge level means score was 19.03 ± 3.15. According to these results, 231 were determined (86.5%) as high knowledgeable. Positive associations between increased knowledge level and factors such as being a woman, working in a university hospital, and being informed outside the institution were determined. The knowledge level of the dentists working in Istanbul about the COVID-19 pandemic is quite high.
Abstract in English:Abstract The purpose of this study was to synthesize dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) particles functionalized with triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) through different routes by varying the receptor solution: ammonium phosphate (AP groups) or calcium nitrate (CN groups) and the moment in which TEGDMA was incorporated: ab initio (ab) or at the end of dripping the solution (ap). Two syntheses were performed without adding TEGDMA (nf). The particles were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, true density (using a helium pycnometer), surface area, and scanning electron microscopy. A 20 vol% of DCPD particles from the D, E, and F groups was added to the resin matrix to determine the degree of conversion (DC), biaxial flexural strength (BFS), the flexural modulus (FM), and surface roughness after an abrasive challenge (RA). A group with silanized barium glass particles was tested as a control. The data were submitted to ANOVA/Tukey’s test (DC, BFS, and RA), and the Kruskal–Wallis test (FM) (alpha = 0.05). BFS values varied between 83 and 142 MPa, and the CN_ab group presented a similar value (123 MPa) to the control group. FM values varied between 3.6 and 8.7 GPa (CN_ab and CN_nf groups, respectively), with a significant difference found only between these groups. RA did not result in significant differences. The use of calcium nitrate solution as a receptor, together with ab initio functionalization formed particles with larger surface areas. Higher BFS values were observed for the material containing DCPD particles with a higher surface area. In general, the DC, FM, and RA values were not affected by the variables studied.
Abstract in English:Abstract The DNA repair system involves genes and proteins that are essential for the maintenance of genome integrity and the consequent control of various cellular processes. Alterations in these genes and proteins play a role in tumor development and progression and might be associated with prognosis. The aims of this study were to analyze the immunoexpression of two DNA repair proteins, XPF and XRCC1, in lower lip squamous cell carcinoma (LLSCC) and oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC), and to investigate possible associations with clinical and histopathological parameters. The immunohistochemical expression of XPF and XRCC1 was analyzed semi-quantitatively in 40 cases each of LLSCC and OTSCC. The chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test, when appropriate, was used to investigate the association between expression of the proteins and clinicopathological characteristics. The cytoplasmic immunoexpression of XPF was high in OTSCC (95% of the cases analyzed) but low in LLSCC (52.5%). Among the clinicopathological parameters evaluated, a statistically significant association was observed between high nuclear expression of XRCC1 and the absence of regional lymph node metastasis in patients diagnosed with OTSCC (p=0.006). The high protein expression of XPF and XRCC1 in OTSCC and LLSCC suggests an important role in the development and progression of these tumors. Our study found an association between high nuclear expression of XRCC1 and the absence of loco-regional metastasis in cases diagnosed as OTSCC, suggesting a role of this protein in tumor progression.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of clinical and socioeconomic factors on social capital throughout adolescence. A cohort study was performed in 2012 (T1) with a random sample of 1,134 12-year-old adolescents from Santa Maria, Brazil. Questions on socioeconomic factors (maternal education, household income, household crowding) were answered by the parents. Clinicians evaluated their dental caries (decayed, missing, and filled status of permanent teeth) and gingival bleeding (using the Community Periodontal Index). Contextual variables including the mean income of the neighborhood in which the school was located were used (T1). The adolescents were revaluated in 2018 (T2) and answered questions regarding social capital (social trust, social control, empowerment, neighborhood security, and political effectiveness). A path analysis was used to test the relationship between the predictor variables (T1) and social capital (T2). A total of 768 adolescents were reevaluated at a 6-year follow-up (cohort retention rate of 67.7%). Most of the adolescents were girls, with a low household income, about 40% had caries experience (T1), and about 64% had high social capital (T2). The highest neighborhood’s mean income was related to a lower household income in T1 (p < 0.01), and this was directly related to a low social capital in T2 (p = 0.04). Furthermore, caries experience at T1 was directly associated with low social capital at T2 (p = 0.03). Socioeconomic factors were also related to caries experience. Individuals who lived in neighborhoods with greater inequality such as families with a low household income and those with untreated dental caries in early adolescence, had a low social capital after follow-up.