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  • 35 Year achievements of Brazilian Oral Research Editorial

    RODE, Sigmar de Mello; PAIVA, Saul Martins

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This editorial addresses the history of Brazilian Oral Research (BOR), official journal of the Brazilian Division of the International Association of Dental Research (SBPqO). BOR is increasingly consolidating itself as the most important journal in Brazilian dental research. However, much still needs to be done. The hard and continuous work to improve the journal will guarantee its permanent growth and result in new achievements for the benefit of the entire dental scientific community.
  • Influence of bone defect position and span in 3-point bending tests: experimental and finite element analysis Original Research

    Osuna, Luis Gustavo Gonzalez; Soares, Carlos José; Vilela, Andomar Bruno Fernandes; Irie, Milena Suemi; Versluis, Antheunis; Soares, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Three-point bending test is the most common mechanical test used for quantifying the biomechanical quality of bone tissue and bone healing in small animals. However, there is a lack of standardization for evaluation of bone repair by cortical perforation. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of bone defect position in the proximal metaphysis of rat tibias during load application and different span configuration on the three-point bending test outcomes. Cortical defects with 1.6 mm diameter were created at a standardized location on the medial surface of 60 tibias of male Wistar rats. The animals were euthanized 7 days after surgery. Five specimens were used to create 3D models for finite element analysis using high-resolution micro-CT images. Two spans (6 and 10mm) and three positions of the bone defect in relation to the load application (upward, frontal and downward) were evaluated experimentally (n = 10) and in finite element analysis (n = 5). Maximum load (N) and stiffness (N/mm) were statistically analyzed with 2-way ANOVA and Tukey test (α = 0.05). The results demonstrated that span and orientation of the bone defect significantly influenced the fracture pattern, stress distribution and force versus displacement relation. Therefore, reliable outcome can be achieved creating the bone defect at 8 mm from the extremity of the proximal epiphysis; placing a 10 mm distance span and downward facing defect position to allow a better distribution of stress and more fracture patterns that reached the bone defect target area with less intra-group variability.
  • Association between fixed orthodontic treatment and dental caries: a 1-year longitudinal study Original Research

    Pinto, Alice Souza; Alves, Luana Severo; Maltz, Marisa; Zenkner, Júlio Eduardo do Amaral

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This longitudinal study aimed to assess the association between the use of fixed orthodontic appliances and the incidence/increment of active caries lesions in adolescents and young adults over a one-year period. A total of 135 10-30-year-old individuals were divided into two groups: Group G0 was composed of individuals who required orthodontic treatment, but who did not undergo fixed orthodontic therapy over the study period (n=70); Group G1 was composed of individuals who used a fixed orthodontic appliance for 1 year (n=65). Data collection included a questionnaire and clinical oral examinations (plaque index, gingival index, and dental caries index), performed at baseline and after 1 year. Caries examination was performed by a single calibrated examiner, after tooth cleaning and drying, and included the recording of non-cavitated and cavitated, inactive and active lesions of all tooth surfaces. Poisson regression models were used to assess the association between the group and the following study outcomes: incidence (binary variable) and increment (counting variable). The incidence of active caries lesions was 4.8% in G0 and 39.6% in G1. The mean increment of active caries lesions was 0.14 in G0 and 0.61 in G1. G1 showed a greater risk of developing active caries lesions than G0 (incidence analysis, adjusted IRR=9.48, 95%CI=2.62-34.30; increment analysis, adjusted IRR=4.13; 95%CI=1.94-8.79). In conclusion, this study showed that individuals undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy for 1 year had a significantly higher incidence and increment of active caries lesions than those without a fixed appliance.
  • Can kinematics, file diameter, and PUI influence the intracanal decontamination and apical bacterial extrusion? Original Research

    Cuellar, Maricel Rosario Cardenas; Velásquez-Espedilla, Evelyn Giuliana; Pedrinha, Victor Feliz; Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Andrade, Flaviana Bombarda de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The present study investigated the intracanal decontamination and apical extrusion of bacteria and debris from root canals instrumented with rotary and reciprocating systems (ProDesign Logic or ProDesign R), with different file diameters and using conventional syringe irrigation (CSI) or passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI). Eighty extracted mandibular premolars were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis and randomly assigned to eight experimental groups according to the root canal instrumentation and irrigation technique employed (n = 10): G1: Prodesign Logic 25.06; G2: Prodesign R 25.06; G3 and G4 were instrumented with the same single-file systems, respectively, using 35.05 diameters and CSI. G5, G6, G7, and G8 were instrumented like the previous groups, but with PUI. Apically extruded debris during instrumentation was collected into pre-weighed microtubes. The weight of the empty microtube was subtracted from the final weight to establish the amount of extruded debris. Bacteria from root canals and extruded debris were collected for a microbiological evaluation of colony forming units (CFU/mL). For statistical analyses, the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis followed by the Dunn's tests were used (α = 0.05). All instruments caused extrusion of debris. For irrigation techniques, PUI promoted greater debris and bacterial extrusion (p < 0.05). The CFU/mL count indicated that the instrumentation of the experimental groups were equally effective in the decontamination of the root canal (p > 0.05). The systems tested (regarding file diameter and kinematics) were associated with similar amounts of apically extruded debris and root canal decontamination. PUI was associated with greater debris and bacterial extrusion.
  • Management of deep caries lesions with or without pulp involvement in primary teeth: a systematic review and network meta-analysis Original Research

    Tedesco, Tamara Kerber; Reis, Thais Marchezini; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Silva, Gabriela Seabra da; Scarpini, Samanta; Floriano, Isabela; Gimenez, Thais; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Raggio, Daniela Prócida

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: There is a lack of evidence about the best approach for cavitated caries lesions with the possibility of pulpal involvement in primary teeth. Thus, the present authors aimed to verify the best treatment for deep caries lesions with or without pulp involvement in primary teeth. The search was conducted in MEDLINE/Pubmed and Web of Science databases until May 2020. Studies that compared techniques to manage deep caries lesions with at least 12 months of follow-up were included. The risk of bias was evaluated using the RoB tool. Network meta-analysis and pairwise meta-analyses were conducted considering the treatment clinical success as an outcome, according to the pulp health condition. From 491 potentially eligible studies, 9 were included. For deep caries lesions with pulp vitality, the Hall Technique presented the highest probability of success (78%). In the event of accidental pulp exposure, pulpectomy presented a 76% chance of providing the best clinical results. For pulp necrosis, no difference was observed between a pulpectomy and non-instrumented endodontic treatment (RR = 0.69; 95%CI: 0.21–2.33) Thus, it was concluded that the Hall Technique may be a better option for deep caries lesions with pulp vitality. In cases of accidental pulp exposure of vital teeth during caries removal, a pulpectomy may be considered the best option. However, there are insufficient studies to build up evidence about the best treatment option when irreversible pulpitis or pulp necrosis is present.
  • Endocan (ESM-1) levels in gingival crevicular fluid correlate with ICAM-1 and LFA-1 in periodontitis Original Research

    Tayman, Mahmure Ayşe; Önder, Canan; Kurgan, Şivge; Serdar, Muhittin Abdulkadir; Günhan, Meral

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Endocan, a 50 kDa soluble proteoglycan, also called endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 (ESM-1), is involved in many major cellular activities and has been reported to be overexpressed in inflammatory conditions. This study aims to determine ESM-1 levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples from individuals with periodontitis to determine the correlation between the levels of lymphocyte-function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and clinical findings of periodontitis. This study enrolled 27 individuals diagnosed with Stage III-Grade C generalized periodontitis and 16 individuals as healthy controls. Bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were calculated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test was used for detecting the levels of ESM-1, ICAM-1, and LFA-1 in GCF samples. PPD, BOP, CAL, and GCF volumes were significantly increased in patients with periodontitis in comparison to the control group (p < 0.001). The total amount of ESM-1, ICAM-1, and LFA-1 levels in GCF were increased in the periodontitis group (p < 0.001). ESM-1 level correlated with PPD, BOP, and CAL (p < 0.05). ICAM-1 level correlated with BOP and CAL (p < 0.05). LFA-1 level correlated with PPD and CAL (p < 0.05). Our data indicate that ESM-1, ICAM-1, and LFA-1 levels are increased in GCF of patients with periodontitis. These molecules could be associated with the pathogenesis and progression of periodontal disease.
  • YouTube™ and oral lichen planus: an appraisal of the educational quality of information Original Research

    Morais, Everton Freitas de; Felix, Fernanda Aragão; Santos, Janaína Lessa de Moraes dos; Martins, Hélder Domiciano Dantas; Barboza, Carlos Augusto Galvao; Freitas, Roseana de Almeida

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The objective of this study was to analyze the quality of videos on oral lichen planus (OLP) available in YouTube™. A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted by searching the video sharing platform YouTube™. Videos aimed at clarifying the etiological and clinical characteristics, diagnostic criteria, treatment, and prognosis of OLP were included. A total of 481 videos were retrieved and 37 were included in the study according to the selection criteria established. Most of the videos evaluated (86.5%; n = 32) were produced by independent users. The average reliability was 1.8 and quality assessment classified only three videos (8.1%) as having good/excellent quality. A significant correlation was observed between the length of the video analyzed and its quality and reliability (p < 0.05), as well as between the reliability and usefulness of the video (p = 0.03). YouTube™ has become a leading source of information for the general population. However, a significant number of these videos have a low quality. Students, professionals, and healthcare providers must be more actively involved in providing clear, accurate, and reliable evidence-based information in an accessible language in order to enable significant improvement in patient care delivery.
  • Effect of different factors on patient perception of surgical discomfort in third molar surgery Original Research

    Reis, Giselle Emilãine da Silva; Calixto, Robson Diego; Petinati, Maria Fernanda Pivetta; Souza, Juliana Feltrin de; Kuchler, Erika Calvano; Costa, Delson João da; Bonotto, Daniel; Rebellato, Nelson Luis Barbosa; Scariot, Rafaela

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate patient perception of surgical discomfort in third molar surgery and the association with clinical variables and polymorphisms associated with the FKBP5, SLC6A4, and COMT genes. This cross-sectional observational study was carried out on 196 participants aged between 18 and 64 years at the Federal University of Paraná in 11 months. The intensity of surgical discomfort was assessed using the QCirDental questionnaire. Data on surgical and individual procedures were also cataloged. The oral health related quality of life was assessed by the Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire (OHIP-14). The DNA sample was obtained from cells of the oral mucosa. Five markers of the FKBP5, SLC6A4, and COMT genes were genotyped. The data were submitted to statistical analysis with a significance level of 5%. Women reported greater intensity of discomfort associated with third molar surgery compared to men (p = 0.001). In the recessive model, the AA genotype of the rs3800373 marker was associated with greater surgical discomfort (p = 0.026). Therefore, women and individuals of the AA genotype for the rs3800373 marker in the FKBP5 gene reported greater surgical discomfort associated with third molar surgery.
  • Influence of voxel size on micro-CT analysis of debris after root canal preparation Original Research

    Pinto, Jáder Camilo; Torres, Fernanda Ferrari Esteves; Santos, Airton Oliveira; Tavares, Karina Ines Medina Carita; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Tanomaru-Filho, Mario

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) voxel size on the evaluation of debris accumulation after passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) in curved root canals prepared with rotary nickel-titanium files. Mesial root canals (n = 24) of mandibular molars with curvature between 25° and 35° were prepared using ProDesign Logic 30/.05 (PDL) or HyFlex EDM 25/.08 (HEDM). PUI was performed after root canal preparation of all root canals. The specimens were scanned using high-resolution (5 μm voxel size) micro-CT imaging before and after experimental procedures. The percentage of debris was analyzed in the middle and apical thirds using images with 5, 10 and 20 μm voxel sizes. Data were compared using unpaired and paired Student's t-test, ANOVA and Tukey's statistical tests (α = 0.05). There were no differences among the debris analyses performed at different voxel sizes (5, 10 and 20 μm) (p > 0.05). The percentage of debris was similar between the root canals prepared by PDL and HEDM before and after PUI (p > 0.05). In both groups, the percentage of debris decreased in the middle third after PUI (p < 0.05). Within the limitations of this ex vivo study, it can be concluded that the voxel sizes evaluated did not have a significant impact on the analysis of accumulated debris. However, the results showed a tendency for detection of more debris in the analysis performed using a lower voxel size. PUI decreased the debris accumulation in the middle third of curved root canals.
  • The unplanned and unequal expansion of Dentistry courses in Brazil from 1856 to 2020 Original Research

    Morita, Maria Celeste; Uriarte, Mário; Fontanella, Vania Regina Camargo; Haddad, Ana Estela

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This study analyzed the consequences of the disordered expansion of Dentistry courses on the distribution of professionals, the job market, and limitations of the National System of Higher Education Assessment (SINAES) developed as a guarantee of education quality. This observational, descriptive, and analytical study used secondary data from several official databases. The number of courses was obtained from the e-MEC registry. From the Higher Education Census, the study collected historical series of courses offered, number of candidates per open seat, number of individuals who initiated and completed the course, and information about professors in the public and private schools. The reports related to Dentistry courses from the National Health Council were also analyzed. The performance of undergraduate students was assessed from synthesis reports of Enade from 2004 to 2016. The number of dentists and their regional distribution was based on the Federal Dental Council, and Brazilian population and gross domestic product were collected from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Dentistry courses in Brazil grew exponentially from 1856 to 2020; among the 544 authorized courses, 82 currently have not yet started their activities. The fast expansion of courses in Brazil has worsened the regional asymmetries in the supply of dentist, and the SINAES has not been able to fully assure the quality of Dentistry courses. Brazilian dentistry, which has increased its scientific and technological development since the 19th century, with outstanding intellectual production, is at risk of a collapse due to a plethora of dentists.
  • Characterization of low-cost Brazilian resin composites submitted to tooth brushing Original Research

