Isoenzimas na identificação precoce de híbridos e clones nucelares no melhoramento de citros

Isozymes in the early identification of hybrids and nucellar clones in citrus breeding

Resumos

Um dos problemas relacionados ao melhoramento de citros é a poliembrionia e a conseqüente dificuldade, após cruzamentos controlados, de distinguir clones nucelares dos híbridos. Estudou-se um método para eletroforese de isoenzimas em gel de amido para doze sistemas isoenzímicos, desenvolvendo-se procedimento apropriado para a resolução simultânea dos sistemas fosfatase ácida, peroxidase anódica e catódica, glutamato oxaloacético transaminase, fosfoglucoisomerase, fosfoglucomutase e enzima málica. Caracterizaram-se por esses sistemas 31 clones de citros com possível interesse para o programa de melhoramento do IAC. Estão envolvidos 7 locos e 25 alelos, permitindo uma identificação precoce de híbridos antes do plantio no campo para avaliações agronômicas. Implicações desses estudos básicos no melhoramento e na determinação da taxa de seedlings nucelares de porta-enxertos comerciais são discutidas.

citros; genética; melhoramento; isoenzimas; híbridos; clones nucelares; embriões zigóticos


One of the problems related to citrus breeding is the polyembryony and the ensuing difficulty in distinguishing nucellar clones from hybrids obtained from controlled crosses. Twelve isozyme systems using starch gel electrophoresis were studied. A procedure for simultaneous resolution of acid phosphatase, anodic and cathodic peroxidase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, phosphoglucoisomerase, phosphoglucomutase and malic enzyme was developed. Thirty one clones with possible use in the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil breeding program were characterized. Seven loci and twenty five alleles are involved allowing for an early identification of hybrids before transplanting them into the field for agronomic evaluations. Implications in breeding strategies and in the determination of the degree of nucellar embryony of commercial rootstocks are discussed.

citrus; genetics; breeding; isozymes; hybrids; nucellar clones; zygotic embryos


II. GENÉTICA E MELHORAMENTO DE PLANTAS

Isoenzimas na identificação precoce de híbridos e clones nucelares no melhoramento de citros

Isozymes in the early identification of hybrids and nucellar clones in citrus breeding

Rosa Maria Lizana BallveI, ** ** Com bolsa CAPES/UNICAMP. ; Rita BordignonI; Herculano Penna Medina FilhoI, * * Com bolsa de pesquisa do CNPq. ; Walter Jose SiqueiraI, * * Com bolsa de pesquisa do CNPq. ; Joaquim Teófilo SobrinhoII; Jorgino Rompeu JúniorIII

ISeção de Genética, Instituto Agronômico (I AC), Caixa Postal 28, 13001 Campinas (SP)

IIEstação Experimental Dr. Sylvio Moreira, IAC

IIISeção de Citricultura, IAC

RESUMO

Um dos problemas relacionados ao melhoramento de citros é a poliembrionia e a conseqüente dificuldade, após cruzamentos controlados, de distinguir clones nucelares dos híbridos. Estudou-se um método para eletroforese de isoenzimas em gel de amido para doze sistemas isoenzímicos, desenvolvendo-se procedimento apropriado para a resolução simultânea dos sistemas fosfatase ácida, peroxidase anódica e catódica, glutamato oxaloacético transaminase, fosfoglucoisomerase, fosfoglucomutase e enzima málica. Caracterizaram-se por esses sistemas 31 clones de citros com possível interesse para o programa de melhoramento do IAC. Estão envolvidos 7 locos e 25 alelos, permitindo uma identificação precoce de híbridos antes do plantio no campo para avaliações agronômicas. Implicações desses estudos básicos no melhoramento e na determinação da taxa de seedlings nucelares de porta-enxertos comerciais são discutidas.

Termos de indexação: citros, genética, melhoramento, isoenzimas, híbridos, clones nucelares, embriões zigóticos.

ABSTRACTS

One of the problems related to citrus breeding is the polyembryony and the ensuing difficulty in distinguishing nucellar clones from hybrids obtained from controlled crosses. Twelve isozyme systems using starch gel electrophoresis were studied. A procedure for simultaneous resolution of acid phosphatase, anodic and cathodic peroxidase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, phosphoglucoisomerase, phosphoglucomutase and malic enzyme was developed. Thirty one clones with possible use in the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil breeding program were characterized. Seven loci and twenty five alleles are involved allowing for an early identification of hybrids before transplanting them into the field for agronomic evaluations. Implications in breeding strategies and in the determination of the degree of nucellar embryony of commercial rootstocks are discussed.

Index terms: citrus, genetics, breeding, isozymes, hybrids, nucellar clones, zygotic embryos.

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text available only in PDF format.

Recebido para publicação em 6 de agosto de 1990 e aceito em 30 de marco de 1991.

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  • *
    Com bolsa de pesquisa do CNPq.
  • **
    Com bolsa CAPES/UNICAMP.

Datas de Publicação

  • Publicação nesta coleção
    19 Nov 2007
  • Data do Fascículo
    1991

Histórico

  • Aceito
    30 Mar 1991
  • Recebido
    06 Ago 1990
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E-mail: bragantia@iac.sp.gov.br