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of the present infodemiological study was to evaluate whether the COVID-19 outbreak has influenced the volume of content related to the dental treatment needs of Brazilian Twitter users to summarize the trends, and to identify the perceptions of the treatment needed. We collected tweets related to dental care needs of individuals exposed to the COVID-19 outbreak scenario between March 23 to May 4, 2020 and of those not exposed to the COVID-19 pandemic (unexposed group) on the same reported days of 2019 using the terms “dentista (dentist), dente (tooth), siso (third molar), and aparelho (orthodontic appliance).” Descriptive analysis was performed to provide summary statistics of the frequencies of tweets related to different dental treatment needs and also the differences in volume content between the years 2019 and 2020. Moreover, the data were analyzed by qualitative analysis using an inductive approach. A total of 1,763 tweets from 2020 and 1,339 tweets from 2019 were screened. Those tweets posted by non-Brazilian users, duplicates, and those unrelated to dental treatment needs were removed and, therefore 1,197 tweets from 2020 and 719 tweets from 2019 were selected. Content volume related to dental treatment needs greatly increased during the COVID-19 outbreak. Findings from the word cloud and content analysis suggest that dental pain, related or not to the third molar, and problems with orthodontic appliances were the topics most commonly related to dental treatment needs discussed during the COVID-19 outbreak, mainly conveying anxiety and distress. The volume of tweets related to dental treatment needs posted by Brazilian users increased during the COVID-19 outbreak and self-reported pain and urgencies were the most popular topics.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of the present transversal study was to evaluate the clinical and biochemical salivary parameters of children with and without erosive tooth wear (ETW). The study population was children aged 4 to 9 years. A trained and calibrated examiner (kappa value for intraexaminer reliability = 0.89) classified the children into ETW (n = 24) and control groups (n = 24), and applied the O’Brien index. The salivary flow rate was initially evaluated by stimulated sialometry (paraffin chewing). Afterwards, the collected saliva was submitted to biochemical analyses of pH, uric acid, total buffering capacity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, reduced glutathione, calcium, and phosphorus. Among the ETW children, 20 (83%) had dental lesions restricted to enamel, and 4 (17%) presented lesions affecting both enamel and dentin. A statistically significant difference between the groups was obtained only for the pH values (t-test; p = 0.004), with averages of 7.31 and 7.56 for the control and the ETW groups, respectively. Considering the parameters evaluated in general, it is suggested that the salivary profile of children with ETW does not differ considerably from that of children without ETW. However, the pH mean value seems to be slightly higher in ETW children, but is still within the normal physiological range.
Abstract in English:Abstract The exposure to amoxicillin has been associated with molar incisor hypomineralization. This study aimed to determine if amoxicillin disturbs the enamel mineralization in in vivo experiments. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly assigned into three groups to received daily phosphatase-buffered saline or amoxicillin as either 100 or 500 mg/kg. Mice received treatment from day 13 of pregnancy to day 40 postnatal. After birth, the offsprings from each litter continued to receive the same treatment according to their respective group. Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) content in the dental hard tissues were analyzed from 60 upper first molars and 60 upper incisors by the complexometric titration method and colorimetric analysis using a spectrophotometer at 680 nm, respectively. Lower incisors were analyzed by X-ray microtomography, it was measured the electron density of lingual and buccal enamel, and the enamel and dentin thickness. Differences in Ca and P content and electron density among the groups were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. There was no significant difference on enamel electron density and thickness among the groups (p > 0.05). However, in incisors, the higher dose of amoxicillin decreased markedly the electron density in some rats. There were no statistically significant differences in Ca (p = 0.180) or P content (p = 0.054), although the higher dose of amoxicillin could affect the enamel in some animals. The amoxicillin did not significantly alter the enamel mineralization and thickness in rats.