    Ferretti, Marcela Alvarez; Pereira, Renata; Lins, Rodrigo Barros Esteves; Soares, Mariana Gusmão Corsini; Pinto, Larissa Jacó Hessel; Martins, Luís Roberto Marcondes; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate surface microhardness, roughness, color, gloss and topography of low-cost Brazilian resin composites, compared with an international one. All 120 samples (8mm ø x 2mm height) were prepared and divided into 5 groups: Ultrafill (Biodinâmica), Llis (FGM), Fill Magic (Coltene), Applic (Makira), and Filtek Z250XT (3M Oral Care). Surface microhardness (KHN) (n=10) was analyzed at two time periods: before and after simulated tooth brushing (STB). Other standardized samples of each group (n=10) were analyzed for surface roughness (Ra), color (ΔL, Δa, Δb, ΔE, ΔE00) and gloss unit (GU) at the same two periods. The topography of non-brushed and brushed samples of each group (n=4) was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed statistically by two-way repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc test (KHN, Ra, GU), and one-way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc test (ΔL, Δa, Δb, ΔE, ΔE00) (α=0.05). Topographic images were submitted to descriptive analysis. The low-cost Brazilian resin composites investigated were compared with the international one and revealed: lower KHN, regardless of before or after STB; statistically similar Ra before STB, except Ultrafill, which presented higher values; lower Ra after STB, except Ultrafill, which presented statistically similar values; statistically similar color change in ΔL, Δa, Δb parameters; statistically similar color change in ΔE, ΔE00 parameters, except Fill Magic, which presented lower values; lower gloss before STB; lower gloss after STB, except Ultrafill, which presented statistically similar values. In a situation of scarce resources, low-cost Brazilian composites might be an acceptable cost-effective restorative alternative.
  • Effect of the application of different concentrations of EDTA on the adhesion of fiber posts using self-adhesive cements Original research

    GRUBER, Yançanã Luizy; JITUMORI, Renata Terumi; BAKAUS, Thaís Emanuelle; REIS, Alessandra; GOMES, João Carlos; GOMES, Giovana Mongruel

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of the application of different concentrations of EDTA on the adhesion of fiber posts to root dentin using self-adhesive resin cements. After endodontic treatment, 78 single roots were randomly divided into six groups (n = 13) according to the combination of the following factors: surface dentin treatment – control (distilled water), 17% EDTA and 24% EDTA; and self-adhesive resin cement - RelyX U200 (RX); and Multilink Speed (ML). After fiber post cementation, six slices were obtained for each root. Ten roots of each group were used for bond strength (BS) and three for microhardness (MH) evaluations. Data obtained from BS and MH tests for each resin cement were subjected to two-way ANOVA (surface treatment vs. root region) and to a post-hoc Tukey’s test (α = 0.05). The lowest BS value was observed in the 24% EDTA group for RX cement, whereas the highest values for ML cement were observed for the control group in the middle and apical regions. In the MH test, the lowest value for RX was observed for 24% EDTA in the cervical region, whereas and the highest value for the ML cement was observed in the control group. Regarding both self-adhesive resin cements tested, the application of 24% EDTA was not able to improve the adhesion of fiber posts to root canal.
  • Caries risk assessment in dental practices by dentists from a Brazilian community Original research

    TAGLIAFERRO, Elaine Pereira da Silva; SILVA, Silvio Rocha Correa da; ROSELL, Fernanda Lopez; VALSECKI, Aylton; RILEY, Joseph Leo; GILBERT, Gregg Hewit; GORDAN, Valeria Veiga

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Data on dental practices related to caries risk assessment (CRA) are scarce among Brazilian dentists. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of CRA use by dentists and factors associated with its use, as well as to quantify dentists’ ratings of the importance of specific factors when treatment planning. Dentists registered at the Regional Council of Dentistry of São Paulo State – Araraquara region were sent two paper questionnaires that comprised: a) characteristics of dentists themselves, their practices, and their patients; and b) the translated version of the “Assessment of Caries Diagnosis and Caries Treatment” Questionnaire from the U.S. National Dental Practice-Based Research Network. Participants were 206 dentists who currently practiced in Araraquara and treated dental caries. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses were used for data analysis. Thirty-six percent of the dentists reported they perform CRA and, among them, 36% indicated they record the assessment on a special form that is kept in the patient chart. More years since dental school graduation (OR = 1.1, p = 0.002) and holding an advanced academic degree (OR=2.6, p=0.005) were associated with a higher likelihood of performing CRA, whereas exclusively using a private practice model (OR = 0.5, p = 0.016) was associated with a lower likelihood of performing CRA. The current oral hygiene and commitment to return for follow-up were the most important risk factors for treatment planning. In conclusion, CRA was not a routine procedure in daily practice among the majority of participating dentists. Specific demographic, practice and academic education characteristics were associated with performing CRA.
  • Polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinase-7 and -9 are associated with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma Original research

    NASCIMENTO, George João Ferreira do; SILVA, Leorik Pereira da; MATOS, Felipe Rodrigues de; SILVA, Thayse Azevedo da; MEDEIROS, Silvia Regina Batistuzzo de; SOUZA, Lélia Batista de; FREITAS, Roseana de Almeida

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Matrix degradation is an important event in the progression, invasion and metastasis of malignant head and neck lesions. Imbalances, mutations and polymorphisms of MMPs and their inhibitors are observed in several cancer subtypes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of the MMP-7 gene promoter (181 A/G) and MMP-9 (-1562 C/T) polymorphisms in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). MMP-7 (rs11568818) and MMP-9 (rs3918242) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 71 cases of OTSCC. Normal tissue specimens were obtained from 60 healthy volunteers to serve as the control. The MMP-7 G allele and MMP-9 T allele were more frequent in the OTSCC group than the control group, but only when these two SNPs were taken together was a significant association found with the nodal metastasis of OTSCC (p < 0.001). Based on our results, SNPs in the promoter region of MMP-7 and MMP-9 appear to be associated with greater risk of developing OTSCC, and with a higher propensity to form metastatic tumors. In this respect, molecular studies investigating polymorphisms may be useful in predicting tumor behavior.
  • Prescriptions of analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs in municipalities from a Brazilian Southeast state Original research

    CRUZ, Alex Júnio Silva da; SANTOS, Jacqueline Silva; PEREIRA, Edmilson Antônio; RUAS, Cristina Mariano; MATTOS, Flávio de Freitas; CASTILHO, Lia Silva de; ABREU, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective of this study was to describe dental prescriptions of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), opioids, and analgesics dispensed by the Brazilian National Health System (BNHS, SUS in Portuguese) of a Southeastern state from January to December 2017, and to analyze their association with socioeconomic and oral health care services’ characteristics at municipal level. Data were collected from the Brazilian Integrated Pharmaceutical Care Management System. Medicines were grouped according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. The total number of Defined Daily Doses (DDD) and DDD per 1,000 inhabitants (inhab.) per year were presented and compared between groups of municipalities. Data analysis used the Classification and Regression Tree model performed with IBM SPSS 25.0. The total number of NSAID, opioids, and analgesics prescriptions was 70,747 and accounted for 354,221.13 DDD. The most frequently prescribed medicine was ibuprofen (n = 24,676; 34.88%). The number of dental practitioners in the BNHS per 1,000 inhab. (p < 0.001), first dental appointment coverage (p = 0.010), oral health teams per 1,000 inhab. (p=0.022), and the proportion of rural population (p = 0.014) were variables positively associated with the number of DDD of NSAID per 1,000 inhab. per year. Bolsa Família program coverage per 1,000 inhab. (p = 0.022) was negatively associated with NSAID prescription. Regarding analgesics, first dental appointment coverage (p=0.002) and Bolsa Família program coverage per 1,000 inhab. (p = 0.012) were positively associated with DDD per 1,000 inhab. per year. In conclusion, dental prescriptions of analgesics and NSAID in the BNHS were associated with socioeconomic and oral health care services’ characteristics.
  • Follow-up interval for dental appointments: a randomized clinical trial with children with low caries risk Original research

    BERTI, Gabriela Oliveira; ABANTO, Jenny; CORDESCHI, Thais; OLIVEIRA, Gabriela Sá; SAADS, Thiago; BÖNECKER, Marcelo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different follow-up consultation intervals on caries incidence in children with low caries risk. The study was composed of 224 children aged between 3 and 5 years and with low risk of caries. The children were randomly allocated into two groups, according to two different follow-up consultation intervals: Group 1 (G1) – 12-month follow-up interval; Group 2 (G2) – 18-month follow-up interval. All oral clinical examinations were performed by a single examiner who was previously calibrated and blinded in relation to the study groups. An external dentist provided the advice on oral hygiene and diet and evaluated the children’s socioeconomic conditions. The Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used to evaluate the differences between groups. Poisson regression analyses were performed to assess the association of caries incidence with the other variables. At the end of the study there was a significant difference between the groups regarding initial active lesions (p = 0.012), and children in G2 were at a higher risk of developing initial active lesions than those in G1 (p = 0.047). Children who had a higher number of teeth with initial active lesions in the follow-up consultations were at a higher risk of developing cavitated dentin caries (p = 0.001). Both follow-up intervals are justifiable. Although significant results have been observed for initial active caries lesions within the 18-month follow-up interval, it should be noted that these lesions can be treated using just preventive measures. Besides, different return interval had no effect in cavitated dentin lesions.
  • Factors associated with oral health-related quality of life of institutionalized elders Original research

    OLIVEIRA, Luiz Fabrício Santos de; WANDERLEY, Rayssa Lucena; ARAÚJO, Elza Cristina Farias de; MEDEIROS, Mariana Marinho Davino de; FIGUEREDO, Olívia Maria Costa de; PINHEIRO, Mayara Abreu; RODRIGUES GARCIA, Renata Cunha Matheus; CAVALCANTI, Yuri Wanderley

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between two Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) questionnaires (the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) and the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI)) and to investigate the factors associated with the OHRQoL of institutionalized elderly individuals. A cross-sectional multicenter study was performed with 344 institutionalized elderly individuals residing in two Brazilian cities. Six trained researchers interviewed the elderly individuals. Sociodemographic data were collected from medical records. Dental caries experience and the use of and need for dentures were recorded through oral examination performed by two trained examiners. A Likert scale (1–5 points) was used to assess general health and self-perceived oral health. The number of chewing cycles needed to chew a portion of peanuts was used to assess the swallowing threshold. The OHIP-14 and GOHAI were used to evaluate OHRQoL, and statistically significant correlations were assessed using Spearman’s correlation test (p < 0.05). Poisson regression (p < 0.05) was used to investigate the association of OHRQoL with independent variables. Scores on the OHIP-14 (7.57 ± 8.63) and GOHAI (32.46 ± 3.85) were strongly and inversely correlated (r2 = -0.671, p < 0.001), although these measures were associated with different factors. A higher OHIP-14 total score (worse OHRQoL) was associated with female gender, a greater number of healthy teeth, worse self-perceived general health and oral health, and a lower swallowing threshold (p < 0.05). A higher GOHAI total score (better OHRQoL) was associated with a greater number of filled teeth, better self-perceived oral health and a greater swallowing threshold (p < 0.05). In conclusion, worse OHRQoL among institutionalized elderly individuals is associated with worse self-perceived oral health and a greater swallowing threshold.
  • Thiourethane-functionalized fillers: biological properties and degradation resistance Original research

    CAVALCANTE, Larissa Maria; RAMOS, Amanda Barreto; SILVA, Daniela Costa; ALVES, Gutemberg Gomes; ANTUNES, Karinne Bueno; PFEIFER, Carmem Silvia; SCHNEIDER, Luis Felipe Jochims

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study determined the effect of thiourethane-functionalized fillers (TU) on the antimicrobial properties, cytotoxicity, degree of conversion (DC), water sorption (Wsp) and solubility (Wsl) of experimental composites. TU-modified fillers were added at different ratios in experimental composites: 0 (Control-TU0), 25% (TU25), 50% (TU50), 75% (TU75) and 100wt% (TU100). The antimicrobial properties were detected through the exhaustion test and counting of Streptococus mutans colonies for biofilm formation. Cytotoxicity to human gingival fibroblasts was evaluated in three different parameters: XTT (2,3-Bis-(2-Methoxy-4-Nitro-5-Sulfophenyl)-2H-Tetrazolium-5-Carboxanilide), NRU (Neutral Red Uptake assay) and CVDE (Crystal Violet Dye Exclusion test)) at the same cells. ELISA was used to measure the IL-6 and b-FGF biomarkers. DC was determined by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, while Wsp and Wsl by mass variations. Inhibitory capacity of biofilm formation was not observed for any material. All groups presented at least 70% of cell survival within the observed periods (24h and 7 days). Positive control (toxic) had high IL-6 values and low b-FGF values. No significant variations in DC, Wsp, and Wsl were observed among the experimental groups. The use of thiourethane did not present antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity and the tested materials presented equivalent properties to those conventionally used in dentistry.
  • The 100 most-cited papers in oral medicine and pathology Original research

    MARTELLI, Alison José; MACHADO, Renato Assis; MARTELLI, Daniella Reis Barbosa; NEVES, Lucimara Teixeira das; MARTELLI, Hercílio

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to analyze the 100 most-cited papers in the field of oral medicine and pathology over time, identifying the areas of more intense research. Papers in journals of oral medicine and pathology were identified using the Web of Science database. The specified research period was between 1900 and 2019. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to explore the relationships among Web of Science citations, Dimensions citations, and Altmetric Attention Score. The number of citations of an article in the top 100 most-cited papers published in 1953 or later ranged from 541 to 3623. The papers were published in 47 different journals. The New England Journal of Medicine, American Cancer Society, and Nature Genetics published the most papers. Authors from 18 different countries published papers on head and neck cancer, craniofacial congenital anomalies, and osteonecrosis. Most of the papers were laboratory and descriptive studies. A correlation analysis showed a strong correlation only between Web of Science and Dimensions citations. In sum, although non-specific journals for pathology and oral medicine published the majority of the 100 most-cited papers, this biometric citation study show that head and neck cancer was the issue with the most citations. Together, these results make an important scientific contribution by providing a historical perspective on the research carried out.
  • Effects of clinical use of NiTi reciprocating instruments on cyclic and torsional resistance, and on roughness Original Research

