Wheat breeding: XXII. Evaluation of inbred lines originated from winter x spring crosses for the State of São Paulo, Brazil

Twenty four inbred lines and the cultivars Alondra-S-46 were compared in trials carried out at different locations of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, on upland and with sprinkler irrigation, taking into account grain yield, yield components and disease resistance. The response of the genotypes for two race mixtures of stem rust and for three race mixtures of leaf rust was studied in the greenhouse. In the laboratory, the germplasms were evaluated under Al toxicity using nutrient solutions. The lines IAC-156 and IAC-141 exhibited high yield under sprinkler irrigation and the lines IAC-139, IAC-143, IAC-152 and IAC-157 on upland conditions. In relation to stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) the lines IAC-142, IAC-144, IAC-145, IAC-146, IAC-148, IAC-149, IAC-150, IAC-152, IAC-153, IAC-157 and IAC-158 and the cultivars Alondra-S-46 showed resistance to two race mixtures, at seedling stage. The lines IAC-143 and IAC-150 were resistant at seedling stage to three race mixtures of leaf rust (P. recondita), and also at the stage of adult plant under natural infection out in the field. The lines IAC-140, IAC-143, IAC-145, IAC-150 and IAC-153 showed to be good genetic sources for resistance to powdery mildew. The lines IAC-139, IAC-143, IAC-145, IAC-146, IAC-152, IAC-154, IAC-155, and IAC-158 and the cultivars Alondra-S-46 exhibited short plants. The line IAC-147 showed as a good genetic source for head length; IAC-142 for high number of spikelets per spike; IAC-146 and IAC-147 for number of grains per head; IAC-146; IAC-147 and IAC-148 for high number of grains per spikelet, and IAC-157 for high grain weight. The lines IAC-143, IAC-149, IAC-150 and IAC-156 were the most tolerant in relation to AI toxicity but significantly less tolerant than the cultivars BH-1146 used as control.

wheat; plant breeding; cultivar; inbred lines; grain yield; stem and leaf rusts; aluminum toxicity

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