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to assess Brazilian endodontists’ level of knowledge about the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and examine its professional repercussions. The link to the online survey that was created for this study was shared with Brazilian endodontists through social networking applications. The questionnaire contained questions that pertained to COVID-19 and its impact on dental practice. The collected data were analyzed using t-test, chi-square analysis, and analysis of variance, and the level of significance was set at 0.05. A total of 2,135 participants responded to the questionnaire, and all five Brazilian regions were represented in the sample. A total of 98.50% of endodontists reported that dental procedures can transmit COVID-19. Complete social distancing was practiced by 96.68% of the participants, and approximately 25% knew someone who had COVID-19. Moreover, in their daily practice, 72.13% of them implemented biosecurity measures that are ineffective in preventing COVID-19. Furthermore, 91.7% of them reportedly suspended elective dental procedures. Only 55.69% of them reported that they performed only emergency procedures in their workplaces. Those who believed that COVID-19 cannot be transmitted during dental procedures were less knowledgeable about the symptoms of COVID-19 (p = 0.0095). Endodontists who believed that personal protective equipment cannot prevent contamination were more knowledgeable about the symptoms of COVID-19 than their counterparts (p = 0.0003). The participating Brazilian endodontists demonstrated adequate knowledge about the risk of contamination during dental procedures and the main symptoms of COVID-19. Only some professionals reported providing emergency dental care during the pandemic.
Abstract in English:Abstract Agenesis of lateral incisors, besides the functional issues, represents a great esthetic drawback. The selection of an appropriate treatment is a complex decision, which should consider the stability of the clinical outcomes over time. The aim of the present study was a histological and clinical comparison of two-stage split crest technique (SCT), with bone chips alone or mixed with porcine bone in patients affected by unilateral and bilateral agenesis of the upper lateral incisors. Eleven patients were enrolled, and randomly assigned to receive a treatment with autologous bone chips (group 1) or autologous bone chips mixed 1:1 to porcine-derived xenogenic bone (group 2). After a 2-month healing period, implants were placed and biopsies harvested for histomorphometrical evaluation. Clinical assessment, according to ICOI PISA health scale, and radiographic marginal bone loss evaluation at 12- and 24-month follow-ups were conducted. The histomorphometry showed significantly greater new bone formation (p > 0.0229) in group 2. At 12- and 24-month follow-ups, all the evaluated implants, regardless of the group they were allocated, could be categorized as “success” in the ICOI Pisa Health Scale for Dental Implants, and did not show significant difference in crestal bone loss. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first histological and clinical outcomes indicating that the use of bone chips mixed 1:1 to porcine bone in SCT could be a promising technique for the rehabilitation of patients with agenesis of the upper lateral incisors, although studies with a larger number of patients and implants, and a longer follow up are needed.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the color stability of a bulk-fill (Filtek One Bulk Fill, 3M ESPE) and a conventional (Filtek Z350 XT, 3M ESPE) composite resin light-cured at different distances, before and after being submitted to staining with a coffee solution. Sixty specimens of each composite resin were prepared and light-cured at distances of 0, 2 and 4 mm, using a LED light-curing unit (Valo, Ultradent). The specimens were separated (n = 10) for immersion in either distilled water or coffee solution (10 minutes a day for 8 days) to stimulate staining. Color evaluations were performed before and after immersion in the solutions, according to CIELab (△Eab), CIEDE2000 (△E00) and the Whiteness Index for Dentistry (△WID). Kruskal Wallis and Dunn tests, Mann-Whitney tests and Wilcoxon test were applied (α = 5 %). The a* value for conventional composite resin showed a significant increase after immersion in coffee and distilled water (p < 0.05). Both composite resins showed greater b* values when immersed in coffee than in distilled water, with no significant difference among the light-activation distances (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference for L* among the light-activation distances; both resins showed significant decrease in L* after immersion in coffee (p < 0.05). Color change (△Eab, △E00) and difference in whiteness (△WID) were higher for conventional resin when immersed in the coffee solution at all the light-activation distances. Conventional composite resin presented a higher staining value than bulk-fill composite resin, regardless of the light-activation distance.