    MOREIRA, Edson Jorge Lima; ANTUNES, Henrique dos Santos; VIEIRA, Victor Talarico Leal; CAVALCANTE, Daniele Moreira; OLIVEIRA, Henrique Eduardo; OLIVEIRA, Diogo da Silva; DE-DEUS, Gustavo; SILVA, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal da

    Abstract in English:

    Abstrac The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cyclic fatigue, torsional resistance and surface roughness of Reciproc R25 instruments in four different situations, namely as new instruments and as instruments tested after clinical preparation of one, two or three maxillary molars with four root canals. The total time required to perform each root canal preparation was recorded. Cyclic fatigue resistance was determined by the time to fracture using a customized testing device (n = 10 per group). The torsional test evaluated the torque and angle of rotation to failure according to ISO 3630-1 (n = 10 per group). The roughness of the working parts of new and used instruments was evaluated with a profilometer (n = 5 per group). Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. The level of significance was set at 5%. No fractures or deformations were observed after clinical use. Higher preparation time was needed during the third use of the instruments for all root canals (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences among the groups in regard to either cyclic fatigue or torsional resistance (p > 0.05). Regarding the roughness measurements, groove depth was higher on new and one- versus two- or three-maxillary-molar-prepared instruments (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that the clinical use of Reciproc instruments increased preparation time and decreased surface roughness. However, clinical use did not affect the cyclic fatigue or torsional resistance of the Reciproc instruments.
  • Three Dimensional mapping of the root apex: distances between apexes and anatomical structures and external cortical plates Original Research

    FERRARI, Carlos Henrique; ABU HASNA, Amjad; MARTINHO, Frederico Canato

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to determine the mean distances between apexes of the maxillary posterior teeth and the maxillary sinus, between apexes of the mandibular posterior teeth and the mandibular canal, and between the root apexes of all teeth and the adjacent cortical plates. A total of 800 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans (400 maxillary and 400 mandibular) were obtained from patients indicated for several treatments. The proximity between apexes and anatomical structures, and the relationship between apexes and adjacent cortical plates were assessed together with the risk of over-instrumentation. Paired-sample comparisons were performed by using the paired t-test. The means were compared by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Dwass-Steel-Critchlow-Fligner tests. a) Most of the apexes classified as A (high-risk proximity) were observed in maxillary first and second molars, in mandibular first and second molars, and in second premolars in relation to near anatomical structures. b) A predominance of class A (86.42%) was noticed in the first premolars, between apexes of maxillary teeth and adjacent cortical plates. c) The distance between apexes of mandibular teeth and buccal cortical plates showed a predominance of medium-risk proximity (B) in all the groups, except the first premolars, with the highest risk (82.22%), and the second molars, with low-risk proximity (C) to distal and mesiobuccal apexes (91.77% and 89.62%). CBCT images are important for endodontic diagnosis and treatment, since many teeth have high risk proximity to near anatomical structures and adjacent cortical plates.
  • Structural characteristics of oral health services in Brazilian Primary Health Care Original Research

    SCALZO, Maria Tereza Abreu; MATTA-MACHADO, Antônio Thomaz Gonzaga; ABREU, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; MARTINS, Renata Castro

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to describe the structure of oral health services in primary health care in Brazil with centers participating in the second cycle of the ‘National Program for Improving Access and Quality of Primary Care’ (PMAQ-AB), the largest health service evaluation program ever instituted in the country. This cross-sectional study evaluated 16,202 oral health services, regarding 22 pieces of dental equipment and 25 dental supplies. The presence of each piece of equipment/dental supply generated a score for services. The sum of these scores was compared among different regions in Brazil. Quantitative data were described by quartiles and categorical data by frequencies, using the SPSS, version 25. Most of the evaluated centers presented adequate equipment in good using conditions and sufficient dental supplies for primary oral health care. Data also showed a lack of some equipment, such as X-rays, bicarbonate jet, and ultrasound devices, while for dental supplies, a lack of amalgam (capsule and manual preparation), anesthesia without vasoconstrictors, and intracanal medication was found. The services presented a median of 14 pieces of equipment and 22 dental supplies. Of the Brazilian regions, the South presented the highest median, while the North and Northeast regions presented the lowest one. The oral health services presented dental offices with good availability of equipment and dental supplies to perform clinical activities. However, differences in the structure of services among the Brazilian regions was still observed.
  • Toxicity and effect of whitening toothpastes on enamel surface Original Research

    RODE, Sigmar de Mello; SATO, Tabata do Prado; MATOS, Felipe de Souza; CORREIA, Ayla Macyelle de Oliveira; CAMARGO, Samira Esteves Afonso

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This in vitro study evaluated the biocompatibility and abrasivity of whitening and conventional toothpastes. Samples of conventional (non-whitening) - Edel White Infant (EWI) - and whitening toothpastes - Edel White Whitening (EWW), Edel White CAREFORTE (EWC), Colgate Total 12 Ò Professional (C), and Oral-B Whitening (OB) - were dissolved in culture medium (0.2 g sample weight per mL). Human gingival fibroblasts (hGF) were placed in contact with different dilutions of culture media that had been previously exposed to these toothpastes. Cytotoxicity was then assessed using the methyl tetrazolium test (MTT) and the cell survival rate was determined. Genotoxicity was assessed by the micronucleus test (MNT) and the number of micronuclei was determined before and after exposure to the toothpaste solutions. The enamel surface roughness was evaluated in specimens of bovine teeth (n = 10 per group) before and after 10,000 brushing cycles, using the investigated toothpastes. The results were statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and two-way ANOVA (p < 0.05). According to the MTT assay, EWW and OB presented significant cytotoxicity (p < 0.01), but no genotoxic (MNT) effects (p > 0.05). C toothpaste was statistically significantly abrasive to the enamel surface (p < 0.01). The findings of this study may be helpful for individualized selection of commercial toothpastes, as some whitening toothpastes present significant cytotoxicity and conventional toothpaste cause significant surface changes.
  • Efficacy of audiovisual distraction using eyeglasses during dental care: a randomized clinical trial Original Research

    CUSTÓDIO, Natália Baschirotto; CADEMARTORI, Mariana Gonzalez; AZEVEDO, Marina Sousa; MENDES, Márcio de Almeida; SCHARDOZIM, Lisandrea Rocha; COSTA, Luciane Ribeiro de Rezende Sucasas da; GOETTEMS, Marília Leão

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This randomized parallel-group control trial tested the efficacy of distraction using audiovisual eyeglasses (AVE) during dental procedures [NCT03902158]. Forty-four 6–9 year-old children with low/moderate anxiety and who needed restorative treatment or exodontia of the primary molars were randomly allocated into two groups: the AVE (experimental) and the conventional behavior management techniques (control) groups. Motion sensors were used to measure the participants’ body movements. Dental visits were video recorded, and their pain levels and behavior were assessed using the Faces, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability Behavioral Pain Assessment Scale and the Venham Behavioral Scale, respectively. Anxiety was assessed via heart rate measurements. After treatment, the children scored their pain using the Faces Pain Scale. Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests were used to compare the groups. The mean score on the behavioral scale was 0.59 in the experimental group and 0.72 in the control group under local anesthesia (p = 0.73). During the procedure, the mean score was 0.41 in the experimental group and 1.32 in the control group (p = 0.07). The mean heart rate was similar in both groups (p = 0.47), but a significant increase during treatment was observed in the control group. There was no difference between the groups in terms of pain, behavior, and self-reported pain scores (p = 0.08). Children aged 6-7 who used the AVE had fewer wrist movements (435.6) than that of children in the control group (1170.4) (p = 0.04). The AVE achieved similar results to the basic behavior management techniques, with good acceptance by the children.
  • Effect of obturation technique using a new bioceramic sealer on the presence of voids in flattened root canals Original Research

    SANTOS-JUNIOR, Airton Oliveira; TANOMARU-FILHO, Mário; PINTO, Jáder Camilo; TAVARES, Karina Ines Medina Carita; TORRES, Fernanda Ferrari Esteves; GUERREIRO-TANOMARU, Juliane Maria

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the filling ability of a new ready-to-use calcium silicate-based sealer using thermoplastic or single-cone technique in flattened root canals. Twenty-four flattened distal canals of mandibular molars with a buccolingual diameter 4 or more times larger than the mesiodistal diameter were selected. The root canals were prepared and filled (n = 12), according to the following techniques: thermoplastic or single-cone technique using Bio-C Sealer. The teeth were scanned using Skycan 1176 micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) - voxel size 8.74 µm, before and after filling the root canal. The percentage of voids in the filled root canals was evaluated, and the data were statistically analyzed using the unpaired t-test (α = 0.05). The root canals filled using the thermoplastic technique created a smaller percentage of voids in the cervical/middle thirds than those filled using the single-cone technique (p < 0.05). There was no difference in the percentage of voids using either technique in the apical third (p > 0.05). The flattened root canals in the cervical/middle thirds were better filled using the ready-to-use calcium silicate-based sealer associated to the thermoplastic technique, compared with the single-cone technique. In the apical third, the techniques showed similar filling ability.
  • Influence of Er,Cr:YSGG laser on root dentin submitted to erosive and/or abrasive challenges Original Research

    PAIVA, Gabriella Rodovalho; DIBB, Regina Guenka Palma; FARAONI, Juliana Jendiroba; OLIVEIRA, Maria Angélica Hueb de Menezes; CASTRO, Denise Tornavoi de; GERALDO-MARTINS, Vinícius Rangel; LEPRI, Cesar Penazzo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study evaluated how Er,Cr:YSGG laser, associated or not with 5% fluoride varnish, influences the surface roughness and volume loss of bovine root dentin submitted to erosive and/or abrasive wear. One hundred and twenty dentin specimens were divided into the groups: without preventive treatment (WPT), 5% fluoride varnish (FV); Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation (L), and varnish combined with laser (FV + L). The specimens (n = 10) were subdivided into: 1 = erosion (E); 2 = abrasion (A); and 3 = erosion followed by abrasion (E + A). The erosive solution used was a soft-drink (pH = 2.42 at 4ºC) applied in 5-min cycles twice a day for 10d. Abrasive wear involved brushing for 60s with an electric brush (1,600-oscillations/s) at a load of 2.0N. Surface roughness and volume loss were evaluated using a laser scanning confocal microscope. Roughness data were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test. For volume loss, the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s post-hoc tests were used (α = 5%). The lowest values of roughness were found in the control areas of all subgroups (p > 0.05). In the experimental area, the [(WPT) + (E+A)] subgroup had a significantly higher roughness (5.712 ± 0.163 μm 2 ) than the other subgroups (p < 0.05). The L and (FV + L) groups had statistically similar roughness, regardless of the type of wear. The (FV + L) group had the lowest volume loss, regardless of the type of wear performed: [(FV + L) + (E)] = 7.5%, [(FV + L) + (A) = 7.3%, and [(FV + L) + (E + A)] = 8.1%. The subgroup [(WPT) + (E + A)] had the highest volume loss (52.3%). The proposed treatments were effective in controlling dentin roughness. Laser irradiation can be an effective method to increase root dentin resistance after challenges and limit problems related to non-carious lesions.
  • Presence of molar-incisor hypomineralization is associated with dental caries in Brazilian schoolchildren Original Research

    FARIAS, Lunna; LAUREANO, Isla Camilla Carvalho; FERNANDES, Liege Helena Freitas; FORTE, Franklin Delano Soares; VARGAS-FERREIRA, Fabiana; ALENCAR, Catarina Ribeiro Barros de; HONÓRIO, Heitor Marques; CAVALCANTI, Alessandro Leite

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to identify the prevalence of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in schoolchildren and its association with dental caries experience. This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 471 children aged 8 to 10 years. Data were collected via a sociodemographic questionnaire. Intra-oral clinical examination was done to identify and diagnose MIH (EAPD Criteria) as well as dental caries (ICDAS Index). Statistical analyses were performed with Person’s Chi-square, Fisher’s exact, and Mann-Whitney tests, and Poisson regression models were built. Statistical significance was set at an alpha-level of 0.05. The prevalence of MIH in our participants was 9.8%, with lesions being mostly of the mild form (65.2%) and affecting the first permanent molars but not the incisors in 54.2% of the children. Dental caries was observed in 88.1% of subjects. We observed a significant association between dental caries and the following variables: presence of MIH (p < 0.01; PR = 1.13), dental visit (p < 0.02; PR=0.92), and parents or legal guardians’ education level (p < 0.05; PR = 1.07). A MIH diagnosis was also significantly associated with family income (p < 0.05; PR = 4.09). Children with MIH had more caries lesions on molar surfaces (p < 0.01; PR = 4.05). The prevalence of MIH was found to be moderate, based on previous studies, and the presence of enamel defect was associated with dental caries. The teeth most affected by MIH lesions were the first permanent molars.
  • Biological and mechanical characterization of commercial and experimental periodontal surgical dressings Original research

    CONCEIÇÃO, Luciana Domingues; CUEVAS-SUÁREZ, Carlos Enrique; PIVA, Evandro; LUND, Rafael Guerra; LEITE, Fabio Renato Manzolli