Abstract in English:Abstract COVID-19 is an emerging and rapidly-evolving situation. This study aimed to measure the level of knowledge and attitude of the Iranian dental students towards COVID-19 and its infection control strategies. This cross-sectional study was designed using a web-based method. The questionnaire associated with COVID-19 was sent to all Iranian students in the clinical course. The extracted data regarding the knowledge and attitude of the students were statistically analyzed. In this study, 531 dental students of the clinical course in 32 Iranian universities were included. The mean age of the participants was 23.13 ± 2.29 years. The average percentage of knowledge and attitude scores were 59.7% (moderate) and 66.0% (neutral), respectively. The association between the attitude of the students and their semesters was statistically significant (r = 0.183, p < 0.001). The age of the students was also significantly associated with their attitudes (r = 0.150, p = 0.001). The outbreak of COVID-19 might resurge due to re-opening of the dental faculties. Training courses on COVID-19 infection prevention strategies should be held for dental students, especially the junior ones, and the guidelines should be sent to all of them.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the differences, if any, between general dental practitioners (GDPs) and endodontists, in the diagnosis and treatment of endodontic emergencies during the worldwide outbreak of COVID-19. An online questionnaire was randomly sent by social media to clinicians in different countries from 24 April, 2020 to May 4, 2020. The survey consisted of a series of questions about demographic characteristics, endodontic emergency diagnoses, approaches to prevent aerosol formation, drug prescriptions in case of symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, and the ways in which dentists managed endodontic emergencies during the COVID-19 lockdown. A total of 1,058 dentists responded to the questionnaire; 344 (32.6%) of the participants were endodontists. Slightly less than half of the participants (n = 485, 45.8%) worked during the lockdown, but only 303 participants (28.6%) treated endodontic cases/emergencies. The responses showed agreement between endodontists and GDPs regarding the diagnosis of symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (SIP), symptomatic apical periodontitis (SAP), reversible pulpitis, and asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis (AIP). SIP and SAP were considered an emergency, whereas reversible pulpitis and AIP were not considered an emergency (p > 0.05). Non-aerosol-generating procedures and treatment approaches differed between the groups (p < 0.05). One-third of the participants did not use rubber dam (p > 0.05). Ibuprofen and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were the most frequently prescribed drugs for pain associated with SIP. In conclusion, the most relevant findings in our survey were the differences between endodontists and GDPs in diagnosis, precheck triage, deep caries excavation procedures, and endodontic emergency pain relief strategies.
Abstract in English:Abstract The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has created unprecedent challenges for healthcare systems worldwide. Oncology services have been reorganized to decrease the risk of nosocomial acquisition of SARS-CoV-2, but changes in treatment pathways and follow-up cancer care can result in patients receiving suboptimal or delayed care. Herein, we describe a cross-sectional nested cohort study conducted to evaluate delays in care for patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) in post-treatment follow-up or palliative care during the COVID-19 pandemic in Northeast Brazil and its impact on health outcomes. Information was extracted from medical records and supplemented by telephone interviews. We compared the following health outcomes: self-perception of anxiety or sadness, fear of COVID-19 infection, cancer-related complications during social isolation, self-medication, diagnosis of COVID-19, and death between patients with and without delayed cancer care. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare distributions of continuous variables and the Fisher exact test was used for categorical variables. Thirty-one HNC patients were included in the study, and no case of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 was found. Delayed cancer care due to restriction in health services was reported in 58.1% of cases, and there was no report of telemedicine use during the COVID-19 outbreak. Cancer-related complications during the COVID-19 pandemic were described for most patients (67.7%) and included pain or discomfort, swelling, and dyspnea. Eight (25.8%) patients reported use of prescribed morphine or codeine to manage pain and six (19.4%) patients reported self-medication with over-the-counter (OTC) non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We found an association between delayed HNC care and the use of self-medication (p = 0.028). This study indicated that patients with delayed HNC care during the COVID-19 outbreak are more likely to use self-medication with NSAIDs for pain management. Better strategies to follow HNC patients in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities need to be discussed and implemented.
Abstract in English:Abstract: Probiotic therapy is a viable alternative to chlorhexidine, a widely used antiseptic in dentistry that produces significant adverse effects. This systematic review aimed to analyze the effects of probiotics on experimental gingivitis in humans. Two independent reviewers conducted a comprehensive literature search until March 2019. Randomized clinical trials and controlled clinical trials were selected. Outcome data were extracted and critically analyzed. A total of five articles were included in the qualitative synthesis. No meta-analysis could be conducted due to the heterogeneity of the selected studies. The use of probiotics showed a slight improvement in clinical parameters. Changes in gingival crevicular fluid volume were lower in the presence of the probiotic than in the placebo group. All the studies showed that the immediate, positive effects of probiotics during the period of discontinued mechanical oral hygiene were due to the modulation of the host response, not the anti-plaque effect. Investigators should conduct randomized clinical trials to elucidate the mechanisms of probiotic action and develop improved delivery systems.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study presents an overview of the accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) compared with micro-computed tomography (μCT) in the assessment of root canal morphology of extracted human permanent teeth. A database search in PubMed, PubMed Central, Embase, Scopus, Opengrey, Scielo and Virtual Health Library was conducted which compared root canal morphology of extracted human permanent teeth on the accuracy of CBCT with μCT. In accordance with PRISMA statement guidelines, data were extracted on study characteristics, target mediators, sampling and assay techniques and the parameters associated with obtaining the image and ability to identify the root canal morphology. Amongst 2734 records, ten fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Four studies compared the accuracy of CBCT and μCT in the assessment of root canal morphology using Vertucci’s classification, with at least one CBCT group or subgroup of each study presented high agreement compared to the μCT. Six studies assessed more detailed root canal morphology, including two articles that found a lack of agreement between these imaging systems. Risk of bias was deemed low in three studies, moderate in four and high in three. CBCT can be as accurate as μCT in the assessment of several morphological features of extracted human permanent teeth; however there are some exceptions related to the more detailed morphological aspects. Voxel size likely influences the ability to detect these features, though the different aspects of exposure setting used in studies components may be confounding factors. CBCT may be considered for the assessment of root canal morphology ex-vivo.
Abstract in English:Abstract: During the COVID-19 pandemic the use of cloth masks has increased dramatically due to the shortage of medical masks. However, the efficiency of this material is controversial. We aimed to investigate the efficiency of cloth masks in reducing transmission and contamination by droplets and aerosols for the general population and healthcare workers. Electronic databases were searched without year or language restrictions. Clinical and laboratorial studies were included. The risk of bias (RoB) was assessed using an adapted quality checklist for laboratory-based studies. ROBINS-I tool and Cochrane RoB 2.0 were used to evaluate non-randomized (n-RCT) and randomized clinical trials (RCT), respectively. The quality of the evidence was assessed through GRADE tool. From the eleven studies selected, eight were laboratory-based studies, one non-randomized and one RCT supported by laboratory data. Between the evaluated fabrics only three presented a filtration efficiency > 90%. Hybrid of cotton/chiffon (95%CI 95.2 to 98.8), hybrid of cotton/silk (95%CI 92.2 to 95.8) and cotton quilt (95%CI 94.2 to 97.8). However, cloth masks are not recommended for healthcare workers. A meta-analysis was not feasible due to a high methodological heterogeneity. The overall quality of evidence ranged from very low to moderate. Despite the lower efficiency compared to medical masks, laboratorial results may underestimate the efficiency of cloth masks in real life. Cloth mask efficiency is higher when made of hybrid fabrics (cotton/chiffon, cotton/silk) and cotton quilt, mainly with multiple layers.
Abstract in English:Abstract The expansion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) throughout the world has alarmed all health professionals. Especially in dentistry, there is a growing concern due to it’s high virulence and routes of transmission through saliva aerosols. The virus keeps viable on air for at least 3 hours and on plastic and stainless-steel surfaces up to 72 hours. In this sense, dental offices, both in the public and private sectors, are high-risk settings of cross infection among patients, dentists and health professionals in the clinical environment (including hospital’s intensive dental care facilities). This manuscript aims to compile current available evidence on prevention strategies for dental professionals. Besides, we briefly describe promising treatment strategies recognized until this moment. The purpose is to clarify dental practitioners about the virus history and microbiology, besides guiding on how to proceed during emergency consultations based on international documents. Dentists should consider that a substantial number of individuals (including children) who do not show any signs and symptoms of COVID-19 may be infected and can disseminate the virus. Currently, there is no effective treatment and fast diagnosis is still a challenge. All elective dental treatments and non-essential procedures should be postponed, keeping only urgent and emergency visits to the dental office. The use of teledentistry (phone calls, text messages) is a very promising tool to keep contact with the patient without being at risk of infection.