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility and mechanical properties of two commercially available and one experimental periodontal dressing materials. The cytotoxicity of Periobond ® , Barricaid ® and one experimental periodontal dressing based on Exothane ® 8 monomer was tested on 3T3/NIH mouse fibroblast. Genotoxicity was assessed by micronuclei formation, and cell alterations were analyzed using light microscopy. Both biological assays were performed using the eluate obtained from specimens after 24, 72, or 168 hours of incubation. Mechanical characterization was assessed through the ultimate tensile strength and the water sorption and solubility tests. The significance level of α = 0.05 was used for all statistical analyses. All the materials promoted a cell viability lower than 60% in all evaluated times. In general, the cell viability was significantly reduced after 72 and 168h of specimens’ incubation. Considering the factor material, there were not statistical differences in the cell viability (p = 0.156). The genotoxicity was not statistically significant among the groups in the different periods of time (p > 0.05). Differences in the ultimate tensile strength values were not statistically significant different among the groups (p = 0.125). Periobond ® showed the higher water sorption values (p < 0.001). Regarding solubility, there were no statistical differences between the groups (p = 0.098). All the periodontal dressing materials evaluated in this study exerted a cytotoxic effect against mouse fibroblasts, and their toxicity became more evident over time. Among the materials evaluated, the experimental light-cure type has shown overall similar properties to the commercial references.
  • Knowledge, stress levels, and clinical practice modifications of Turkish dentists due to COVID-19: a survey study Original Research

    Sarialioglu Gungor, Ayca; Donmez, Nazmiye; Uslu, Yesim Sesen

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Dentists are exposed to the highest risk of occupational respiratory and droplet infections by working face-to-face with patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge of symptoms and modes of transmission of COVID-19, stress levels and clinical practice modifications of Turkish dentists during the COVID-19 pandemic. An online survey (15 questions) was sent to Turkish dentists from May 5 to 12 May, 2020. The survey comprised questions about dentists’ demographic characteristics, their knowledge about COVID-19, stress levels and the measures taken in dental clinics against COVID-19. This study included a total of 1,095 Turkish dentists. The data were expressed as frequency with percentage values for overall variables. Dentists were most familiar with high fever among the symptoms of COVID-19 (99.4%) and 99.2% of them reported that COVID-19 was transmitted with eye, mouth and nasal mucosa contact on surfaces contaminated with the droplets of infected persons. While the stress levels of females were higher than males, the stress levels of dentists with more than 20 years of professional experience were found to be lower. Regarding the precautions to be taken as a preventive measure when working again, 86.6% of the dentists took precautions by increasing daily patient care intervals and only 38.4% of the dentists wore an N95 mask. During this pandemic, knowing the conditions about when the treatments can be applied and the precautions to be taken will shed light on dentistry staff. Current recommendations of national authorities about the coronavirus should be followed.
  • Socioeconomic and intraoral polarization of untreated caries and tooth loss among male adolescents Original Research

    STONA, Priscila; KRAMER, Paulo Floriani; VARGAS-FERREIRA, Fabiana; AMORIM, Lívia Mund de; COELHO, Elisa Maria de Rosa Barros; FELDENS, Carlos Alberto

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the intraoral distribution of untreated caries and tooth loss and estimate the impact of different socioeconomic factors on the occurrence of these outcomes. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 652 18-year-old male adolescents from the city of Sapucaia do Sul, Brazil, who conscripted for military service. The participants answered a questionnaire addressing sociodemographic variables. Two trained and calibrated examiners performed the clinical examinations for the diagnosis of dental caries using the criteria of the World Health Organization. Tooth group and adolescent were the units of analysis for the primary outcomes of the study. Poisson regression analysis with robust variance was performed, with the calculation of crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The prevalence of caries experience and untreated caries was 70.2% and 39.3%, respectively, and 9.4% of the adolescents had missing teeth. Sixty-seven percent of the untreated caries and 98.8% of missing teeth were in first molars. The probability of dental caries and tooth loss was significantly higher among adolescents with less schooling (PR = 2.56; 95%CI: 1.97–3.32 and PR = 3.28; 95%CI: 1.61–6.65, respectively) and those whose mothers had less schooling (PR = 1.31; 95%CI: 1.03–1.67 and PR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.18–4.50, respectively). In conclusion, the occurrence of untreated dental caries and tooth loss was concentrated in the first molars of adolescents. Moreover, the prevalence of both conditions was higher among adolescents with low schooling and whose mothers had low schooling, reflecting the strong intraoral and socioeconomic polarization of these outcomes.
  • Effect of antihistamine-containing syrup on salivary metabolites: an in vitro and in vivo study Original Research

    Fidalgo, Tatiana Kelly da Silva; Freitas-Fernandes, Liana Bastos; Almeida, Fabio Ceneviva Lacerda; Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro de; Valente, Ana Paula

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study tested the null hypothesis that antihistamine-containing syrup does not change salivary metabolites in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro experiments, saliva from 10 volunteers was mixed with a syrup or pill suspension of loratadine (1 mg/ml Claritin®, Schering-Plough, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). For the in vivo experiment, 10 volunteers performed a mouth rinse with 10 mL of antihistamine syrup (Claritin®; Schering-Plough, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) for 20 seconds and then discarded the rinse water. After 20 seconds, 5 mL of unstimulated whole saliva was spit into a plastic tube kept on ice. The protein profile of in vitro and in vivo experiments was analyzed using 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The samples were also analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, followed by Principal Component Analysis and Wilcoxon test (p < 0.05). There were differences in salivary metabolites after syrup interaction. The salivary concentrations of acetate, n-caproate, arginine, glutamate, and lysine among other metabolites were reduced with the syrup in both in vivo and in vitro experiments (p < 0.05), but no differences were observed when the pill suspension was used (p > 0.05). Similar changes in metabolite profiles were observed in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Electrophoresis revealed no difference in the salivary protein pattern. The null hypothesis was rejected because the intake of syrup medicine changes the salivary composition and influences oral homeostasis and susceptibility to oral diseases.
  • Chronic inflammatory periapical diseases: a Brazilian multicenter study of 10,381 cases and literature review Original Research

    COUTO, Aline Maria do; MEIRELLES, Daniela Pereira; VALERIANO, Alline Teixeira; ALMEIDA, Douglas Silva de; MORAES, Êmile de; TARQUINIO, Sandra Beatriz Chaves; BATISTA, Aline Carvalho; MENDONÇA, Elismauro Francisco de; COSTA, Nádia do Lago; ALVES, Pollianna Muniz; NONAKA, Cassiano Francisco Weege; ABREU, Lucas Guimarães; AGUIAR, Maria Cássia Ferreira de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of chronic inflammatory periapical diseases in different regions of Brazil and to compare with data from the literature. A multicenter study was carried out in four Brazilian referral centers in oral diagnosis. Histopathological records were reviewed, and all cases diagnosed microscopically as periapical granuloma, radicular cyst, and periapical abscess were included. Demographic and clinical data were collected. Descriptive statistics and Pearson’s chi-square test were performed. A total of 10,381 cases of chronic inflammatory periapical diseases were found (13.8% of 74,931 archived specimens) over a period of 65 years. Radicular cysts were the most common lesion (59.9%). Women (56.1%) with a mean age of 37.01 years old (range 13 to 100 ± 14.42) and people of white skin color (59.2%) were the most affected individuals by chronic inflammatory periapical diseases. The lesions were generally asymptomatic (28.1%), located in the maxilla (60.1%), and posterior region (49.8%). The radicular cysts were larger when compared to periapical granulomas (p < 0.001). The disagreement between the clinical and histopathological diagnoses was higher when the final diagnosis was a periapical granuloma (p < 0.001). Chronic inflammatory periapical diseases continue to be common lesions affecting mainly adults. This should be a consequence of the burden of untreated caries in permanent teeth. Women are more affected and radicular cyst was the most common lesion.
  • Shape differences among symmetrically shaped skeletal growth patterns in a panoramic view: a Fourier analysis Original Research

    NIÑO-SANDOVAL, Tania Camila; FRAZÃO, Marco; VASCONCELOS, Belmiro Cavalcanti do Egito

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective of this study was to apply elliptic Fourier analysis (EFA) to find shape differences among skeletal growth patterns in both radiographic and tomographic panoramic views, controlling for asymmetry. Lateral and panoramic images were obtained from 350 patients. After screening patients with asymmetric linear and angular values and natural asymmetric hemimandibular shape, 240 patients were included in the study: 48 with tomographic information and 192 with radiographic information. The images were classified according to the mandibular plane angle and the ANB angle. Mandibular contours were digitized on the panoramic images and EFA was performed with 20 harmonics, filtering rotation, translation and size properties. As there were no differences between radiographic and tomographic panoramic mandibular contours and normal distribution was found in all groups, MANOVA was conducted to determine differences using a Hotelling’s p-values with Bonferroni correction and an XY graph tool was applied to visualize these differences graphically. A 95% confidence level was used. Significative differences were found among hypodivergent, normodivergent, and hyperdivergent patterns in Class I, II, and III (p < 0.05), located mainly in the symphyseal region. The results of this study suggest that EFA is a useful tool to mathematically analyze mandibular contours and their morphological differences given by facial biotypes. This method could improve the precision of the mandibular prediction models.
  • Inheritance pattern of molar-incisor hypomineralization Original research

    JEREMIAS, Fabiano; BUSSANELI, Diego Girotto; RESTREPO, Manuel; PIERRI, Ricardo Augusto Gonçalves; SOUZA, Juliana Feltrin de; FRAGELLI, Camila Maria Bullio; SECOLIN, Rodrigo; MAURER-MORELLI, Claudia Vianna; CORDEIRO, Rita de Cassia Loiola; SCAREL-CAMINAGA, Raquel Mantuaneli; SANTOS-PINTO, Lourdes

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the segregation patterns of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in families, given the evidence that its etiology is influenced by genetics. Clinically, MIH may be detected in parents and/or siblings of MIH-affected children. Our study included children with at least one first permanent molar affected by MIH (proband) and their first-degree relatives (parents and siblings). The participants were examined clinically to detect MIH, according to the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry criteria (2003). A total of 101 nuclear families (391 individuals) were studied. Proband diagnosis was followed by MIH classification of the subject, his parents and siblings, as affected, unaffected, or unknown. Segregation analysis was performed using the multivariate logistic regression model of the Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology package, and segregation models (general transmission, environmental, major gene, dominant, codominant and recessive models). The Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used to evaluate the most parsimonious model. In all, 130 affected individuals, 165 unaffected individuals, and 96 unknown individuals were studied. Severe MIH was found in 50.7% of the cases. A segregation analysis performed for MIH revealed the following different models: environmental and dominance (p = 0.05), major gene (p = 0.04), codominant (p = 0.15) and recessive models (p = 0.03). According to the AIC values, the codominant model was the most parsimonious (AIC = 308.36). Our results suggest that the codominant model could be the most likely for inheriting MIH. This result strengthens the evidence that genetic factors, such as multifactorial complex defect, influence MIH.
  • A qualitative study on experiences of persons with schizophrenia in oral-health-related quality of life Original research

    DENIS, Frédéric; SIU-PAREDES, Francesca; MAITRE, Yoann; AMADOR, Gilles; RUDE, Nathalie

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Our study aimed to explore the views and experiences in oral health and oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of persons with schizophrenia (PWS) in order to expand the understanding of the factors that either limit or facilitate their healthcare pathway, which can ultimately optimize their oral health and/or OHRQoL. A qualitative study was conducted in France in the Côte d’Or department (530 000 in habitants) centered on PWS’s perceived meanings regarding oral health or OHRQoL, and semi-structured individual interviews were used. A conventional content analysis approach was chosen in order to highlight unrevealed themes. A sample of 20 PWS (12 males; 8 females) with a median age was 45.8 (± 9.5) were recruited to assess views and experiences regarding OHRQoL, which were focused on three dimensions: an individual dimension related to experience of “oral symptoms”, a second dimension related to experience of “stress and its management”, and a third related to “Autonomy dimension in oral health”. We showed that PWS clearly expressed their mental representations of oral health and OHRQoL. This study supports that PWS were able to define their needs and had the ability to discuss their oral health and OHRQoL. These finding could be used to support specific interventions for this population to better manage the negative impact of antipsychotics and help them to consult dentists on a regular basis.
  • Influence of skeletal class and facial type on nose dimensions in a Brazilian subpopulation: a CBCT study Original Research

    Gomes, Amanda Farias; Fontenele, Rocharles Cavalcante; Zanon, Mariana Fabbro; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Haiter, Francisco; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Evaluating factors that may influence the nose dimensions and, therefore, contribute to the singularity of a person, is important for obtaining a precise facial reconstruction (FR) in forensic anthropology. Thus, the aim in this study was to evaluate the influence of sex, skeletal class, and facial type on nose dimensions of Brazilian individuals using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. CBCT images of 54 males and 67 females were classified according to skeletal class (class I, II, or III) and facial type (brachycephalic, dolichocephalic and mesocephalic). Linear and angular measurements of the nose were performed using the CS 3D Imaging software. The measurements obtained for males and females were compared by one-way ANOVA. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the measurements in the different skeletal classes and facial types. Significance level was set at 5%. All linear measurements were greater in males (p < 0.05); the angular measurements, however, did not differ between sexes (p > 0.05). Linear and angular measurements of class III males were significantly different from the other classes; the same was observed for the angular measurements in females (p < 0.05). Regarding facial types, some linear measurements were significantly greater in dolichocephalics males (p < 0.05). For females, there was no influence of facial type (p > 0.05), except for the nasal convexity angle. Nose dimensions differed in specific points among different skeletal classes and facial types, and there was sexual dimorphism in all linear nose dimensions. This information may be applicable for nose reconstructions, allowing more reliable FR.
  • Evaluation of the quality of referral letters: experience of a Brazilian oral medicine service Original Research