Abstract in English:Abstract In less than four months, an unprecedented pandemic changed the world scenario, closing institutions and commerce, paralyzing sports championships, blocking frontiers, and putting almost all populations in a house quarantine regimen. Immunocompromised patients are within the high-risk group to severe outcomes from COVID-19. However, there is no clear evidence of the association between impaired immune host status and complications from SARS-CoV-2 infection so far. The virus is transmitted by inhalation or direct contact with infected secretions, and therefore the dental office is a highly susceptible environment for such transmission. Here, we review the literature and discuss immunological COVID-19 related issues. We also make suggestions for immunocompromised patients’ support in this new emerging context of clinical dental practice. Until comprehensive findings are published, individuals with impaired immunity should be considered as high-risk. Cross infection control procedures for the clinical care of immunocompromised patients should follow the same guidelines that are being proposed for immunocompetent ones. However, during the active outbreak, people under immunosuppressive conditions should not receive elective procedures, even if they do not have symptoms or exposure history to COVID-19, and in case of emergence, care must be done in a separate airborne room. In the pos-pandemic phase, the dental care general recommendations should be the same for all subjects. Changes in the current guidelines have been proposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection control in order to provide the best and safe dental practice. However, they still need to be validated by future studies.
Abstract in English:Abstract The World Health Organization declared a COVID-19 pandemic on March 11, 2020, when there were 4,293 confirmed cumulative deaths. By May 17, 2020 this number increased to 315,005. The risk of death is higher above the age of 60, but there are many deaths below 60 (for example, in Sao Paulo, 25%). Due to the lack of a vaccine or specific treatment, there are at least three types of interventions used in the first wave of this pandemic: increased alertness and hygiene (e.g. Sweden); identification and isolation of infected people and their contacts (e.g. South Korea); lockdown (e.g. Italy). These interventions are complementary. Choices of the right mix of interventions will vary from society to society and in the same society at different times. The search for a miracle drug is dangerous because it is based on the mistaken belief that any treatment option is better than “nothing”. Brazilian society will not be able to maintain lockdown for a long period. Naturally, in the near future, regardless of the advice from scientists, doctors and authorities, commerce, services and schools will reopen. In order to implement any strategy aimed to control the pandemic and preserve the economy, the country needs leadership that centralizes and coordinates actions. Unfortunately, the Brazilian government is not fulfilling this role; on the contrary, it is a hindrance. This negative leadership and lack of coordination are causing many deaths and are severely damaging the lives of survivors by delaying the resuming of economic and social activities.
Abstract in English:Abstract Due to the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, many dental schools and instructors are rethinking the way they teach and interact with students. New perspectives regarding a change in face-to-face activities, social isolation and the reformulation of clinical activities result in a transition toward e-learning and e-teaching processes. In this review, we discuss some favorable aspects and difficulties associated with virtual teaching and learning, searching for available tools and techniques as well as new perspectives.
Abstract in English:Abstract Recent new zoonotic respiratory viruses have infected humans and led to severe acute respiratory syndrome: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), influenza A H5N1, influenza A H1N1 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The first SARS-CoV outbreak took place in 2003, in Guangdong, China. A decade later, another pathogenic coronavirus, MERS-CoV caused an endemic in Middle Eastern countries. The latest pandemic coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) has been related to the newly isolated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). For the first time since the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the 1980s. Dentistry is facing a new turning point. This critical review aims to discuss the impact of COVID-19 infection on oral health care. In dental practice COVID-19 patients are the main source of infection and symptomatic patients are more contagious. Dentists can be first line of diagnosis of the disease, as they work in close contact with patients and are at the risk of being affected by COVID-19 and all respiratory infections. Several guidelines for dental practice environments have been published by dental associations and regulatory boards. It is already evident that biological, psychological and social effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have present and future impacts on dental practice. Dental schools, regulatory boards, scientific associations, government authorities, and public and private health care services must join efforts to design enduring answers for severe and long-standing viral challenges.
Abstract in English:Abstract With the onset of the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, the dental treatment of patients at risk of infection has become quite challenging. In view of this, patients with head and neck cancer may present with oral complications due to anticancer therapy, making dental assistance necessary. Thus, the objective of the study was to review the literature and critically discuss important concerns about the treatment of patients with head and neck cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic. Because dental professionals are in close contact with the main viral transmission routes, this study presents recommendations for management and protection during clinical dental care. The main characteristics and transmission routes of COVID-19 are also discussed. Dental professionals should control pain and the side effects of antineoplastic treatment and use preventive measures for infection control. During this pandemic, patients with head and neck cancer should not undergo elective procedures, even if they do not have symptoms or a history of COVID-19; therefore, in asymptomatic or painless cases, only preventive actions are recommended. In symptomatic or painful cases, precautions for safe interventional treatments must be implemented by following the hygiene measures recommended by health agencies and using personal protective equipment. During health crises, new protocols emerge for cancer treatment, and professionals must act with greater attention toward biosafety and updated knowledge. It is important to offer adequate individualized treatment based on the recommendations of preventative and interventional treatments so that patients can face this difficult period with optimized quality of life.
Abstract in English:Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread exponentially across the world. The typical manifestations of COVID-19 include fever, dry cough, headache and fatigue. However, atypical presentations of COVID-19 are being increasingly reported. Recently, a number of studies have recognized various mucocutaneous manifestations associated with COVID-19. This study sought to summarize the available literature and provide an overview of the potential orofacial manifestations of COVID-19. An online literature search in the PubMed and Scopus databases was conducted to retrieve the relevant studies published up to July 2020. Original studies published in English that reported orofacial manifestations in patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were included; this yielded 16 articles involving 25 COVID-19-positive patients. The results showed a marked heterogeneity in COVID-19-associated orofacial manifestations. The most common orofacial manifestations were ulcerative lesions, vesiculobullous/macular lesions, and acute sialadentitis of the parotid gland (parotitis). In four cases, oral manifestations were the first signs of COVID-19. In summary, COVID-19 may cause orofacial manifestations that might be the initial features in several cases. However, the occurrence of orofacial manifestations in COVID-19 seems to be underreported, mainly due to the lack of oral examination of patients with suspected and/or confirmed COVID-19. Oral examination of all suspected and confirmed COVID-19 cases is crucial for better understanding and documenting COVID-19-associated orofacial manifestations.
Abstract in English:Abstract: The increasing number of cases of COVID-19 worldwide poses challenges to healthcare systems not only in effectively identifying individuals positive for SARS-CoV-2, but also in isolating cases to minimise contagion in early diagnosing more severe cases that will need hospitalization. Less-invasive collection methods are indispensable in a pandemic scenario as large-scale tests are necessary to understand the actual evolution of contagion in different populations, thus enabling decision-making based on scientific evidence. Saliva has been shown to be an alternative for diagnosing viral infections as this biological fluid can be easily and quickly collected without using specific devices and causing less discomfort during collection, which is an important factor for use in children. Despite the smaller percentage of severe cases of COVID-19 among children, they seem to play an important role in the contagion as they have the same potential of transmission as that of adults. Knowing the evolution of COVID-19 pandemic in children is extremely important, mainly regarding the changing in rules of social distancing, such as re-opening schools and recreational activities spaces. In addition, countless cases of a severe multi-systemic inflammatory syndrome that shares clinical and laboratory features with Kawasaki's disease have been recently related to SARS-CoV-2 infections in children, adolescents and young adults. In view of this scenario, the aim of this study was to present saliva as an alternative for seeking diagnostic and prognostic markers of COVID-19 in children, including adequate sample collection techniques for different age groups.