    Rodrigues, Camila Real Delegá; Fernandes, Patrícia Maria; Santos-Silva, Alan Roger; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Optimizing the quality of referral letters could be the first step to a correct clinical approach for patients. Referral letters should be legible and contain the necessary information to avoid delaying the patient's diagnosis and treatment. However, to date, few studies have been conducted on how referrals are performed in Brazil. Knowledge regarding the quality of referral letters can provide information to better guide health care professionals. This study was aimed at analyzing all referrals received by a single oral medicine service in Brazil. Referral letters were classified into poor, regular, good, and excellent based on key items concerning the primary morphology of the lesion, location, diagnostic hypothesis, symptomatology, time of evolution, consistency, size, and limits. A total of 500 referral letters were evaluated, including 271 (54.2%) from a private service and 229 (45.8%) from a public service. Dentists and physicians had written 475 (95%) and 25 (5%) referral letters, respectively. Among the 500 referrals analyzed in this study, the number of regular, poor, good, and excellent referrals was 236 (47.2%), 203 (40.6%), 58 (11.6%), and one (0.6%), respectively, showing a lack of important clinical information in referrals.
  • Efficacy of 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride gel on non-cavitated enamel lesions: a randomized clinical trial Original Research

    Goldenfum, Gabriela Maltz; Silva, Natália Caldeira; Almeida, Ingrid dos Anjos; Neves, Matheus; Silva, Berenice Barbachan e; Jardim, Juliana Jobim; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: A randomized controlled parallel clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the association of 1.23% topical professional acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel with oral hygiene and dietary instructions on the arrest of active non-cavitated lesions in permanent, mixed, and temporary dentition in children between 3 and 12 years of age. Ninety-eight caries-active children were randomly divided into two groups: a fluoride gel group (n = 49) and a non-fluoridated gel group (n = 49). Each group received up to eight weekly applications of gel, weekly professional toothbrushing with oral hygiene instructions and dietary counselling. Caries lesions were assessed qualitatively through visual-tactile criteria performed in three stages: initial, intermediate, and final. Regression models were applied to identify risk indicators for caries control. Between-group comparison regarding the time taken to arrest the lesions was performed using Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests. Seventeen children did not receive the allocated intervention, and one was lost to follow-up (n = 80). There was no difference between the control and placebo groups regarding the time to the arrest of the lesion (p >.05). The treatments showed similar results without significant statistical difference (p = 0.33; 95%CI: 0.32–1.48). No adverse effects were observed. It can be concluded that no additional effect of the association of 1.23% APF gel with oral hygiene using fluoride dentifrice and dietary instructions on the arrest of active non-cavitated lesions could be established. We can also confirm the importance of toothbrushing frequency and, consequently, the visible plaque reduction in the control of caries activity. RBR-37V5S3
  • Prevalence of cleft lip and palate and associated factors in Brazil's Midwest: a single-center study Original Research

    FERRARI-PILONI, Carolina; BARROS, Leandro Almeida Nascimento; JESUÍNO, Flávia Aline Silva; VALLADARES-NETO, José

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) and associated factors in patients treated at a referral service in Brazil's Midwest. Data were obtained from medical records on file between 2010 and 2017 for this epidemiologic and associational study. A descriptive analysis of the sociodemographic and clinical data was carried out, after which the data were analyzed using the chi-square test and Poisson regression with robust variance. A total of 1,696 medical records were eligible. The requests for rehabilitation were mainly for children in the early years of life, and were mostly for patients from low-income families in the state of Goiás. CL/P was more prevalent in its most severe morphological representation (cleft lip and palate), and the most frequently affected side was the left. Syndromic cleft was present in 4.1% of the cases, and the Pierre Robin sequence and Apert syndrome appeared more frequently. Adjusted multivariate Poisson regression showed an association between cleft palate and the presence of syndromes, since the prevalence was 2.33 times higher in this case than that of no syndrome. Cleft lip and palate were associated with males, whereas cleft palate was associated with females. This study highlights the importance of collecting and analyzing epidemiological data, managing health service planning, and allocating funds to assist cleft patients.
  • Impact of adopting different socioeconomic indicators in older adults’ oral health research Original Research

    Amaral, Orlando Luiz do; Menegazzo, Gabriele Rissotto; Fagundes, Maria Laura Braccini; Tomazoni, Fernanda; Giordani, Jessye Melgarejo do Amaral

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of choosing different socioeconomic status indicators in research regarding older adults’ oral health. This is a cross-sectional study that analyzed baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study on Aging (ELSI-Brazil). The outcomes were edentulism (n = 9,073) and self-reported oral health (n = 9,365). The following socioeconomic indicators were assessed: individual income, per capita household income, and wealth index. Poisson regression analysis with robust variance was performed to estimate prevalence ratios (PR), with their respective 95% confidence intervals (CI), after adjusting for socioeconomic and oral health behavior variables. Absolute inequality measures were also estimated. The individual income indicator was not statistically associated with the results after adjustments. When using per capita household income indicator, individuals in the richest quintile showed a 12% lower prevalence of poor self-reported oral health [PR: 0.88 (CI: 0.78–0.98)], relative to the poorest, and there was no association with edentulism. When the wealth index was chosen, there was a 22% lower prevalence of edentulism [PR: 0.78 (CI: 0.64–0.94)] and 15% lower prevalence of self-reported poor oral health [PR: 0.85 (CI: 0.78–0.93)] in individuals of the richest quintile, both relative to the poorest quintile. Regarding absolute inequality measures, for edentulism, the wealth index showed the highest absolute inequality. When considering self-reported oral health, per capita household income showed the greatest absolute inequality. Despite scientific challenges and the difficulty of socioeconomic indicator metrics, further investments in its development are critical to measure, promote, and improve population oral health.
  • Sedentary behavior, unhealthy food consumption and dental caries in 12-year-old schoolchildren: a population-based study Original Research

    Bomfim, Rafael Aiello; Frias, Antonio Carlos; Cascaes, Andreia Morales; Mazzilli, Luiz Eugênio Nigro; Souza, Luciana Bronzi de; Carrer, Fernanda Campos de Almeida; Araújo, Maria Ercília de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This study analyzed the association between sedentary behavior (SB), unhealthy food consumption, and dental caries amongst 12-year-old schoolchildren. An epidemiological survey was carried out in the five largest cities (> 80,000 inhabitants) of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Data were collected on decayed, missing and filled teeth index (DMFT), sociodemographic characteristics, SB, unhealthy food consumption, and water fluoridation status. The analysis was based on the theoretical framework established by J Sisson. Structural equation models were performed to test the association of dental caries experience with sociodemographic, contextual, and behavioral factors. The mean DMFT index in the five cities was 1.02 (95%CI: 0.39–1.66). Higher sedentary behavior (more than 2 hours/day) [standardized coefficient (SC) = 0.21 95%CI: 0.07–0.39] and higher unhealthy food consumption (more than 4 times/week) [SC = 0.23 (0.10–0.45)] were associated with higher DMFT index than their counterparts. Also, cities with fluoridated water were associated with lower DMFT index [SC = −0.85 (-1.20–-0.50)]. Families who had a per capita income above the poverty line had a direct association with unhealthy food consumption [SC = −0.24 (-0.38–-0.11)]. Unhealthy food consumption mediated the association of sedentary behavior on DMFT index [SC=0.07 (0.02–0.13)]. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the findings. Sedentary behavior mediated by unhealthy food consumption had a significant association with dental caries experience. Public policies must address transdisciplinary actions to reduce sedentary behavior and unhealthy food consumption and promote water fluoridation.
  • Diagnosis of mucosal changes and hospitalized oral cancer patients in Brazil: influence of socioeconomic factors Original Research

    FREIRE, Aldelany Ramalho; FREIRE, Deborah Ellen Wanderley Gomes; PUCCA, Gilberto Alfredo; CARRER, Fernanda Campos de Almeida; SOUSA, Simone Alves de; LUCENA, Edson Hilan Gomes de; CAVALCANTI, Yuri Wanderley

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to analyze the influence of socioeconomic factors on the frequency of diagnoses of oral mucosal changes and the number of hospitalized patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer in Brazil. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from all Brazilian cities in the period 2011–2017. The frequency of diagnoses of oral mucosal changes and the number of hospitalized patients of oral and oropharyngeal cancer in Brazil were extracted from the Primary Care Information System (SIAB) and Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA) databases. The socioeconomic factors evaluated were the Gini coefficient of inequality, municipal Human Development Index (MHDI), inadequate basic sanitation rate, employment rate, illiteracy rate and expected years of schooling. Associated factors were examined using bivariate Spearman’s correlations and multivariate Poisson regressions, and statistically significant (p < 0.05) correlations between study variables and regression coefficients were obtained. A higher frequency of diagnoses of mucosal changes was observed in cities with a higher Gini coefficient (B = 11.614; p < 0.001), higher MHDI (B = 11.298; p < 0.001), and higher number of hospitalized patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer (B = 0.001, p < 0.002). Cities with higher Gini coefficients (B = 8.159, p < 0.001), higher inadequate basic sanitation rates (B = 0.09, p = 0.001), lower expected years of schooling (B = -0.718, p < 0.001), and higher illiteracy rates (B = 0.191, p < 0.001) had a higher frequency of hospitalized patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer. In conclusion, more developed cities showed a higher frequency of diagnoses of mucosal changes. Greater inequality and worse socioeconomic conditions are associated with a higher frequency of hospitalized patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer in Brazil.
  • Radiographic evaluation of dental anomalies in patients with congenital Zika virus syndrome Original Research

    ALENCAR, Phillipe Nogueira Barbosa; LIMA, Maria Cláudia de Freitas; CARVALHO, Isabella Fernandes; ARAÚJO, Lavina Sousa; SILVA, Paulo Goberlânio de Barros; LOPES, Luiza Lassi de Araújo; LEMOS, José Vitor Mota; SOUSA, Fabrício Bitú

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Numerous studies have reported abnormalities in the development of oral structures in congenital infections that also involve microcephaly. In this context, it is necessary to identify possible dental anomalies of shape and/or number in patients with Zika virus syndrome using radiography. The study population consisted of 35 children born with congenital ZIKV who underwent intraoral radiographic examinations for 24 consecutive months. A modified periapical technique was performed in an occlusal position for the maxilla and mandible. Categorical data were expressed as absolute and percentage frequencies and compared using Pearson's Chi-square test, with a 95% confidence interval. Of the entire sample, eight children (22.8%) had dental anomalies of shape and/or number, and four children (11.4%) presented with both anomalies, with agenesis of the upper and lower deciduous/permanent incisors and dental form modifications, such as microdontia and anomalous cusps. When we considered age and sex, there was no statistically significant difference between patients who presented with agenesis and those who presented with modifications. Children with congenital Zika virus syndrome were more likely to have dental modifications in the number and shape of their teeth, and it is essential to implement medium- to long-term monitoring to diagnose other possible alterations throughout the development of the mixed and permanent dentition, favoring their treatment.
  • Narratives about a stigma: attributing meaning to the early loss of deciduous teeth on children's caregivers Original Research

    Bitencourt, Fernando Valentim; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida; Toassi, Ramona Fernanda Ceriotti

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Qualitative approach about the implications that occur succeeding the premature loss teeth is still insufficient. This study aimed to understand the experience of early loss of deciduous teeth in children's lives, from the perspective of their caregivers. Qualitative case study included 52 caregivers of children from an outpatient service of a public university in the south of Brazil. Early loss of deciduous teeth to trauma or caries was identified through analysis of health records, and afterwards, semi-structured interviews were performed. Textual material was interpreted through the content analysis proposed by Bardin, supported by the ATLAS.ti software. The theoretical perspective of stigma was guided according to the principles of the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, centred on the experience of early loss of deciduous teeth as a historic–cultural expression of a social group. According to caregivers, premature loss of deciduous teeth due to trauma or decay brings functional limitations with chewing and speaking, and impairments related to social interaction with other children. The repercussions of missing teeth were not limited to the child's image, but also brought changes in families’ daily lives. However, when early tooth loss was due to extraction because of pain and suffering, caregivers perceived the loss as ‘commonplace’ in children's lives. The understanding of how children see themselves without teeth in their social world for their caregivers, which also includes their family and friends, determines how much experiencing tooth loss affects their lives. Besides, caregivers’ perceptions related to early loss of deciduous teeth should be included in strategies of oral health promotion programs.
  • Micro-CT evaluation of maxillary first molars: interorifice distances and internal anatomy of the mesiobuccal root Original Research

    TONELLI, Stéphanie Quadros; SOUSA-NETO, Manoel Damião; LEONI, Graziela Bianchi; BRITO-JÚNIOR, Manoel; PEREIRA, Rodrigo Dantas; OLIVEIRA, Pedro Augusto Xambre de; NUNES, Eduardo; SILVEIRA, Frank Ferreira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This study aimed to describe the morphometric relationship of root canal orifices on the pulp floor in the presence/absence of mesiobuccal second canal (MB2) in the maxillary first molars and other aspects of its internal anatomy. Sixty-two maxillary first molars were scanned by micro-CT. The presence of the MB2 canal was verified. The distance between the center points of the MB1, MB2, distobuccal (DB), and palatal (P) canal orifices on the pulp floor were measured (MB1-MB2, MB1-DB, MB2-DB, MB1-P, and DB-P). The MB1-P to DB-P ratio was calculated. The distances between the anatomic apex and the MB1 and MB2 apical foramina were measured. The length of the band-shaped isthmus was also measured. Student's t-test was applied to verify the association between the presence of an MB2 canal, the interorifice distances, and the ratio of the MB1-P to DB-P distance (α = 5%). The MB2 canal was present in 43 roots (69.35%). Statistics showed significant differences when MB2 was present for the largest MB1-P distance (p < 0.05) and higher values for the MB1-P to DB-P ratio (p < 0.05). A band-shaped isthmus was detected in 25.8% of MB roots. The mean distance from the apical foramen to the isthmus floor ranged from 1.74 for MB1 canals to 1.42 for MB2 canals. Canal orifice distances on the pulp floor may predict the presence of MB2 canals. There was a high incidence of isthmus, accessory canals, and apical delta in the critical apical zone in MB roots of maxillary first molars.
  • The evaluation of psychological state of dental students during the COVID-19 pandemic Original Research