Abstract in English:Abstract: The abnormal increase in proliferation rate of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) is considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, a disease in which the IL-10-mediated anti-inflammatory pathway plays a critical role. This study aimed to investigate the involvement of microRNA-466l in periodontitis and to explore the possible interaction between IL-10 and microRNA-466l. PDLSCs were obtained from periodontitis-affected teeth and healthy control teeth. The expression of microRNA-466l and IL-10 mRNA was measured in PDLSCs using RT-qPCR. The proliferation ability of PDLSCs was analyzed using CCK-8 assays. Overexpression of microRNA-466l in a PDLSC cell line was established using two different types of PDLSCs, and the effect of microRNA-466l overexpression on IL-10 expression and cell proliferation were detected by western blot and CCK-8 assays, respectively. We found that expression levels of microRNA-466l and IL-10 mRNA were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in PDLSCs derived from periodontitis-affected teeth compared to those derived from healthy teeth. However, the cell proliferation ability was significantly higher in the PDLSCs derived from periodontitis-affected teeth. Meanwhile microRNA-466l overexpression decreased cell proliferation rates of both types of PDLSCs and upregulated IL-10 expression. Together, these data suggest that microRNA-466l can upregulate IL-10 and reduce the proliferation rate of PDLSCs.
Abstract in English:Abstract: The emergence of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its association with severe pneumonia and deaths has exposed gaps in the health systems of several countries worldwide. Although the necessary focus has been to care for hospitalized patients, the strengthening of Primary Health Care (PHC) actions is necessary. PHC is the gateway to the health system in several countries, including Brazil and it plays a role in preventing, protecting, promoting, and treating individuals and communities. Brazil, like other countries, has faced the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. As Brazil has a universal and decentralized health system, in which PHC has been the model of health re-organizing the health system; here we reflected the importance of strengthening PHC in Brazil in the times of coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present study aimed to identify the scientific evidence regarding the association between crown discoloration and pulp necrosis in traumatized permanent teeth. A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline, Lilacs/BBO, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library databases, and grey literature. Quality assessment and bias control were carried out according to the Fowkes and Fulton guidelines. Meta-analysis was performed, and the odds ratio was calculated with a 95% confidence interval. The quality assessment of the evidence was determined for the meta-analysis outcomes using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. From 2,702 studies identified, five articles met the inclusion criteria. One among these showed no methodological soundness and was excluded from the meta-analysis, and the remaining four studies were included in the meta-analysis. The total number of traumatized permanent teeth evaluated in the meta-analysis was 367. The results showed a positive association between crown discoloration and pulp necrosis in permanent teeth. Teeth with crown discoloration showed 23 times more chance to present pulp necrosis than teeth without crown discoloration (OR 23.82 [1.25, 452.87]; p = 0.03), with a very low certainty of evidence. There is a significant association between crown discoloration and pulp necrosis of traumatized permanent teeth. Due to the very low strength of evidence according to GRADE, this result should be viewed with caution.
Abstract in English:Abstract Here, the prevalence of oral candidiasis and denture stomatitis among diabetic patients compared to healthy ones was summarized through a systematic review with meta-analysis. Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Lilacs, Cochrane Library, Embase, and the grey literature were searched without restriction, until May 2020. Eligibility criteria were established, data were extracted, and quality assessment was conducted by two trained examiners. Qualitative synthesis was based on the recommendations of Fowkes and Fulton. Two meta-analyses were performed on studies investigating patients with: a) oral candidiasis and b) denture stomatitis. Out of 6034 screened studies, seven were eligible for qualitative and quantitative synthesis; of these, three evaluated oral candidiasis and four evaluated denture stomatitis. Qualitative synthesis showed that the main methodological problems of the studies included sample size, source of controls, matching, and randomization. Diabetic patients had a similar chance of developing oral candidiasis to non-diabetic patients (OR1.40 [0.96; 2.04], p = 0.08, I2 = 94%). However, diabetic patients had a higher chance to present denture stomatitis compared to non-diabetic patients (OR 1.92 [1.42, 2.59] p < 0.0001, I2 = 0%). Therefore, diabetic patients have a higher chance of developing denture stomatitis compared to non-diabetic patients. However, for all analyses, the certainty of the evidence was considered to be very low.