    YILDIRIM, Tuba Talo; ATAS, Osman

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The purpose of the present study was to assess anxiety among a sample of dentistry students during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 355 dentistry students (165 males and 190 females) completed the Health Anxiety Inventory (HAI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-I (STAI-I), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory II (STAI-II) questionnaires. and evaluations of HAI, BAI, STAI-I, and STAI-II were based on sex, dental school year, smoking habit, and lifestyle. Female students had higher HAI and BAI scores than male students (p = 0.009 and p = 0.001, respectively). Statistically significant differences in HAI scores existed between preclinical and clinical students (p = 0.048). The only statistical significant differences detected in STAI-I scores involved students with an extended family when compared to students without an extended family (p = 0.039). The HAI scores of students who had close contact were significantly higher than students who had no contact (p = 0.047). There were significant correlations between the four scales (p < 0.05). During the COVID-19 pandemic [was under control in Turkey?], the HAI scores were higher in female, clinical students and students who lived with an extended family.
  • Wich factors influencing the number of teeth at 12 months of age: a birth cohort study Original Research

    Silveira, Ethieli Rodrigues da; Cademartori, Mariana Gonzalez; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Silveira, Mariangela Freitas; Barros, Fernando Celso; Azevedo, Marina Sousa; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This study aimed to verify, through a longitudinal follow-up, the pre-, peri- and postnatal factors associated with the eruption of deciduous teeth. The study was nested in a Birth Cohort Study conducted in Pelotas, a Southern Brazilian city. Mothers were followed prenatally and their children were followed-up perinatally, at 3 and 12 months of age. The outcome was the number of teeth at 12 months, and exploratory variables included maternal habits and characteristics, anthropometric measures of children and mothers, and socioeconomic and demographic information. Data were collected through interviews with the mother and children’s clinical exam. Poisson regression models were used for the analysis. Participants included 4,014 children with a mean number of erupted teeth at 12 months of 5.50. After adjustments, a lower mean number of teeth was observed in children from non-white mothers, early preterm children, and shorter children at birth and at 12 months. A higher number of teeth was observed for mothers with excessive weight gain during pregnancy, mothers who smoked during pregnancy, weightier children at birth and at 12 months, and for children with larger heads at birth and at 12 months. Our findings suggest that maternal and children characteristics influenced primary tooth eruption.
  • Involvement of tryptase-positive mast cells and angiogenesis in the growth of inflammatory odontogenic cysts Original Research

    Costa, Hugo; Andrade, Ana Luiza Dias Leite de; Carmo, Andréia Ferreira do; Freitas, Roseana de Almeida; Galvão, Hébel Cavalcanti

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Inflammatory periapical lesions are characterized by infiltration of different immune cell types, the functions of which depend on an effective vascular network. This study aimed to evaluate the mast cells density (MCD) in inflamatory odontogenic cysts capsules concerning microvascular density (MVD), microvascular area (MVA), and microvascular perimeter (MVP), and correlate such findings with the type of lesion, intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate, and thickness of the epithelial lining. Twenty inflamatory dentigerous cysts (IDCs), twenty radicular cysts (RCs), and twenty residual radicular cysts (RRCs) were submitted to immunohistochemical analysis using anti-tryptase and anti-CD34 antibodies. RCs exhibited the highest MCD, MVD, MVA, and MVP indexes (p = < 0.001, p = 0.008, p = 0.003 and p = < 0.001, respectively), and lesions with inflammatory infiltrate grade III showed the highest MVD (p = 0.044). Considering epithelial thickness, a higher MVP index was identified in lesions with hyperplastic epithelium (p = 0.018). In IDCs, RCs, and RRCs, a strong positive correlation was observed between MVA and MVP (r = 0.950 and p = < 0.001; r = 0.914 and p = < 0.001; r = 0.713 and p = < 0.001, respectively). In IDCs, a moderate correlation was observed between MCD and both MVA and MVP (r = 0.660 and p = 0.002; r = 0.634 and p = 0.003, respectively). These results suggest that tryptase-positive mast cells might play an important role in the angiogenic activity of IDCs, while RCs had the highest indexes. Our findings also confirmed that the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate and epithelial thickness influence angiogenesis.
  • Biological effects of formulation containing curcuminoids and Bidens Pilosa L. in oral carcinoma cell line Original Research

    Arantes, Diego Antonio Costa; Silva, Artur Christian Garcia da; Lima, Eliana Martins; Alonso, Ellen Cristine Pineze; Marreto, Ricardo Neves; Mendonça, Elismauro Francisco; Valadares, Marize Campos; Batista, Aline Carvalho

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: FITOPROT, which contains curcuminoids and Bidens pilosa L. extract, is an innovative mucoadhesive formulation indicated for the topical treatment of chemoradiotherapy-induced oral mucositis (OM) in patients with advanced and visible oral squamous cell carcinoma. The formulation is used as a mouthwash directly on tumor tissue of patients with advanced neoplasms, without triggering cancer cell proliferation or tumor invasiveness. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of FITOPROT on an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line (SCC-4). The viability of SCC-4 cells was assessed after exposure to FITOPROT using MTT reduction assay. The effects of the mucoadhesive formulation on cell cycle progression and cell death parameters were evaluated using flow cytometry. In addition, the inflammatory profile of the tumor cells was evaluated using the cytometric bead array (CBA) assay. FITOPROT promoted a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase (p < 0.05). Mitochondrial membrane potential was also altered after exposure to the formulation (p < 0.05), in parallel with a reduction in VEGF and IL-8 production (p = 0.01 and p = 0.05, respectively). In summary, the results indicate that FITOPROT reduces SCC-4 cell viability, promotes cell cycle arrest, modulates mitochondrial membrane potential, and exhibits antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory properties, thus indicating its potential for topical use in patients with OM and visible tumors in the mouth.
  • Evaluation of type of kinematics on glide path procedures and torsional fatigue resistance after preparation of moderately curved canals Original Research

    Alcalde, Murilo Priori; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Calefi, Pedro Henrique Souza; Cruz, Victor de Moraes; Vasconcelos, Bruno Carvalho de; Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis; Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Sixty moderately curved canals of mandibular molars classified as Vertucci’s type IV canal configuration were selected by micro-CT 1174. The teeth were divided into two groups according to the kinematics used, whether reciprocating or rotary motion (n=30, totaling 60 mesial root canals). The instruments used to perform the glide path procedures had identical features (0.15 mm of tip size, 0.04 mm/mm taper, thermal treatment, and square cross-section), but differed in the direction of the cutting blade. The duration of the procedure and the absolute and percentage frequency of the instruments to reach the full working length were recorded. The torsional test (3630-1; 1992) was performed on both used and unused instruments, to evaluate a possible reduction in the torsional resistance when using the glide path procedure. Statistical analysis was performed using the unpaired t-test and the chi-square test, and the level of significance was set at 5%. The type of kinematics used affected the duration of glide path procedures, and the reciprocating motion seemed to induce less torsional stress during glide path procedures.
  • Accuracy of periapical and panoramic radiography for detection of root morphologies: a comparative study Original Research

    Doğramaci, Esma J.; Decurcio, Daniel de Almeida; Chen, Catherine Jiayuan; Estrela, Carlos; Rossi-Fedele, Giampiero

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Maxillary and mandibular incisors have increased risk for severe orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption. A patient-related risk factor is aberrant root morphology. This study aimed to assess the frequency of detection of different root morphologies in anterior teeth using dental panoramic tomography (DPT) and long cone periapical radiographs (LCPAs). A retrospective cross-sectional design was used to assess a sample of 50 consecutive pre-treatment radiographic records of patients from a specialist orthodontic practice in Adelaide, Australia. A reference guide was developed that included three previously unreported morphologies: pipette and bent, bent and pointed, bent and blunt. Two trained and calibrated assessors examined each record against the inclusion criteria, then independently assessed each anterior tooth from DPTs and LCPAs to detect the type of root morphology present. Data were analysed using the chi-square statistical test. Radiographic records for 48 patients (48 DPTs and 161 LCPAs) were eligible, with 355 and 426 teeth on DPTs and LCPAs, respectively, included for assessment. Normal root morphology (119 teeth) was commonly observed in DPTs, while bent (154 teeth) was frequently observed using LCPAs. Mandibular incisors often had normal morphology in DPTs but bent in LCPAs. Bent was the most common morphology in maxillary lateral incisors using DPT and LCPAs, although maxillary centrals were mostly normal in DPTs but pointed in LCPAs. Differences using the two image acquisition methods were highly significant (p < 0.01). Aberrant root morphologies are more easily detected in anterior teeth using LCPAs compared to DPTs.
  • Assessment of a novel bleaching agent formula containing 35% hydrogen peroxide and titanium tetrafluoride: an in vitro study Original Research

    Lins, Rodrigo Barros Esteves; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Lazarini, Josy Goldoni; Martins, Luís Roberto Marcondes; Cavalli, Vanessa

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This study developed experimental gels containing titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) combined with commercial 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP), and evaluated bleaching efficacy and pH of the gels, and mineral content and morphology of enamel submitted to these treatments. In phase-1, different stock gels mixed with TiF4 were combined with HP. In phase-2, the selected gels were tested on enamel/dentin specimens (n=8): HP; HP and Natrosol+TiF4 (HPnT); HP and Natrosol+Chemygel+TiF4 (HPncT); HP and Aristoflex+TiF4 (HPaT). Bleaching was performed in four sessions (3x15min-application/session). Color (CIEL*a*b*) and whiteness index (WID) were measured after each session, whereas whiteness index differences (ΔWID), color alteration (CIELab–ΔE, CIEDE2000-ΔE00), enamel morphology and pH, at end of bleaching therapy. The change in Knoop microhardness (ΔKHN) was compared before and after bleaching. Data were analyzed by two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni (CIEL*, a*, b*), one-way ANOVA and Tukey (ΔWID, ΔE, ΔE00), and LSD (ΔKHN) tests (α=5%). SEM and pH measurements were submitted to descriptive analysis. No differences were observed in lightness (L*) or WID among the groups (p > 0.05), but HP exhibited lower b* values (p<0.05), higher ΔWID than HPnT, and the highest ΔE among the groups (p < 0.05). No differences in ΔE00 were observed between HP and HPncT (p > 0.05), and HPncT showed higher ΔKHN than HP (p < 0.05). HP presented pH values closer to neutral (6.9), whereas experimental agents showed acidic pH values (2.3–3.9). No morphological changes were observed in HP or HPncT groups. HPncT was able to bleach the enamel and maintain enamel microhardness and surface integrity, even at low pH.
  • Malocclusion Impact Scale for Early Childhood (MIS-EC): development and validation Original Research

    Homem, Márcio Alexandre; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Mota-Veloso, Isabella; Pereira, Tulio Silva; Martins, Paulo Antônio; Normando, David; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Marques, Leandro Silva

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This study aimed to develop and validate the Malocclusion Impact Scale for Early Childhood (MIS-EC), a malocclusion-specific measure of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children aged 3-5 years and their parents/caregivers. A pool of items was analysed to identify those relevant to the assessment of the impact of malocclusion on OHRQoL. Dental professionals and mothers of children with and without malocclusion rated the importance of these items. The final version of the MIS-EC was evaluated in a cross-sectional study comprising 381 parents of children aged 3–5 years to assess construct validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Twenty-two items were identified from item pooling. After item reduction, eight items were chosen to constitute the MIS-EC, in addition to two general questions. The MIS-EC demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.79 for the Child Impact section and 0.53 for the Family Impact section), and excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.94), floor effect was 55.7% and ceiling effect 0%. MIS-EC scores indicating worse OHRQoL were significantly associated with the presence of malocclusion (p < 0.05). The MIS-EC is reliable and valid for assessing the impact of malocclusion on the OHRQoL of preschool children and their parents/caregivers.
  • Titanium dioxide nanotubes added to glass ionomer cements affect S. mutans viability and mechanisms of virulence Original research

    ARAÚJO, Isaac Jordão de Souza; RICARDO, Mariana Gallante; GOMES, Orisson Ponce; GIOVANI, Priscila Alves; PUPPIN-RONTANI, Júlia; PECORARI, Vanessa Arias; MARTINEZ, Elizabeth Ferreira; NAPIMOGA, Marcelo Henrique; NOCITI, Francisco Humberto; PUPPIN-RONTANI, Regina Maria; LISBOA-FILHO, Paulo Noronha; KANTOVITZ, Kamila Rosamilia

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This in vitro study evaluated the impact of TiO2 nanotubes (n-TiO2) incorporated into glass ionomer cement (GIC) on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) characteristics at cellular and molecular levels. n-TiO2, synthesized by the alkaline method (20 nm in size), was added to Ketac Molar EasyMix® at 0%, 3%, 5%, and 7% by weight. S. mutans strains were cultured on GIC disks with addition or not of n-TiO2 for 1, 3, and 7 days and the following parameters were assessed: inhibition halo (mm) (n=3/group); cell viability (live/dead) (n=5/group); cell morphology (SEM) (n=3/group); and gene expression by real-time PCR (vicR, covR, gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD) (n=6/group). The data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test, repeated-measures ANOVA or two-way ANOVA, and Tukey’s and Dunn’s post-hoc tests (α=0.05). The agar diffusion test showed a higher antibacterial property for 5% n-TiO2 compared with 3% and 7% (p<0.05) with no effect of time (1, 3, and 7 days). The cell number was significantly affected by all n-TiO2 groups, while viability was mostly affected by 3% and 5% n-TiO2, which also affected cell morphology and organization. Real-time PCR demonstrated that n-TiO2 reduced the expression of covR when compared with GIC with no n-TiO2 (p<0.05), with no effect of time, except for 3% n-TiO2 on vicR expression. Within-group and between-group analyses revealed n-TiO2 did not affect mRNA levels of gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD (p>0.05). Incorporation of n-TiO2 at 3% and 5% potentially affected S. mutans viability and the expression of key genes for bacterial survival and growth, improving the anticariogenic properties of GIC.
  • Dental caries spectrum profile in Brazilian public school children and adolescents Original research

    VELASCO, Sofia Rafaela Maito; PISTELLI, Gustavo Chab; RAZERA, Fernanda Pátaro Marsola; MENEZES-SILVA, Rafael; BASTOS, Roosevelt Silva; NAVARRO, Maria Fidela de Lima

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Dental caries remains a major public health problem, with a higher prevalence among in adolescence. The present study aimed to assess the dental caries spectrum profile in children and adolescents in Brazilian public schools. A cross-sectional study was performed in two public schools in Brazil to examine the permanent teeth of children and adolescents. The dental caries were assessed by applying the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST) instrument, and the results were distributed as per disease status (healthy/codes 0–2; pre-morbidity/code 3; morbidity/code 4–5; severe morbidity/codes 6–7; mortality/code 8) and by severity as per the CAST-F1 formula (no severity, mild, moderate, and severe). The CAST data were described by age groups (8–9 y, 10–11 y, 12–13 y, 14–15 y, 16–17 y, and 18–19 y). The Kruskal–Wallis test was used to investigate differences in CAST prevalence and severity among the groups (p < 0.05). Total 598 students were enrolled. Most of the subjects were male (53.34%) and belonged to the age group of 12–13 y (34.95%). The variables CAST 0/1 (p = 0.024), CAST (p = 0.024), and CAST-F1 (p = 0.029) showed significant differences among age groups, and the post hoc test showed the differences in these variables as per the age groups of 14–15 y and 16–17 y (CAST 0/1, p = 0.047; CAST, p = 0.047; CAST-F1, p = 0.033). The dental caries spectrum increased from 8 to 19 y with a peak in the prevalence and severity in the middle of adolescence.
  • Immunohistochemical expression of OCT4 and CD44 in major and minor salivary gland neoplasms Original research

    Moura, Jamile Marinho Bezerra de Oliveira; Gonzaga, Amanda Katarinny Goes; Queiroz, Salomão Israel Monteiro Lourenço; Martins, Manoela Domingues; Pinto, Leão Pereira; Souza, Lélia Batista de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to identify tumor parenchyma cells exhibiting immunohistochemical profile of stem cells by evaluating the immunoreactivity of OCT4 and CD44 in a number of cases of salivary gland neoplasms. The sample consisted of 20 pleomorphic adenomas, 20 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and 20 adenoid cystic carcinomas located in major and minor salivary glands. The expression of OCT4 and CD44 was evaluated by the percentage of positive cells and the intensity of expression. All studied cases showed positive expression of OCT4 and CD44 and higher values than the control groups. For OCT4, luminal and non-luminal cells were immunostained in the case of pleomorphic adenomas and adenoid cystic carcinomas. Moreover, the immunoreactivity of CD44 was particularly evident in the non-luminal cells of these lesions. In mucoepidermoid carcinomas, there was immunoreactivity for both markers in squamous and intermediate cells and absence of staining in mucous cells. For both markers, a significantly higher immunostaining was verified in neoplasms located in the major salivary glands compared with lesions in minor salivary glands (p<0.001). In the total sample and in minor salivary glands, malignant neoplasms exhibited higher immunoreactivity for OCT4 than pleomorphic adenoma. A significant moderate positive correlation (r = 0.444 and p ≤ 0.001) was found between OCT4 and CD44 immunoexpression in the total sample. The high expression of OCT4 and CD44 may indicate that these proteins play an important role in identifying tumor stem cells.
  • Dental pain prevalence associated with caries experience in pediatric patients in a clinical sample in Mexico Original research

    HERNÁNDEZ-MARTÍNEZ, César Tadeo; JIMÉNEZ-GAYOSSO, Sandra Isabel; LUCAS-RINCÓN, Salvador Eduardo; ROBLES-BERMEO, Norma Leticia; PATIÑO-MARÍN, Nuria; VILLALOBOS-RODELO, Juan José; MEDINA-SOLÍS, Carlo Eduardo; MAUPOMÉ, Gerardo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to identify if the prevalence of dental pain (past and / or present) is associated with caries experience in Mexican children, as well as to characterize factors associated with dental pain. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a consecutive sample of 309 children 2 to 12 years old who were patients at a dental school clinic in Toluca, Mexico. Data were collected from clinical records. The dependent variable had three categories: 0 = have never had dental pain, 1 = had dental pain before the appointment, and 2 = current dental pain. Non-parametric statistical tests were used in the analysis. A multivariate multinomial logistic regression model was generated in Stata 11.0. Average age was 5.71 ± 2.43 years and 50.8% were boys. The joint dmft+DMFT index was 9.11 ± 4.19. It was observed that 56.6% of children did not report having experienced dental pain, 30.7% reported having previously had dental pain, and 12.6% had pain when the clinical appointment took place. In the multivariate model, variables associated (p < .05) with previous dental pain were age (OR = 1.13); the dmft + DMFT index (OR = 1.13), having had a last dental visit for curative/emergency reasons (OR = 2.41) and prior experience of dental trauma (OR = 2.59). For current pain, only the joint dmft + DMFT index (OR = 1.10, p < 0.05) had significant associations. Almost half of the children had experienced dental pain in their lifetime. Since caries experience is a factor associated with dental pain, decreasing caries levels may ameliorate suffering from dental pain in children.
  • Discriminant validity of the CAST instrument compared to the dmf index in the deciduous dentition: a cross sectional study Original research

    PAULI, Laís Anschau; COSTA, Vanessa Polina Pereira da; AZEVEDO, Marina Souza; LEAL, Soraya Coelho; GOETTEMS, Marília Leão

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to assess the discriminant validity of the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST) at different thresholds, compared with the Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth Index (dmf) instrument, to discriminate caries risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted including children aged 2-5 years from preschools in Southern Brazil. Parents answered a questionnaire, and children were clinically examined using the CAST instrument and, in the following weeks, using the dmf index. Two caries thresholds were adopted for CAST: caries in dentin (CAST4-7/CAST2,4-8) and enamel caries (CAST3-7/CAST2-8). Poisson regression was used in the analysis (p < 0.05). A total of 200 children were included. The prevalence of caries was 47.0% with dmf, 42.5% with CAST4-7, and 77.5% with CAST3-7. When the outcome was caries prevalence, CAST4-7 discriminated between sexes, household crowding, and dental pain, and CAST3-7 discriminated age and family income, while the dmf was associated with dental pain. When experience of caries was the outcome, all the criteria discriminated between sexes, age, family income, household overcrowding, visible dental plaque, and dental pain, while dmf and CAST2-8 also discriminated maternal schooling. The CAST discriminated caries risk factors similar to the dmf index when caries experience was the outcome. When prevalence was considered, CAST was able to discriminate for more individual characteristics than dmf.
  • Salivary molecules of bone remodeling and tissue repair after head and neck radiotherapy Original research

    OLIVEIRA, Eduardo Morato de; GUIEIRO, Rafael Soares; CRUZ, Bárbara Lima; AGUIAR, Maria Cássia Ferreira de; SILVA, Janine Mayra da; SILVA, Tarcília Aparecida; CALDEIRA, Patrícia Carlos

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Head and neck radiotherapy causes quantitative and qualitative changes in saliva. The objective of this case-control study was to evaluate the salivary biomarkers associated with bone remodeling and tissue repair in patients submitted to radiotherapy for head and neck cancer treatment, compared with non-irradiated individuals. Total unstimulated saliva was collected for ELISA assay analysis of receptor activator for nuclear factor κ B (RANK) and its ligand (RANK-L), osteoprotegerin, matrix metalloproteinase-9/ tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and epidermal growth factor. Statistics were performed, and revealed that salivary RANK (p = 0.0304), RANK-L (p = 0.0005), matrix metalloproteinase-9/ tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (p = 0.0067), vascular endothelial growth factor (p = 0.0060), and epidermal growth factor (p < 0.0001) were reduced in patients, compared with the control group. Osteoprotegerin did not differ between the groups (p = 0.3765). Salivary biomarkers did not differ according to radiotherapy completion time (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the lower output of the salivary molecules – essential for bone remodeling and tissue repair – may disrupt tissue homeostasis and play a role in the pathogenesis of the radiotherapy-induced deleterious effects in the oral cavity.
  • Analysis of referrals to the stomatology service in a Southern Brazilian hospital: a retrospective study Original research

    ZIGMUNDO, Gisele Corrêa de Oliveira; SCHMIDT, Tuany Rafaeli; SILVEIRA, Felipe Martins; NEVES, Matheus; MARTINS, Marco Antônio Trevizani; CARRARD, Vinicius Coelho; MARTINS, Manoela Domingues

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This paper intends to describe the demand for referrals to the stomatology service requested by the medical teams for inpatients in a reference hospital in the south of Brazil. This research is a retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study focusing on data collection and assessment of information about referrals to the stomatology unit carried out from January 2008 to December 2018. All information was obtained from the hospital management software database, then transferred and analyzed individually for descriptive statistics. A total of 4433 cases were referred to the stomatology team, with an average of 403 cases by year. Hematology/hemato-oncology (37.3%) was the specialty asking for the majority of the referrals, followed by Oncology (20.4%) and Pneumology (8.2%). The mean patients’ profile was males (55.5%), receiving a diagnosis of oral mucositis (43.5%), and with the first and second decades of life being the most prevalent ones (34.9%), with a mean age of 34.8±22.3 years. The most common treatment performed by the stomatology team was the photobiomodulation therapy (44.8%). This retrospective study demonstrated the important profile of the stomatological care in hospitalized patients from a specific hospital, especially referred by the hematology/hemato-oncology team. These results evidenced the importance of the stomatology specialty in the hospital environment.
  • Investigation of a modified hydraulic calcium silicate-based material – Bio-C Pulpo Original research

    PELEPENKO, Lauter Eston; SAAVEDRA, Flávia; ANTUNES, Thiago Bessa Marconato; BOMBARDA, Gabriela Fernanda; GOMES, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida; ZAIA, Alexandre Augusto; MARCIANO, Marina Angélica

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study evaluated the physicochemical, biological, and antimicrobial properties of a new hydraulic calcium silicate-based modified material, and compared it with MTA Repair HP and MTA Angelus. The materials were assessed regarding color luminosity (L), color change, radiopacity, setting time, and ISO 6876:2012 linear flow. Volumetric filling and volume change were evaluated using microcomputed-tomography (µCT). Chemical characterization after 28 days in Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) and pH analysis were also assessed. Biological characterization of cytotoxicity and microbiological assessment were also undertaken. Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA, Levene and post hoc analyses with Bonferroni correction were performed, adopting a 5% significance level (p <0.05). Bio-C Pulpo exhibited the highest L values after 90 days. All tested materials demonstrated color change during the analyses, and had radiopacity above 5 mm Al. MTA Repair HP set faster than Bio-C Pulpo, whereas the latter had the highest linear flow. MTA Repair HP had the highest volumetric filling in µCT analysis. Bio-C Pulpo showed the highest alkalinity during all tested periods, and the highest volumetric loss (above 9%), in comparison with MTA Repair HP and MTA Angelus. Bio-C Pulpo did not form calcium hydroxide after hydration. MTA Repair HP demonstrated the highest cytocompatibility, and Bio-C Pulpo, the highest cytotoxicity. No inhibition halos were observed for any material, and similar higher turbidity values were seen after direct contact. Composition additives used in Bio-C Pulpo modified its properties, and both the absence of calcium hydroxide deposition after hydration, and the related cytotoxicity of this material are of particular concern.
  • Accuracy of Root ZXII, E-PEX and FIND apex locators in teeth with vital pulp: an in vivo study Original Research

    Cury, Marina Tolomei Sandoval; Vasques, Ana Maria Veiga; Bueno, Carlos Roberto Emerenciano; Machado, Thiago; Trizzi, Juliana Quintino; Santana, Vitor da Silva; Dezan-Júnior, Eloi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This research evaluated, in vivo, the accuracy of three electronic apex locators - EALs (Root ZXII, E-PEX and FIND) in teeth with vital pulp submitted to biopulpectomy, preserving the periodontal stump. For this study, 90 single-rooted teeth with extraction indication were selected. After positive pulpal cold sensitivity test, pulp chamber access was performed. The cervical and middle thirds of root canals were instrumented with Reciproc R25, and the K#15 file was used as a standard instrument to determine working length, forming 2 groups: Constriction (insertion of the instrument until the apical constriction limit) and Foramen (insertion of the instrument until the foramen and then repositioning at constriction, without removing the file from the canal). The hand file was stabilized with a light-cured flow resin. After extraction, the samples were analyzed through microCT SkyScan 1272, with CTAN software, which evaluated the proximity between the tip of the file to the apical constriction, providing data for comparative analysis using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (p<0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in the abilities of the EALs to detect the apical constriction after reaching the foramen with Root ZX II showing higher accuracy (89%). However, there was no difference in the accuracy of the three EALs in detecting the apical constriction without reaching the foramen. Based on the present results, we conclude that EALs may show accurate measures in detecting apical constriction and foramen, even without damaging the periodontal stump in biopulpectomy.
  • Clinical complications during early treatment of anterior open bite Original research

    ROSSATO, Paulo Henrique; BAYER, Letícia Batista; ALMEIDA, Renato Rodrigues de; CONTI, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; FERNANDES, Thais Maria Freire; OLTRAMARI, Paula Vanessa Pedron

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The object of this study was to compare the clinical complications of 4 different appliances used in the early treatment of anterior open bite (AOB), and to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the number of complications among the appliances. Records from 99 Class I malocclusion patients with AOB treated using bonded spurs, BS, n = 25; chin cup, CC, n = 25; fixed palatal crib, FPC, n = 25; and removable palatal crib, RPC, n = 24) were examined. The total number and frequency of clinical complications that occurred over 12 months were described and compared by using chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests (Dunn’s post-test) (α = 5%, CI = 95%). The incidence of clinical complications was 66.7%, comprising: breakage, bond failure, maladjustment, allergy, soft-tissue lesion, loss of removable appliance and abandonment. Eighteen patients gave up treatment; this occurred more frequently in the groups with removable appliances. Regarding the total number of complications per patient, Group BS exhibited a significantly higher number than the other groups (p < 0.0001). A low frequency of complications (1 to 3) was found in the groups, except for Group BS, in which 8% of the patients presented moderate frequency (4 to 6). In terms of appliance types (fixed or removable), there was no difference in the incidence of complications (p > 0.094). The null hypothesis was rejected, since the BS group exhibited the highest total number and frequency of complications. There was no difference between fixed and removable appliances in terms of incidence of clinical complications, although more patients using removable appliances abandoned their treatment.
  • COVID-19 Pandemic impact on Brazil's Public Dental System Original Research

    Chisini, Luiz Alexandre; Costa, Francine dos Santos; Sartori, Leticia Regina Morello; Corrêa, Marcos Britto; D’Avila, Otávio Pereira; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The present study aimed to estimate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on dental care procedures in the Public Health System in Brazil. A retrospective, ecological study was carried out, comprising 5,564 Brazilian municipalities. The number of dental procedures (per 100,000 inhabitants) performed in the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) was the outcome. The impact of the pandemic was estimated by comparing the rate of procedures for each month of 2020 with the rates observed in the equivalent months in 2019, considering the period from March to August. Regulatory legislation regarding restrictions on dental care, issued by the state governments of 27 Brazilian federative units, was used for mediation analysis. A 55% reduction was observed in March for all procedures (IRR = 0.45, 95%CI 0.39–0.51), while in the other months, the rate of reduction remained ≥ 88%. The biggest decrease was observed in collective preventive procedures (reduction ≥99%) between April and August. Procedures that were less likely to generate aerosols (tooth extraction and prosthetic) and emergencies showed the smallest reduction. The reduction was not mediated by the restrictions imposed by state governments (p>0.05). The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic was noteworthy in terms of the decrease in the number of dental procedures carried out in the Brazilian Public Dental Service. The lack of access, the delay of elective procedures and the lack of preventive collective procedures could result in an overburdened system, post-Pandemic.
  • Non-invasive and micro-invasive treatments to arrest active occlusal carious lesions in erupting permanent molars: A randomized clinical trial Original Research

    Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida; Santos, Nicole Marchioro; Azevedo, Claudia Brito; Haas, Alex Nogueira; Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of non-invasive and micro-invasive treatments on the arrest of occlusal enamel carious lesions in erupting permanent molars. This two-arm randomized clinical trial included 27 subjects, aged 5–11 years, with 64 erupting permanent molars presenting active occlusal enamel carious lesions (as assessed by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System [ICDAS]; scores 1–3). The sample was randomly assigned into two treatment groups: 1) resin-modified glass ionomer cement sealant (Clinpro XT Varnish; 3M ESPE) and 2) 4-week topical fluoride varnish application (Duraphat; Colgate). All children and parents received oral hygiene and dietary instructions. Teeth were evaluated at baseline and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months regarding the eruption stage, biofilm accumulation, as well as severity and activity of the carious lesions. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to evaluate the survival estimates for inactivation of the carious lesions for both treatment groups. Multivariate Cox regression models with shared frailty were performed to identify factors associated with the outcome (p < 0.05). After 12 months, 22% and 3% of the lesions treated with topical fluoride varnish and sealant, respectively remained active. The adjusted model demonstrated that younger children had a higher probability of active enamel carious lesions arresting (hazard ratio [HR] 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.78; p=0.01). However, the probability of active enamel carious lesions arresting after sealant application was 8.85 times higher compared with fluoride varnish applications (p=0.01). Sealing is a more effective approach than fluoride varnish for arresting occlusal enamel carious lesions in erupting permanent molars.
  • Incidence of condylar resorption after bimaxillary, Lefort I, and mandibular surgery: an overview Systematic Review

    NIÑO-SANDOVAL, Tania Camila; ALMEIDA, Renata de Albuquerque Cavalcanti; VASCONCELOS, Belmiro Cavalcanti do Egito

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of the present overview was to evaluate the outcomes of systematic reviews to determine the incidence of condylar resorption in patients submitted to orthognathic surgery and analyze whether the risk of developing this condition is related to a specific type of surgery. Searches were conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane electronic databases for systematic reviews with quantitative data on condylar resorption due to any type of orthognathic surgery for dentoskeletal deformities published up to May 25, 2019. The AMSTAR 2 and Glenny tools were applied for the quality appraisal. Five systematic reviews were included for analysis. Only one article was considered to have high quality. Among a total of 5128 patients, 12.32% developed condylar resorption. From those patients, 70.1% had double jaw surgery, 23.4% had mandibular surgery alone, and in 6.5% a Lefort I technique was used. Based on these findings, bimaxillary surgery could be considered a risk factor for condylar resorption. However, these results should be interpreted with caution, since other factors, such as pre-operative skeletal deformities, type of movement, and type of fixation, can contribute to the development of this condition. Further studies should consider reporting main cephalometric data, temporomandibular diagnosis, hormonal levels, and tomographic measures before and after the surgery at least every 6 months during the firsts two years to identify accurately risk factors for condylar resorption.
  • Cone-beam computed tomography cinematic rendering: clinical, teaching and research applications Critical Review

    BUENO, Mike Reis; ESTRELA, Carlos; GRANJEIRO, José Mauro; ESTRELA, Matheus Rodrigues de Araújo; AZEVEDO, Bruno Correa; DIOGENES, Anibal

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an essential imaging method that increases the accuracy of diagnoses, planning and follow-up of endodontic complex cases. Image postprocessing and subsequent visualization relies on software for three-dimensional navigation, and application of indexation tools to provide clinically useful information according to a set of volumetric data. Image postprocessing has a crucial impact on diagnostic quality and various techniques have been employed on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets. These include: multiplanar reformations (MPR), maximum intensity projection (MIP) and volume rendering (VR). A recent advance in 3D data visualization is the new cinematic rendering reconstruction method, a technique that generates photorealistic 3D images from conventional CT and MRI data. This review discusses the importance of CBCT cinematic rendering for clinical decision-making, teaching, and research in Endodontics, and a presents series of cases that illustrate the diagnostic value of 3D cinematic rendering in clinical care.
  • Streamlining the dental care during COVID-19 pandemic: updated clinical recommendations and infection control management framework Critical Review

    Pereira, Luciano José; Murata, Ramiro Mendonça; Pardi, Vanessa; Mattos, Flávio Freitas

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Several guidelines for dental practice have been published by dental associations and regulatory boards since the beginning of the pandemic. Initially, all non-emergency dental treatment were suspended. Healthcare personnel around the world are gradually expanding back to elective procedures. International updated recommendations alert that professionals must maintain regular observation of local health department reports, ensure personal protective equipment, and screen all patients for COVID-19 signs and symptoms. Telehealth strategies, patient screening, rescheduling when presenting COVID-19 symptoms and/or history of contact with infected people and hand/environment hygiene practices are reinforced. Appropriate cleaning and surface disinfection are mandatory. The dental staff must be trained to use appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), following a risk assessment and standard precautions: gloves; fluid resistant disposable gown, eye protection (face shield or goggles) and a medical mask. A fit tested N95 or KN95 respirator (or higher) is recommended when aerosol generating procedures are performed. Only essential accompanying persons should attend to dental appointment with the patient and must wear a cloth face covering or facemask. Social distancing and mask wearing by all staff are necessary in all areas of the office. Dental health care providers should keep up to date to the current guidance of clinical practice during the pandemic.
  • Potential link between SARS-CoV-2 and Kawasaki disease: importance of dentists for the diagnosis Critical Review

    Martelli, Hercílio; Machado, Renato Assis; Martelli, Daniella Reis Barbosa; Barbosa, Mauro Costa; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Coletta, Ricardo Della

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Kawasaki disease (KD) is a vasculitis with predilection for coronary arteries. Due to a lack of reliable confirmatory laboratory tests, the diagnosis of KD is based on a characteristic pattern of clinical findings that appear in a typical temporal sequence. The diagnostic criteria have been periodically modified and the American Heart Association has proposed the most recent guidelines for its diagnosis. However, patients may have incomplete or atypical forms of KD and diagnosis can often be difficult. Because oropharyngeal manifestations are a common and important feature for diagnosing KD and recent studies have hypothesized a possible association between KD and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in this review we highlight the importance of dentists in the diagnosis of KD and its potential association with SARS-CoV-2.
  • Safety protocols for dental care during the COVID-19 pandemic: the experience of a Brazilian hospital service Critical Review

    SOUZA, Alessandra Figueiredo; ARRUDA, José Alcides Almeida de; COSTA, Fernanda Pereira Delgado; BEMQUERER, Larissa Marques; CASTRO, Wagner Henriques; CAMPOS, Felipe Eduardo Baires; KAKEHASI, Fabiana Maria; TRAVASSOS, Denise Vieira; SILVA, Tarcília Aparecida

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been prioritized in relation to other illnesses considered critical, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases/stroke, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. The management of patients with these diseases involves dental care to reduce systemic complications caused by odontogenic infections, and/or to treat oral manifestations of systemic comorbidities. In this regard, the dental care of these individuals must be guaranteed during the pandemic. Although a high risk of exposure to and catching of COVID-19 is expected to befall dental professionals, biosafety guidelines reduce the likelihood of infection. Thus, the current scenario poses challenges, and offers decision-making approaches and tools that facilitate the management of individuals with oral manifestations of chronic and/or critical diseases, using hospital-based services. This article presents an overview for hospital service providers who are at the forefront of COVID-19 care, including a secure protocol, and clinical guidelines based on the experience of the Hospital das Clínicas in Belo Horizonte, a public referral service, supported by the Brazilian National Health System.
  • Prosthodontic practice during the COVID-19 pandemic: prevention and implications Short Communication

    Batista, André Ulisses Dantas; Silva, Pâmela Lopes Pedro da; Melo, Laércio Almeida de; Carreiro, Adriana da Fonte Porto

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The objective of this review is to identify preventive measures for COVID-19 to safeguard dental professionals providing prosthodontic dental care. Electronic searches were performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane databases using the following descriptors and/or words: “COVID-19,” “SARS-CoV-2,” “Dental practice,” “Prosthodontics,” and “Dental infection control.” Prosthodontists are at high risk for exposure to the novel coronavirus through aerosols and possibly contaminated surfaces and indirect contact with dental laboratories and dental technicians through impressions, dental stone casts, and fixed and removable prosthetic appliances. Therefore, preventive measures should be implemented, including performing emergency treatments only, rescheduling patients with suspected disease, disinfecting surfaces and prosthodontic materials with biocidal substances, and using protective equipment such as N95 masks, disposable gowns, and face-shields.
  • Effect of S. mutans combinations with bifidobacteria/lactobacilli on biofilm and enamel demineralization Short Communication

    SANTOS, Vanessa Rodrigues dos; VALDEZ, Remberto Marcelo Argandoña; DANELON, Marcelle; SOUZA, José Antonio Santos; CAIAFFA, Karina Sampaio; DELBEM, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; DUQUE, Cristiane

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The present study evaluated the ability of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species associated with streptococci to increase insoluble extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production and initial caries lesion progression. Bovine enamel blocks (n = 190; 4 mm x 4 mm) were prepared, selected according to initial surface hardness (SH), and divided into two groups: a) double combinations: S. mutans with Bifidobacterium or Lactobacillus, and b) triple combinations: S. mutans and S. sobrinus with Bifidobacterium or Lactobacillus species. The blocks were exposed to the bacterial associations for 7 days. Subsequently, quantity of EPS from biofilms and caries lesion depth were determined by means of colorimetric and cross-sectional enamel hardness (ΔKHN) analysis. The data were submitted to one-way analysis of variance, followed by the Bonferroni test (p < 0.05). S. mutans with B. animalis or B. dentium produced a higher quantity of EPS; S. mutans + B. animalis led to the highest ∆KHN. S. mutans + S. sobrinus + B. longum induced greater EPS and ∆KHN values. In conclusion, associations of B. animalis and B. longum with streptococci promoted EPS production and caries lesion progression.
  • Saliva as a tool for monitoring hemodialysis: a systematic review and meta-analysis Meta-analysis

    RODRIGUES, Renata Prata Cunha Bernardes; VIEIRA, Walbert de Andrade; SIQUEIRA, Walter Luiz; AGOSTINI, Bernardo Antonio; MOFFA, Eduardo Buozi; PARANHOS, Luiz Renato

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to assess whether the reductions in serum urea and creatinine levels are different from the reductions in salivary urea and creatinine levels that occur after hemodialysis in chronic renal patients. The systematic review protocol was registered in the PROSPERO database. Eight databases were searched to identify pretest-posttest studies of chronic kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis, with no language or year restrictions. The JBI Critical Appraisal Tool was used to assess the risk of bias. Meta-analyses using random-effect models were conducted to compare salivary and serum correlations and to pooled mean and proportion differences from pre- to posthemodialysis urea and creatinine levels by subgroup analysis. The I2 test was used to assess heterogeneity, and a meta-regression was performed to statistically assess correlations and differences in the pooled effects pre- and postdialysis. The Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to assess the certainty of evidence. The search resulted in 1404 records, and only six studies (n = 252 participants) fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included. The studies were published between 2013 and 2018. All studies showed a significant reduction in both salivary and serum urea/creatinine levels. All eligible studies presented a low risk of bias. The meta-analysis shows a moderate to high correlation between salivary and blood levels of urea (r: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.56-1.00) and creatinine (r: 0.64; 95%CI: 0.16–1.00), with a very low level of certainty. The reductions in salivary urea and creatinine levels are similar to and correlated with the reductions in blood urea and creatine levels after hemodialysis among chronic kidney disease patients.
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